WorldWideScience

Sample records for large groups profited

  1. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  2. Writedowns, soft gas markets trim profits of OGJ independents' group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.; Biggs, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    A widely expected rise in 1990 profits stemming from a runup in oil prices did not happen for the group of 50 U.S. independent oil and gas companies the Oil and Gas Journal tracks. Instead, a string of special charges spurred big losses for a number of companies. In addition, an unexpectedly weak natural gas market also helped dampen upstream earnings for independents with reserves portfolios dominated by gas. As a result, overall profits for the OGJ group of independents slipped 2.3% in 1990 from 1989 levels. That occurred despite the group's increase of 13% in revenues, largely on the strength of oil production and prices climbing 16% and 25%, respectively. The group's gas production rose 8%, while gas prices remained flat. A few companies heavily skewed to oil saw profits about double year to year. However, the squeeze on revenues and profits from lower gas prices often more than offset increased gas production for many of the companies dependent on gas sales for most of their revenues. The situation was even worse for companies that shut in gas rather than sell it at less than replacement costs, thereby slicing, gas sales volumes as well. The depressed North American gas market has lasted into 1991, and oil prices have fallen from second half 1990 highs. Industry expectations are that oil prices overall will be lower in 1991 than they were last year, so it falls generally to increased gas prices and production in the second half to buoy profits enough to keep pace with 1990 levels. Prospects in 1991 are for big asset writedowns and plunging profits for U.S. independents if oil prices fall much below current levels and gas prices don't rally in the second half

  3. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  4. Profits for OGJ group show big gain in 1993; revenues dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil ampersand Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies jumped sharply last year, increasing 78.6% from 1992. Profits totaled $16.2 billion in 1993, compared with $9.1 billion in 1992. This is in sharp contrast to performance in 1992, when group net income fell 47%. That was due mainly to costs related to restructuring, staff reductions, and adoption of new accounting rules. The new rules moved forward some charges stemming from future retirement benefits and caused a substantial slide in 1992 profits for a number of companies. The absence of similar charges last year was a major reason for the increase in earnings. The paper describes the earnings by sector, oil and gas prices, financial indicators, exploration and production activities, refining and marketing activities, earnings from petrochemicals, capital spending, and the outlook for 1994 performance

  5. Business Groups and Profit Redistribution : A Boon or Bane for Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Douma, S.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how profit redistribution affects the performance of firms affiliated to business groups.It shows that inefficient profit redistribution causes group-affiliated firms to perform poorly relative to independent firms.This underperformance persists even after controlling for

  6. When is vertical integration profitable? Focus on a large upstream company in the gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatlebakk, Magnus

    2001-12-01

    This note discusses basic economic mechanisms that may affect the profitability of vertical integration in the European gas industry. It concentrates on reasonable strategies for a large upstream company which considers a stronger engagement downstream. The note warns against the effect of simplified conclusions with regard to the impact of vertical integration. It applies a simple model of successive oligopolies to discuss double mark-ups, exclusions, barriers to entry, etc

  7. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  8. An intermediary enhances out-group trust and in-group profit expectation of Chinese but not Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiawen; Ng, Sik Hung

    2017-06-01

    In this research, we made a theoretical distinction between direct and intermediary-mediated trust situations, and conducted a cross-cultural (Chinese vs. Australians) investment trust game to test the overlooked effects of an intermediary on investors' trust decisions, with respect to how much to invest in and expect from trustees. Compared to situations of direct trust, a nominal intermediary increased the number of Chinese investors expecting in-group trustees to repay a profit on their investments (Hypothesis 1) and raised their level of investment in out-group trustees (Hypothesis 2). These results applied to Chinese, but not Australians in support of the proposal that a nominal intermediary would serve as a cue to activate different cultural stereotypes of the functions and meanings of an intermediary with respect to trust and expectation of reciprocity. Coexisting with these culture-specific effects of an intermediary, the minimal categorisation of people into in-group and out-group on trivial grounds leads to a highly significant in-group favouritism in investment levels of both Chinese and Australians (Hypothesis 3). © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability. PMID:28634428

  10. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Paredes, J.; Jiménez-Montero, J.A.; Pérez-Cabal, M.A.; González-Recio, O.; Alenda, R.

    2017-07-01

    A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight), age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d), calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d), age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d), mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year), pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year), fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year), adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year), pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d), fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d), culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d), culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%), culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg), carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class), dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%), carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d) and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d). Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  11. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight, age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d, calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d, age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d, mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year, pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year, fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year, adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year, pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d, fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d, culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d, culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%, culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg, carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class, dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%, carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d. Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  12. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Paredes, J.; Jiménez-Montero, J.A.; Pérez-Cabal, M.A.; González-Recio, O.; Alenda, R.

    2017-01-01

    A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight), age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d), calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d), age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d), mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year), pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year), fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year), adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year), pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d), fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d), culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d), culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%), culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg), carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class), dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%), carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d) and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d). Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  13. LARGE AND SMALL GROUP TYPEWRITING PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.; AND OTHERS

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF GROUPS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS NUMERICALLY IN EXCESS OF 50 COULD BE AS EFFECTIVELY INSTRUCTED IN TYPEWRITING SKILLS AS GROUPS OF LESS THAN 30. STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 1ST-YEAR TYPEWRITING WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO TWO LARGE GROUPS AND THREE SMALL GROUPS TAUGHT BY THE SAME INSTRUCTOR. TEACHER-MADE,…

  14. Secure Group Communications for Large Dynamic Multicast Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Zhou Mingtian

    2003-01-01

    As the major problem in multicast security, the group key management has been the focus of research But few results are satisfactory. In this paper, the problems of group key management and access control for large dynamic multicast group have been researched and a solution based on SubGroup Secure Controllers (SGSCs) is presented, which solves many problems in IOLUS system and WGL scheme.

  15. The large-Nc renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, N.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, we review how effective theories of mesons and baryons become exactly soluble in the large-N c , limit. We start with a generic hadron Lagrangian constrained only by certain well-known large-N c , selection rules. The bare vertices of the theory are dressed by an infinite class of UV divergent Feynman diagrams at leading order in 1/N c . We show how all these leading-order dia, grams can be summed exactly using semiclassical techniques. The saddle-point field configuration is reminiscent of the chiral bag: hedgehog pions outside a sphere of radius Λ -1 (Λ being the UV cutoff of the effective theory) matched onto nucleon degrees of freedom for r ≤ Λ -1 . The effect of this pion cloud is to renormalize the bare nucleon mass, nucleon-Δ hyperfine mass splitting, and Yukawa couplings of the theory. The corresponding large-N c , renormalization group equations for these parameters are presented, and solved explicitly in a series of simple models. We explain under what conditions the Skyrmion emerges as a UV fixed-point of the RG flow as Λ → ∞

  16. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  17. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Funston

    Full Text Available Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo and leopards (Panthera pardus, are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.

  18. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  19. Report of the large solenoid detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Mori, S.; Pondrom, L.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

  20. Large neutrino mixing from renormalization group evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, K.R.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Parida, M.K.; Paschos, E.A.

    2000-10-01

    The renormalization group evolution equation for two neutrino mixing is known to exhibit nontrivial fixed point structure corresponding to maximal mixing at the weak scale. The presence of the fixed point provides a natural explanation of the observed maximal mixing of ν μ - ν τ , if the ν μ and ν τ are assumed to be quasi-degenerate at the seesaw scale without constraining the mixing angles at that scale. In particular, it allows them to be similar to the quark mixings as in generic grand unified theories. We discuss implementation of this program in the case of MSSM and find that the predicted mixing remains stable and close to its maximal value, for all energies below the O(TeV) SUSY scale. We also discuss how a particular realization of this idea can be tested in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. (author)

  1. No. 3063. Proposal of law aiming at establishing an exceptional tax on the excessive profits of petroleum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartzenberg, R.G.

    2006-05-01

    The profits made by the six main oil companies (ExxonMobil, Shell, BP, Chevron, Philips and Total) reached 121 billion US$ in 2005, i.e. two times the gross domestic product of a country like Bulgaria. The beneficiaries of these profits are mainly the shareholders while a small part only is reinvested by oil companies in production capacities (the lack of refining capacities would be responsible for a third of the rise of petroleum products price). Considering the recent increase of automotive and space heating fuels price, this situation appears as neither legitimate, nor conformable with the general interest. The aim of this proposal of law is the establishment of a tax on excessive profits of oil companies. This tax would contribute to reduce the petroleum dependence of France and to prepare the French economy and society to the 'after-petroleum' era (development of collective transport systems, financing of research on alternate energy sources). (J.S.)

  2. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  3. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  4. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  5. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  6. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  7. The effect of continuous grouping of pigs in large groups on stress response and haematological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Studnitz, Merete; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of an ‘all in-all out' static group of uniform age vs. a continuously dynamic group with litter introduction and exit every third week were examined with respect to stress response and haematological parameters in large groups of 60 pigs. The experiment included a total of 480 pigs...... from weaning at the age of 4 weeks to the age of 18 weeks after weaning. Limited differences were found in stress and haematological parameters between pigs in dynamic and static groups. The cortisol response to the stress test was increasing with the duration of the stress test in pigs from...... the dynamic group while it was decreasing in the static group. The health condition and the growth performance were reduced in the dynamic groups compared with the static groups. In the dynamic groups the haematological parameters indicated an activation of the immune system characterised by an increased...

  8. Five Large Generation Groups:Competing in Capital Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the reform of electric power industry in 2002,the newly established five large generation groups have been persisting in the development strategy of "taking electricity as the core and extending to up-and-downstream businesses." Stringent measures were taken in capital operation and their potential has been shown through electric power assets acquiring,coal and financial resources investing,capital market financing as well as power utility restructuring.The five groups are playing more and more important roles in merger and acquisition (M&A) and capital markets.

  9. Group Centric Networking: Large Scale Over the Air Testing of Group Centric Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Large Scale Over-the-Air Testing of Group Centric Networking Logan Mercer, Greg Kuperman, Andrew Hunter, Brian Proulx MIT Lincoln Laboratory...performance of Group Centric Networking (GCN), a networking protocol developed for robust and scalable communications in lossy networks where users are...devices, and the ad-hoc nature of the network . Group Centric Networking (GCN) is a proposed networking protocol that addresses challenges specific to

  10. Integrating Collaborative Learning Groups in the Large Enrollment Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. P.; Brissenden, G.; Lindell Adrian, R.; Slater, T. F.

    1998-12-01

    Recent reforms for undergraduate education propose that students should work in teams to solve problems that simulate problems that research scientists address. In the context of an innovative large-enrollment course at Montana State University, faculty have developed a series of 15 in-class, collaborative learning group activities that provide students with realistic scenarios to investigate. Focusing on a team approach, the four principle types of activities employed are historical, conceptual, process, and open-ended activities. Examples of these activities include classifying stellar spectra, characterizing galaxies, parallax measurements, estimating stellar radii, and correlating star colors with absolute magnitudes. Summative evaluation results from a combination of attitude surveys, astronomy concept examinations, and focus group interviews strongly suggest that, overall, students are learning more astronomy, believe that the group activities are valuable, enjoy the less-lecture course format, and have significantly higher attendance rates. In addition, class observations of 48 self-formed, collaborative learning groups reveal that female students are more engaged in single-gender learning groups than in mixed gender groups.

  11. Memory Efficient PCA Methods for Large Group ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachakonda, Srinivas; Silva, Rogers F; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for data reduction in group independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. Commonly, group-level PCA of temporally concatenated datasets is computed prior to ICA of the group principal components. This work focuses on reducing very high dimensional temporally concatenated datasets into its group PCA space. Existing randomized PCA methods can determine the PCA subspace with minimal memory requirements and, thus, are ideal for solving large PCA problems. Since the number of dataloads is not typically optimized, we extend one of these methods to compute PCA of very large datasets with a minimal number of dataloads. This method is coined multi power iteration (MPOWIT). The key idea behind MPOWIT is to estimate a subspace larger than the desired one, while checking for convergence of only the smaller subset of interest. The number of iterations is reduced considerably (as well as the number of dataloads), accelerating convergence without loss of accuracy. More importantly, in the proposed implementation of MPOWIT, the memory required for successful recovery of the group principal components becomes independent of the number of subjects analyzed. Highly efficient subsampled eigenvalue decomposition techniques are also introduced, furnishing excellent PCA subspace approximations that can be used for intelligent initialization of randomized methods such as MPOWIT. Together, these developments enable efficient estimation of accurate principal components, as we illustrate by solving a 1600-subject group-level PCA of fMRI with standard acquisition parameters, on a regular desktop computer with only 4 GB RAM, in just a few hours. MPOWIT is also highly scalable and could realistically solve group-level PCA of fMRI on thousands of subjects, or more, using standard hardware, limited only by time, not memory. Also, the MPOWIT algorithm is highly parallelizable, which would enable fast, distributed implementations ideal for big

  12. Memory efficient PCA methods for large group ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas eRachakonda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is widely used for data reduction in group independent component analysis (ICA of fMRI data. Commonly, group-level PCA of temporally concatenated datasets is computed prior to ICA of the group principal components. This work focuses on reducing very high dimensional temporally concatenated datasets into its group PCA space. Existing randomized PCA methods can determine the PCA subspace with minimal memory requirements and, thus, are ideal for solving large PCA problems. Since the number of dataloads is not typically optimized, we extend one of these methods to compute PCA of very large datasets with a minimal number of dataloads. This method is coined multi power iteration (MPOWIT. The key idea behind MPOWIT is to estimate a subspace larger than the desired one, while checking for convergence of only the smaller subset of interest. The number of iterations is reduced considerably (as well as the number of dataloads, accelerating convergence without loss of accuracy. More importantly, in the proposed implementation of MPOWIT, the memory required for successful recovery of the group principal components becomes independent of the number of subjects analyzed. Highly efficient subsampled eigenvalue decomposition techniques are also introduced, furnishing excellent PCA subspace approximations that can be used for intelligent initialization of randomized methods such as MPOWIT. Together, these developments enable efficient estimation of accurate principal components, as we illustrate by solving a 1600-subject group-level PCA of fMRI with standard acquisition parameters, on a regular desktop computer with only 4GB RAM, in just a few hours. MPOWIT is also highly scalable and could realistically solve group-level PCA of fMRI on thousands of subjects, or more, using standard hardware, limited only by time, not memory. Also, the MPOWIT algorithm is highly parallelizable, which would enable fast, distributed implementations

  13. Profitability recent open stock funds in Brazil: analysis of the performance of a management Funds Group active in relation to management fees charged for resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Mendes Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of a specific group of active management equity investments funds relating it to the management fees charged by managers in order to answer the following research problem: open equity funds with active management, that charge higher management fees, are those that provide the best returns for the investor? The objective was to test the hypothesis under which it is evident that the funds that charged the highest rates are those with the best performances evaluated according to the average yield of the last five years. To achieve this objective, a study of descriptive nature was carried out with a quantitative approach having as object of study the profitability of Brazilian Equity Fund ranked by the Brazilian Association of Financial and Capital Markets (Anbima as IBX Active Equity Funds in the period 2010 to 2014. The analyzed returns were calculated from the Information ratio index, which measures the risk-adjusted return of the asset class. The study found no correlation between the performance of the funds and charged management fees.

  14. Large-scale Lurgi plant would be uneconomic: study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-21

    Gas Council and National Coal Board agreed that building of large scale Lurgi plant on the basis of study is not at present acceptable on economic grounds. The committee considered that new processes based on naphtha offered more economic sources of base and peak load production. Tables listing data provided in contractors' design studies and summary of contractors' process designs are included.

  15. Conjugacy in relatively extra-large Artin groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arye Juhasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let A be an Artin group with standard generators X={x 1 ,…,x n } , n≥1 and defining graph Γ A . A \\emph{standard parabolic subgroup} of A is a subgroup generated by a subset of X . For elements u and v of A we say (as usual that u is conjugate to v by an element h of A if h −1 uh=v holds in A . Similarly, if K and L are subsets of A then K is conjugate to L by an element h of A if h −1 Kh=L . In this work we consider the conjugacy of elements and standard parabolic subgroups of a certain type of Artin groups. Results in this direction occur in occur in papers by Duncan, Kazachkov, Remeslennikov, Fenn, Dale, Jun, Godelle, Gonzalez-Meneses, Wiest, Paris, Rolfsen, for example. Of particular interest are centralisers of elements, and of standard parabolic subgroups, normalisers of standard parabolic subgroups and commensurators of parabolic subgroups. In this work we consider similar problems in a new class of Artin groups, introduced in the paper "On relatively extralarge Artin groups and their relative asphericity", by Juhasz, where the word problem is solved, among other things. Also, intersections of parabolic subgroups and their conjugates are considered.

  16. Characteristic properties of large subgroups in primary abelian groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1. Introduction. The main purpose of this article is to study the relations between the structures of primary abelian groups and their ..... Case 2. γ − 2 exists. Let Gγ −1 be a direct summand of Gγ . We remark, in connection with Case 1, that any pγ −1. -high subgroup of Gγ is isomorphic to Gγ −1. As far as Case 2 is concerned, ...

  17. 16-dimensional smooth projective planes with large collineation groups

    OpenAIRE

    Bödi, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Erworben im Rahmen der Schweizer Nationallizenzen (http://www.nationallizenzen.ch) Smooth projective planes are projective planes defined on smooth manifolds (i.e. the set of points and the set of lines are smooth manifolds) such that the geometric operations of join and intersection are smooth. A systematic study of such planes and of their collineation groups can be found in previous works of the author. We prove in this paper that a 16-dimensional smooth projective plane which admits a ...

  18. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  19. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  20. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  1. Profitability analysis in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1978-01-01

    Measures of marginal profit are derived for the two payment classes--cost payers and charge payers--that the hospital industry must consider in profitability analysis, i.e., prediction of the excess of revenue over expenses. Two indexes of profitability, use when payment mix is constant and when it is nonconstant, respectively, are derived from the two marginal profit measures, and one of them is shown to be a modification of the contribution margin, the conventional measure of profitability used in general industry. All three measures--the contribution margin and the two new indexes of profitability--are used to estimate changes in net income resulting from changes in patient volume with and without accompanying changes in payment mix. The conventional measure yields large overestimates of expected excess revenue. PMID:632101

  2. Windfalls and other profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed

  3. Managing more than the mean: Using quantile regression to identify factors related to large elk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Cross, Paul C.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.

  4. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  5. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  6. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  7. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  8. The subjective experience of the self in the large group: two models for study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W

    2001-04-01

    More and more opportunities now exist for group therapists to engage in the study of the self in the large group at local, national, and international conferences as well as in clinical and other organizational settings. This may be particularly important for the group therapist in the next century with potential benefit not only for individuals but also for groups and social systems of all kinds. In this article, I review my own subjective experiences in the large group context and in large study group experiences. Then, I contrast the group analytic and the group relations approaches to the large group with particular reference to Winnicott's theory about maturational processes in a facilitating environment.

  9. A genetic analysis of post-weaning feedlot performance and profitability in Bonsmara cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J; Schoeman, S J

    2009-02-25

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing profitability in a feedlot environment and to estimate genetic parameters for and between a feedlot profit function and productive traits measured in growth tests. The heritability estimate of 0.36 for feedlot profitability shows that this trait is genetically inherited and that it can be selected for. The genetic correlations between feedlot profitability and production and efficiency varied from negligible to high. The genetic correlation estimate of -0.92 between feed conversion ratio and feedlot profitability is largely due to the part-whole relationship between these two traits. Consequently, a multiple regression equation was developed to estimate a feed intake value for all performance-tested Bonsmara bulls, which were group fed and whose feed intakes were unknown. These predicted feed intake values enabled the calculation of a post-weaning growth or feedlot profitability value for all tested bulls, even where individual feed intakes were unknown. Subsequently, a feedlot profitability value for each bull was calculated in a favorable economic environment, an average economic environment and in an unfavorable economic environment. The high Pearson and Spearman correlations between the estimate breeding values based on the average economic environment and the other two environments suggested that the average economic environment could be used to calculate estimate breeding values for feedlot profitability. It is therefore not necessary to change the carcass, weaned calf or feed price on a regular basis to allow for possible re-rankings based on estimate breeding values.

  10. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  11. Group music performance causes elevated pain thresholds and social bonding in small and large groups of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Daniel; Launay, Jacques; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Stewart, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Over our evolutionary history, humans have faced the problem of how to create and maintain social bonds in progressively larger groups compared to those of our primate ancestors. Evidence from historical and anthropological records suggests that group music-making might act as a mechanism by which this large-scale social bonding could occur. While previous research has shown effects of music making on social bonds in small group contexts, the question of whether this effect ‘scales up’ to larger groups is particularly important when considering the potential role of music for large-scale social bonding. The current study recruited individuals from a community choir that met in both small (n = 20 – 80) and large (a ‘megachoir’ combining individuals from the smaller subchoirs n = 232) group contexts. Participants gave self-report measures (via a survey) of social bonding and had pain threshold measurements taken (as a proxy for endorphin release) before and after 90 minutes of singing. Results showed that feelings of inclusion, connectivity, positive affect, and measures of endorphin release all increased across singing rehearsals and that the influence of group singing was comparable for pain thresholds in the large versus small group context. Levels of social closeness were found to be greater at pre- and post-levels for the small choir condition. However, the large choir condition experienced a greater change in social closeness as compared to the small condition. The finding that singing together fosters social closeness – even in large contexts where individuals are not known to each other – is consistent with evolutionary accounts that emphasize the role of music in social bonding, particularly in the context of creating larger cohesive groups than other primates are able to manage. PMID:27158219

  12. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  13. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  14. Medical Students Perceive Better Group Learning Processes when Large Classes Are Made to Seem Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Juliette; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; de Grave, Willem; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bos, Gerard M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. Design A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n = 50) as the intervention groups; a control group (n = 102) was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100) to create one large subset. Setting The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6–10 weeks. Intervention The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. Main Outcome Measures Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. Results Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β = 0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>−0.69). Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. Conclusion Better group learning processes can be

  15. Medical students perceive better group learning processes when large classes are made to seem small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Juliette; Arah, Onyebuchi A; de Grave, Willem; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Bos, Gerard M J

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n=50) as the intervention groups; a control group (n=102) was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100) to create one large subset. The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6-10 weeks. The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β=0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>-0.69). Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. Better group learning processes can be achieved in large medical schools by making large classes seem small.

  16. A Nationwide Overview of Sight-Singing Requirements of Large-Group Choral Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sight-singing requirements at junior and senior high school large-group ratings-based choral festivals throughout the United States. Responses to the following questions were sought from each state: (1) Are there ratings-based large-group choral festivals? (2) Is sight-singing a requirement? (3) Are there…

  17. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  18. Gigantic environmental profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned

  19. A Large Group Decision Making Approach Based on TOPSIS Framework with Unknown Weights Information

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yupeng; Lian Xiaozhen; Lu Cheng; Wang Zhaotong

    2017-01-01

    Large group decision making considering multiple attributes is imperative in many decision areas. The weights of the decision makers (DMs) is difficult to obtain for the large number of DMs. To cope with this issue, an integrated multiple-attributes large group decision making framework is proposed in this article. The fuzziness and hesitation of the linguistic decision variables are described by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The weights of the DMs are optimized by constructing a...

  20. How to make microenterprise profitable

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimenko, Pavel; Hokkanen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The idea of the thesis is to give a good insight on how to make a microenterprise profitable from marketing and networking points of view and explain the basic steps that are needed to be taken when establishing a company. We took the company Maks Investment & Consulting Group Oy (MIC Group), which is approximately one year old consulting firm, as a case study. The company was studied very carefully from the very beginning of its operations. Business plan of MIC Group was also studied in orde...

  1. Large Sets in Boolean and Non-Boolean Groups and Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga V. Sipacheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various notions of large sets in groups, including the classical notions of thick, syndetic, and piecewise syndetic sets and the new notion of vast sets in groups, are studied with emphasis on the interplay between such sets in Boolean groups. Natural topologies closely related to vast sets are considered; as a byproduct, interesting relations between vast sets and ultrafilters are revealed.

  2. The impact of liquidity on bank profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Bordeleau, Etienne; Graham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The recent crisis has underlined the importance of sound bank liquidity management. In response, regulators are devising new liquidity standards with the aim of making the financial system more stable and resilient. In this paper, the authors analyse the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of large U.S. and Canadian banks. Results suggest that profitability is improved for banks that hold some liquid assets, however, there is a point at which holding further liq...

  3. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  4. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  5. Do Emotional Appeal and Media-context Influence the Effectiveness of TV Commercials for Profit and Non-profit Brands?

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Irene; Claeys, Christel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of emotions, both ad- and context-evoked, on the effectiveness of commercials for non-profit vs. profit brands. Effectiveness is made operational by rational measures, recall and recognition, and by emotional measures, ad likeability and brand attitude. Four different experimental groups were exposed to a sequence of warm and sad commercials for non-profit and profit brands, embedded either in a warm film fragment or a sad one. The results indicate that, ove...

  6. Causes of different profitability of agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work involves identification of causes of different profitability of agricultural sector done on case study of nearly identical agricultural enterprises. It shows that financial mix even in scope of similar companies can lead to various profit indicators. Through comparative financial analysis in the same industry and activity by applying methods and techniques we have concluded that company PP Ratkovo operates more stable and closer to determined norms and also shows better results in majority of the indicators. Horizontal and vertical analysis indicates that companies in Agribusiness partner group use expensive external sources of financing. We have precisely defined in which cost segment occurs highest distinction. Also we have shown reasons why PP Ratkovo in the last two years manifests great profitability measured by ebit, ebitda and net profit as well as excellent structure of material costs and wages costs in in frame of the operating income, and reasons why enterprises in Agribusiness partner group does not.

  7. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  8. Análise das limitações, estratégias e perspectivas dos trabalhadores com LER/DORT, participantes do grupo PROFIT-LER: um estudo de caso Analysis of the limitations, strategies and perspectives of the workers with RSI/WRMD, participants of the PROFIT-LER Group: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Santos Pessoa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como finalidade analisar as limitações, estratégias e perspectivas dos trabalhadores com LER/DORT, participantes do grupo PROFIT-LER, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas individuais, utilizando um gravador e um formulário, que abrangeu questões relacionadas com dor, limitação funcional, fatores motivacionais, estratégias, expectativas em relação ao tratamento fisioterapêutico, perspectiva de vida após o tratamento e grau de conhecimentos acerca da afecção. Mediante os dados obtidos através do formulário e analisados à luz da literatura utilizada selecionada, foi possível constatar que os pesquisados apresentaram dores e limitações funcionais; que o programa PROFIT-LER ofereceu um maior conhecimento para os participantes acerca da patologia; que a estratégia mais utilizada foi a cinesioterapia; e que, quanto às perspectivas, os pesquisados pretendem continuar a praticar o que aprenderam com o grupo, assim como procurar outras formas de tratamento, uma vez que este tratamento permitiu socialização entre os trabalhadores e um maior conhecimento sobre a afecção. Desta forma, o estudo obteve êxito por alcançar o objetivo proposto e por esclarecer que o ser humano está exposto a fatores que podem alterar seu equilíbrio físico e mental, desencadeando processos patológicos.This study had as aim to analyze the limitations, strategies and perspectives of the workers with RSI/WRMD, participants of the PROFIT - LER group, of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. So, individual interviews were realized, using a recorder and a form, that involved questions related to the pain, functional limitation, motivational factors, strategies, expectations about the physical therapeutic treatment, life's perspective after the treatment and knowledge level about the pathology. By collecting information through a form and analyzing it based on the literature, it was possible to know

  9. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  10. Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)

  11. The internationalisation of Spanish family firms through business groups: Factors affecting the profitability, and the moderating effect of the family nature of the Spanish business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Pérez-López

    2018-01-01

    The results of this study could help to clarify an issue of some significance in professional and academic circles. Both owners and managers of family businesses can use these research findings to better understand how certain characteristics of business group management could affect their performance and the success of the internationalisation process.

  12. Large and small sets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gusso

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the behaviour of large, small and medium subsets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups. Then we introduce the definition af a P-small set in abelian groups and we investigate the relations between this kind of smallness and the previous one, giving some examples that distinguish them.

  13. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.

  14. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  15. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  16. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...... that large countries have due to their size will be counteracted by such profit shifting opportunities. As a result of this, large countries will not be able to capitalize on their size and sustain high corporate taxes. We show that, on the basis of these profit shifting opportunities, a small country can...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  17. Civil society: beyond non profit / Sociedad civil: más allá del non profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Haro Serrano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a numerous group of recognized and proved authority authors, the Civil Society is limited to the Non Profit organizations. Non Profit is the great limit, the rigid and static border. The limes on the Roman Empire were less overwhelming than the non profit of certain academics. Dura lex and unfair law that keeps aside from the civil society scope the entities on the social economy and the whole market around mercantile enterprises and businesses. Nevertheless, the new changes in the today’s society and the new concept of businesses oriented to the society without forsaking the quest for economic profit, poses a Civil Society beyond non profit.

  18. An Audit of the Effectiveness of Large Group Neurology Tutorials for Irish Undergraduate Medical Students

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this audit was to determine the effectiveness of large group tutorials for teaching neurology to medical students. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire rating their confidence on a ten point Likert scale in a number of domains in the undergraduate education guidelines from the Association of British Neurologists (ABN). We then arranged a series of interactive large group tutorials for the class and repeated the questionnaire one month after teaching. In the three core domains of neurological: history taking, examination and differential diagnosis, none of the students rated their confidence as nine or ten out of ten prior to teaching. This increased to 6% for history taking, 12 % in examination and 25% for differential diagnosis after eight weeks of tutorials. This audit demonstrates that in our centre, large group tutorials were an effective means of teaching, as measured by the ABN guidelines in undergraduate neurology.

  19. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    that period. The median net profit was best in limited companies and partnerships; about 6 percent. The annual reserve after debt amortization and investment was some 50 000 euro among the biggest enterprises, about 30 000 euro among the medium size groups and at most some 10 000 euro in the smallest ones. Return on capital varied only a little, showing a slight decrease towards the end of study period. In 2007, return on assets (ROA) was around 12%, except in enterprises with turnover of less than 75 000 euro, where ROA was two percent. Return on equity (ROE) varied between 15 and 25%, except for the smallest enterprises, with less than 10%. The harvesting business, with limited means of meeting the severe challenges of global recession, cease operations for several months. Finding a profitable growing formula and qualified operators is a challenge, even without these cuts. (orig.)

  20. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  1. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN; LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2011-01-01

    The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow), and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow). Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an ...

  2. Does Capital Structure Influence Company Profitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herciu Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every company has a different structure of balance sheet. Some of the companies have more liabilities than equity. Considering the industry or debt-to-equity ratio, the balance sheet structure affects the company profitability measured by DuPont system. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the structure of balance sheet and to identify some optimal levels in order to increase company profitability. The DuPont returns like ROA (return on assets and ROE (return on equity will be used to measure the company profitability, while the debt-to-equity ratio will be used as a measure (reflection of capital structure. The samples consist on the most profitable non-financial companies ranked in Fortune Global 500. The companies will be grouped in clusters (based on industry or debt-to-equity ratio in order to identify the signification of the correlation between the profit and the balance sheet structure. The main results of the paper refer to the company profitability that can be increased by using an optimal structure of liabilities and equity.

  3. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF BANK PROFITABILITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.

  4. Establishing Peer Mentor-Led Writing Groups in Large First-Year Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Sarah; Marken, Liv; Yu, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a pilot project designed to improve students' academic writing in a large (200-student) first-year Agriculture class at the University of Saskatchewan. In collaboration with the course's professor, the Writing Centre coordinator and a summer student designed curriculum for four two-hour Writing Group sessions…

  5. TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF LARGE AND SMALL SUNSPOT GROUPS OVER FOUR SOLAR CYCLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Here we analyze solar activity by focusing on time variations of the number of sunspot groups (SGs) as a function of their modified Zurich class. We analyzed data for solar cycles 20-23 by using Rome (cycles 20 and 21) and Learmonth Solar Observatory (cycles 22 and 23) SG numbers. All SGs recorded during these time intervals were separated into two groups. The first group includes small SGs (A, B, C, H, and J classes by Zurich classification), and the second group consists of large SGs (D, E, F, and G classes). We then calculated small and large SG numbers from their daily mean numbers as observed on the solar disk during a given month. We report that the time variations of small and large SG numbers are asymmetric except for solar cycle 22. In general, large SG numbers appear to reach their maximum in the middle of the solar cycle (phases 0.45-0.5), while the international sunspot numbers and the small SG numbers generally peak much earlier (solar cycle phases 0.29-0.35). Moreover, the 10.7 cm solar radio flux, the facular area, and the maximum coronal mass ejection speed show better agreement with the large SG numbers than they do with the small SG numbers. Our results suggest that the large SG numbers are more likely to shed light on solar activity and its geophysical implications. Our findings may also influence our understanding of long-term variations of the total solar irradiance, which is thought to be an important factor in the Sun-Earth climate relationship.

  6. Qualitative Analysis of Collaborative Learning Groups in Large Enrollment Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Chija; Slater, Timothy F.; Adams, Jeffrey P.

    2000-08-01

    Large-lecture introductory astronomy courses for undergraduate, non-science majors present numerous problems for faculty. As part of a systematic effort to improve the course learning environment, a series of small-group, collaborative learning activities were implemented in an otherwise conventional lecture astronomy survey course. These activities were used once each week during the regularly scheduled lecture period. After eight weeks, ten focus group interviews were conducted to qualitatively assess the impact and dynamics of these small group learning activities. Overall, the data strongly suggest that students enjoy participating in the in-class learning activities in learning teams of three to four students. These students firmly believe that they are learning more than they would from lectures alone. Inductive analysis of the transcripts revealed five major themes prevalent among the students' perspectives: (1) self-formed, cooperative group composition and formation should be more regulated by the instructor; (2) team members' assigned rolls should be less formally structured by the instructors; (3) cooperative groups helped in learning the course content; (4) time constraints on lectures and activities need to be more carefully aligned; and (5) gender issues can exist within the groups. These themes serve as a guide for instructors who are developing instructional interventions for large lecture courses.

  7. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  8. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. Siegford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  9. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  10. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  11. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  12. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  13. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  14. Interacting star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Overmerging problem solved by cluster group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Stéphane; Bergond, Gilles; Vallenari, Antonella

    1999-04-01

    We present the tidal tail distributions of a sample of candidate binary clusters located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). One isolated cluster, SL 268, is presented in order to study the effect of the LMC tidal field. All the candidate binary clusters show tidal tails, confirming that the pairs are formed by physically linked objects. The stellar mass in the tails covers a large range, from 1.8x 10(3) to 3x 10(4) \\msun. We derive a total mass estimate for SL 268 and SL 356. At large radii, the projected density profiles of SL 268 and SL 356 fall off as r(-gamma ) , with gamma = 2.27 and gamma =3.44, respectively. Out of 4 pairs or multiple systems, 2 are older than the theoretical survival time of binary clusters (going from a few 10(6) years to 10(8) years). A pair shows too large age difference between the components to be consistent with classical theoretical models of binary cluster formation (Fujimoto & Kumai \\cite{fujimoto97}). We refer to this as the ``overmerging'' problem. A different scenario is proposed: the formation proceeds in large molecular complexes giving birth to groups of clusters over a few 10(7) years. In these groups the expected cluster encounter rate is larger, and tidal capture has higher probability. Cluster pairs are not born together through the splitting of the parent cloud, but formed later by tidal capture. For 3 pairs, we tentatively identify the star cluster group (SCG) memberships. The SCG formation, through the recent cluster starburst triggered by the LMC-SMC encounter, in contrast with the quiescent open cluster formation in the Milky Way can be an explanation to the paucity of binary clusters observed in our Galaxy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile}

  15. Application of renormalization group theory to the large-eddy simulation of transitional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.; Speziale, Charles G.; Lund, Thomas S.

    1990-01-01

    An eddy viscosity model based on the renormalization group theory of Yakhot and Orszag (1986) is applied to the large-eddy simulation of transition in a flat-plate boundary layer. The simulation predicts with satisfactory accuracy the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, as well as the development of the important scales of motion. The evolution of the structures characteristic of the nonlinear stages of transition is also predicted reasonably well.

  16. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Brock, I. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Cerioni, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Croci, G.; David, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Robertis, G. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [Dipeartimento di Fisica Universita della Calabria e INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Pistilli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm{sup 2}. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm{sup 2}. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm{sup 2} GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne {Phi}-factory in Frascati.

  17. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Brock, I.; Cerioni, S.; Croci, G.; David, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M.; Loddo, F.; Morello, G.; Pistilli, M.; Ranieri, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm 2 . Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm 2 . The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm 2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  18. Study notes separability of oil company profitability, efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, the large publicly traded oil companies have been restructuring and downsizing to improve efficiency. Newly developed decision theory forces one to question the widely held singular focus on efficiency because improving efficiency will not necessarily improve profits. This is especially likely in the oil industry, where price volatility is the norm. Because its products are so basic, its price volatility typically ripples widely throughout the economy. In light of this, efficiency and profitability in the oil industry require separate treatment. More specifically, the efficient are not necessarily the most profitable; conversely, the most profitable are not necessarily the most efficient. Such a decoupling of efficiency and profitability requires a totally new look at business strategy. In the face of highly variable prices, firms can no longer depend on the long-accepted duality norm between profits and efficiency

  19. Atomic profits, no thanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.

    1980-01-01

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de

  20. Cooperative Coevolution with Formula-Based Variable Grouping for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Liu, Haiyan; Wei, Fei; Zong, Tingting; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-09

    For a large-scale global optimization (LSGO) problem, divide-and-conquer is usually considered an effective strategy to decompose the problem into smaller subproblems, each of which can then be solved individually. Among these decomposition methods, variable grouping is shown to be promising in recent years. Existing variable grouping methods usually assume the problem to be black-box (i.e., assuming that an analytical model of the objective function is unknown), and they attempt to learn appropriate variable grouping that would allow for a better decomposition of the problem. In such cases, these variable grouping methods do not make a direct use of the formula of the objective function. However, it can be argued that many real-world problems are white-box problems, that is, the formulas of objective functions are often known a priori. These formulas of the objective functions provide rich information which can then be used to design an effective variable group method. In this article, a formula-based grouping strategy (FBG) for white-box problems is first proposed. It groups variables directly via the formula of an objective function which usually consists of a finite number of operations (i.e., four arithmetic operations "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]" and composite operations of basic elementary functions). In FBG, the operations are classified into two classes: one resulting in nonseparable variables, and the other resulting in separable variables. In FBG, variables can be automatically grouped into a suitable number of non-interacting subcomponents, with variables in each subcomponent being interdependent. FBG can easily be applied to any white-box problem and can be integrated into a cooperative coevolution framework. Based on FBG, a novel cooperative coevolution algorithm with formula-based variable grouping (so-called CCF) is proposed in this article for decomposing a large-scale white-box problem

  1. Memory Transmission in Small Groups and Large Networks: An Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C; Rajaram, Suparna

    2015-12-01

    The spread of social influence in large social networks has long been an interest of social scientists. In the domain of memory, collaborative memory experiments have illuminated cognitive mechanisms that allow information to be transmitted between interacting individuals, but these experiments have focused on small-scale social contexts. In the current study, we took a computational approach, circumventing the practical constraints of laboratory paradigms and providing novel results at scales unreachable by laboratory methodologies. Our model embodied theoretical knowledge derived from small-group experiments and replicated foundational results regarding collaborative inhibition and memory convergence in small groups. Ultimately, we investigated large-scale, realistic social networks and found that agents are influenced by the agents with which they interact, but we also found that agents are influenced by nonneighbors (i.e., the neighbors of their neighbors). The similarity between these results and the reports of behavioral transmission in large networks offers a major theoretical insight by linking behavioral transmission to the spread of information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A Large Group Decision Making Approach Based on TOPSIS Framework with Unknown Weights Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yupeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large group decision making considering multiple attributes is imperative in many decision areas. The weights of the decision makers (DMs is difficult to obtain for the large number of DMs. To cope with this issue, an integrated multiple-attributes large group decision making framework is proposed in this article. The fuzziness and hesitation of the linguistic decision variables are described by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The weights of the DMs are optimized by constructing a non-linear programming model, in which the original decision matrices are aggregated by using the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted average operator. By solving the non-linear programming model with MATLAB®, the weights of the DMs and the fuzzy comprehensive decision matrix are determined. Then the weights of the criteria are calculated based on the information entropy theory. At last, the TOPSIS framework is employed to establish the decision process. The divergence between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers is calculated by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy cross entropy. A real-world case study is constructed to elaborate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  4. Rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the management of an emergency, it is necessary to assess the radiation exposures of people in the affected areas. An essential component in the programme is the monitoring of internal contamination. Existing fixed installations for the assessment of incorporated radionuclides may be of limited value in these circumstances because they may be inconveniently sited, oversensitive for the purpose, or inadequately equipped and staffed to cope with the large numbers referred to them. The IAEA considered it important to produce guidance on rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people. The purpose of this document is to provide Member States with an overview on techniques that can be applied during abnormal or accidental situations. Refs and figs

  5. Two-group modeling of interfacial area transport in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Implemented updated constitutive models and benchmarking method for IATE in large pipes. • New model and method with new data improved the overall IATE prediction for large pipes. • Not all conditions well predicted shows that further development is still required. - Abstract: A comparison of the existing two-group interfacial area transport equation source and sink terms for large diameter channels with recently collected interfacial area concentration measurements (Schlegel et al., 2012, 2014. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 47, 42) has indicated that the model does not perform well in predicting interfacial area transport outside of the range of flow conditions used in the original benchmarking effort. In order to reduce the error in the prediction of interfacial area concentration by the interfacial area transport equation, several constitutive relations have been updated including the turbulence model and relative velocity correlation. The transport equation utilizing these updated models has been modified by updating the inter-group transfer and Group 2 coalescence and disintegration kernels using an expanded range of experimental conditions extending to pipe sizes of 0.304 m [12 in.], gas velocities of up to nearly 11 m/s [36.1 ft/s] and liquid velocities of up to 2 m/s [6.56 ft/s], as well as conditions with both bubbly flow and cap-bubbly flow injection (Schlegel et al., 2012, 2014). The modifications to the transport equation have resulted in a decrease in the RMS error for void fraction and interfacial area concentration from 17.32% to 12.3% and 21.26% to 19.6%. The combined RMS error, for both void fraction and interfacial area concentration, is below 15% for most of the experiments used in the comparison, a distinct improvement over the previous version of the model.

  6. Drivers Advancing Oral Health in a Large Group Dental Practice Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kristen; Gibson, Stephanie; White, Joel M

    2016-06-01

    Three change drivers are being implemented to high standards of patient centric and evidence-based oral health care within the context of a large multispecialty dental group practice organization based on the commitment of the dental hygienist chief operating officer and her team. A recent environmental scan elucidated 6 change drivers that can impact the provision of oral health care. Practitioners who can embrace and maximize aspects of these change drivers will move dentistry forward and create future opportunities. This article explains how 3 of these change drivers are being applied in a privately held, accountable risk-bearing entity that provides individualized treatment programs for more than 417,000 members. To facilitate integration of the conceptual changes related to the drivers, a multi-institutional, multidisciplinary, highly functioning collaborative work group was formed. The document Dental Hygiene at a Crossroads for Change(1) inspired the first author, a dental hygienist in a unique position as chief operating officer of a large group practice, to pursue evidence-based organizational change and to impact the quality of patient care. This was accomplished by implementing technological advances including dental diagnosis terminology in the electronic health record, clinical decision support, standardized treatment guidelines, quality metrics, and patient engagement to improve oral health outcomes at the patient and population levels. The systems and processes used to implement 3 change drivers into a large multi-practice dental setting is presented to inform and inspire others to implement change drivers with the potential for advancing oral health. Technology implementing best practices and improving patient engagement are excellent drivers to advance oral health and are an effective use of oral health care dollars. Improved oral health can be leveraged through technological advances to improve clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  7. Comparison of the large muscle group widths of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2018-05-14

    Orthopaedic diseases are common in the pelvic limbs of dogs, and reference values for large muscle groups of the pelvic limb may aid in diagnosis such diseases. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the large muscle groups of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs. A total of 126 dogs from different breeds were included, and the widths of the quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were measured from images of the lateral radiographies. The width of the quadriceps was not different between the breeds, but the widths of the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly different between the breeds. The widest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Rottweilers and the Boxers, respectively. The narrowest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Belgian Malinois and the Golden retrievers, respectively. All ratios between the measured muscles differed significantly between the breeds. Doberman pinschers and Belgian Malinois had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:hamstring width. Doberman pinschers had also the highest ratio of quadriceps width:hamstring width. German shepherds had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:quadriceps width. The lowest ratios of quadriceps width:hamstring width were determined in the German shepherds. The ratios of the muscle widths may be used as reference values to assess muscular atrophy or hypertrophy in cases of bilateral or unilateral orthopaedic diseases of the pelvic limbs. Further studies are required to determine the widths and ratios of the large muscle groups of the pelvic limbs in other dog breeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Evaluation of receptivity of the medical students in a lecture of a large group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.

  9. All polymer chip for amperometric studies of transmitter release from large groups of neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We present an all polymer electrochemical chip for simple detection of transmitter release from large groups of cultured PC 12 cells. Conductive polymer PEDOT:tosylate microelectrodes were used together with constant potential amperometry to obtain easy-to-analyze oxidation signals from potassium......-induced release of transmitter molecules. The nature of the resulting current peaks is discussed, and the time for restoring transmitter reservoirs is studied. The relationship between released transmitters and potassium concentration was found to fit to a sigmoidal dose–response curve. Finally, we demonstrate...

  10. Group Clustering Mechanism for P2P Large Scale Data Sharing Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGQianni; LUXinda; CHENLi

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that P2P scientific collaboration network will exhibit small-world topology, as do a large number of social networks for which the same pattern has been documented. In this paper we propose a topology building protocol to benefit from the small world feature. We find that the idea of Freenet resembles the dynamic pattern of social interactions in scientific data sharing and the small world characteristic of Freenet is propitious to improve the file locating performance in scientificdata sharing. But the LRU (Least recently used) datas-tore cache replacement scheme of Freenet is not suitableto be used in scientific data sharing network. Based onthe group locality of scientific collaboration, we proposean enhanced group clustering cache replacement scheme.Simulation shows that this scheme improves the request hitratio dramatically while keeping the small average hops per successful request comparable to LRU.

  11. Social management of laboratory rhesus macaques housed in large groups using a network approach: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne; Hannibal, Darcy

    2017-12-07

    Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being. Thus for both welfare and other management reasons, aggression among rhesus macaques at primate centers and facilities needs to be addressed with a more proactive approach.Management strategies need to be instituted that maximize social housing while also reducing problematic social aggression due to instability using efficacious methods for detection and prevention in the most cost effective manner. Herein we review a new proactive approach using social network analysis to assess and predict deleterious aggression in macaque groups. We discovered three major pathways leading to instability, such as unusually high rates and severity of trauma and social relocations.These pathways are linked either directly or indirectly to network structure in rhesus macaque societies. We define these pathways according to the key intrinsic and extrinsic variables (e.g., demographic, genetic or social factors) that influence network and behavioral measures of stability (see Fig. 1). They are: (1) presence of natal males, (2) matrilineal genetic fragmentation, and (3) the power structure and conflict policing behavior supported by this

  12. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.

  13. Engaging the public with low-carbon energy technologies: Results from a Scottish large group process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rhys; Shackley, Simon; Mabon, Leslie; Ashworth, Peta; Jeanneret, Talia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large group process conducted in Edinburgh, Scotland investigating public perceptions of climate change and low-carbon energy technologies, specifically carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The quantitative and qualitative results reported show that the participants were broadly supportive of efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and that there is an expressed preference for renewable energy technologies to be employed to achieve this. CCS was considered in detail during the research due to its climate mitigation potential; results show that the workshop participants were cautious about its deployment. The paper discusses a number of interrelated factors which appear to influence perceptions of CCS; factors such as the perceived costs and benefits of the technology, and people's personal values and trust in others all impacted upon participants’ attitudes towards the technology. The paper thus argues for the need to provide the public with broad-based, balanced and trustworthy information when discussing CCS, and to take seriously the full range of factors that influence public perceptions of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • We report the results of a Scottish large group workshop on energy technologies. • There is strong public support for renewable energy and mixed opinions towards CCS. • The workshop was successful in initiating discussion around climate change and energy technologies. • Issues of trust, uncertainty, costs, benefits, values and emotions all inform public perceptions. • Need to take seriously the full range of factors that inform perceptions

  14. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  15. Factors of U.S. Hospitals Associated with Improved Profit Margins: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Cutler, David M

    2018-02-14

    Hospitals face financial pressure from decreased margins from Medicare and Medicaid and lower reimbursement from consolidating insurers. The objectives of this study are to determine whether hospitals that became more profitable increased revenues or decreased costs more and to examine characteristics associated with improved financial performance over time. The design of this study is retrospective analyses of U.S. non-federal acute care hospitals between 2003 and 2013. There are 2824 hospitals as subjects of this study. The main measures of this study are the change in clinical operating margin, change in revenues per bed, and change in expenses per bed between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals that became more profitable had a larger magnitude of increases in revenue per bed (about $113,000 per year [95% confidence interval: $93,132 to $133,401]) than of decreases in costs per bed (about - $10,000 per year [95% confidence interval: - $28,956 to $9617]), largely driven by higher non-Medicare reimbursement. Hospitals that improved their margins were larger or joined a hospital system. Not-for-profit status was associated with increases in operating margin, while rural status and having a larger share of Medicare patients were associated with decreases in operating margin. There was no association between improved hospital profitability and changes in diagnosis related group weight, in number of profitable services, or in payer mix. Hospitals that became more profitable were more likely to increase their admissions per bed per year. Differential price increases have led to improved margins for some hospitals over time. Where significant price increases are not possible, hospitals will have to become more efficient to maintain profitability.

  16. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kiffner

    Full Text Available Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  17. A Grouping Particle Swarm Optimizer with Personal-Best-Position Guidance for Large Scale Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weian; Si, Chengyong; Xue, Yu; Mao, Yanfen; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi

    2017-05-04

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a popular algorithm which is widely investigated and well implemented in many areas. However, the canonical PSO does not perform well in population diversity maintenance so that usually leads to a premature convergence or local optima. To address this issue, we propose a variant of PSO named Grouping PSO with Personal- Best-Position (Pbest) Guidance (GPSO-PG) which maintains the population diversity by preserving the diversity of exemplars. On one hand, we adopt uniform random allocation strategy to assign particles into different groups and in each group the losers will learn from the winner. On the other hand, we employ personal historical best position of each particle in social learning rather than the current global best particle. In this way, the exemplars diversity increases and the effect from the global best particle is eliminated. We test the proposed algorithm to the benchmarks in CEC 2008 and CEC 2010, which concern the large scale optimization problems (LSOPs). By comparing several current peer algorithms, GPSO-PG exhibits a competitive performance to maintain population diversity and obtains a satisfactory performance to the problems.

  18. Synchrony and Physiological Arousal Increase Cohesion and Cooperation in Large Naturalistic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua Conrad; Jong, Jonathan; Bilkey, David; Whitehouse, Harvey; Zollmann, Stefanie; McNaughton, Craig; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2018-01-09

    Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium. We observed participants' subsequent movement, grouping, and cooperation via a camera hidden in the stadium's roof. Synchrony and arousal both showed main effects, predicting larger groups, tighter clustering, and more cooperative behaviour in a free-rider dilemma. Synchrony and arousal also interacted on measures of clustering and cooperation such that synchrony only encouraged closer clustering-and encouraged greater cooperation-when paired with physiological arousal. The research helps us understand why synchrony and arousal often co-occur in rituals around the world. It also represents the first use of real-time spatial tracking as a precise and naturalistic method of simulating collective rituals.

  19. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  20. A model for the use of blended learning in large group teaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cristan; Velan, Gary M; Pryor, Wendy M; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2017-11-09

    Although blended learning has the potential to enhance the student experience, both in terms of engagement and flexibility, it can be difficult to effectively restructure existing courses. To achieve these goals for an introductory Pathology course, offered to more than 250 undergraduate students at UNSW Sydney, we devised a novel approach. For each topic presented over 2-3 weeks, a single face-to-face overview lecture was retained. The remaining content that had previously been delivered as conventional lectures was converted into short (12-18 min) online modules. These were based on lecture slides with added animations/highlights, plus narration using edited excerpts of previous lecture recordings. The modules also incorporated interactive questions and review quizzes with feedback which used various question types. Modules were developed in PowerPoint and iSpring and uploaded to Moodle as SCORM packages. Each topic concluded with an interactive large-group session focussing on integration of the content, with in-class questions to which students could respond via the Echo360 Active Learning Platform (ALP). Overall, more than 50% of face-to-face lecture time was replaced by online modules and interactive large-group sessions. Quantitative evaluation data included usage statistics from 264 students and feedback via online survey responses from 41 students. Qualitative evaluation data consisted of reflective commentaries from 160 student ePortfolios, which were analysed to identify factors affecting learning benefits and user acceptability. All of the modules were completed by 74% of students and on average, 83.1% of students eventually passed the optional review quizzes. Notably, 88.4% of students responded to in-class questions during the integration and feedback sessions via the ALP. Student reflections emphasised that the modules promoted understanding, which was reinforced through active learning. The modules were described as enjoyable, motivating and were

  1. A model for the use of blended learning in large group teaching sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although blended learning has the potential to enhance the student experience, both in terms of engagement and flexibility, it can be difficult to effectively restructure existing courses. To achieve these goals for an introductory Pathology course, offered to more than 250 undergraduate students at UNSW Sydney, we devised a novel approach. Methods For each topic presented over 2–3 weeks, a single face-to-face overview lecture was retained. The remaining content that had previously been delivered as conventional lectures was converted into short (12–18 min online modules. These were based on lecture slides with added animations/highlights, plus narration using edited excerpts of previous lecture recordings. The modules also incorporated interactive questions and review quizzes with feedback which used various question types. Modules were developed in PowerPoint and iSpring and uploaded to Moodle as SCORM packages. Each topic concluded with an interactive large-group session focussing on integration of the content, with in-class questions to which students could respond via the Echo360 Active Learning Platform (ALP. Overall, more than 50% of face-to-face lecture time was replaced by online modules and interactive large-group sessions. Quantitative evaluation data included usage statistics from 264 students and feedback via online survey responses from 41 students. Qualitative evaluation data consisted of reflective commentaries from 160 student ePortfolios, which were analysed to identify factors affecting learning benefits and user acceptability. Results All of the modules were completed by 74% of students and on average, 83.1% of students eventually passed the optional review quizzes. Notably, 88.4% of students responded to in-class questions during the integration and feedback sessions via the ALP. Student reflections emphasised that the modules promoted understanding, which was reinforced through active learning. The

  2. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input ...

  3. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  4. Mobbing in a Non-Profit Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacic Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse mobbing in a large, non-profit, state-owned organization in order to find out to what extent mobbing is present and in what way it takes place. In addition, the purpose of the research is to analyse whether the extent of mobbing is connected to employee’s age, gender and position.

  5. Large scale vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Yuji Miyamoto; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. Their test-structures were exactly the same. One structure had 25 steel piles and the other had 4 piles. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. Dynamic modal tests of the pile-supported structures and PS measurements of the test pit were performed before and after the vibration tests to detect changes in the natural frequencies of the soil-pile-structure systems and the soil stiffness. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1,683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. (authors)

  6. Vibration tests on pile-group foundations using large-scale blast excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideo; Hijikata, Katsuichirou; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Kazushige; Kontani, Osamu; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. One structure had 25 steel tubular piles and the other had 4 piles. The super-structures were exactly the same. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions in order to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. Maximum strains were 13,400 micro-strains were recorded at the pile top of the 4-pile structure, which means that these piles were subjected to yielding

  7. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  8. Using an electronic prescribing system to ensure accurate medication lists in a large multidisciplinary medical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ron; Scott, Jim; Gurtel, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    Although medication safety has largely focused on reducing medication errors in hospitals, the scope of adverse drug events in the outpatient setting is immense. A fundamental problem occurs when a clinician lacks immediate access to an accurate list of the medications that a patient is taking. Since 2001, PeaceHealth Medical Group (PHMG), a multispecialty physician group, has been using an electronic prescribing system that includes medication-interaction warnings and allergy checks. Yet, most practitioners recognized the remaining potential for error, especially because there was no assurance regarding the accuracy of information on the electronic medical record (EMR)-generated medication list. PeaceHealth developed and implemented a standardized approach to (1) review and reconcile the medication list for every patient at each office visit and (2) report on the results obtained within the PHMG clinics. In 2005, PeaceHealth established the ambulatory medication reconciliation project to develop a reliable, efficient process for maintaining accurate patient medication lists. Each of PeaceHealth's five regions created a medication reconciliation task force to redesign its clinical practice, incorporating the systemwide aims and agreed-on key process components for every ambulatory visit. Implementation of the medication reconciliation process at the PHMG clinics resulted in a substantial increase in the number of accurate medication lists, with fewer discrepancies between what the patient is actually taking and what is recorded in the EMR. The PeaceHealth focus on patient safety, and particularly the reduction of medication errors, has involved a standardized approach for reviewing and reconciling medication lists for every patient visiting a physician office. The standardized processes can be replicated at other ambulatory clinics-whether or not electronic tools are available.

  9. Large Scale Management of Physicists Personal Analysis Data Without Employing User and Group Quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Diesbug, M.; Gheith, M.; Illingworth, R.; Lyon, A.; Mengel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of modern HEP experiments to acquire and process unprecedented amounts of data and simulation have lead to an explosion in the volume of information that individual scientists deal with on a daily basis. Explosion has resulted in a need for individuals to generate and keep large personal analysis data sets which represent the skimmed portions of official data collections, pertaining to their specific analysis. While a significant reduction in size compared to the original data, these personal analysis and simulation sets can be many terabytes or 10s of TB in size and consist of 10s of thousands of files. When this personal data is aggregated across the many physicists in a single analysis group or experiment it can represent data volumes on par or exceeding the official production samples which require special data handling techniques to deal with effectively.In this paper we explore the changes to the Fermilab computing infrastructure and computing models which have been developed to allow experimenters to effectively manage their personal analysis data and other data that falls outside of the typically centrally managed production chains. In particular we describe the models and tools that are being used to provide the modern neutrino experiments like NOvA with storage resources that are sufficient to meet their analysis needs, without imposing specific quotas on users or groups of users. We discuss the storage mechanisms and the caching algorithms that are being used as well as the toolkits are have been developed to allow the users to easily operate with terascale+ datasets. (paper)

  10. Veal calves’ clinical/health status in large groups fed with automatic feeding devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical/health status of veal calves in 3 farms that adopt large group housing and automatic feeding stations in Italy. Visits were scheduled in three phases of the rearing cycle (early, middle, and end. Results showed a high incidence of coughing, skin infection and bloated rumen particularly in the middle phase while cross-sucking signs were present at the early stage when calves’ nibbling proclivity is still high. Throughout the rearing cycle, the frequency of bursitis increased reaching 53% of calves at the end. The percentage of calves with a poorer body condition than the mid-range of the batch raised gradually as well, likely due to the non-proportioned teat/calves ratio that increases competition for feed and reduces milk intake of the low ranking animals. The remarked growth differences among pen-mates and the mortality rate close to 7% showed by the use of automatic feeding devices for milk delivery seem not compensating the lower labour demand, therefore its sustainability at the present status is doubtful both for the veal calves’ welfare and the farm incomes.

  11. Revisiting the merits of a mandatory large group classroom learning format: an MD-MBA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shawn X; Pinto-Powell, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    The role of classroom learning in medical education is rapidly changing. To promote active learning and reduce student stress, medical schools have adopted policies such as pass/fail curriculums and recorded lectures. These policies along with the rising importance of the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination) exams have made asynchronous learning popular to the detriment of classroom learning. In contrast to this model, modern day business schools employ mandatory large group classes with assigned seating and cold-calling. Despite similar student demographics, medical and business schools have adopted vastly different approaches to the classroom. When examining the classroom dynamic at business schools with mandatory classes, it is evident that there's an abundance of engaging discourse and peer learning objectives that medical schools share. Mandatory classes leverage the network effect just like social media forums such as Facebook and Twitter. That is, the value of a classroom discussion increases when more students are present to participate. At a time when students are savvy consumers of knowledge, the classroom is competing against an explosion of study aids dedicated to USMLE preparation. Certainly, the purpose of medical school is not solely about the efficient transfer of knowledge - but to train authentic, competent, and complete physicians. To accomplish this, we must promote the inimitable and deeply personal interactions amongst faculty and students. When viewed through this lens, mandatory classes might just be a way for medical schools to leverage their competitive advantage in educating the complete physician.

  12. Gas-processing profit margin series begins in OGJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the bases and methods employed by the WK (Wright, Killen and Co, Houston) profit-margin indicator for U.S. gas-processing plants. Additionally, this article reviews the historical profitability of the gas-processing industry and key factors affecting these trends. Texas was selected as the most representative for the industry, reflecting the wide spectrum of gas-processing plants. The profit performance of Texas' gas plants is of special significance because of the large number of plants and high volume of NGL production in the region

  13. RESTRICTING PESTICIDE USE: THE IMPACT ON PROFITABILITY BY FARM SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Gerald W.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Vasavada, Utpal

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 226 cash grain farms in the Lake States-Corn Belt region are analyzed to estimate the impact of restricting pesticide use on profits. These 226 farms are classified into small medium, and large farms according to their sale revenues. The results suggest the existence of pest management practices that could substantially reduce pesticide use without incurring economic losses. The reductions in profit associated with gradual reduction in pesticide expenditure appear to increase with...

  14. Large-scale shifts in phytoplankton groups in the Equatorial Pacific during ENSO cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Masotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO drives important changes in the marine productivity of the Equatorial Pacific, in particular during major El Niño/La Niña transitions. Changes in environmental conditions associated with these climatic events also likely impact phytoplankton composition. In this work, the distribution of four major phytoplankton groups (nanoeucaryotes, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and diatoms was examined between 1996 and 2007 by applying the PHYSAT algorithm to the ocean color data archive from the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS. Coincident with the decrease in chlorophyll concentrations, a large-scale shift in the phytoplankton composition of the Equatorial Pacific, that was characterized by a decrease in Synechococcus and an increase in nanoeucaryote dominance, was observed during the early stages of both the strong El Niño of 1997 and the moderate El Niño of 2006. A significant increase in diatoms dominance was observed in the Equatorial Pacific during the 1998 La Niña and was associated with elevated marine productivity. An analysis of the environmental variables using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model (NEMO-PISCES suggests that the Synechococcus dominance decrease during the two El Niño events was associated with an abrupt decline in nutrient availability (−0.9 to −2.5 μM NO3 month−1. Alternatively, increased nutrient availability (3 μM NO3 month−1 during the 1998 La Niña resulted in Equatorial Pacific dominance diatom increase. Despite these phytoplankton community shifts, the mean composition is restored after a few months, which suggests resilience in community structure.

  15. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  16. Non-profit Drug Research and Development at a Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher; Auquier, Pascal; Dussart, Claude

    2018-02-07

    In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply. Overall, the non-profits face ethical challenges - due to the lack of resources, they are unable to independently commercialize their products on a large scale; however, the antitrust law does not permit them to impose prices on potential licensees. Also, reduced prices for the innovative products may result in drying the for-profit R&D in the area.

  17. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  18. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Quttineh, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  19. Meet the New For-Profit: The Low-Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    "Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…

  20. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  1. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  2. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  3. Introduction of the Profit Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    The profit surface is a visualization technique for data computed from trading rules. I simulate price paths and operate the trading rules to compute cumulative returns for the rule under different specifications. The specifications are pairs of integers, filter lag lengths, so a contour plot is useful to display cumulative returns for more specifications than can be shown otherwise.

  4. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Torabizade maatoghi

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... Aim of the study: Due to the presence of various ethnic groups in Khuzestan province, several ... In the studies conducted in USA, southwest Saudi Arabia, .... The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regard-.

  5. Profitability of timber harvesting and timber transportation enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, J.

    1996-01-01

    In co-operation with the major companies contracting out forestry work and Statistics Finland, Metsaeteho carried out a project with the objective of analysing the economic profitability of timber harvesting and transportation enterprises in 1994. The calculation of profitability was based on utilisation of last livelihoods taxation data (EVR) that Statistics Finland was in possession of. The basic material comprised data that the companies contracting out forestry work had full-time entrepreneurs. There were 255 forestry machine contractor enterprises and 270 trucking enterprises. Statistics Finland was responsible for computations of the results of the project. The calculation of the indicators of profitability was based on the recommendations of Yritystutkimusneuvottelukunta, a committee looking into the functioning of enterprises. The year 1994 was a good year from the viewpoint of profitability of both forestry machine contractors as well as trucking enterprises. With full depreciations and salary adjustments attended to, both enterprise groups still showed a mean profitability of ca. 8 %. The yield of invested capital was ca. 25 %. The differences in profitability among enterprises were great in both groups and in different parts of the country

  6. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  7. Report of the Working Group on Large-Scale Computing in Aeronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    function and the use of drawings. In the hardware area, comtemporary large computer installations are quite powerful in terms of speed of computation as...critical to the competitive advantage of that member. He might then be willing to make them available to less advanced members under some business

  8. Ultradian activity rhythms in large groups of newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L; Erhard, H W; Friggens, N C; McLeod, J E

    2008-07-01

    A clutch of young chicks housed with a mother hen exhibit ultradian (within day) rhythms of activity corresponding to the brooding cycle of the hen. In the present study clear evidence was found of ultradian activity rhythms in newly hatched domestic chicks housed in groups larger than natural clutch size without a mother hen or any other obvious external time-keeper. No consistent synchrony was found between groups housed in different pens within the same room. The ultradian rhythms disappeared with time and little evidence of group rhythmicity remained by the third night. This disappearance over time suggests that the presence of a mother hen may be pivotal for the long-term maintenance of these rhythms. The ultradian rhythm of the chicks may also play an important role in the initiation of brooding cycles during the behavioural transition of the mother hen from incubation to brooding. Computer simulations of individual activity rhythms were found to reproduce the observations made on a group basis. This was achievable even when individual chick rhythms were modelled as independent of each other, thus no assumptions of social facilitation are necessary to obtain ultradian activity rhythms on a group level.

  9. Support groups for children in alternate care: a largely untapped therapeutic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D; Storer, S

    1995-01-01

    Children in alternate care often have adjustment problems that manifest in various aspects of their lives. Individual therapy is often assumed to be the desired intervention, but resources seldom permit one-to-one therapy for these disturbances. The authors argue that groupwork should be considered as a possible treatment of choice. Not only is it likely to be more economical than individual therapy, it has the inherent advantage of telling children in care that they are not alone, and that other children have similar experiences and feelings. It also allows them to develop their own support network. Such groups appear to have been underutilized in work with children in out-of-home care. This article describes such a group and its outcome. Various techniques were developed to achieve specified aims. The techniques appeared to be successful. Further work on such groups and more specific evaluation is called for.

  10. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  11. Bismut's way of the Malliavin calculus for large order generators on a Lie group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léandre, Rémi

    2018-01-01

    We adapt Bismut's mechanism of the Malliavin Calculus to right invariant big order generator on a Lie group. We use deeply the symmetry in order to avoid the use of the Malliavin matrix. As an application, we deduce logarithmic estimates in small time of the heat kernel.

  12. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The demand for blood and blood products has increased due to advances in medical science, population growth and increased life expectancy. This has increased the need for various blood groups in Khuzestan province because of the higher incidence of thalassemia and other blood transfusion dependent ...

  13. Energy, safety and profitability - the thinking behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy industry is under heavy financial pressure in large parts of Europe. This motivates an even stricter cost control. The traditional approach in assessing investments is to use cost-benefit analysis for the profitability, in combination with risk-informed analysis for safety aspects. Risk-informed analysis is normally based on the probabilities and consequences of various potential accidents. However, we have realized this approach has limitations in comparisons between different production technologies. In this talk, some thinking about the philosophical difference between energy technologies in which a single accident can wipe out the entire company (hydro, nuclear) versus those not facing the same threat of immediate extinction (fossil, bio, wind) is presented. This affects not only the economy and technology, but also the management in general and safety management in particular. The interplay of technology challenges and management, in particular concerning profitability aspects, will be developed and examples from technologies with large potential risks will be used for illustration. (author).

  14. Converting MEMS technology into profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzek, Janusz

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.

  15. Is merging and acquisition profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions

  16. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  17. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  19. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  20. The renovated Almaraz is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)

  1. The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) report of the Science Coordination Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is a telescope designed to carry out high-angular resolution, high-sensitivity observations at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The scientific rationale for the LDR is discussed in light of the recent Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) results and the several new ground-based observatories planned for the late 1980s. The importance of high sensitivity and high angular resolution observations from space in the submillimeter region is stressed. The scientific and technical problems of using the LDR in a light bucket mode at approx. less than 5 microns and in designing the LDR as an unfilled aperture with subarcsecond resolution are also discussed. The need for an aperture as large as 20 m is established, along with the requirements of beam-shape stability, spatial chopping, thermal control, and surface figure stability. The instrument complement required to cover the wavelength-spectral resolution region of interest to the LDR is defined.

  2. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  3. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  4. Use of New Methodologies for Students Assessment in Large Groups in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tormos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a student evaluation methodology which applies the concept of continuous assessment proposed by Bologna is presented for new degrees in higher education. An important part of the student's final grade is based on the performance of several individual works throughout the semester. The paper shows the correction system used which is based on using a spreadsheet with macros and a template in which the student provides the solution of each task. The employ of this correction system together with the available e-learning platform allows the teachers to perform automatic tasks evaluations compatible with courses with large number of students. The paper also raises the different solutions adopted to avoid plagiarism and to try that the final grade reflects, as closely as possible, the knowledge acquired by the students.

  5. Large-dimension configuration-interaction calculations of positron binding to the group-II atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2006-01-01

    The configuration-interaction (CI) method is applied to the calculation of the structures of a number of positron binding systems, including e + Be, e + Mg, e + Ca, and e + Sr. These calculations were carried out in orbital spaces containing about 200 electron and 200 positron orbitals up to l=12. Despite the very large dimensions, the binding energy and annihilation rate converge slowly with l, and the final values do contain an appreciable correction obtained by extrapolating the calculation to the l→∞ limit. The binding energies were 0.00317 hartree for e + Be, 0.0170 hartree for e + Mg, 0.0189 hartree for e + Ca, and 0.0131 hartree for e + Sr

  6. La maximisation du taux de profit

    OpenAIRE

    De Mesnard, Louis

    1991-01-01

    On the traditional micro-economic theory, firms are supposed to maximise pure profit. We study what happened when we take into consideration shareholders and the financial profit remunerating the financial capital. We show that it is necessary to surrender the financial profit maximisation to use the rate of financial profit maximisation. The cases of concurrence with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with variable coefficient of capital are studie...

  7. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and methodological approach to profit management of organization is offered: its application is connected with revision of acting control system of enterprise profit on the basis of assessing the initial condition of profit, planning the demanded profit level, periodical monitoring condition of planned values on profit, and also adoption of flexible administrative decisions on reduction of deviations and increasing the efficiency of organization activity. The system of profit formation including corresponding income and expenses of organization is presented. Methods of revenue planning are characterized. The characteristics of income and expenses connected with non-operating operations and transactions is given. The essence of the main directions of using enterprise profit is revealed. Need of application of author’s technique of management of profit of organization taking into account influence of external and internal factors is proved. The universal purpose of management of profit of organization and a task providing achievement of the goal are formulated . Tools of assessment efficiency of the system of formation and use of profit which is actually created in organization are offered. The methodical approach to planning of profit allowing to increase efficiency of activity of organization is presented. The mechanism of an assessment deviations of planned indicators of effective management of profit from actual and adoptions of correcting decisions on

  8. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  9. Social Transmission of False Memory in Small Groups and Large Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswood, Raeya; Rajaram, Suparna

    2018-05-21

    Sharing information and memories is a key feature of social interactions, making social contexts important for developing and transmitting accurate memories and also false memories. False memory transmission can have wide-ranging effects, including shaping personal memories of individuals as well as collective memories of a network of people. This paper reviews a collection of key findings and explanations in cognitive research on the transmission of false memories in small groups. It also reviews the emerging experimental work on larger networks and collective false memories. Given the reconstructive nature of memory, the abundance of misinformation in everyday life, and the variety of social structures in which people interact, an understanding of transmission of false memories has both scientific and societal implications. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  11. Fish populations in a large group of acid-stressed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, H H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stress on the number and diversity of fish species in a group of acid-stressed lakes. The study area was the La Cloche Mountains, a series of quartzite ridges covering 1,300 km/sup 2/ along the north shore of Georgian Bay and north channel of Lake Huron. Within these ridges are 173 lakes; 68 of the largest of these made up the study sample. The lakes of the La Cloche Mountains are undergoing rapid acidification. Coincident with this there has been the loss of sport fishes from several lakes. Lakes such as Nellie, Lumsden, O.S.A., Acid and Killarney supported good sport fisheries for the lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush) for many years, but have ceased to do so in the last 5 to 15 years. Other sport fishes, notably the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) have disappeared from some of the La Cloche Lakes. Thus recreational fishing alone could not have been the cause of the change. Beamish (1974) recorded the extreme sparcity of the three remaining fish species in O.S.A. Lake. Many of the lakes of the La Cloche mountains are accessible only with difficulty and little or no information exists for these lakes prior to this study. This precluded simple comparison of these lakes before and during acidification. This lack of historic data determined in part the approach taken in this study; a comparison of the fish communities of a group of lakes differing in degree of acid stress.

  12. The strategic value of customer profitability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to

  13. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  14. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  15. Trials of large group teaching in Malaysian private universities: a cross sectional study of teaching medicine and other disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor) and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Findings Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. Conclusion However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges. PMID:21902839

  16. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  18. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...

  19. Efficacy of formative evaluation using a focus group for a large classroom setting in an accelerated pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolette, Shaun; Nguyen, Alyssa; Kogan, David; Oswald, Catherine; Whittaker, Alana; Chakraborty, Arup

    2017-07-01

    Formative evaluation is a process utilized to improve communication between students and faculty. This evaluation method allows the ability to address pertinent issues in a timely manner; however, implementation of formative evaluation can be a challenge, especially in a large classroom setting. Using mediated formative evaluation, the purpose of this study is to determine if a student based focus group is a viable option to improve efficacy of communication between an instructor and students as well as time management in a large classroom setting. Out of 140 total students, six students were selected to form a focus group - one from each of six total sections of the classroom. Each focus group representative was responsible for collecting all the questions from students of their corresponding sections and submitting them to the instructor two to three times a day. Responses from the instructor were either passed back to pertinent students by the focus group representatives or addressed directly with students by the instructor. This study was conducted using a fifteen-question survey after the focus group model was utilized for one month. A printed copy of the survey was distributed in the class by student investigators. Questions were of varying types, including Likert scale, yes/no, and open-ended response. One hundred forty surveys were administered, and 90 complete responses were collected. Surveys showed that 93.3% of students found that use of the focus group made them more likely to ask questions for understanding. The surveys also showed 95.5% of students found utilizing the focus group for questions allowed for better understanding of difficult concepts. General open-ended answer portions of the survey showed that most students found the focus group allowed them to ask questions more easily since they did not feel intimidated by asking in front of the whole class. No correlation was found between demographic characteristics and survey responses. This may

  20. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  1. Segmenting health maintenance organizations to study productivity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M G

    2000-01-01

    As the decade ended, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were increasing in popularity as a means of health care delivery. These groups take many forms, so it is important for the analyst to see if the efficiency and financial results for these different forms vary. The four major forms are profit vs. not-for-profit, chain vs. non-chain, group/staff vs. individual practice association (IPA), and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. Using a nationwide database of all the HMOs in the United States, the article compares liquidity rates, leverage ratios, profitability ratios, marketing, and per member ratios across the four groups using paired t tests. The two classifications that showed the most differences were group/staff vs. IPA and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. IPAs have a better liquidity position and lower leverage ratios than group/staff but their administrative costs are higher and the time to receive payments and to pay debts is higher. Non-federally qualified have somewhat higher liquidity ratios and higher profitability ratios. These significant differences in financial outcomes indicate that studies of HMOs should segment different major forms of organizations and study them separately before trying to show the effects of different policies on HMO efficiency and effectiveness.

  2. An Example of Large-group Drama and Cross-year Peer Assessment for Teaching Science in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Katherine; Thompson, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Undergraduate students pursuing a three-year marine biology degree programme (n = 86) experienced a large-group drama aimed at allowing them to explore how scientific research is funded and the associated links between science and society. In the drama, Year 1 students played the "general public" who decided which environmental research areas should be prioritised for funding, Year 2 students were the "scientists" who had to prepare research proposals which they hoped to get funded, and Year 3 students were the "research panel" who decided which proposals to fund with input from the priorities set by the "general public". The drama, therefore, included an element of cross-year peer assessment where Year 3 students evaluated the research proposals prepared by the Year 2 students. Questionnaires were distributed at the end of the activity to gather: (1) student perceptions on the cross-year nature of the exercise, (2) the use of peer assessment, and (3) their overall views on the drama. The students valued the opportunity to interact with their peers from other years of the degree programme and most were comfortable with the use of cross-year peer assessment. The majority of students felt that they had increased their knowledge of how research proposals are funded and the perceived benefits of the large-group drama included increased critical thinking ability, confidence in presenting work to others, and enhanced communication skills. Only one student did not strongly advocate the use of this large-group drama in subsequent years.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY IN BRAZILIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Hong Yuh Ching; Prof. MSc. Ayrton Novazzi; Prof. Dr. Fábio Gerab

    2011-01-01

    To overcome competition in a very complex environment, few companies have been able to use the optimization of working capital as a real competitive advantage to leverage profit. The objectives of this article are twofold: a) to investigate if there is any difference between corporate profitability and working capital management in two separate groups of companies: working capital intensive and fixed capital intensive; b) to identify the variables that most affect profitability. The profitabi...

  4. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  5. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  6. Profit through predictability: The MRF difference at optimax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Brandon

    2007-05-01

    In the manufacturing business, there is one product that matters, money. Whether making shoelaces or aircraft carriers a business that doesn't also make a profit doesn't stay around long. Being able to predict operational expenses is critical to determining a product's sale price. Priced too high a product won't sell, too low profit goes away. In the business of precision optics manufacturing, predictability has been often impossible or had large error bars. Manufacturing unpredictability made setting price a challenge. What if predictability could improve by changing the polishing process? Would a predictable, deterministic process lead to profit? Optimax Systems has experienced exactly that. Incorporating Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) into its finishing process, Optimax saw parts categorized financially as "high risk" become a routine product of higher quality, delivered on time and within budget. Using actual production figures, this presentation will show how much incorporating MRF reduced costs, improved output and increased quality all at the same time.

  7. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  8. Taxes, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan

    2018-02-01

    About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.

  9. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian wood, furniture, and paper industries

    OpenAIRE

    M Webber; S Tonkin

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the rate of profit is examined and the components of changes in the rate of profit are identified in the wood, furniture, and paper industries of Canada for the years 1952 to 1981. The rate of profit in the wood industry generally rose, until a dramatic fall since 1979 onwards; this fall was largely due to a collapse of market prices and to the effects of that collapse on the technical composition of capital (via changes in the rate of capacity utilization). Profit rates in the ...

  10. Areva: a profit that has more than doubled in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The turnover of Areva reached 10.125 milliard euros in 2005 which means a 3.1% increase. The sale of its connector department has enabled Areva to double its net profit to 1.049 milliard euros. This strategic move aims at re-centering the group's activities on the energy domain. Areva foresees a global improvement in the nuclear industry as nuclear energy begins appearing as an adequate answer to the growth of energy needs and to the environmental concerns linked to the emission of greenhouse gases. Areva expects to take one third of the worldwide nuclear market by 2010 with a 2-figure annual profit. (A.C.)

  11. Charity care: do not-for-profits influence for-profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian

    2002-03-01

    This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.

  12. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  13. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...... expectations they had when investing in these markets, (2) which challenges they faced there, and (3) how they subsequently addressed them. By tracing and comparing these investments and their consequences over time (and space), we hope to shed more light on managerial decisions and understand to what extent...

  14. Photovoltaic is always more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well

  15. Analysis of 16S libraries of mouse gastrointestinal microflora reveals a large new group of mouse intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Nita H; de Jong, Hendrik; Paterson, Yvonne; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Welling, Gjalt W; Bos, Nicolaas A

    2002-11-01

    Total genomic DNA from samples of intact mouse small intestine, large intestine, caecum and faeces was used as template for PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences with conserved bacterial primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplification products revealed 40 unique 16S rDNA sequences. Of these sequences, 25% (10/40) corresponded to described intestinal organisms of the mouse, including Lactobacillus spp., Helicobacter spp., segmented filamentous bacteria and members of the altered Schaedler flora (ASF360, ASF361, ASF502 and ASF519); 75% (30/40) represented novel sequences. A large number (11/40) of the novel sequences revealed a new operational taxonomic unit (OTU) belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides phylum, which the authors named 'mouse intestinal bacteria'. 16S rRNA probes were developed for this new OTU. Upon analysis of the novel sequences, eight were found to cluster within the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides group and three clustered within the Bacteroides group. One of the novel sequences was distantly related to Verrucomicrobium spinosum and one was distantly related to Bacillus mycoides. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNA of these novel clones were generated. Using a combination of four previously described and four newly designed probes, approximately 80% of bacteria recovered from the murine large intestine and 71% of bacteria recovered from the murine caecum could be identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

  16. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  17. Many large medical groups will need to acquire new skills and tools to be ready for payment reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, Robert; Zinner, Darren E

    2012-09-01

    Federal and state policy makers are now experimenting with programs that hold health systems accountable for delivering care under predetermined budgets to help control health care spending. To assess how well prepared medical groups are to participate in these arrangements, we surveyed twenty-one large, multispecialty groups. We evaluated their participation in risk contracts such as capitation and the degree of operational support associated with these arrangements. On average, about 25 percent of the surveyed groups' patient care revenue stemmed from global capitation contracts and 9 percent from partial capitation or shared risk contracts. Groups with a larger share of revenue from risk contracts were more likely than others to have salaried physicians, advanced data management capabilities, preferred relationships with efficient specialists, and formal programs to coordinate care for high-risk patients. Our findings suggest that medical groups that lack risk contracting experience may need to develop new competencies and infrastructure to successfully navigate federal payment reform programs, including information systems that track performance and support clinicians in delivering good care; physician-level reward systems that are aligned with organizational goals; sound physician leadership; and an organizational commitment to supporting performance improvement. The difficulty of implementing these changes in complex health care organizations should not be underestimated.

  18. Effects of core models and neutron energy group structures on xenon oscillation in large graphite-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasita, Kiyonobu; Harada, Hiroo; Murata, Isao; Shindo, Ryuichi; Tsuruoka, Takuya.

    1993-01-01

    Xenon oscillations of large graphite-moderated reactors have been analyzed by a multi-group diffusion code with two- and three-dimensional core models to study the effects of the geometric core models and the neutron energy group structures on the evaluation of the Xe oscillation behavior. The study clarified the following. It is important for accurate Xe oscillation simulations to use the neutron energy group structure that describes well the large change in the absorption cross section of Xe in the thermal energy range of 0.1∼0.65 eV, because the energy structure in this energy range has significant influences on the amplitude and the period of oscillations in power distributions. Two-dimensional R-Z models can be used instead of three-dimensional R-θ-Z models for evaluation of the threshold power of Xe oscillation, but two-dimensional R-θ models cannot be used for evaluation of the threshold power. Although the threshold power evaluated with the R-θ-Z models coincides with that of the R-Z models, it does not coincide with that of the R-θ models. (author)

  19. The importance of working capital management for hospital profitability: evidence from bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C

    2012-01-01

    Increased financial pressures on hospitals have elevated the importance of working capital management, that is, the management of current assets and current liabilities, for hospitals' profitability. Efficient working capital management allows hospitals to reduce their holdings of current assets, such as inventory and accounts receivable, which earn no interest income and require financing with short-term debt. The resulting cash inflows can be reinvested in interest-bearing financial instruments or used to reduce short-term borrowing, thus improving the profitability of the organization. This study examines the relationship between hospitals' profitability and their performance at managing two components of working capital: accounts receivable, measured in terms of hospitals' average collection periods, and accounts payable, measured in terms of hospitals' average payment periods. Panel data derived from audited financial statements for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals for 2000-2007 were analyzed using hospital-level fixed-effects regression analysis. The results show a negative relationship between hospitals' average collection period and profitability. That is, hospitals that collected on their patient revenue faster reported higher profit margins than did hospitals that have larger balances of accounts receivable outstanding. We also found a negative relationship between hospitals' average payment period and their profitability. Hospital managers did not appear to delay paying their vendors. Rather, the findings indicated that more profitable hospitals paid their suppliers faster, possibly to avoid high effective interest rates on outstanding accounts payable, whereas less profitable hospitals waited longer to pay their bills. The findings of this study suggest that working capital management indeed matters for hospitals' profitability. Efforts aimed at reducing large balances in both accounts receivable and accounts payable may frequently be

  20. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  1. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  2. PROFIT SENSITIVITY IN THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofilean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.

  3. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated profitable tour problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem (CPTP) which is a special case of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints (ESPPRC). The CPTP belongs to the group of problems known as traveling salesman problems with profits. In CPTP each customer is associated...... with a profit and a demand and the objective is to find a capacitated tour (rooted in a depot node) that minimizes the total travel distance minus the profit of the visited customers. The CPTP can be recognized as the sub-problem in many column generation applications, where it is traditionally solved through...

  5. Multivariate Analysis of Profitability Indicators for Selected Companies of Croatian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the profitability indicators are analysed for the first hundred companies of the Croatian market, which are classified according to the net profit. The profitability indicators included in the analysis are the following: EBIT margin, EBITDA margin, net profit margin, return on assets (ROA, return on invested capital (ROI and return on capital employed (ROCE. By implementing the factor analysis, six chosen profitability indicators have been reduced to two factors, thus solving the multicollinearity problem, which is one of the prerequisites for the cluster analysis. For two extracted factors, the factor scores are calculated and used in the following cluster analysis. By implementing the cluster analysis, selected companies are grouped into clusters according to their similarity in accomplished results that are measured by profitability indicators. The hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses are conducted and resulted into two clusters where ten companies were in the first cluster, while the other ninety were in the second cluster

  6. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  7. Public ownership helps boost HMOs' profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-05-04

    Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM US

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yinglin; Huang, Yating

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that affect bank profitability. We construct a sample of US banks from 2003 to 2015, and use return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) to measure bank profitability. We find that banks with higher profitability are the banks that have: (1) a higher deposits to total asset ratio, (2) a higher diversification ratio, and (3) higher operational efficiency. We also find that better-capitalized banks tend to be more profitable only when we use ROA as the me...

  9. Using the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique to enhance teaching and learning in large accountancy classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Poyatos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available First year accounting has generally been perceived as one of the more challenging first year business courses for university students. Various Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs have been proposed to attempt to enrich and enhance student learning, with these studies generally positioning students as learners alone. This paper uses an educational case study approach and examines the implementation of the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique, a Classroom Assessment Technique, on first year accounting students’ learning performance. Building on theoretical frameworks in the areas of cognitive learning, social development, and dialogical learning, the technique uses reports to promote reflection on both learning and teaching. IGCRA was found to promote feedback on the effectiveness of student, as well as teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicated formative feedback can assist to improve the learning and learning environment for a large group of first year accounting students. Clear guidelines for its implementation are provided in the paper.

  10. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  11. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  12. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  13. Macroeconomic and industry-specific determinants of Greek bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zampara, K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the external factors that influence the profitability of a typical Greek systemic bank over the period 2001 – 2014. Design/Methodology/Approach: A conceptual framework incorporating two fundamental groups of const ructs, namely, macroeconomic forces and industry related factors, was developed. Two constructs were examined in the former: GDP growth rate and unemployment rate, whilst two attributes were explored in the latter; the bank's market share, both in terms of deposits and in terms of assets, and the banking market growth, also both in terms of the market's total assets and total deposits. In order to isolate the effects of the ongoing financial crisis, the research was undertaken for two periods, firstly 2001 to 2014 and secondly, the period 2001 - 2011, which excluded the deep recession. Consequently, multiple regression analysis was conducted and linear models were specified by means of OLS. Findings: The empirical analysis revealed that both macroeconomic forces and industry-related factors affect bank profitability. As far as the macroeconomic factors are concerned, unemployment rate has a negative impact, whereas the GDP growth rate has a positive impact on bank profitability. The industry -related factors, rate of growth of the industry's deposits and bank's assets market share have a positive impact on the financial performance of the bank. Finally, the rate of growth of the industry's assets and the bank's deposits market share have a negative effect on bank profitability. Originality/Value: This study reveals the mechanism determining bank profitability over a recent period that includes the financial crisis. Moreover, understanding the impact of macroeconomic forces as well as industry related attributes on bank profitability may enable banks to focus on the most critical factors in their decision process.

  14. Clinical utility of the Prostate Health Index (phi) for biopsy decision management in a large group urology practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jay; Shenoy, B Vittal; Tutrone, Ronald F; Karsh, Lawrence I; Saltzstein, Daniel R; Harmon, William J; Broyles, Dennis L; Roddy, Tamra E; Lofaro, Lori R; Paoli, Carly J; Denham, Dwight; Reynolds, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Deciding when to biopsy a man with non-suspicious DRE findings and tPSA in the 4-10 ng/ml range can be challenging, because two-thirds of such biopsies are typically found to be benign. The Prostate Health Index (phi) exhibits significantly improved diagnostic accuracy for prostate cancer detection when compared to tPSA and %fPSA, however only one published study to date has investigated its impact on biopsy decisions in clinical practice. An IRB approved observational study was conducted at four large urology group practices using a physician reported two-part questionnaire. Physician recommendations were recorded before and after receiving the phi test result. A historical control group was queried from each site's electronic medical records for eligible men who were seen by the same participating urologists prior to the implementation of the phi test in their practice. 506 men receiving a phi test were prospectively enrolled and 683 men were identified for the historical control group (without phi). Biopsy and pathological findings were also recorded for both groups. Men receiving a phi test showed a significant reduction in biopsy procedures performed when compared to the historical control group (36.4% vs. 60.3%, respectively, P phi score impacted the physician's patient management plan in 73% of cases, including biopsy deferrals when the phi score was low, and decisions to perform biopsies when the phi score indicated an intermediate or high probability of prostate cancer (phi ≥36). phi testing significantly impacted the physician's biopsy decision for men with tPSA in the 4-10 ng/ml range and non-suspicious DRE findings. Appropriate utilization of phi resulted in a significant reduction in biopsy procedures performed compared to historical patients seen by the same participating urologists who would have met enrollment eligibility but did not receive a phi test.

  15. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  16. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  17. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  18. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  19. Management Practices: Are Not For Profits Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if

  20. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  1. For-Profit Schools: They Get IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The for-profit sector of higher education has generated some disturbing headlines recently. Widely publicized charges of predatory recruiting practices have prompted new regulations and provided fuel for scorching criticism of the entire business model. But while the spotlight is focused on what for-profits are doing wrong, are people overlooking…

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  3. Profit sharing for increased training investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates whether paying a profit-related wage stimulates training investments. The results point to increased worker effort and wage flexibility as two channels through which profit sharing enhances investments in training. While both effects are found for young workers, for older

  4. Price and Profit Optimization for Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bolancé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospective customers of financial and insurance products can be targeted based on the profit the provider expects to earn from them. We present a model for individual expected profit and two alternatives for calculating optimal personalized prices that maximize the expected profit. For one of these alternatives, we obtain a closed-form expression for the price offered to each prospective customer; for the other, we need to use a numerical approximation. In both approaches, the profits generated by prospective customers are not immediately observed, given that the products sold by these companies have a risk component. We assume that willingness to pay is heterogeneous and apply our methodology using real data from a European insurance company. Our study indicates that a substantial boost in profits can be expected when applying the simplest optimal pricing method proposed.

  5. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  6. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  7. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  8. Using Breakout Groups as an Active Learning Technique in a Large Undergraduate Nutrition Classroom at the University of Guelph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Newton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakout groups have been widely used under many different conditions, but the lack of published information related to their use in undergraduate settings highlights the need for research related to their use in this context. This paper describes a study investigating the use of breakout groups in undergraduate education as it specifically relates to teaching a large 4th year undergraduate Nutrition class in a physically constrained lecture space. In total, 220 students completed a midterm survey and 229 completed a final survey designed to measure student satisfaction. Survey results were further analyzed to measure relationships between student perception of breakout group effectiveness and (1 gender and (2 cumulative GPA. Results of both surveys revealed that over 85% of students either agreed or strongly agreed that using breakout groups enhanced their learning experience, with females showing a significantly greater level of satisfaction and higher final course grade than males. Although not stratified by gender, a consistent finding between surveys was a lower perception of breakout group effectiveness by students with a cumulative GPA above 90%. The majority of respondents felt that despite the awkward room space, the breakout groups were easy to create and participate in, which suggests that breakout groups can be successfully used in a large undergraduate classroom despite physical constraints. The findings of this work are relevant given the applicability of breakout groups to a wide range of disciplines, and the relative ease of integration into a traditional lecture format.Les enseignants ont recours aux petits groupes dans de nombreuses conditions différentes, cependant, le manque d’information publiée sur leur utilisation au premier cycle confirme la nécessité d’effectuer des recherches sur ce format dans ce contexte. Le présent article rend compte d’une étude portant sur l’utilisation des petits groupes au premier

  9. How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, Ellemarije; Chen, Ivy Y; Daviaux, Yannick; Ivers, Hans; Philip, Pierre; Morin, Charles M

    2017-04-14

    Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events-so-called sleep reactivity-is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample ( n = 1693). Baseline data of the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) and Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) were examined across age and sleep/insomnia subgroups: 25-35 ( n = 448), 35-45 ( n = 528), and 45-55 year olds ( n = 717); good sleepers ( n = 931), individuals with insomnia symptoms ( n = 450), and individuals with an insomnia syndrome ( n = 312). Results from factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed that APS scores decreased with increasing age, but increased with more severe sleep problems. FIRST scores were not significantly different across age groups, but showed the same strong increase as a function of sleep problem severity. The findings indicate that though arousal predisposition and sleep reactivity increase with more severe sleep problems, only arousal decreases with age. How arousing events affect an individual during daytime thus decreases with age, but how this arousal disrupts sleep is equivalent across different adult age groups. The main implication of these findings is that treatment of insomnia could be adapted for different age groups and take into consideration vulnerability factors such as hyperarousal and stress reactivity.

  10. Achieving 90% Adoption of Clinical Practice Guidelines Using the Delphi Consensus Method in a Large Orthopedic Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Stefano A; Mahajan, John

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the implementation rate of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Our purpose was to report on the adoption rate of CPGs created and implemented by a large orthopedic group using the Delphi consensus method. The draft CPGs were created before the group's annual meeting by 5 teams each assigned a subset of topics. The draft guidelines included a statement and a summary of the available evidence. Each guideline was debated in both small-group and plenary sessions. Voting was anonymous and a 75% supermajority was required for passage. A Likert scale was used to survey the patient's experience with the process at 1 week, and the Kirkpatrick evaluation model was used to gauge the efficacy of the process over a 6-month time frame. Eighty-five orthopedic surgeons attended the meeting. Fifteen guidelines grouped into 5 topics were created. All passed. Eighty-six percent of attendees found the process effective and 84% felt that participating in the process made it more likely that they would adopt the guidelines. At 1 week, an average of 62% of attendees stated they were practicing the guideline as written (range: 35%-72%), and at 6 months, 96% stated they were practicing them (range: 82%-100%). We have demonstrated that a modified Delphi method for reaching consensus can be very effective in both creating CPGs and leading to their adoption. Further we have shown that the process is well received by participants and that an inclusionary approach can be highly successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-profit beliefs: How people neglect the societal benefits of profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amit; Dana, Jason; Baron, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs . Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U.S. firms and industries. Study 3 shows that hypothetical organizations are seen as doing more harm when they are labeled "for-profit" rather than "non-profit," while Study 4 shows that increasing harm to society is viewed as a strategy for increasing a hypothetical firm's long-run profitability. Studies 5-7 demonstrate that carefully prompting subjects to consider the long run incentives of profit can attenuate anti-profit beliefs, while prompting short run thinking does nothing relative to a control. Together, these results suggest that the default view of profits is zero-sum. While people readily grasp how profit can incentivize firms to engage in practices that harm others, they neglect how it can incentivize firms to engage in practices that benefit others. Accordingly, people's stereotypes of profit-seeking firms are excessively negative. Even in one of the most market-oriented societies in history, people doubt the contributions of profit-seeking industry to societal progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Informational and emotional elements in online support groups: a Bayesian approach to large-scale content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Ulrike; Powell, John A

    2016-05-01

    This research examines the extent to which informational and emotional elements are employed in online support forums for 14 purposively sampled chronic medical conditions and the factors that influence whether posts are of a more informational or emotional nature. Large-scale qualitative data were obtained from Dailystrength.org. Based on a hand-coded training dataset, all posts were classified into informational or emotional using a Bayesian classification algorithm to generalize the findings. Posts that could not be classified with a probability of at least 75% were excluded. The overall tendency toward emotional posts differs by condition: mental health (depression, schizophrenia) and Alzheimer's disease consist of more emotional posts, while informational posts relate more to nonterminal physical conditions (irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, asthma). There is no gender difference across conditions, although prostate cancer forums are oriented toward informational support, whereas breast cancer forums rather feature emotional support. Across diseases, the best predictors for emotional content are lower age and a higher number of overall posts by the support group member. The results are in line with previous empirical research and unify empirical findings from single/2-condition research. Limitations include the analytical restriction to predefined categories (informational, emotional) through the chosen machine-learning approach. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for building theory on informational versus emotional support across conditions, give insights for practitioners to better understand the role of online support groups for different patients, and show the usefulness of machine-learning approaches to analyze large-scale qualitative health data from online settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Super enrichment of Fe-group nuclei in solar flares and their association with large 3He enrichments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglin, J.D.; Dietrich, W.F.; Simpson, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    ''Fe''/He ratios at approximately 2 MeV/n have been measured in 60 solar flares and periods of enhanced fluxes during the interval 1972-1976. The observed ditribution of ratios is extremely wide with values ranging from approximately 1 to more than 1000 times the solar abundance ratio. In constrast, most of the CHO/He ratios for the same flares lie within a factor 2 of the observed mean value of 2 x 10 -2 . While experimental limitations prevent a complete correlation study of Fe-group and 3 He abundances, comparison of flares with large Fe enrichments with flares with large 3 He enrichments for the period 1969-1976 shows that a 3 He-rich flare is also likely to be rich in iron. We feel that the association of 3 He and Fe enrichments may be explained by a two-stage process in which a preliminary enrichment of heavy nuclei precedes the preferential acceleration of ambient 3 He. Nuclear interactions are ruled out as the principal source of the enriched 3 He. (author)

  14. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Lynn, E-mail: lmillion@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  15. There's No Place Like Home: The Profitability Gap between Headquarters and their Foreign Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Dischinger, Matthias; Riedel, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    Using a large panel data set for European firms, this paper provides evidence that operations at multinational headquarters are significantly more profitable than perations at their foreign subsidiaries. The effect turns out to be robust and quantitatively large. Our findings suggest that the profitability gap is partly driven by agency costs which arise if value-driving functions are managed by a subsidiary that is geographically separated from the headquarters management. In line with falli...

  16. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  17. Reference Tracking and Profit Optimization of a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different methods for implementing reference tracking intro a profit optimization problem of a power plant. It is shown that tracking included as a side constraint results in an significant tracking error only when the reference gradient is large. When tracking...... is included in the cost function, as a quadratic term, the reference is tracked with a small accumulated error. Finally, the two methods are compared both in terms of tracking performance and computational burden....

  18. Slovnaft posts unexpectedly high profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, Slovnaft used the movement of the price of Brent crude as an argument to explain the movement of its prices. It assumed the price of Urals crude would follow the Brent crude price after a short period. It was still using this argument in 2002. Urals crude was for a long period about 2 USD per barrel (159 l) cheaper than Brent. But over recent last months, the price difference between Brent crude and Ural crude has been increasing. According to the pricing policy, customers of Hungarian-owned MOL/Slovnaft might expect fuel prices to fall. But this did not happen. Slovnaft no longer uses Brent prices to justify its prices and focuses on the development of the FOB Rotterdam fuel market. When prices increase on the FOB Rotterdam fuel market, refineries in neighbouring regions export oil to this market. And in order to maintain stability on the market, other refineries also increase their prices. Slovnaft benefits not only from cheaper Russian oil but also from the major investments it made in the past. While other refineries use distillation residues to produce cheaper heavy heating oils, Slovnaft is able to convert such residues into fuel. And this also has an economic impact. B. Kelemen admits that it will be mainly shareholders who benefit from these developments.It is not only rising oil prices that have been noticeable recently, but also the lack of investment in the oil industry. The capacity of Russian pipelines, tankers and the processing capacity of refineries has been insufficient for some time. Whereas fuel consumption is growing year after year. Preliminary calculations indicate the oil industry needs to invest about 700 bill. USD and investors expect a return, according to B. Kelemen, of 10 to 17%. The closest competitors of Slovnaft will have to invest in desulphurization and the processing of heavy residues. And so Slovnaft can look forward to very profitable years. The same cannot be said of its customers. Slovnaft is set to publish

  19. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  20. Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCanne, Claire E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results.

  1. Higher prices, increased demand bolster OGJ group 1995 profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the 1995 performance of 22 of the largest US oil companies. It shows sector earnings, spending, prices, financial indicators, and exploration and production figures. Each company is identified to its revenues, working capital, returns on stockholder investments, and total assets. With regards to production, each company is identified by number of wells, refined product sales, liquid reserves, and net production

  2. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... policies of national and international institutions. Fourteen partly overlapping factors are identified and grouped in five categories: increased pressure on labor, geographical expansion, resource efficiency, technological progress, and destruction or devaluation of capital. It is suggested...

  3. Analysis of efficiency and profitability of franchise services

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MARTIN, CONSTANTINO JOSE; Medal Bartual, Amparo; Peris-Ortiz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyses the relative efficiency of franchise services and characterises the best companies, confirming the relationship between efficiency and profit. These companies are from the trade and other services sector , the main group of service-providing companies in the Spanish economy. The methodology calls for first comparing the relative efficiency of franchisers and ownership enterprises. Second, the focus turns to the most efficient franchise services, usin...

  4. Impact of profit retention on value creation to shareholders of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The company's decision on reinvesting profits started from the premise that the return on invested capital will exceed the opportunity cost, creating, consequently, shareholder value. Thus, wealth generation of the entity will be influenced by the level of retained earnings. Therefore, in this work we seek to examine how retained profit affect the value creation of 223 Brazilian companies, from 2008 to 2014, the control used was investment opportunity. Therefore we used descriptive statistics and panel data models. As main results we found that there is a high level of retained profit in the sample, however, a small part of the companies created value in the period. Still, the negative relationship between the level of capitalization of profits and created value is highlighted. Besides, it was observed that the companies that belonged to groups of higher levels of profit distribution ended up generating more wealth for investors.

  5. Risk assessment does not explain high prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in a large group of Sardinian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedda Pierina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A very high prevalence (22.3% of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM was recently reported following our study on a large group of Sardinian women. In order to explain such a high prevalence we sought to characterise our obstetric population through the analysis of risk factors and their association with the development of GDM. Methods The prevalence of risk factors and their association with the development of GDM were evaluated in 1103 pregnancies (247 GDM and 856 control women. The association of risk factors with GDM was calculated according to logistic regression. Sensitivity and specificity of risk assessment strategy were also calculated. Results None of the risk factors evaluated showed an elevated frequency in our population. The high risk patients were 231 (20.9%. Factors with a stronger association with GDM development were obesity (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.08–6.8, prior GDM (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.69–5.69, and family history of Type 2 diabetes (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.81–3.86. Only patients over 35 years of age were more represented in the GDM group (38.2% vs 22.6% in the non-GDM cases, P P Conclusion Such a high prevalence of GDM in our population does not seem to be related to the abnormal presence of some known risk factors, and appears in contrast with the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Sardinia. Further studies are needed to explain the cause such a high prevalence of GDM in Sardinia. The "average risk" definition is not adequate to predict GDM in our population.

  6. 48 CFR 1415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.404-4 Profit. (a) DOI's policy is to use a... also refer to the Armed Services Pricing Manual (ASPM No. 1). The “Other Costs” factor shall include...

  7. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ... terms of cost control, in the sense that marketing ... internal accounting system which allows for an ..... information and advice, and the effects of such.

  8. Profitability expertise of rural methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to analyze the profitability of projects of methanization, and to identify factors which curb or favour their profitability. It is based on a detailed analysis of the investment and of the profitability of 50 sites of different sizes and at different stages of progress (from the feasibility study to few months of operation), and also of experiences in three neighbour countries (Germany, Switzerland and Belgium). First, the study highlights the importance of investment costs in the biogas production global cost, notably with respect to current German prices. Then, it comments the impact of subsidies on facility profitability. It proposes ways to improve public support to the different energetic vectors produced from biogas: electricity, biomethane, and heat

  9. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4 Profit. (c)(4)(i) Contracting officer...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of the...

  10. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., unusual contingency provisions, or other risk-reducing measures, the amount of profit shall be less than... contribute to successful results. Conversely, the Contracting Officer shall view failure or unwillingness on...

  11. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  12. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and...

  13. Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gargano

    Full Text Available The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.

  14. Study on dynamic multi-objective approach considering coal and water conflict in large scale coal group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Lu, Li

    2018-01-01

    In the process of coal mining, destruction and pollution of groundwater in has reached an imminent time, and groundwater is not only related to the ecological environment, but also affect the health of human life. Similarly, coal and water conflict is still one of the world's problems in large scale coal mining regions. Based on this, this paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model to deal with the conflict of the coal and water in the coal group with multiple subordinate collieries and arrive at a comprehensive arrangement to achieve environmentally friendly coal mining strategy. Through calculation, this paper draws the output of each subordinate coal mine. And on this basis, we continue to adjust the environmental protection parameters to compare the coal production at different collieries at different stages under different attitude of the government. At last, the paper conclude that, in either case, it is the first arrangement to give priority to the production of low-drainage, high-yield coal mines.

  15. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  16. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  17. Fuel reprocessing at THORP: profitability and public liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Since the economics of British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) were analysed in an earlier report, a number of domestic and international developments have affected the prospects for THORP. The present report outlines these changes, and analyses their implications for the profits and public liabilities associated with the project. Timing is of some significance because once THORP becomes radioactive (planned to occur in March 1993) the bill for decommissioning the plant will rise from a trivial sum to a very large one - Pound 900 million (1992 prices) in BNFL's own estimates. The report begins with a brief outline of reprocessing and the THORP project. It then examines the market prospects for reprocessing beyond THORP's first ten years and revises BNFL's own projections. It then considers the potential profitability of THORP in relation to various possible cost increases and finally outlines the possible implications of different THORP scenarios for the public purse. (author)

  18. Optimal Strategy Analysis of a Competing Portfolio Market with a Polyvariant Profit Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, Nikolai N. Jr.; Kyshakevych, Bohdan Yu.; Blackmore, Denis; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.

    2010-12-01

    A competing market model with a polyvariant profit function that assumes 'zeitnot' stock behavior of clients is formulated within the banking portfolio medium and then analyzed from the perspective of devising optimal strategies. An associated Markov process method for finding an optimal choice strategy for monovariant and bivariant profit functions is developed. Under certain conditions on the bank 'promotional' parameter with respect to the 'fee' for a missed share package transaction and at an asymptotically large enough portfolio volume, universal transcendental equations - determining the optimal share package choice among competing strategies with monovariant and bivariant profit functions - are obtained. (author)

  19. Profitability of labour factor in the typical dairy farms in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Parzonko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article was to analyse the productivity and profitability of labour factor and to present asset endowments of the typical dairy farms distinguished within IFCN (International Farm Comparison Network. Among analysed 103 typical dairy farms from 34 countries, the highest net dairy farm profit characterised large farms from USA, Australia and New Zealand. Those farms generated also significantly higher profit per working hour then the potential wages that could be earned outside the farm. The highest assets value per 100 kg of produced milk characterised European farms (especially with low production scale.

  20. Not-for-profits trek into for-profit accounting: goodwill impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.

  1. Student perceptions of gamified audience response system interactions in large group lectures and via lecture capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Robin K; McCoy, Lise; Kinney, Marjorie; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-05-22

    Higher education students have positive attitudes about the use of audience response systems (ARS), but even technology-enhanced lessons can become tiresome if the pedagogical approach is exactly the same with each implementation. Gamification is the notion that gaming mechanics can be applied to routine activities. In this study, TurningPoint (TP) ARS interactions were gamified and implemented in 22 large group medical microbiology lectures throughout an integrated year 1 osteopathic medical school curriculum. A 32-item questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of the gamified TP interactions at the end of their first year. The survey instrument generated both Likert scale and open-ended response data that addressed game design and variety, engagement and learning features, use of TP questions after class, and any value of lecture capture technology for reviewing these interactive presentations. The Chi Square Test was used to analyze grouped responses to Likert scale questions. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open-coding. Ninety-one students out of 106 (86 %) responded to the survey. A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool. The questionnaire investigated the degree to which specific features of these interactions were engaging (nine items) and promoted learning (seven items). The most highly ranked engagement aspects were peer competition and focus on the activity (tied for highest ranking), and the most highly ranked learning aspect was applying theoretical knowledge to clinical scenarios. Another notable item was the variety of interactions, which ranked in the top three in both the engagement and learning categories. Open-ended comments shed light on how students use TP questions for exam preparation, and revealed engaging and non-engaging attributes of these interactive sessions for students who review them via lecture capture

  2. Profitability implications of sustainable contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Dude L.

    2006-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Certain construction companies have adopted green building methods and practices while most of the industry continues to provide traditional construction services in traditional ways. The green building methods include managing waste streams effectively, using environmentally friendly materials, and working with other green companies and groups. The benefits of green construction have been...

  3. Group Peer Mentoring: An Answer to the Faculty Mentoring Problem? A Successful Program at a Large Academic Department of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T

    2015-01-01

    To address a dearth of mentoring and to avoid the pitfalls of dyadic mentoring, the authors implemented and evaluated a novel collaborative group peer mentoring program in a large academic department of medicine. The mentoring program aimed to facilitate faculty in their career planning, and targeted either early-career or midcareer faculty in 5 cohorts over 4 years, from 2010 to 2014. Each cohort of 9-12 faculty participated in a yearlong program with foundations in adult learning, relationship formation, mindfulness, and culture change. Participants convened for an entire day, once a month. Sessions incorporated facilitated stepwise and values-based career planning, skill development, and reflective practice. Early-career faculty participated in an integrated writing program and midcareer faculty in leadership development. Overall attendance of the 51 participants was 96%, and only 3 of 51 faculty who completed the program left the medical school during the 4 years. All faculty completed a written detailed structured academic development plan. Participants experienced an enhanced, inclusive, and appreciative culture; clarified their own career goals, values, strengths and priorities; enhanced their enthusiasm for collaboration; and developed skills. The program results highlight the need for faculty to personally experience the power of forming deep relationships with their peers for fostering successful career development and vitality. The outcomes of faculty humanity, vitality, professionalism, relationships, appreciation of diversity, and creativity are essential to the multiple missions of academic medicine. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  4. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  5. The effects of firm specific factors and macroeconomics on profitability of property-liability insurance industry in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between firm specific factors and macroeconomics on profitability in Taiwanese property-liability insurance industry using the panel data over the1999 through 2009 time period. Using operating ratio and return on assets (ROA) for the two kinds of profitability indicators to measure insurers’ profitability. The results show that underwriting risk, reinsurance usage, input cost, return on investment (ROI) and financial holding group have significant in...

  6. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  7. THE THEORY OF NON-PROFIT ALTERNATIVE ECONOMY AS THE BASIS FOR A NEW ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The conflicts of existing financial-and-economic model of management are revealed. The groundlessness of profit-financial economic model based only on a profit approach is shown. The alienation of this model from general laws of the Nature is demonstrated. As an argument of absence of additional product the scheme of rotation of substances in the Nature is given. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from idea considerations of those or other social groups but from general laws of the Nature. A new basic economic ideology – the theory of non-profitable economy – is proposed.

  8. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. II. Two- and four-component double-group general active space implementation with application to BiH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo

    2010-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a large-scale relativistic double-group configuration interaction CIprogram. It is applicable with a large variety of two- and four-component Hamiltonians. The parallel algorithm is based on a distributed data model in combination with a static load balanci...

  9. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, van R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  10. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  11. Estimating Profit Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing in the Pru District of the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinam Dope Setsoafia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the profit efficiency of artisanal fishing in the Pru District of Ghana by explicitly computing profit efficiency level, identifying the sources of profit inefficiency, and examining the constraints of artisanal fisheries. Cross-sectional data was obtained from 120 small-scale fishing households using semistructured questionnaire. The stochastic profit frontier model was used to compute profit efficiency level and identify the determinants of profit inefficiency while Garrett ranking technique was used to rank the constraints. The average profit efficiency level was 81.66% which implies that about 82% of the prospective maximum profit was gained due to production efficiency. That is, only 18% of the potential profit was lost due to the fishers’ inefficiency. Also, the age of the household head and household size increase the inefficiency level while experience in artisanal fishing tends to decrease the inefficiency level. From the Garrett ranking, access to credit facility to fully operate the small-scale fishing business was ranked as the most pressing issue followed by unstable prices while perishability was ranked last among the constraints. The study, therefore, recommends that group formation should be encouraged to enable easy access to loans and contract sales to boost profitability.

  12. First Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectroscopy of early-type stars outside the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartoog, O.E.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-shooter science verification, we obtained the first optical medium-resolution spectrum of a previously identified bright O-type object in NGC 55, a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)-like galaxy at a distance of ∼2.0 Mpc. Based on the stellar and nebular

  13. The Effects of Individual versus Group Incentive Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes in a Large Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Sya Azmeela Binti

    2012-01-01

    Promoting active learning among students may result in greater learning and more positive attitudes in university-level large lecture classes. One way of promoting active learning in large lecture classes is via the use of a think-pair-share instructional strategy, which combines student participation in class discussions via clicker technology…

  14. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...

  15. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  16. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence Psicodinâmica da violência de grandes grupos e da violência de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.A partir de Freud, as teorias psicanalíticas a respeito de grandes grupos focalizam principalmente as percepções e os significados que os indivíduos psicologicamente atribuem a eles. Este texto analisa alguns aspectos sobre a psicologia dos grandes grupos e sua psicodinâmica interna e específica. Toma como referência grupos étnicos, nacionais, religiosos e ideológicos cujo pertencimento dos sujeitos iniciou-se na infância. Faz-se uma comparação entre o processo de luto em indivíduos e o processo de luto em grandes grupos para ilustrar por que é necessário investir no conhecimento da psicologia destes últimos, como um objeto específico. Descreve ainda sinais e sintomas de regressão em grandes grupos. Quando há ameaça à identidade coletiva pode ocorrer um processo de violência de massas que obviamente influencia na sua saúde coletiva.

  17. Psicodinâmica da violência de grandes grupos e da violência de massas Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de Freud, as teorias psicanalistas sobre grandes grupos focalizam, principalmente, as percepções e os significados que, psicologicamente, os indivíduos atribuem a eles. Este texto analisa alguns aspectos sobre a psicologia dos grandes grupos e sua psicodinâmica interna e específica. Toma como referência grupos étnicos, nacionais, religiosos e ideológicos cujo pertencimento dos sujeitos iniciou-se na infância. O autor faz uma comparação entre o processo de luto em indivíduos e o processo de luto em grandes grupos para ilustrar por que é necessário investir no conhecimento da psicologia destes últimos como um objeto específico. O autor descreve, ainda, sinais e sintomas de regressão em grandes grupos. Quando há ameaça à identidade coletiva, pode ocorrer um processo de violência de massas que obviamente influencia a saúde pública.Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This text examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression.When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  18. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  19. Profit, rent, patrimony, and risk on the large landed estates in southern Portugal toward the end of the nineteenth century Lucro, renda, património e risco nos grandes domínios fundiários do sul de Portugal nos finais do século xix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novais

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the economic rationality of large landed estates in the Iberian Peninsula. It assumes these estates submit to a rational land use, that is sensitive to economic change. Its goal is to discuss the main criteria for economic management of landed estates in Southern Portugal during the last decades of the nineteenth century: namely profit, risk, rent, and patrimony. A multiple-criteria programming model, farming economic accounts, and compared analysis are used in developing a case study. The article concludes for a patrimonial logic within which a policy for compromise between income and risk was followed.Este estudo discute a racionalidade económica dos grandes domínios fundiários da Península Ibérica. Assume-se que a exploração agrícola destas terras se baseia em critérios de racionalidade económica, sensíveis às transformações económicas. Pretende identificar os principais critérios presentes na gestão dos grandes domínios fundiários do Sul de Portugal, nos últimos decénios do século xix: lucro, renda, risco e património. A discussão parte do estudo da Casa de Ficalho, e apoia-se num modelo de programação multi-critério, na contabilidade dos domínios, e numa análise comparativa. Conclui-se que esta racionalidade se alicerça num compromisso entre a maximização do rendimento e a minimização do risco económico, dentro de uma lógica patrimonial.

  20. Sinister synergies : how competition for unregulated profit causes blackouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper examined the effects of deregulation on electricity system reliability and demonstrated that the pursuit of unregulated profit has increased blackout risk. It was suggested that although deregulation works well in some areas, experts, studies and experience have shown that the deregulation of the electricity system has failed. The make-up of the electricity system was discussed, as well as the importance of the system to security, safety, health and economic well-being. It was suggested that higher costs and the need for greater profits have pushed deregulated power producers to cut costs drastically and to invest where high, short-term returns are more likely, rather than focusing on reasonable long-term returns with reasonable cost savings and reliability. In addition, the complexity of deregulated electricity markets has afforded participants many opportunities to manipulate and cut corners to increase profits. It was suggested that higher costs and the need for higher profits have combined with deregulated market conditions to provide motives and opportunities for a culture of bad behavior. This has cost consumers billions of dollars and resulted in increased blackout risk. It was noted that there have also been significant cut-backs in training, maintenance and rehabilitation, as well as in research. There has been a large increase in the complexity of deregulated systems because of increased numbers of participants, transactions and relationships, which has led to the introduction of new systems without appropriate testing, pilot projects, risk management, gradual implementation and backup procedures. It was concluded that an independent investigation should be carried out, and that a major study is needed to examine deregulated environments. 31 refs

  1. Willow growing - Methods of calculation and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs

  2. Research of profit earner in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganok A.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of professional sport is considered. The models of entrepreneurial activity are described in this sphere. The structure of income of soccer clubs of France, USA and Ukraine is analysed. The tendencies of receipt of profits are rotined on the example of professional soccer clubs of Ukraine. It is marked that in Ukraine actual two models of orientation of conduct of sporting business on condition of high-efficiency management and marketing. For the increase of profits necessary changes are in a current legislation.

  3. Effect of Black Economic Empowerment on profit and competitiveness of firms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert P.J. Kleynhans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The key obstacle hindering optimal profitability levels and competitiveness in firms in South Africa is the application of labour legislation policies and tools aimed at narrowing the income gap between different racial groups and resolving inequality amongst a diverse workforce. Research purpose: This article determined whether the implementation of a Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policy by companies has a positive effect on their growth in terms of profits and competitiveness. Motivation for the study: This study determined whether the implementation of BEE could be profitable for companies. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was undertaken in order to find empirical evidence supporting the relation between high BEE Scores, profitability and competitiveness. The empirical investigation utilised regression analysis, correlations and other methods, based on data between January 2009 and December 2011. The BEE Scorecard was used to obtain BEE scores of the top 50 BEE companies. Thereafter, the top 50 companies’ financial information was gathered from the Johannesburg Securities Exchange. Main findings: The implementation of BEE within companies has a positive effect on profitability, turnover and investment. Numerous factors have, however, been hindering,while other factors enhanced the success of BEE. Practical/managerial implications: The findings encourage mangers to engage in BEE as it may facilitate higher profits and indicates where labour legislation could be improved. Contribution/value-add: Value was added through new research determining the effects of BEE and labour legislation on profitability and competitiveness of firms on a micro-level.

  4. For-profit hospital ownership status and use of brachytherapy after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sounok; Soulos, Pamela R; Herrin, Jeph; Roberts, Kenneth B; Yu, James B; Lesnikoski, Beth-Ann; Ross, Joseph S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gross, Cary P

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between operative care for breast cancer at for-profit hospitals and subsequent use of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Among Medicare beneficiaries, we examined whether hospital ownership status is associated with the use of breast brachytherapy--a newer and more expensive modality--as well as overall RT. We conducted a retrospective study of female Medicare beneficiaries who received breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer in 2008 and 2009. We assessed the relationship between hospital ownership and receipt of brachytherapy or overall RT by using hierarchical generalized linear models. The sample consisted of 35,118 women, 8.0% of whom had breast-conserving operations at for-profit hospitals. Among patients who received RT, those who underwent operation at for-profit hospitals were more likely to receive brachytherapy (20.2%) than patients treated at not-for-profit hospitals (15.2%; odds ratio [OR] for for-profit versus not-for-profit: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.23-1.84; P profit hospital was associated with greater overall use of RT (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.03-1.45, P = .03) and brachytherapy use (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.18-2.34, P = .003). Operative care at for-profit hospitals was associated with increased use of the newer and more expensive RT modality, brachytherapy. Among the oldest women who are least likely to benefit from RT, operative care at a for-profit hospital was associated with greater overall use of RT, with this difference largely driven by the use of brachytherapy. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender Differences in Hospital CEO Compensation: A National Investigation of Not-for-Profit Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Toth, Matthew; Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J

    2018-01-01

    Gender pay equity is a desirable social value and an important strategy to fill every organizational stratum with gender-diverse talent to fulfill an organization's goals and mission. This study used national, large-sample data to examine gender difference in CEO compensation among not-for-profit hospitals. Results showed the average unadjusted annual compensation for female CEOs in 2009 was $425,085 compared with $581,121 for male CEOs. With few exceptions, the difference existed across all types of not-for-profit hospitals. After controlling for hospital- and area-level characteristics, female CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals earned 22.6% less than male CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals. This translates into an earnings differential of $132,652 associated with gender. Explanations and implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Brandsen, G.W.; Fleuster, M.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has been growing with astonishing rates over the past years. The supply of silicon to the wafer-based industry has recently become a problem. This paper presents a thorough analysis of the PV industry and quantifies the silicon shortage. It is expected that this leads to a decrease in production in 2006 rather than the usual increase. Due to a mismatch in expansion plans of silicon feedstock manufacturers and solar cell manufacturers, a large cell overcapacity will persist up to 2010. The thin-film PV market is expected to profit from the silicon shortage problem; its market share may substantially increase to about 25% in 2010

  7. Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Brandsen, G.W. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Science, Technology and Society; Fleuster, M. [Solland Solar Energy, Heerlen (Netherlands); Hekkert, M.P. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Innovation Studies

    2007-06-15

    The photovoltaic industry has been growing with astonishing rates over the past years. The supply of silicon to the wafer-based industry has recently become a problem. This paper presents a thorough analysis of the PV industry and quantifies the silicon shortage. It is expected that this leads to a decrease in production in 2006 rather than the usual increase. Due to a mismatch in expansion plans of silicon feedstock manufacturers and solar cell manufacturers, a large cell overcapacity will persist up to 2010. The thin-film PV market is expected to profit from the silicon shortage problem; its market share may substantially increase to about 25% in 2010. (author)

  8. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  9. The profitability of low-volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, David; Vidojevic, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Low-risk stocks exhibit higher returns than predicted by established asset pricing models, but this anomaly seems to be explained by the new Fama-French five-factor model, which includes a profitability factor. We argue that this conclusion is premature given the lack of empirical evidence for a

  10. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  11. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  12. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  13. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  14. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.6 Profit element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible place...

  15. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...

  16. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.937-7 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance and not merely the application of a predetermined percentage factor. For the purpose of... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-7 Profit. The objective of negotiations shall be the exercise of sound business judgment and good administrative practice including the...

  18. Maximizing remanufacturing profit using product acquisition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D.R. Guide Jr (Daniel); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe profitability of remanufacturing depends on the quantity and quality of product returns and on the demand for remanufactured products. The quantity and quality of product returns can be influenced by varying quality dependent acquisition prices, i.e., by using product acquisition

  19. Continuous sawmill studies: protocols, practices, and profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...

  20. Dramaturgi Kepemimpinan Perempuan dalam Organisasi Profit

    OpenAIRE

    Negari, Leidena Sekar; Sunarto, Sunarto; Lukmantoro, Triyono

    2013-01-01

    DRAMATURGI KEPEMIMPINAN PEREMPUAN DALAMORGANISASI PROFITAbstrakPemimpin dalam organisasi biasanya didominasi oleh kaum pria, karena konsepdan tradisi yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Indonesia yang mengaut pahampaternalistik. Seiring perkembangan zaman perempuan kini mampu mendudukijajaran top tier manajemen di sejumlah organisasi profit. Gaya komunikasiperempuan yang dianggap mampu dicintai karyawan dan lingkungan kerjanyadalam membangun sebuah hubungan menjadi sebuah nilai plus.Di dalam peneli...

  1. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  2. Profitability analysis of broiler production in rawalpindi district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, A.Q.; Riaz, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Rawalpindi District to evaluate the profitability of different Broiler farm sizes. Poultry farms were categorized into large, medium and small farms, Different efficiency measure such as net present worth, whole farm budget, marginal rate of return were applied. It was found that cost of production was high in small farm category. Small farmer buy feeds on credit basis and therefore, lose 8 percent concession on cash payment. The cost of medium farmer was lower as compared to small farmer. Benefit cost ratio of medium and large farmer was greater then one which indicate that they were earning profit on their investment. More economic incentive was found in increasing the farm size from small to medium as compared to medium to large as marginal rate of return were greater in former case. Efficient extension services were lacking in the study area. Extension activities can play a vital role in improving the poultry farming practices particularly for small farmers. (author)

  3. Profitability primer: a guide to profitability analysis in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd-Zannetti, D.; Martin, J.; Price, S.

    1996-06-01

    As the electric power industry is opened to forces of competition, increased attention must be focused to develop products and services that deliver good value to customers and to identify customer segments that are profitable to serve. This primer introduces the concept of profitability analysis and its application to the electric power industry. The primer recognizes that some segments of the business will remain monopolistic and subject to regulations, while other segments will become competitive. The primer also recognizes that customer profitability is critically dependent on a host of related issues such as how internal costs are allocated to various functions and how revenues are collected and allocated

  4. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  5. Analysis of 16S libraries of mouse gastrointestinal microflora reveals a large new group of mouse intestinal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzman, NH; de Jong, H; Paterson, Y; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW; Bos, NA

    2002-01-01

    Total genomic DNA from samples of intact mouse small intestine, large intestine, caecum and faeces was used as template for PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences with conserved bacterial primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplification products revealed 40 unique 16S rDNA sequences. Of

  6. Audits contribute to pride, productivity and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Q.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this writing is to demonstrate that audits (in general) when used as a ''management tool' can contribute to pride, productivity, and profit. The goal of ''pride'' achievement is demonstrated through the use of techniques developed from behavioral sciences. Discussed is dealing with people and their basic needs. This is intended to point out the fact that satisfying individual needs and concerns is the first step to achieving the goals of pride, productivity, and profit. Also discussed are the basic needs of safety (security), social, ego/esteem, and self-fulfillment as well as providing some basic techniques of auditing which will help assure general satisfaction of these needs. Also noted are reporting methods. The goal of ''productivity'' is approached by demonstrating that objectives must be clear and workable. Objectives must be translated into specific action and that action must be compatible with the overall company objectives. All objectives must be known and understood by those affected. Consideration must be given to men, money, and machines (present technology). All of the objectives must also be weighed against external constraints. The goal of ''profit'' then becomes the product of a combination of ''pride'' and ''productivity''. Audits must be cost conscious. Value engineer the problem, the cause, and the solution. Discussion continues with quality cost programs briefly indicating that ''Q'' costs could be considered a type of audit. Identifying deficiencies and weaknesses, then correcting them, contributes to profit. Increased pride and productivity contributes to profit. Consider the employee's awareness and commitment for doing a good job when auditing

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LIQUIDITY ON PROFITABILITY OF POLISH CONSTRUCTION SECTOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bolek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of financial liquidity is not very straight, as it has various aspects, although generally it refers to the current assets and liabilities management. Financial liquidity together with profitability are the core categories of enterprise activities which, in order to function efficiently, the company should treat as equally important. The growth of financial liquidity may negatively influence the company profitability. If the company is to liquid in the static sense than it will affect negatively the profitability since some capital will be frozen in current assets. In this article, the authors analyze theoretical aspects of the relation between liquidity and profitability, whereas the empirical part they examine this interdependence on a group of construction sector companies listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange.

  8. Perceived profitability and well-being in Australian dryland farmers and irrigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Dominic; Berry, Helen L; Schirmer, Jacki

    2015-08-01

    To describe the relationship between self-reported farm profitability and farmer well-being, and to explore potential implications for farmer assistance policy. Cross-sectional analysis of farmers from Regional Wellbeing Survey data (wave 1, 2013) and comparison between groups. Participants were 1172 dryland farmers (35% women) and 707 irrigators (24% women). The Personal Wellbeing Index and the Kessler 10-item measure of general psychological distress. There is a consistent and significant relationship between higher profitability, greater well-being and less distress among dryland farmers and irrigators. The relationship between farm profitability and the well-being of Australian dryland farmers and irrigators has the potential to inform farmer assistance policy. Assistance programs can be more effective if they explicitly incorporate a profitability assessment into their targeting and eligibility requirements and a well-being component into program design and delivery. Rural Australia. Not applicable. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. On the group approximation errors in description of neutron slowing-down at large distances from a source. Diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakovskij, M.Ya.; Savitskij, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The errors of multigroup calculating the neutron flux spatial and energy distribution in the fast reactor shield caused by using group and age approximations are considered. It is shown that at small distances from a source the age theory rather well describes the distribution of the slowing-down density. With the distance increase the age approximation leads to underestimating the neutron fluxes, and the error quickly increases at that. At small distances from the source (up to 15 lengths of free path in graphite) the multigroup diffusion approximation describes the distribution of slowing down density quite satisfactorily and at that the results almost do not depend on the number of groups. With the distance increase the multigroup diffusion calculations lead to considerable overestimating of the slowing-down density. The conclusion is drawn that the group approximation proper errors are opposite in sign to the error introduced by the age approximation and to some extent compensate each other

  10. Predictors of High Profit and High Deficit Outliers under SwissDRG of a Tertiary Care Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Case weights of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs are determined by the average cost of cases from a previous billing period. However, a significant amount of cases are largely over- or underfunded. We therefore decided to analyze earning outliers of our hospital as to search for predictors enabling a better grouping under SwissDRG.28,893 inpatient cases without additional private insurance discharged from our hospital in 2012 were included in our analysis. Outliers were defined by the interquartile range method. Predictors for deficit and profit outliers were determined with logistic regressions. Predictors were shortlisted with the LASSO regularized logistic regression method and compared to results of Random forest analysis. 10 of these parameters were selected for quantile regression analysis as to quantify their impact on earnings.Psychiatric diagnosis and admission as an emergency case were significant predictors for higher deficit with negative regression coefficients for all analyzed quantiles (p<0.001. Admission from an external health care provider was a significant predictor for a higher deficit in all but the 90% quantile (p<0.001 for Q10, Q20, Q50, Q80 and p = 0.0017 for Q90. Burns predicted higher earnings for cases which were favorably remunerated (p<0.001 for the 90% quantile. Osteoporosis predicted a higher deficit in the most underfunded cases, but did not predict differences in earnings for balanced or profitable cases (Q10 and Q20: p<0.00, Q50: p = 0.10, Q80: p = 0.88 and Q90: p = 0.52. ICU stay, mechanical and patient clinical complexity level score (PCCL predicted higher losses at the 10% quantile but also higher profits at the 90% quantile (p<0.001.We suggest considering psychiatric diagnosis, admission as an emergency case and admission from an external health care provider as DRG split criteria as they predict large, consistent and significant losses.

  11. Predictors of High Profit and High Deficit Outliers under SwissDRG of a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Tarun; Müller, Christian Thomas Benedikt; Volbracht, Jörk; Seifert, Burkhardt; Moos, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Case weights of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) are determined by the average cost of cases from a previous billing period. However, a significant amount of cases are largely over- or underfunded. We therefore decided to analyze earning outliers of our hospital as to search for predictors enabling a better grouping under SwissDRG. 28,893 inpatient cases without additional private insurance discharged from our hospital in 2012 were included in our analysis. Outliers were defined by the interquartile range method. Predictors for deficit and profit outliers were determined with logistic regressions. Predictors were shortlisted with the LASSO regularized logistic regression method and compared to results of Random forest analysis. 10 of these parameters were selected for quantile regression analysis as to quantify their impact on earnings. Psychiatric diagnosis and admission as an emergency case were significant predictors for higher deficit with negative regression coefficients for all analyzed quantiles (p<0.001). Admission from an external health care provider was a significant predictor for a higher deficit in all but the 90% quantile (p<0.001 for Q10, Q20, Q50, Q80 and p = 0.0017 for Q90). Burns predicted higher earnings for cases which were favorably remunerated (p<0.001 for the 90% quantile). Osteoporosis predicted a higher deficit in the most underfunded cases, but did not predict differences in earnings for balanced or profitable cases (Q10 and Q20: p<0.00, Q50: p = 0.10, Q80: p = 0.88 and Q90: p = 0.52). ICU stay, mechanical and patient clinical complexity level score (PCCL) predicted higher losses at the 10% quantile but also higher profits at the 90% quantile (p<0.001). We suggest considering psychiatric diagnosis, admission as an emergency case and admission from an external health care provider as DRG split criteria as they predict large, consistent and significant losses.

  12. Metal cluster compounds - chemistry and importance; clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, large metal cluster compounds, cluster fluxionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, B.

    1988-01-01

    This part of the review on metal cluster compounds deals with clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, with high nuclearity clusters and metal cluster fluxionality. It will be obvious that main group element atoms strongly influence the geometry, stability and reactivity of the clusters. High nuclearity clusters are of interest in there own due to the diversity of the structures adopted, but their intermediate position between molecules and the metallic state makes them a fascinating research object too. These both sites of the metal cluster chemistry as well as the frequently observed ligand and core fluxionality are related to the cluster metal and surface analogy. (author)

  13. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  14. Biodiversity of bacteriophages: morphological and biological properties of a large group of phages isolated from urban sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jurczak-Kurek; Tomasz Gąsior; Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk; Sylwia Bloch; Aleksandra Dydecka; Gracja Topka; Agnieszka Necel; Magdalena Jakubowska-Deredas; Magdalena Narajczyk; Malwina Richert; Agata Mieszkowska; Borys Wróbel; Grzegorz Węgrzyn; Alicja Węgrzyn

    2016-01-01

    A large scale analysis presented in this article focuses on biological and physiological variety of bacteriophages. A collection of 83 bacteriophages, isolated from urban sewage and able to propagate in cells of different bacterial hosts, has been obtained (60 infecting Escherichia coli, 10 infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 infecting Salmonella enterica, 3 infecting Staphylococcus sciuri, and 6 infecting Enterococcus faecalis). High biological diversity of the collection is indicated by its...

  15. The former Iron Curtain still drives biodiversity-profit trade-offs in German agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Gallé, Róbert; Riesch, Friederike; Fischer, Christina; Dormann, Carsten F; Mußhoff, Oliver; Császár, Péter; Fusaro, Silvia; Gayer, Christoph; Happe, Anne-Kathrin; Kurucz, Kornélia; Molnár, Dorottya; Rösch, Verena; Wietzke, Alexander; Tscharntke, Teja

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification drives biodiversity loss and shapes farmers' profit, but the role of legacy effects and detailed quantification of ecological-economic trade-offs are largely unknown. In Europe during the 1950s, the Eastern communist bloc switched to large-scale farming by forced collectivization of small farms, while the West kept small-scale private farming. Here we show that large-scale agriculture in East Germany reduced biodiversity, which has been maintained in West Germany due to >70% longer field edges than those in the East. In contrast, profit per farmland area in the East was 50% higher than that in the West, despite similar yield levels. In both regions, switching from conventional to organic farming increased biodiversity and halved yield levels, but doubled farmers' profits. In conclusion, European Union policy should acknowledge the surprisingly high biodiversity benefits of small-scale agriculture, which are on a par with conversion to organic agriculture.

  16. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  17. The profitability of Norwegian salmon farming companies : a study of profitability variation

    OpenAIRE

    Eilertsen, Bendik Foss; Hui, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The conditions in the Norwegian salmon farming industry are constantly changing. Locally and globally, regulations, consolidation and technological advancements are some of the factors having a deep impact on the current industry. To ensure competitiveness, it is essential to emphasise on profitability and taking the correct strategic decisions. The objective of this thesis is to indicate what may cause variation in profitability in the current Norwegian salmon farming industry...

  18. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of collaborative groups and peer instruction in a large introductory physics course for science majors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, C.S.; Milner-Bolotin, M.; Antimitova, T.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified peer instruction (MPI) interventions with a conceptual conflict strategy based on collaborative groups (CG). Four interventions were utilized in two sections of an introductory physics course for science students. Both instructors and strategies were alternated in the two classes so that instructor dependence could be factored out and so that each class could serve as both an experimental and a control group. The gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) used as a pre- and post-test is essentially the same in both classes. The instructors were experienced in use of MPI, but this was the first time that these instructors had used a collaborative group activity in their classes and only used it for the two interventions in each class described in this paper. CG appears to be more effective as a teaching method than PI. It also should be noted that the effectiveness of both teaching methods seems to be instructor independent as long as the instructors followed the same protocol. (author)

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness of collaborative groups and peer instruction in a large introductory physics course for science majors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, C.S., E-mail: Calvin.Kalman@concordia.ca [Concordia Univ., Dept. of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Milner-Bolotin, M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Antimitova, T. [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified peer instruction (MPI) interventions with a conceptual conflict strategy based on collaborative groups (CG). Four interventions were utilized in two sections of an introductory physics course for science students. Both instructors and strategies were alternated in the two classes so that instructor dependence could be factored out and so that each class could serve as both an experimental and a control group. The gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) used as a pre- and post-test is essentially the same in both classes. The instructors were experienced in use of MPI, but this was the first time that these instructors had used a collaborative group activity in their classes and only used it for the two interventions in each class described in this paper. CG appears to be more effective as a teaching method than PI. It also should be noted that the effectiveness of both teaching methods seems to be instructor independent as long as the instructors followed the same protocol. (author)

  1. Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Anisotropic Large Spins in the Kondo Regime: Time-Dependent Numerical Renormalization Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, David; Wegewijs, Maarten R.; Hofstetter, Walter

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the time-dependent Kondo effect in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) strongly coupled to metallic electrodes. Describing the SMM by a Kondo model with large spin S>1/2, we analyze the underscreening of the local moment and the effect of anisotropy terms on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization. Underscreening by single-channel Kondo processes leads to a logarithmically slow relaxation, while finite uniaxial anisotropy causes a saturation of the SMM’s magnetization. Additional transverse anisotropy terms induce quantum spin tunneling and a pseudospin-1/2 Kondo effect sensitive to the spin parity.

  2. Effective Application of Improved Profit-Mining Algorithm for the Interday Trading Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lung Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real world applications of association rule mining from large databases help users make better decisions. However, they do not work well in financial markets at this time. In addition to a high profit, an investor also looks for a low risk trading with a better rate of winning. The traditional approach of using minimum confidence and support thresholds needs to be changed. Based on an interday model of trading, we proposed effective profit-mining algorithms which provide investors with profit rules including information about profit, risk, and winning rate. Since profit-mining in the financial market is still in its infant stage, it is important to detail the inner working of mining algorithms and illustrate the best way to apply them. In this paper we go into details of our improved profit-mining algorithm and showcase effective applications with experiments using real world trading data. The results show that our approach is practical and effective with good performance for various datasets.

  3. Effective application of improved profit-mining algorithm for the interday trading model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Lung; Yang, Don-Lin; Wu, Jungpin

    2014-01-01

    Many real world applications of association rule mining from large databases help users make better decisions. However, they do not work well in financial markets at this time. In addition to a high profit, an investor also looks for a low risk trading with a better rate of winning. The traditional approach of using minimum confidence and support thresholds needs to be changed. Based on an interday model of trading, we proposed effective profit-mining algorithms which provide investors with profit rules including information about profit, risk, and winning rate. Since profit-mining in the financial market is still in its infant stage, it is important to detail the inner working of mining algorithms and illustrate the best way to apply them. In this paper we go into details of our improved profit-mining algorithm and showcase effective applications with experiments using real world trading data. The results show that our approach is practical and effective with good performance for various datasets.

  4. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming - profitability, productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow trout grow-out systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of Blue Growth in aquaculture requires an understanding of the economic drivers influencing the sector at farm level, but the collection of reliable and comparable data at this level is time-consuming and expensive. This study suggests an alternative strategy for qualitative sampling...... of freshwater trout farms in Germany, Denmark and Turkey, using a combination of existing data, group discussions and interviews with trout farmers, consultants and researchers. Nine 'typical' trout farming models are described, focusing on profitability, productivity and energy efficiency and allowing in......-depth comparative economic analyses of different production systems at farm level, across regions. Our results show that the majority of the farms investigated have been profitable. Turkish farms benefit from competitive advantages due to low wages, low capital investment and favourable climate conditions. Large...

  5. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  6. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  7. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  8. FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE PROFITABILITY, AN IMPORTANT QUALITY SYNTHETIC INDICATOR OF THE COMPANIES FROM TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tourist activity is numbered among those phenomena which have been imposed globally, the special development of it being one of the characteristic features of our century, and especially of the second half of it. The goal of any travel company is to obtain profit, performing economic activities in terms of economic profitability. We can talk about the profitability of an activity when the effects are of the nature of the net income, profit. We can speak of efficiency when the effects are of the nature of economies. The concept of profitability must be delimited as economic and theoretical concept, which involves the capacity of a system to produce useful economic effects and measure profitability which is carried out by comparing the effects with the effort[1]. The purpose of the use of profitability varies according to the organizational levels of the economy, interests which pursue the place where the action takes place. Given the evolution of the global tourism, tourism activity is among the few large-scale phenomena, which are essential for the welfare of each of us. Any travel agency, in order to be profitable, it must have an effective manager to manage all resources, human, financial and material in order to obtain a result at least lucrative, with which you can develop your business and thrive on the tourist market. The research on tourism phenomenon integrates a broad thematic area, from defining its place in the development strategy to highlighting the determinants, the development fluctuations and the manifestation forms of coordinates and market mechanisms and evaluating its impact on economic, social, cultural, environmental and political area.

  9. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes : the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F.

    angstrom man J, Skinner TC, de Beaufort CE, Swift PGF, Aanstoot H-J, Cameron F, for and on behalf of the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgård Jensen, Christian; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying...

  11. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  12. Pan-enteric dysmotility, impaired quality of life and alexithymia in a large group of patients meeting ROME II criteria for irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Portincasa, Piero; Moschetta, Antonio; Baldassarre, Giuseppe; Altomare, Donato F.; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Psychological factors, altered motility and sensation disorders of the intestine can be variably associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such aspects have not been investigated simultaneously. The aim of this paper was to evaluate gastrointestinal motility and symptoms, psychological spectrum and quality of life in a large group of IBS patients in southern Italy.

  13. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  14. Creating Societal Benefits and Corporate Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Raisch, Sebastian; Probst, Gilbert; Gomez, Peter; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The odds of launching a new business that creates value for both the company and the public can be improved with good planning. An in-depth analysis of how four companies created for-profit initiatives that also have high societal value suggests that each followed a similar step-by-step process to achieve what the researchers call synergistic value creation. Those steps include establishing cross-business incubators and installing multi-perspective monitoring systems.

  15. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alarcón; M. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation) on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relat...

  16. Corporate Profit Shifting and the Multinational Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes ways in which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) shift profits from one country to another to reduce their income tax expense. This is an important topic for a number of reasons. From a country’s perspective, its income tax rates and policies can have a significant impact upon its tax revenue, economic competitiveness, and the vibrancy of its economy. From the MNE’s perspective, income tax rates and policies determine a firm’s tax obligations, and thus ...

  17. Bureaucratic Corruption and Profit Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2006-01-01

    Firms may evade taxes on profits and can also avoid fulfilling legal restrictions on production activities by bribing bureaucrats. It is shown that the existence of tax evasion does not affect corruption activities at the firm level, while the budgetary repercussions of tax evasion induce less corruption. Policy measures which alter the gains or losses from corruption have a non-systematic impact on tax evasion behaviour.

  18. Booster: Development of a Toolbox for Triage of a Large Group of Individuals Exposed to Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepff, V.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Lemaire, H.; Carvajal, F.; Perez-Llopis, I.; Gaboriau, D.-C.; Morrison, C.-G.; Almasi, I.; Szabo, S.; Kovacs, A; Szeles, E.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Morat, L.; Testard, I.; Ugolin, N.; Viau, M.; Becker, F.; Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D.; Vincze, A.

    2013-06-01

    The effective management of an event involving the exposure of a large number of people to radioactive material requires a mechanism for fast triage of exposed people. BOOSTER is a project founded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme, addressing this requirement. It is a capability project designed to provide an integrated system which could easily be deployed and used. For this purpose, the BOOSTER consortium, relying on the expertise of seven members, researches and develops new approaches to allow an effective and fast management of most kind of nuclear threats. BOOSTER System was designed to help first responders mitigating the crisis by providing the necessary information to quickly assess the radiological situation, to support triage staff in performing an efficient and fast categorization of the potentially affected victims, and to give medical staff crucial information for further treatment at medium or long term post-accident. (authors)

  19. The Use of Case Based Multiple Choice Questions for Assessing Large Group Teaching: Implications on Student's Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Donnelly

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of assessments in third level education is extremely important and a rarely disputed part of the university curriculum as a method to demonstrate a student’s learning. However, assessments to test a student’s knowledge and level of understanding are challenging to apply given recent trends which are showing that student numbers are increasing, student demographics are wide ranging and resources are being stretched. As a result of these emerging challenges, lecturers are required to develop a comprehensive assessment to effectively demonstrate student learning, whilst efficiently managing large class sizes. One form of assessment which has been used for efficient assessment is multiple choice questions (MCQs; however this method has been criticised for encouraging surface learning, in comparison to other methods such as essays or case studies. This research explores the impact of blended assessment methods on student learning. This study adopts a rigorous three-staged qualitative methodology to capture third level lecturers’ and students’ perception to (1 the level of learning when using MCQs; (2 the level of learning when blended assessment in the form of case based MCQs are used. The findings illuminate the positive impact of cased based MCQs as students and lecturers suggest that it leads to a higher level of learning and deeper information processing over that of MCQs without case studies. 2 The implications of this research is that this type of assessment contributes to the current thinking within literature on the use of assessments methods, as well as the blending of assessment methods to reach a higher level of learning. It further serves to reinforce the belief that assessments are the greatest influence on students’ learning, and the requirement for both universities and lecturers to reflect on the best form of assessment to test students’ level of understanding, whilst also balancing the real challenges of

  20. A polarization independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterial with large group delay and delay-bandwidth product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.

  1. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  2. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  3. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. 10 CFR 603.230 - Fee or profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participant is to receive fee or profit. Note that this policy extends to all performers of the project... subrecipients' payment of reasonable fee or profit when making purchases from suppliers of goods (e.g., supplies...

  5. Marketing strategies and profitability analysis of restaurants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing strategies and profitability analysis of restaurants in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. ... Abstract. The study examined the marketing strategies and profitability of restaurants in Sokoto metropolis. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state Nigeria. ... The study was carried out to analyze the profitability of plantain marketing and to examine the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Profit-Sharing – A Tool for Improving Productivity, Profitability and Competitiveness of Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibirova Jana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of appropriate utilization of rewards for performance is still growing and therefore this type of rewards can be seen as a significant part of a total rewards package. Companies that are able to appropriately implement rewards for performance may gain competitive advantage over their competitors, but successful implementation requires a good knowledge of these rewards. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the growth of this knowledge by identifying possible positive and negative impacts of profit-sharing on various areas that are important for the performance of a company, nevertheless, addressed are also macroeconomic consequences of profit-sharing. Furthermore, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the relevant literature is provided, under-researched areas are identified and suggestions for further research are given. To accomplish these goals, we applied methods of bibliometric analysis to the articles indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge to identify the most important articles, authors and topics. According to our findings, the majority of studies report a neutral or positive impact of profit-sharing on productivity and profitability. This impact may be achieved by direct influence of profit-sharing on productivity of employees (due to the dependence of their pay on profit, but it seems that yet more important are various mediating mechanisms, especially effects on employment stability, absenteeism, quits and related issues, as well as effects on attitudes of employees and on relationships between employees. We argue that a well-designed profit-sharing plan is crucial for its success, but it is a relatively under-researched problem.

  8. Does Shyness Vary According to Attained Social Roles? Trends Across Age Groups in a Large British Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Lamb, Michael E; Jason Rentfrow, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The current study investigated (a) how a composite measure of shyness comprising introversion and neuroticism relates to other well-known constructs involving social fears, and (b) whether mean levels of shyness vary for men and women depending on the adoption of various social roles. Study 1 used a sample of 211 UK participants aged 17-70 (64% female; M age  = 47.90). Study 2 used data from a large cross-sectional data set with UK participants aged 17-70 (N target  = 552,663; 64% female; M age  = 34.19 years). Study 1 showed that shyness measured as a composite of introversion and neuroticism was highly correlated with other constructs involving social fears. Study 2 indicated that, controlling for various sociodemographic variables, females appeared to have higher levels, whereas males appeared to have lower levels of shyness. Males and females who were in employment had the lowest shyness levels, whereas those working in unskilled jobs had the highest levels and people working in sales the lowest levels of shyness. Participants in relationships had lower levels of shyness than those not in relationships, but parenthood was not associated with shyness. Mean levels of shyness are likely to vary according to adopted social roles, gender, and age. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Corporate and Hospital Profiteering in Emergency Medicine: Problems of the Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, Robert W; McNamara, Robert M; Plantz, Scott H; Organ, Matthew K; Richards, John R

    2016-06-01

    Health care delivery in the United States has evolved in many ways over the past century, including the development of the specialty of Emergency Medicine (EM). With the creation of this specialty, many positive changes have occurred within hospital emergency departments (EDs) to improve access and quality of care of the nation's de facto "safety net." The specialty of EM has been further defined and held to high standards with regard to board certification, sub-specialization, maintenance of skills, and research. Despite these advances, problems remain. This review discusses the history and evolution of for-profit corporate influence on EM, emergency physicians, finance, and demise of democratic group practice. The review also explores federal and state health care financing issues pertinent to EM and discusses potential solutions. The monopolistic growth of large corporate contract management groups and hospital ownership of vertically integrated physician groups has resulted in the elimination of many local democratic emergency physician groups. Potential downsides of this trend include unfair or unlawful termination of emergency physicians, restrictive covenants, quotas for productivity, admissions, testing, patient satisfaction, and the rising cost of health care. Other problems impact the financial outlook for EM and include falling federal, state, and private insurance reimbursement for emergency care, balance-billing, up-coding, unnecessary testing, and admissions. Emergency physicians should be aware of the many changes happening to the specialty and practice of EM resulting from corporate control, influence, and changing federal and state health care financing issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Profit inefficiency and its determinants among yam producers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farm profit inefficiency in yam production in Imo State, Nigeria was estimated using stochastic translog profit frontier model. The mean output of yam producers was 10.3tons/ha, while the mean level of profit inefficiency was 63.7 percent with a wide range of 23.41 – 94.23 percent. Mean loss of profit was N76061 per hectare.

  11. Do 'school coaches' make a difference in school-based mental health promotion? Results from a large focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-01

    Mental disorders in children and adolescents are common and have serious consequences. Schools present a key opportunity to promote mental health and implement prevention measures. Four school coaches in five German schools were enlisted to engage students, teachers and parents in building a sustainably healthy school and classroom climate. Altogether, 58 focus groups with students (N=244), parents (N=54) and teachers (N=62) were conducted longitudinally. Topics included: (1) the development of the school and classroom climate, (2) the role of mental health in the regular curriculum, and (3) the role of school coaches in influencing these aspects. Over time, school coaches became trusted reference persons for an increasing number of school system members. They were able to positively influence the school and classroom climate by increasing the awareness of students, teachers and parents of mental health in daily routines. Nevertheless, topics like bullying and student inclusion remained an issue at follow-up. Overall, the school coach intervention is a good model for establishing the topic of mental health in everyday school life and increasing its importance. Future efforts will focus on building self-supporting structures and networks in order to make these efforts sustainable.

  12. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervis, Sheila; Coombs, Geoff B; Chaseling, Georgia K; Filingeri, Davide; Smoljanic, Jovana; Jay, Ollie

    2016-03-15

    We sought to determine 1) the influence of adiposity on thermoregulatory responses independently of the confounding biophysical factors of body mass and metabolic heat production (Hprod); and 2) whether differences in adiposity should be accounted for by prescribing an exercise intensity eliciting a fixed Hprod per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM). Nine low (LO-BF) and nine high (HI-BF) body fat males matched in pairs for total body mass (TBM; LO-BF: 88.7 ± 8.4 kg, HI-BF: 90.1 ± 7.9 kg; P = 0.72), but with distinctly different percentage body fat (%BF; LO-BF: 10.8 ± 3.6%; HI-BF: 32.0 ± 5.6%; P mass and Hprod, possibly due to a lower mean specific heat capacity or impaired sudomotor control. However, thermoregulatory responses of groups with different adiposity levels should not be compared using a fixed Hprod in watts per kilogram lean body mass. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  14. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  15. An Algorithm for the Nucleolus of Airport Profit Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Inarra, E.; Tijs, S.H.; Zarzuelo, J.

    2003-01-01

    Airport profit games are a generalization of airport cost games as well as of bankruptcy games.In this paper we present a simple algorithm to compute the nucleolus of airport profit games.In addition we prove that there exists an unique consistent allocation rule in airport profit problems, and it

  16. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...

  17. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    OpenAIRE

    Eijkel, van, R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts in the highest monitoring effort. Moreover, monitoring efforts differ between group members due to free-riding: one member reduces her level of monitoring if the other increases her monitoring effor...

  18. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    . Decomposing the variation in net margin performance between the most and least profitable groups, an approximate ratio of 65:23:12 is observed for higher yields: lower costs: higher milk price. This result indicates that yield differentials are the key performance driver in dairy profitability. Lower costs per cow are dominated by the significantly lower cost of farmer and spouse labour per cow of the most profitable group, flowing directly from the upper quartile expending 37·7 labour h/cow/yr in comparison with 58·8 h/cow/yr for the lower quartile. The upper quartile's greater milk price is argued to be achieved through contract negotiations and higher milk quality, and this accounts for 0·12 of the variation in net margin performance. The average economic return to the sample of dairy enterprises in this survey year was less than £6000/farm/yr. However, the most profitable quartile returned an average economic return of approximately £50 000 per farm/yr. Structural change in the UK dairy sector is likely to continue with the least profitable and typically smaller dairy enterprises being replaced by a smaller number of expanding dairy production units.

  19. Importance of hemodialysis-related outcomes: comparison of ratings by a self-help group, clinicians, and health technology assessment authors with those by a large reference group of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen IM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inger M Janssen,1 Fueloep Scheibler,2 Ansgar Gerhardus3,4 1Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, 2Department of Non-Drug Interventions, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Cologne, 3Department for Health Services Research, Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen, 4Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Background: The selection of important outcomes is a crucial decision for clinical research and health technology assessment (HTA, and there is ongoing debate about which stakeholders should be involved. Hemodialysis is a complex treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD and affects many outcomes. Apart from obvious outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, others such as, concerning daily living or health care provision, may also be important. The aim of our study was to analyze to what extent the preferences for patient-relevant outcomes differed between various stakeholders. We compared preferences of stakeholders normally or occasionally involved in outcome prioritization (patients from a self-help group, clinicians and HTA authors with those of a large reference group of patients. Participants and methods: The reference group consisted of 4,518 CKD patients investigated previously. We additionally recruited CKD patients via a regional self-help group, nephrologists via an online search and HTA authors via an expert database or personal contacts. All groups assessed the relative importance of the 23 outcomes by means of a discrete visual analog scale. We used descriptive statistics to rank outcomes and compare the results between groups. Results: We received completed questionnaires from 49 self-help group patients, 19 nephrologists and 18 HTA authors. Only the following 3 outcomes were ranked within the top 7 outcomes by all 4 groups: safety, HRQoL and emotional state. The

  20. Profitability of Contrarian Strategies in the Chinese Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huai-Long; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    This paper reexamines the profitability of loser, winner and contrarian portfolios in the Chinese stock market using monthly data of all stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange covering the period from January 1997 to December 2012. We find evidence of short-term and long-term contrarian profitability in the whole sample period when the estimation and holding horizons are 1 month or longer than 12 months and the annualized return of contrarian portfolios increases with the estimation and holding horizons. We perform subperiod analysis and find that the long-term contrarian effect is significant in both bullish and bearish states, while the short-term contrarian effect disappears in bullish states. We compare the performance of contrarian portfolios based on different grouping manners in the estimation period and unveil that decile grouping outperforms quintile grouping and tertile grouping, which is more evident and robust in the long run. Generally, loser portfolios and winner portfolios have positive returns and loser portfolios perform much better than winner portfolios. Both loser and winner portfolios in bullish states perform better than those in the whole sample period. In contrast, loser and winner portfolios have smaller returns in bearish states, in which loser portfolio returns are significant only in the long term and winner portfolio returns become insignificant. These results are robust to the one-month skipping between the estimation and holding periods and for the two stock exchanges. Our findings show that the Chinese stock market is not efficient in the weak form. These findings also have obvious practical implications for financial practitioners.

  1. ANALIZA CONTULUI PROFIT ŞI PIERDERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pavaloaia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The rich informational fund of the financial reports makes them known, both nationally and internationally, as basic instruments of management at all organizatory levels. The profit and loss account is part of the financial annual reports, is a synthesis accounting document that shows the result of the enterprise activity and thus measures the firm’s performance during a period. The users of the information offered by this financial report are: the investors (present and potential shareholders, managers, financial creditors, clients, the state, the public, the financial analysts etc.

  2. Evaluating the impact of a disease management program for chronic complex conditions at two large northeast health plans using a control group methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerner, Henry; Mellody, Timothy; Goldstein, Allan B; Wansink, Daryl; Sullivan, Virginia; Yelenik, Stephan N; Charlton, Warwick; Lloyd, Kelley; Courtemanche, Ted

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe trends in payer expenditures for plan members with one of 14 chronic, complex conditions comparing one group with a disease management program specific to their condition (the intervention group) and the other with no specific disease management program (the control group) for these conditions. The authors used payer claims and membership data to identify members eligible for the program in a 12-month baseline year (October 2001 to September 2002) and a subsequent 12-month program year (October 2002 to September 2003). Two payers were analyzed: one health plan with members primarily in New Jersey (AmeriHealth New Jersey [AHNJ]), where the disease management program was offered, and one affiliated large plan with members primarily in the metro Philadelphia area, where the program was not offered. The claims payment policy for both plans is identical. Intervention and control groups were analyzed for equivalence. The analysis was conducted in both groups over identical time periods. The intervention group showed statistically significant (p control group. Intervention group members showed a reduction in expenditures of -8%, while control group members showed an increase of +10% over identical time periods. Subsequent analyses controlling for outliers and product lines served to confirm the overall results. The disease management program is likely responsible for the observed difference between the intervention and control group results. A well-designed, targeted disease management program offered by a motivated, supportive health plan can play an important role in cost improvement strategies for members with complex, chronic conditions.

  3. «Neutral» Profit Taxation, Risk Taking and Optimal Profit Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. MINTZ

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to answer two questions related to the design of profit taxes when taking into account riskiness of firms. The first question is the following: leaving aside general equilibrium effects of taxation on the interest rate and risk premia faced by firms, would a cash flow tax be neutral with respect to the investment decisions made by firms. The second question to be considered is whether profit tax rates should vary across industries because of different degrees of ri...

  4. Profitability of Two Shepherding Systems for Production of Ovine Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando González Mendoza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Güican (Boyacá, sheep production occupies one of the main items on the economy of the region, despite of being one of the largest, most relevant andimportant business, studies have not been developed to establish that is an efficient and sustainable business. For this reason a research was carried out in theFinca Ronces Güican, where two systems of grazing were temporarily implemented, an extensive traditional and rotational grazing. Forage present in thegrazing area were: Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, Kidney weed (Dichondra repens and Dutch clover (Trifolium repens L; 24 creoles sheep were used persystem, selected according to age and sex, achieving uniformity in both groups used. The study was developed for 4 months in order to assess weight gain andprofitability, by assessing and weighing the animals every 15 days. These data were recorded and once the trial period finished, comparisons were made todetermine the effectiveness of each system. It was found that there is a significant difference between the two systems in terms of weight gain. In this way, in theconventional extensive system, sheep had a mean weight gain of 35.47 g / day, while in the rotational system the average profit was 124.24 g / day, so it wasconcluded that the rotational system is more profitable, since it has a return on capital of 8% over the traditional extensive system.

  5. Another look at trading costs and short-term reversal profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma); J.J. Huij (Joop); W. Zhou (Weili)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral studies report that abnormal returns associated with short-term reversal investment strategies diminish once trading costs are taken into account. We show that the impact of trading costs on the strategies' profitability can largely be attributed to excessively trading in small

  6. The Effect of Gendered Communication on Women's Behavioral Intentions Regarding Nonprofit and For-Profit Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffert, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of gendered communication on women's behavioral intentions regarding nonprofit and for-profit entrepreneurship. Women represent half of the U.S. workforce, but only about one third of all American entrepreneurs are women. Feminists have argued that because entrepreneurship is largely understood…

  7. Regional not-for-profit systems: can they compete with national investor-owned firms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R; Hill, D B

    1984-01-01

    The relative competitive advantages of regional and national systems are summarized in Figure One. As illustrated, each type of system has unique competitive advantages at the corporate level. While it is difficult to state that either system has distinct advantages that place it in a superior position relative to the other, it seems that in the short-run investor-owned systems have operating characteristics that may result in more efficient internal functioning because of more centralized control over resource allocation and performance systems, greater possibilities for economies of scale, and greater access to capital. However, it was previously noted that growing pressures from government and the business community will lead to tighter constraints on the profitability of investments in the health care sector. The possibility of this shift suggests that the access to capital advantage enjoyed by investor-owned systems may not continue. Additionally, regional systems that are part of larger affiliated organizations such as the Sun Alliance and the Voluntary Hospitals of America are developing means to pool their access to debt funds, thus reducing the cost of capital for member institutions. The group purchasing contracts developed by these large systems also have resulted in significant savings. The distinction between regional and national systems on centralized control are becoming less pronounced. Investor-owned systems are seeking to determine how they might best decentralize selected decisions to be more responsive to local markets while not-for-profit regional systems are recognizing that they must centralize selected decisions to obtain more efficient, rational operation. The long-run outlook suggests that the competitive advantages that have been identified will become less pronounced and that both systems will survive in the marketplace.

  8. Dietary Differences in Male Workers among Smaller Occupational Groups within Large Occupational Categories: Findings from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Tsuji, Mayumi; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2018-05-11

    Studies examining workers' diet according to smaller occupational groups within "large occupational categories" are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the potential differences in workers' diets based on the classification of workers into smaller occupational groups that comprise "large occupational categories". The subjects of this study were working fathers who had participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (N = 38,656). Energy and nutrient intake were calculated based on data collected from the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Occupations were classified according to the Japanese Standard Occupational Classification. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the adherence to current dietary recommendations within smaller occupational groups. In particular, significant differences were observed among the categorical groups of "professional and engineering workers", "service workers", and "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers". In "professional and engineering workers", teachers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium intake recommendations compared with nurses (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.02⁻3.14; p < 0.001). In "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers", agriculture workers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.46⁻3.15; p < 0.001) and vitamin C (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.31⁻2.74, p = 0.001) intake recommendations compared with forestry and fishery workers. These findings may be beneficial from a research perspective as well as in the development of more effective techniques to improve workers' diet and health.

  9. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  10. Prompt nuclear coal analysis ups profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1982-01-01

    To maximise profitability it is essential that products should comply with specification, while ensuring that mining procedures are designed to optimise fully the exploitation of coal reserves. For the producer to realise maximum profits, it is necessary to produce a consistently satisfactory product, while utilising the lowest possible quality of reserves. For the potential need for on-stream analysis, a comprehensive research program, produced several unique systems. The Nucoalyzer CONAC has been developed to analyse continuously a coal sample stream of up to 13 t/h. On-stream analysis is also particularly appropriate as a means of controlling a coal beneficiation plant, especially where coal have a high middling content. Major coal users such as thermal power stations and Synfuel processes can also realise substantial economic benefits through the use of on-stream analysis. On-stream analysis can again significantly reduce operating costs, as it offers the possibility of controlling the level of sulphur in the coal feed. The analytical principle employed in the various Nucoalyzer system is based on Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis

  11. Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Knox, R V; Connor, J F; Lowe, J F; Roskamp, B J

    2003-12-01

    Sow production indicators, including litter size, litter weight, and the length of time that sows remained in the herd (sow longevity), were used to characterize sow performance and profitability. Sow longevity and production records from 148,568 sows in 32 commercial herds from Central Illinois from January 1995 to May 2001 were analyzed using survival and repeatability models, respectively. The factors studied included sow genetics (32 genetic lines), with eight major lines present in multiple herds, and the combination of herd and year of entry in the herd. The largest difference in longevity between the major genetic lines was approximately one parity. There were differences (P present value per sow (present value of future cash flows and the present value of the sow) was used to evaluate the effect of sow longevity and production traits on economic returns. Assuming a zero discount rate per parity, genetic lines with longer herd life resulted in greater profit than genetic lines with shorter herd life. This difference was reduced with increasing discount rates and was reversed with high discount rates and low net income per litter. These results suggest that the magnitude of the economic improvement attained through the use of sow genetic lines with longer longevity depends on the economic context under which the evaluation is made.

  12. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alarcón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relative roles played by each. The empirical work takes place in the agro-food industry in the Ebro Valley, one of Spain’s most competitive regions. The estimates from profitability quantile and truncated regressions of the efficiency scores reveal that market orientation has a positive effect on economic and productivity performance. The impact of pro-active, innovation-seeking, and risk-averse entrepreneurship is nevertheless more debatable, despite some influence of these entrepreneurial styles on observed performance values. This enables conclusions regarding the possibility of combining a market-oriented business culture with innovation and entrepreneurial activity with a view to obtaining business performance gains.

  13. Report of Task Group on Ex-Vessel Thermal-Hydraulics Corium/concrete interactions and combustible gas distribution in large dry containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The Task Group on Ex-Vessel Thermal-Hydraulics was established by the PWG 2 to address the physical processes that occur in the ex-vessel phase of severe accidents, to study their impact on containment loading and failure, and to assess the available calculation methods. This effort is part of an overall CSNI effort to come to an international understanding of the issues involved. The Task Group decided to focus its initial efforts on the Large Dry Containment used extensively to contain the consequences of postulated (design basis) accidents in Light Water Reactors (LWR). Although such containments have not been designed with explicit consideration of severe accidents, recent assessments indicate a substantial inherent capability for these accidents. The Task Group has examined the loads likely to challenge the integrity of the containment, and considered the calculation of the containment's response. This report is the outcome of this effort

  14. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  15. Perspective of public law in rearrangement of profit sharing system agricultural land in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsil; Susilowati, IF; Wardhana, M.

    2018-01-01

    Review of the Shared Revenue Act for better regulatory system is an important issue as a more realistic and highly feasible agrarian reform policy. The rearrangement of agricultural land tenure systems is difficult to implement because it must be done simultaneously and thoroughly plus the support of large economic and political cost allocations; Instead, allowing the use of land in market mechanisms violating the principles of fairness on profit sharing. So it needs agrarian policies that are gradual and more realistic, such as revision of Act on profit sharing. In the previous research, the characteristics of the land sharing system in Indonesia are: (1) The Revenue Sharing Agreement is seen as a personal relationship subject to the private of law, not public rules; (2) found character of unequal Patron-client relationship between landowner and farmer; (3) Different revenue sharing systems and tend to position smallholders as weak and defeated. This study aims to discuss the State’s ‘interference’ in changing the profit sharing system by limiting individual freedom on the basis of a ‘new’ perspective of profit sharing as a relative legal relation. In the future, the profit-sharing system should be able to provide legal protection for farmers, as well as landowners.

  16. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  17. Generation and distribution of wealth in Blumenau non-profit social service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriberto Starosky Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of  nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most  institutions  rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number  of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of  the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.

  18. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van

    2012-01-01

    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  19. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  20. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector...

  1. Methanization - how to better figure out profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschaseaux, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the content of a study to be published on the conditions of profitability for methanization installations, in order to enable the assessment of the influence of the modifications of different parameters such as purchase tariffs, subsidies, taxes, investment management and exploitation costs. An analysis has been performed on different categories of projects: farm projects (80 to 250 kW), collective farm projects with a small collective dwelling (350 kW) and local projects (1 to 2,5 MW), hybrid farm-industrial projects, and projects based only on industrial wastes. The analysis has been made with respect to final use: co-generation or bio-methane production. It appears that most of projects still need subsidies but that there is no correlation between installed power and production cost

  2. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  3. Cancer: a profit-driven biosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2008-08-01

    The argument is made that solid malignant tumors behave as profit-driven biological systems in that they expand their nutrient-uptaking surface to increase energetic revenue, at a comparably low metabolic cost. Within this conceptual framework, cancer cell migration is a critical mechanism as it maximizes systemic surface expansion while minimizing diffusion distance. Treating these tumor systems with adjuvant anti-proliferative regimen only should increase the energetic net gain of the viable cancer cells left behind, hence would facilitate tumor recurrence. Therapeutic attempts to better control tumor (re)growth should therefore aim primarily at containing its surface expansion, thus reducing its energetic revenue, or increasing its metabolic costs or better yet, both.

  4. Practices participating in a dental PBRN have substantial and advantageous diversity even though as a group they have much in common with dentists at large

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Rindal, D Brad

    2009-01-01

    , their importance is even further elevated. Our objective was to determine whether we met a key objective for The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN): to recruit a diverse range of practitioner-investigators interested in doing DPBRN studies. METHODS: DPBRN participants completed an enrollment...... DPBRN-participating dentists, their practices, and their patient populations. CONCLUSION: Although as a group, participants have much in common with practices at large; their substantial diversity offers important advantages, such as being able to evaluate how practice differences may affect treatment...... outcomes, while simultaneously offering generalizability to dentists at large. This should help foster knowledge transfer in both the research-to-practice and practice-to-research directions....

  5. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: 40Ar–39Ar age of Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    The High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and has been suggested to include an initial tholeiitic phase (130–80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85–60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny. New 40Ar–39Ar dating...... of alkaline volcanics from Kap Kane, part of the Kap Washington Group volcanics at the northern tip of Greenland, provides an emplacement age of 71.2±0.5 Ma obtained from amphibole in lapilli tuffs, and a thermal resetting age of 49–47 Ma obtained in feldspar and whole-rocks from trachyte flows. Patch...... in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay, and to eastwards displacement of Greenland relative to North America. The alkaline suite, therefore, may be unrelated to the main tholeiitic phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. The subsequent initiation of continental rifting and ensuing seafloor spreading...

  6. How to sell services more profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Ulaga, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    When products become commodities, manufacturing companies may seek to differentiate themselves with value-added services--a potentially profitable strategy. Unfortunately, companies often stumble in the effort. Reinartz and Ulaga conducted in-depth studies of 18 leading companies in a broad variety of product markets to learn what distinguished the successes from the rest. They discovered four steps to developing a profitable services capability. RECOGNIZE THAT YOU ALREADY HAVE A SERVICE COMPANY: You can identify and charge for simple services--as Merck did when it stopped quietly absorbing shipping costs. Switching services from free to fee clarifies their value for managers as well as for customers. INDUSTRIALIZE THE BACK OFFICE: To prevent delivery costs from eating up service-offering margins, build flexible service platforms, closely monitor process costs, and exploit new technologies that enable process innovations. The Swedish bearings manufacturer SKF provided off-site access to an online monitoring tool that could warn of potential failure in customers' machines. CREATE A SERVICE-SAVVY SALES FORCE: Services require longer sales cycles and, often, decisions from high up in a customer's hierarchy; what's more, product salespeople may be inimical to change. Schneider-Electric did a major overhaul of its sales organization and trained its people to switch from cost-plus pricing to value-based pricing. FOCUS ON CUSTOMERS' PROCESSES AND THE OPPORTUNITIES THEY AFFORD FOR NEW SERVICE OFFERINGS: You may need to acquire new capabilities to take advantage of those opportunities: The industrial coatings specialist PPG had to learn how painting robots function after it offered to take over Fiat's Torino paint shop. Services can both lock in customers and help acquire new accounts. They should be developed with care and attention.

  7. Profit Forecast Model Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BALOGH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Profit forecast is very important for any company. The purpose of this study is to provide a method to estimate the profit and the probability of obtaining the expected profit. Monte Carlo methods are stochastic techniques–meaning they are based on the use of random numbers and probability statistics to investigate problems. Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for any choice of action. Our example of Monte Carlo simulation in Excel will be a simplified profit forecast model. Each step of the analysis will be described in detail. The input data for the case presented: the number of leads per month, the percentage of leads that result in sales, , the cost of a single lead, the profit per sale and fixed cost, allow obtaining profit and associated probabilities of achieving.

  8. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahyouni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015, this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset management, bank size and capital ratio are positively correlated with bank profitability. While, credit quality and operating efficiency affect bank’s profits negatively. Additionally, macroeconomic factors have different impact on profitability indicators in each market. Our findings may help decision makers inside and outside bank to determine important factors affecting bank profitability.

  9. Approaches to economic analysis of profitability of forestry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Dzyubenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the directions of adaptation of existing analytical procedures for assessing the profitability to specific activities of forestry enterprises, which is an integral part of evaluating financial potential of enterprises of the investigated branch. In particular, the author identifies the following analytical procedures that make it possible to assess the performance of forestry enterprises and determine its financial potential: the return on equity (assets on net profit, the return on equity, the return on assets, the return on sales of profits from operating activities, the profitability of sold products at net profit, reinvestment factor, the economic growth sustainability ratio, the period of payback capital, the payback period of equity capital. On the basis of these indicators, the current state of profitability of forestry enterprises was substantiated and their critical points were determined.

  10. WHAT DETERMINES THE PROFITABILITY OF BANKS? EVIDENCE FROM THE US

    OpenAIRE

    Ruochen Wang; Xuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors affecting bank profitability. We use a sample of US banks over the period 2002-2014, and measure profitability using both return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). We find that banks have higher profitability when they have: (1) a lower loans to total assets ratio, (2) a lower customer deposits to total liabilities ratio, (3) a lower nonperforming loans to gross loans ratio, (4) higher efficiency, and (5) higher revenue diversification.   We...

  11. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  12. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  13. Components of the Profitability of Technical Currency Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of the profitability of 1024 moving average and momentum models when trading in the German mark (euro)/U.S. dollar market based on daily data. The main results are as follows. First, each of these models would have been profitable over the entire sample period. Second, this profitability is exclusively due to the exploitation of persistent exchange rate trends. Third, these results do not change substantially when trading is examined within subperiods. Four...

  14. CSHURI - Modified HURI algorithm for Customer Segmentation and Transaction Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Jyothi; Vyas, O. P.

    2012-01-01

    Association rule mining (ARM) is the process of generating rules based on the correlation between the set of items that the customers purchase.Of late, data mining researchers have improved upon the quality of association rule mining for business development by incorporating factors like value (utility), quantity of items sold (weight) and profit. The rules mined without considering utility values (profit margin) will lead to a probable loss of profitable rules. The advantage of wealth of the...

  15. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  16. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  17. Profit Sharing and Reciprocity: Theory and Survey Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Thomas; Heywood, John S.; Jirjahn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The 1/n problem potentially limits the effectiveness of profit sharing in motivating workers. While the economic literature suggests that reciprocity can mitigate this problem, it remains silent on the optimal degree of reciprocity. We present a representative model demonstrating that reciprocity may increase productive effort but may also increase unproductive effort such as socializing on the job. The model implies that reciprocity increases profit up to a point but decreases profit beyond ...

  18. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  19. The zero-dimensional O(N) vector model as a benchmark for perturbation theory, the large-N expansion and the functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, Jan; Bartosch, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    We consider the zero-dimensional O(N) vector model as a simple example to calculate n-point correlation functions using perturbation theory, the large-N expansion and the functional renormalization group (FRG). Comparing our findings with exact results, we show that perturbation theory breaks down for moderate interactions for all N, as one should expect. While the interaction-induced shift of the free energy and the self-energy are well described by the large-N expansion even for small N, this is not the case for higher order correlation functions. However, using the FRG in its one-particle irreducible formalism, we see that very few running couplings suffice to get accurate results for arbitrary N in the strong coupling regime, outperforming the large-N expansion for small N. We further remark on how the derivative expansion, a well-known approximation strategy for the FRG, reduces to an exact method for the zero-dimensional O(N) vector model. (paper)

  20. The effects of Medicare Health Management Organizations on hospital operating profit in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, John T; Sear, Alan M

    2005-02-01

    Between 1992 and 1997, the number of members enrolled in Medicare Health Management Organizations (HMOs) nationwide in the USA more than doubled. During this period, managed care organizations wielded considerable influence over the health care of a large segment of the Medicare population in Florida. This study examined the impact on operational profit of 148 short-term, acute-care Florida hospitals in this period from Medicare HMO patients, as part of a hospital's payer mix. Three measures of hospital profitability were used: operating profit per actual bed, total operating profit with no adjustment for bed size, and operating margins. The multivariate statistical model employed in this study was a linear mixed model with an autoregressive order one (AR[1]) parametric structure on the covariance matrix. The results of the study indicate that Florida hospitals experienced greater profit pressures from Medicare HMO inpatients than from traditional Medicare inpatients. Further, these hospitals could have experienced positive profit effects with greater traditional Medicare participation and negative financial effects with greater Medicare HMO participation. Additionally, Medicare HMO patients appear to have been admitted to hospitals in worse health condition than those in traditional Medicare. Medicare HMO patients were more likely to have used emergency rooms as the source of admission than traditional Medicare patients. Also, Medicare HMO patients were more likely to have been admitted as emergent cases than traditional Medicare patients. Other research has shown that Medicare HMO patients, at the time of enrolment, are probably healthier than traditional Medicare enrollees, but here they appear to have been admitted to hospitals with higher levels of severity of illness. Explanations are offered for these findings.

  1. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale Reveals Two Trans-Spliced Group I Introns in the Large Subunit rRNA Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI), we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V). This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl) at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI). Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF) occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the possible implications

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale reveals two trans-spliced group I introns in the large subunit rRNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI, we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V. This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI. Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the

  3. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  4. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurung Anup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

  5. Second quarter trims earnings gain of OGJ group of U.S. oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Biggs, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that first half of 1991 profits for the Oil and Gas Journal group of 22 large U.S. oil companies totaled $10,553 billion, down a scant 0.1% from the same period the year before. However, second quarter profits were down sharply, dipping to $3.656 billion or 27.4% below the second quarter of 1990. This is in sharp contrast with first quarter profits, which totaled $6.897 billion and were up 24.8% from the same period of 1990. First half individuals results were widely diverse, with seven companies showing profit improvements from last year and 15 companies a decline. Only one, Murphy Oil Co., posted a loss in the first half. Six companies showed profit gains of more than 20% and 11 posted declines greater than 20%. In the second quarter 16 of the group had lower earnings than they booked in the same period of 1990. Restructuring charges and gains, along with provisions for future environmental costs, continued to have a great deal of influence over year to year changes in profits. Chemical earnings were down for the 6 months and in the second quarter for most companies. U.S. refining and marketing earnings were mixed but generally lower for both periods. Due to an economic recession product demand was down in the first half of this year. Non-U.S. refining and marketing profits were up for the first half, but the gain stemmed from improved margins in the first quarter

  6. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  7. Transfer of Profit to Shareholders at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the Period 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłoński Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author of the article presents the results of research devoted to the forms of transfer of profit to shareholders of the companies quoted at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period 2009–2013. The Author concluded that there are features in the group of dividend companies and another group – that of dividend companies which additionally execute share redemption and cancellation – which make them different.

  8. Macro economic profitability of hourly measurements and binary communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Christian; Lund, Arne-Christian

    2005-11-01

    There are several actors that are subject to hourly measurements and dynamic pricing. The effects are registered in several analyses. A typical division would be effects connected to power producers, power deliverers, network companies and end users. In a macro economic analysis the goal would be to identify alterations in total benefits and costs. The transition from studying isolated effects for single actors to a macro economic perspective produces several principal problems. When the analysis is based on the effects for various actors it would be important to identify transitions between various actors that in itself does not contribute to alterations in the macro economic profit. At the same time it will be important that effects to be valued are evaluated in a consistent an consequential way. In this context it may be beneficial to use a model for the actors adaptation to the power market where various effects may be used. This working paper describes utility and cost elements that is a basis for Norwegian and foreign analysis of hourly measurements and dynamic prices. The survey shows that it is a large agreement between different investigations with respect to principle effects to be emphasized. There is however, variation with respect to what effects actually are in operation and quantified. There may also be large deviances in the valuation of various utility and cost components. Some single effects are studied closer. An effort is made to compare certain figures from the literature. However, this comparison has been difficult because it is not always clear what conditions have lead to the figures in use. There are large variations between the various analysis estimates. There may be several reasons. The technical products to be priced may vary. It is also evident that the costs for changing measuring equipment may be dependent of the management strategy. The paper refers to newer theoretical literature about the effects of hourly measurements and dynamic

  9. RISK OF PROFIT LOSS SHARING FINANCING: THE CASE OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Ernawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the risk of profit-and-loss sharing finance in Indonesian Islamic banking. Data used is secondary data obtained from the Financial Services Authority’s 2009-2014 publication. Financing risk is measured by risk return and opportunity cost. Results of the study show that risk return in mudharaba financing is more volatile than that in musharaka as it is potentially driven by agency problems. In all groups of banks, higher incomes are more promising in mudharaba than musharaka; but individually musharaka is more attractive to Islamic Rural Bank groups, and vice versa for the Sharia Bank groups. The one side it is more secure for Islamic banking to allocate funds in musharaka contract, which is an alternative to murabaha. However, musharaka contract is less attractive due to lower potential returns. Although high returns are more promising in mudaraba, this financing mode has higher risk of returns.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.1793

  10. Five TWh saved on profitable upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne.

    1999-01-01

    Article. In Norway, a project is planned to evaluate the upgrading potential of the hydroelectric power sector. The article criticizes the authorities for not supporting the upgrading of hydroelectric power plants in their eager to promote the development of wind power. An important contribution of the planned project will be a book from which the utilities may get advice on measures of upgrading. Generators and control systems account for 80% of the faults and interruptions in the power utilities. The turbine technology has made important progress in the 1990s. By pure upgrading measures alone, the turbine efficiencies may be increased enough for an additional 3 TWh to be taken out from the Norwegian hydroelectric power system. Today, the price of imported carbon-based Danish power determines whether the utilities find it profitable to rehabilitate the hydroelectric plants. The energy potential of upgrading is estimated to be 5 TWh. This energy can be generated with known technology and with no serious consequences for the environment

  11. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANŢA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considered the production and the delivery touristic services except through the of a alone objective major prism scilicet maximizarea of the profits, falls to is exceeded. For the past decades ale the century XX, the impact technological changes in the industry services becomes all determine maul influenced the „traditional sectors” in charge, as for example the education, the trade, the touring, the informatics. Certainly, globalized can be interpretation in different senses. Referenced to the touristic services, the globalized is define as be a form an advanced still more complex maul of which nationalization involves a degrees of functional integration between the touristic activities disperse on plans transfrontalier.

  12. THE PROFIT TARGET IN A RESTAURATION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry represents one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary society, with an emphasised role in the process of globalization. Currently, the hospitality industry does not only face the challenges of the economic crisis but the changes in the market, the consumers behaviour and the technological trends, too. That is why, in this time, it is extremely important to apply the management accounting and the cost calculation in any entity in the hospitality industry in order to cope with the market challenges. The main services are performed through the hospitality industry: the accommodation and the restauration. These services satisfy the vital needs of the tourists, but this industry must meet other needs or requests such as the acknowledgement of the social status, the desire to know other cultures or traditions, to spend free time in a pleasant manner etc. Our intention and goal in the current article is to approach an image of the CVP analysis in the decision making process with an emphasis on the restauration in the hospitality industry. In order to cope with this critical time, the competition and to achieve the profits estimated, the managers in the hospitality industry can apply the CVP analysis, one of the simplest and most useful analytical instruments. The paper will tackle with the problem of the break even point in a restaurant, one of the main indicators of the CVP model and also the possibility of the decision making process orientation.

  13. Not for the Profit, but for the Training? Gender Differences in Training in the For-Profit and Non-Profit Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dostie, Benoît; Javdani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    We use Canadian linked employer-employee data to examine gender differences in probability, duration, and intensity of firm-sponsored training. We find that women in the for-profit sector are less likely to receive classroom training, and receive shorter classroom training courses. However, we find the reverse in the non-profit sector, with women being more likely to receive both classroom and on-the-job training, and also receiving longer classroom training courses. Our results suggest that ...

  14. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  15. Concept of Capital and Profit in Economy, Finance and Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Szot -Gabryś

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes economic, financial and accountancy theories, concepts and models of capital and profit. The aim of the article is to present different meaning of this economic category in economic knowledge. The results of research in this paper is providing to conclusion that the knowledge debate of nature and measurement method of capital and profit is still continuing.

  16. Profitability analysis of catfish farming in Suleja local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of profitability and scale of production of catfish has not been properly addressed. This study was conducted in Suleja Local Government Area of Niger State to assess the profitability of catfish production. Forty (40) catfish farmers were selected from the study area using simple random sampling techniques.

  17. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sales promotion, the orders being transmitted to Switzerland for acceptance, then the profits arising... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial and commercial profits. 509.105 Section 509.105 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...

  18. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  19. A More Detailed Understanding Of Factors Associated With Hospital Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of the most profitable US hospitals, we examined the profitability of acute care hospitals in fiscal year 2013, measured as net income from patient care services per adjusted discharge. Based on Medicare Cost Reports and Final Rule Data, the median hospital lost $82 for each such discharge. Forty-five percent of hospitals were profitable, with 2.5 percent earning more than $2,475 per adjusted discharge. The ten most profitable hospitals, seven of which were nonprofit, each earned more than $163 million in total profits from patient care services. Hospitals with for-profit status, higher markups, system affiliation, or regional power, as well as those located in states with price regulation, tended to be more profitable than other hospitals. Hospitals that treated a higher proportion of Medicare patients, had higher expenditures per adjusted discharge, were located in counties with a high proportion of uninsured patients, or were located in states with a dominant insurer or greater health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration had lower profitability than hospitals that did not have these characteristics. These findings can inform policy reforms, while providing a baseline against which to measure the impact of any subsequent reforms. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  1. A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Välja, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Magnusson, C; Ladhe, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly

  2. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  3. The relationship between size, growth and profitability of commercial banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, C. T.; De Haan, J.; Scholtens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic panel model for more than 15 000 banks from 148 countries from 1988 to 2010, we investigate the interaction between size, growth and profitability of banks. For our total sample, we cannot reject the hypotheses that the variability of bank profitability and the level and variability

  4. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dariy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.; Kooistra, S.R.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared

  5. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; van Triest, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  6. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the impact of pricing of risk on the profitability of Nigeria insurance market and also the relationship between operation expenses and profitability of the non-life insurance market in Nigeria. Results show that economy, competition and government regulation have effect on pricing of risk. Also, it was ...

  7. Profit Tax Evasion Under Oligopoly With Endogenous Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Runkel, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This note investigates the impact of profit tax evasion on firms' output decisions in a Cournot oligopoly setting in which the market structure is determined endogenously. It is shown that tax evasion intensifies market entry and raises aggregate output, while production of each incumbent firm decreases. Therefore, tax evasion choices affect activity decisions and an evadable profit tax distorts the market outcome.

  8. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  9. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  10. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the profitability of catfish production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the costs and returns in catfish production and thus the profit. Data for the study were collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire. A total of 60 catfish farmers were randomly selected from four ...

  11. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... of the inoculants use and gross margin analysis to examine profitability. The area under the .... the effects of various factors on the extent of. BIOFIX® use. ..... little information, resulting in reduced adoption of legume ...

  12. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  13. Low Frequency Waves Detected in a Large Wave Flume under Irregular Waves with Different Grouping Factor and Combination of Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigia Riefolo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low frequency generations. An eigen-value decomposition has been performed to discriminate low frequencies. In particular, measured eigen modes, determined through the spectral analysis, have been compared with calculated modes by means of eigen analysis. The low frequencies detection appears to confirm the dependence on groupiness of the modal amplitudes generated in the wave flume. Some evidence of the influence of low frequency waves on runup and transport patterns are shown. In particular, the generation and evolution of secondary bedforms are consistent with energy transferred between the standing wave modes.

  14. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Salgård; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying results, with an identification rate from below 50% to 100%. Large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G isolated from blood cultures between January 1, 2007 and May 1, 2012 were included in the study. Isolates were identified to the species level using a combination of phenotypic characteristics and 16s rRNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to MALDI-ToF analysis. We used a two-stage approach starting with the direct method. If no valid result was obtained we proceeded to an extraction protocol. Scores above 2 were considered valid identification at the species level. A total of 97 Streptococcus pyogenes, 133 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 2 Streptococcus canis isolates were tested; 94%, 66%, and 100% of S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis, respectively, were correctly identified by MALDI-ToF. In most instances when the isolates were not identified by MALDI-ToF this was because MALDI-ToF was unable to differentiate between S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae. By removing two S. pyogenes reference spectra from the MALDI-ToF database the proportion of correctly identified isolates increased to 96% overall. MALDI-ToF is a promising method for discriminating between S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. equi, although more strains need to be tested to clarify this.

  16. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  17. Balancing selfishness and norm conformity can explain human behavior in large-scale prisoner's dilemma games and can poise human groups near criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Andrighetto, Giulia; Nardin, Luis Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices. Yet a well-founded model of the effect of social norms on human cooperation is still lacking. Using statistical-physics techniques and integrating findings from cognitive and behavioral sciences, we present an analytically tractable model in which individuals base their decisions to cooperate both on the economic rewards they obtain and on the degree to which their action complies with social norms. Results from this parsimonious model are in agreement with observations in recent large-scale experiments with humans. We also find the phase diagram of the model and show that the experimental human group is poised near a critical point, a regime where recent work suggests living systems respond to changing external conditions in an efficient and coordinated manner.

  18. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan; Cricelli, Livio

    2010-01-01

    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  19. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Impresa, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cricelli, Livio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita di Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  20. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    work uses GP-Automata, a technique which combines genetic programming and finite state machines, to represent adaptive agents. We use a genetic algorithm to evolve these adaptive agents (each with its own bidding strategy) for use in a double auction. The agent's strategies may be judged by the amount of profit they produce and are tested by computerized agents repeatedly buying and selling electricity in an auction simulator. In addition to the obvious profit-maximization strategies, one can also design strategies which exhibit other types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be used directly in on-line trading, or as realistic models of competitors in a trading simulator. In addition to developing double auction bidding strategies, we investigate and discuss methods of an energy trader's risk. This can be done using such financial vehicles as futures and options contracts or through the inclusion of risk while judging strategies used in the market simulations described above. We discuss the role of fuzzy logic in the competitive electric marketplace, including how it can be applied in developing bidding strategies. Since competition promises to drive the power system closer to its operating limits, improvements in measurement and system control will be important. We provide an example of using fuzzy logic to do automatic generation control and discuss extensions that would make it superior to traditional controllers. Since the GENCO's forte is primarily generating electricity, we examine unit commitment and discuss how to update it for the competitive environment. We discuss the role of unit commitment in developing bidding strategies, as well as, the role of bidding strategies in solving the unit commitment problem. Depending on the market structure adopted by a particular location, large amounts of bidding data may be available to regulators or market participants. Ideally, regulators could use this data to verify dig the market is efficient. Market

  1. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  2. Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, A R

    1996-01-01

    Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.

  3. Comparison of efficiency and profitability of investor-owned multihospital systems with not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, A M

    1991-01-01

    It is often assumed that investor-owned hospitals are more market driven than are not-for-profit hospitals, and that they will maximize output and minimize inputs, to the exclusion of other management strategies. To resolve the conflicting research evidence, this study analyzed efficiency and profitability measures for approximately 50 investor-owned and 60 not-for-profit hospitals in Florida for the period from 1982 through 1988. The results indicate that the investor-owned hospitals used significantly fewer FTE staff per bed, had significantly fewer manhours per adjusted patient day, and paid significantly less in wages and had significantly higher operating margins (profit) than did the not-for-profit institutions.

  4. Do Robotic Surgical Systems Improve Profit Margins? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of California Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Shen, Chan; Hu, Jim C

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and hospital profit margins. This study used hospital annual utilization data, annual financial data, and discharge data for year 2011 from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We first performed bivariate analysis to compare mean profit margin by hospital and market characteristics and to examine whether these characteristics differed between hospitals that had one or more robotic surgical systems in 2011 and those that did not. We applied the t test and the F test to compare mean profit margin between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. We then conducted multilevel logistic regression to determine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and having a positive profit margin after controlling for other hospital and market characteristics and accounting for possible correlation among hospitals located within the same market. The study sample included 167 California hospitals with valid financial information. Hospitals with robotic surgical systems tended to report more favorable profit margins. However, multilevel logistic regression showed that this relationship (an association, not causality) became only marginally significant (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2; P = 0.053) after controlling for other hospital characteristics, such as ownership type, teaching status, bed size, and surgical volumes, and market characteristics, such as total number of robotic surgical systems owned by other hospitals in the same market area. As robotic surgical systems become widely disseminated, hospital decision makers should carefully evaluate the financial and clinical implications before making a capital investment in this technology. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supplier Contribution to Profit Calculation and Supplier’s Expense Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers of goods present a very important cost object for trading companiessuch as retail. There is, however, no theoretical explanation as to how to calculate a contribution to profits generated from an individual supplier. This calculation is the subject of the paper. There is no calculation that shows how goods, provided from the supplier, create profit through gross margin and how the supplier`s behavior influences the costs (like delivery terms, costs of keeping specific goods fresh…. The final costs further decrease the profit generated by suppliers. As they have long found it illogical to calculate contribution to profit from suppliers in a production company, trading companies have long ignored it, as well. The Activity Based Costing (ABC, as the up-to-date system, still does not possess the cost hierarchy for suppliers as the cost object. The aim of the paper is to present a proposal for creating the cost hierarchy for suppliers in a trade company through creating a theoretical financial model as a method. The model also offers a theoretical explanation of how to calculate the contribution from a supplier or a group of suppliers. It is based on empirically evident activities in any supermarket or hypermarket, which makes it possible to create explanatory theoretical research.

  6. EXAMINATION OF IMPACT OF PHARMA R&D ON PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Tomori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By today, in our business environment, mostly based on innovation, the potential opportunities in the pharmaceutical sector and impact of these to the national economic trends has a determining significance. This latter requires the examination of the impact of research and development activity as the most important factor to the profitability of two selected regional market leader pharma companies and presentation of how these groups handle their high operating risks which resulting from these investments. National and international importance of the pharmaceutical industry defined by not only the prominent role of application of the biochemical academic research, but the humanitarian concerns which increasingly appreciating in the global context. In the developing and overpopulated countries the risks of become massive epidemics arisen from the emergence viruses which mutating quickly and in increasingly complex forms has risen due to the scientist discoveries and more modernize preventive procedures. These facts – in view of growing efficient immune substances developing procedures – are stronger pressure on the industrial actors, with this affecting the profitability of future operations. The farming specificities and their role can be illustrated well by comparing the activities of the Central European market-leader Richter and the world-renowned Swiss Novartis which ranked number two in sales with approximately 47 billion dollar among the world-wide pharma groups in 2010. Since the comparable figures based on IFRS, it must be also mention that how the international accountant standards display these management areas. Among the examined factors, the pharma R&D activity had the highest impact on the long-term firming both individually and in comparison, but the different of the financial strategy and accounting policy as a kind of asset of risk management had no negligible. My analysis is mostly theoretical and based on quantitative

  7. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  8. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in I\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  9. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  10. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  11. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  12. The Profitability – Risk Relationship and Financing Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise financial decision is a rational process for option to the optimal variant related to financing and investments. For the capital investment to be justified, the profitability of the invested money must be at least equal with the profitability of the alternative investment opportunities with the same risk on market. The choosing of a way for financing is determined on the one side by their cost and on the other side by the existent capital structure. In this paper I tried to analyse the profitability – risk relationship in the financing decision for the “NIKOS” Ltd.

  13. Structured approaches to large-scale systems: Variational integrators for interconnected Lagrange-Dirac systems and structured model reduction on Lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Helen Frances

    This dissertation presents two projects related to the structured integration of large-scale mechanical systems. Structured integration uses the considerable differential geometric structure inherent in mechanical motion to inform the design of numerical integration schemes. This process improves the qualitative properties of simulations and becomes especially valuable as a measure of accuracy over long time simulations in which traditional Gronwall accuracy estimates lose their meaning. Often, structured integration schemes replicate continuous symmetries and their associated conservation laws at the discrete level. Such is the case for variational integrators, which discretely replicate the process of deriving equations of motion from variational principles. This results in the conservation of momenta associated to symmetries in the discrete system and conservation of a symplectic form when applicable. In the case of Lagrange-Dirac systems, variational integrators preserve a discrete analogue of the Dirac structure preserved in the continuous flow. In the first project of this thesis, we extend Dirac variational integrators to accommodate interconnected systems. We hope this work will find use in the fields of control, where a controlled system can be thought of as a "plant" system joined to its controller, and in the approach of very large systems, where modular modeling may prove easier than monolithically modeling the entire system. The second project of the thesis considers a different approach to large systems. Given a detailed model of the full system, can we reduce it to a more computationally efficient model without losing essential geometric structures in the system? Asked without the reference to structure, this is the essential question of the field of model reduction. The answer there has been a resounding yes, with Principal Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) with snapshots rising as one of the most successful methods. Our project builds on previous work

  14. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  15. Hospital profitability and capital structure: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvona, J; Sloan, F A

    1988-08-01

    This article compares the financial performance of hospitals by ownership type and of five publicly traded hospital companies with other industries, using such indicators as profit margins, return on equity (ROE) and total capitalization, and debt-to-equity ratios. We also examine stock returns to investors for the five hospital companies versus other industries, as well as the relative roles of debt and equity in new financing. Investor-owned hospitals had substantially greater margins and ROE than did other hospital types. In 1982, investor-owned chain hospitals had a ROE of 26 percent, 18 points above the average for all hospitals. Stock returns on the five selected hospital companies were more than twice as large as returns on other industries between 1972 and 1983. However, after 1983, returns for these companies fell dramatically in absolute terms and relative to other industries. We also found investor-owned hospitals to be much more highly levered than their government and voluntary counterparts, and more highly levered than other industries as well.

  16. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  17. Shared temptations: An fMRI study of dishonest profit maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmank, Fabian

    2017-12-01

    A single case of a tempting-decision task involving financial gain is reported. The subject showed a prosocial Social Value Orientation and applied a profit-maximizing strategy. Differential brain activation patterns for self-serving and other-serving decisions were observed. Results provide new insight into the design of paradigms on bounded ethicality and self- and group-serving behavior. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Multiconformation, Density Functional Theory-Based pKa Prediction in Application to Large, Flexible Organic Molecules with Diverse Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochevarov, Art D; Watson, Mark A; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Philipp, Dean M

    2016-12-13

    We consider the conformational flexibility of molecules and its implications for micro- and macro-pK a . The corresponding formulas are derived and discussed against the background of a comprehensive scientific and algorithmic description of the latest version of our computer program Jaguar pK a , a density functional theory-based pK a predictor, which is now capable of acting on multiple conformations explicitly. Jaguar pK a is essentially a complex computational workflow incorporating research and technologies from the fields of cheminformatics, molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, and implicit solvation models. The workflow also makes use of automatically applied empirical corrections which account for the systematic errors resulting from the neglect of explicit solvent interactions in the algorithm's implicit solvent model. Applications of our program to large, flexible organic molecules representing several classes of functional groups are shown, with a particular emphasis in illustrations laid on drug-like molecules. It is demonstrated that a combination of aggressive conformational search and an explicit consideration of multiple conformations nearly eliminates the dependence of results on the initially chosen conformation. In certain cases this leads to unprecedented accuracy, which is sufficient for distinguishing stereoisomers that have slightly different pK a values. An application of Jaguar pK a to proton sponges, the pK a of which are strongly influenced by steric effects, showcases the advantages that pK a predictors based on quantum mechanical calculations have over similar empirical programs.

  19. Filling in the blanks. An estimation of illicit cannabis growers' profits in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2014-05-01

    As a result of increased pressure on cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, the number of confiscated indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium is rising. Although increases are reported for all plantations sizes, half of the seized plantations contain less than 50 plants. In this study, factors and variables that influence costs and benefits of indoor cannabis cultivation are investigated as well as how these costs and benefits vary between different cannabis grower types. Real-situation data of four growers were used to perform financial analyses. Costs included fixed and variable material costs, as well as opportunity costs. Gross revenue per grow cycle was calculated based on most recent forensic findings for illicit Belgian cannabis plantations and was adjusted for the risk of getting caught. Finally, gross revenues and return on costs (ROC) were calculated over 1 year (4 cycles). Financial analysis shows that in all cases gross revenues as well as ROC are considerable, even after a single growth cycle. Highest profitability was found for large-scale (600 plants, ROC=6.8) and mid-scale plantations (150 plants, ROC=6.0). However, industrial plantations (23,000 plants, ROC=1.4) and micro-scale plantations (5 plants, ROC=2.8) are also highly remunerative. Shift of police focus away from micro-scale growers, least likely to be involved in criminal gangs, to large-scale and industrial scale plantations would influence costs as a result of changing risks of getting caught. However, sensitivity analysis shows that this does not significantly influence the conclusions on profitability of different types of indoor cannabis growers. Seizure and confiscation of profits are important elements in the integral and integrated policy approach required for tackling illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The large return of costs evidenced in the present study, underpin the policy relevance of confiscating those illicit profits as part of enforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  20. Dividend and Profit Allocation Practices of Performing Cooperatives in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafedah Juhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dividend payout and profit allocation practices of performing cooperatives in Malaysia, specifically how net profits were distributed as between dividends and various funds established for the benefit of members, after the necessary statutory deduction has been made. This paper is an exploratory study that is confined to performing co-operatives throughout Malaysia of different sizes and activities. Figures were derived from the 2008, 2007 and 2006 audited annual financial statements provided by the co-operatives themselves. Overall the study revealed that micro co-operatives are found to have paid the highest average dividend payouts, followed by the large co-operatives. Credit co-operatives which have a sizeable amount of shares and subscriptions are observed to have the lowest average dividend payout ratio. The highest dividend payout is given out by the construction and consumer co-operatives. Besides dividends, co-operatives normally allocate part of their annual net profit for the benefit of members in the form of specific funds for members’ social and related purposes. It was observed that in 2007, all co-operatives have increased their allocation towards members’ benefits except for co-operatives in the services sector. In conclusion, the credit, agriculture and industrial co-operatives are the top three functions with the highest level of contribution to members' benefit fund. Este artículo analiza el pago de dividendos y prácticas de reparto de beneficios que siguen las cooperativas de Malasia, específicamente el sistema en los que los beneficios netos, después de realizar las deducciones legales pertinentes, se distribuyen entre dividendos y los fondos creados para el beneficio de los miembros. Se ha realizado un estudio exploratorio que analiza las cooperativas de diferente tamaño y actividad limitadas a Malasia. Los datos se derivan de las auditorías de los años 2008, 2007 y 2006, que presentan las

  1. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P < .001), CABG (2.6% NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P < .001), and childbirth (3.1% NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the mean percentage of AMI patients classified as uninsured was similar in NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P < .001 for NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP

  2. comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Rainfed, irrigated, food crops, profitability, Adamawa, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... some or all of three motives (Olayide and Heady, 1982). The major resources .... The third stage was the purposive selection of villages based on ...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Layers Production in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    KEY WORDS: Day old Chicks, Gross Margin, old layers, Point of lay, Profitability, Rate of return, Viability. ABSTRACT: This ... People depend on poultry for food and poultry farming serves as an additional ..... Wholesales Marketing of Tomato.

  4. Piggerywaste management and profitability of pig farming in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Piggery waste management systems in the study area were identified and described, the farm profitability ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, operating net returns and benefit cost ratio.

  5. Statistical analysis of the count and profitability of air conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, El Houssainy A; Mohamed, Salah M; Abd Elmegaly, Alaa A

    2018-08-01

    This article presents the statistical analysis of the number and profitability of air conditioners in an Egyptian company. Checking the same distribution for each categorical variable has been made using Kruskal-Wallis test.

  6. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  7. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  8. The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit) in an ... the years on Islamic finance and interest-based economic-system has been concerned ... However, Islamic accounting uses both historical cost concept and current ...

  9. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  10. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  11. Liquidity risk and profitability: An assessment of Nigerian banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The paper examines liquidity risk and profitability from the Nigerian banking sector perspective. ... financial system, which in turn would assist financial institutions to evaluate ...

  12. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  13. Finance and marketing: birth of a profitable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, J J; Scheuerman, J L; Fillmore, J H

    1987-12-01

    As competition increases, the finance and marketing departments must work together to increase market share and improve the bottom line. If financial managers understand the functions of the marketing department, they can create a mutually beneficial and profitable relationship.

  14. Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State, Nigeria. ... added to the commodity at each stage in the study area and determine the most efficient services produce. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  16. Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially fresh graduates of veterinary medicine. This study attempted to determine factors associated with making profits in dog breeding business in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to ...

  17. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  18. PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663...

  19. Fission profits of thorium: Distribution in charge and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is presented the improvement of a semi-empiric model to describe behavior fo the 235 U + thermal neutrons system. The model is applied to fission of the 232 Th case reproducing the distribution of mass profits of fission products from the behavior of independent profits of fragments related the mass and charge, and the emission of prompt neutrons per fragment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  1. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sahyouni; Man Wang

    2018-01-01

    Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015), this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset mana...

  2. Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian J. Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for ...

  3. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Galih Prihartono; Ujang Sumarwan; Noer Azam Achsani; Kirbrandoko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable th...

  4. Portfolio management fees: assets or profits based compensation?

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Javier

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares assets-based portfolio management fees to profits-based fees. Whilst both forms of compensation can provide appropriate risk incentives, fund managers' limited liability induces more excess risk-taking under a profits-based fee contract. On the other hand, an assets-based fee is more costly to investors. In Spain, where the law explicitly permits both forms of retribution, assets-based fees are observed far more frequently. Under this type of compensation, the paper provid...

  5. Optimal security design under asymmetric information and profit manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koufopoulos, Kostas; Kozhan, Roman; Trigilia, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    We consider a model of external financing under ex ante asymmetric information and profit manipulation (non verifability). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the optimal contract is not standard debt, and it is not monotonic. Instead, it resembles a contingent convertible (CoCo) bond. In particular: (i) if the profit manipulation and/or adverse selection are not severe, there exists a unique separating equilibrium in CoCos; (ii) in the intermediate region, if the distribution of earnings is unb...

  6. Misplaced generosity: extraordinary profits in Alberta's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, R.

    2010-11-01

    This document gives a picture extended over a decade of the revenues, investment levels and profits of the Alberta's oil and gas industry. It also investigates on the distribution of those revenues and profits that were accrued to the provincial government through royalties and land sales. This document, tries to fill the information gaps left by the current government's achievement as Albertans' oil and gas trustee, pointing out the ongoing lack of responsibility in this province's most important economic sector.

  7. sustainable development and profitability in the Finnish restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulenga, Mpafya

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability in the food industry is often concerned with the provision of organic products and recycling. The emphasis on organically produced supplies though viewed as an environmentally sustainable means of food production to meet the ends of the green revolution should not obscure consideration of profitability in the business. Making profit is a business goal, while environmental sustainability is an ethical issue whose practice is subject to the balancing act of being pr...

  8. Areva in 2007, growth and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This annual report 2007, presents the AREVA Group activities during the year. It contents the messages of the Chairman and Chief executive officer, the solutions offered by the group for CO 2 free power generation and reliable electricity transmission and distribution, the governance, the financial performance, the innovation, the environmental protection, the risk management and prevention, the audit's report and key data for the year 2007. (A.L.B.)

  9. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  10. Choose profit over market share: Profit-oriented competitive strategies in contested markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilstein Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available If there was ever an eye-opening moment for us concerning the topic of competitive strategy, then it was this: In the summer of 2003 we presented the CEO of a world-renowned public company with a sophisticated strategy that would secure its path towards profitable growth. She waited with growing impatience for the end of the presentation to crush six months of work with one sentence: "That's all very well and good. But I want to destroy my competitors!" Our objections undoubtedly earned a place in the company's history, but ultimately we failed. Three years have passed since then - three years in which the company has drastically reduced its formerly attractive margins in numerous important markets. And despite strong attacks, the company has not succeeded in ousting even one competitor from its relevant markets.

  11. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  12. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  13. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  14. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  15. The Effect of Capital Working Management on the Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Mulyono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Companies must maintain the sustainability business. In order to keep their existence and competitiveness, companies must increase profitability in every year. It also applies to state fertilizer companies. However, 10 years of history (2005-2014, the state fertilizer company have been facing difficulties in maintaining business sustainability. Profitability fluctuates and tends to decrease every year. One of the causes is inefficient working capital management. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between working capital management and corporate profitability. To ensure the absence of the influence of unexamined factors, this study uses control variables of firm size, financial leverage, and gross domestic product. This research uses a positivist paradigm with a quantitative approach and multiple regression analysis.The results of this study indicate that state fertilizer companies will be able to increase ROA by accelerating Days of Sales in Inventory and Days of Payables. Higher assets, reduce profitability, and increasing debt withdrawal, which further declines the profitability. State fertilizer companies should accelerate inventory turnover and obligation payments to suppliers to minimize the risk of foreign exchange loss, considering that 80% of raw materials are still imported. In addition, state fertilizer should maintain asset quality and minimize debt withdrawal to increase profitability

  16. Powering Profits. Profits, Investments and Fuel Type Mixes in the Dutch Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde-Ramsing, J.; Steinweg, T.

    2007-06-01

    This report addresses the Dutch power sector, identifying the major corporate players in the market, types of fuel used to generate electricity, the profits being made, and investments in both renewable and non-renewable generation capacity. For the purposes of this report, the power sector is understood to encompass production (i.e. generation) and supply of electricity. Some discussion and figures on heat and gas, which are also essential energy services, are provided, but the focus is primarily on electricity. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Dutch power sector, breaking the market down into production and supply. Major players, markets shares, and recent trends and developments are given for each of these activities. Sections 3 - 7 go into detail on the five major corporate players active in the Dutch power sector: ENECO, Essent, Nuon, Electrabel, and E.ON Energie. For each company, information is provided on profits and earnings, the fuel mix used to generate and supply electricity, the CO2 emissions associated with these activities, installed capacity in the Netherlands, and recent investments in renewable and non-renewable generation capacity in the Netherlands. For the Dutch companies, ENECO, Essent and Nuon, additional information on the ownership structure of the company, shareholders and dividends paid and received is given. A section on RWE (Section 8) is also included in the study because, although RWE is not currently active in generating electricity in the Netherlands, RWE Energy does currently supply electricity generated by producers in the Netherlands. In addition, RWE Power is currently planning to invest significantly in power generation capacity in the Netherlands. The final section of the report compares the companies activities in the Netherlands and draws conclusions based on the companies' respective performance

  17. The quasi-market for adult residential care in the UK: Do for-profit, not-for-profit or public sector residential care and nursing homes provide better quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PROFITABILITY AND VIABILITY OF CATFISH ENTERPRISES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is an important source of protein to large teaming population of Nigeria. Fish provides 40% of the ... all over the world, point to a decline in landing from capture fisheries, an indicator that fish stocks ... Statistics indicate that. Nigeria is the ...

  19. 256 253 Profitability Analysis of Groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Metropolitan Council of Borno State, Nigeria. * A. Iliyasu, I. ... processing and determine the return on investment in groundnut processing in the study area. Structured ... It was recommended that large scale groundnut production should be encouraged .... increasing rate, increases at decreasing rate and.

  20. Provision of Child Care: Cost Functions for Profit-Making and Not-for-Profit Day Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Mukerjee; Ann Dryden Witte; Sheila Hollowell

    1990-01-01

    This paper estimates cost functions for day care centers in Massachusetts. The production technology assumed is the generalized homothetic Cobb-Douglas production function. The cost function dual to this production function is estimated separately for profit-making (P1Os) and not-for-profit (NPOs) organizations. The results are discussed in the context of current NPO literature. NPOs are found to be operating at higher average coats than PMOs for most output levels as predicted by the literat...