Tourism English Teaching Techniques Converged from Two Different Angles.
Seong, Myeong-Hee
2001-01-01
Provides techniques converged from two different angles (learners and tourism English features) for effective tourism English teaching in a junior college in Korea. Used a questionnaire, needs analysis, an instrument for measuring learners' strategies for oral communication, a small-scale classroom study for learners' preferred teaching…
Large Field Cutoffs Make Perturbative Series Converge
Meurice, Y
2002-01-01
For lambda phi^4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For lambda larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Pade approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.
Large field cutoffs make perturbative series converge
Meurice, Yannick
2002-03-01
For λφ 4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For λ larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Padé approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.
Measurement of the convergence angle in teeth prepared for single crown
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NokarS
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Retention, resistance and marginal integrity mostly depend on tooth preparation. An appropriate convergence angle fulfil this purpose, to high extent. In this study, a new method was used to measure the convergence angle of the teeth prepared for single crowns in Genera! practitioners" offices in Tehran. In order to do this. 325 dyes, prepared by General dentists in Tehran, were collected from 10 laboratories. All dyes wore trimmed at the area below the finishing line and then were scanned (Genius Color page- FIR 6 buccoiingualiy and mesiodistaily. Convergence angle of dyes were also measured with Adobe Photoshop (5.0 software. Data were analyzed by variance analysis test and 1- student bv the help of SPSS software. Results showed that the average convergence angle ranged from 16.18+8.34 to 35.1 8~10.38 which belonged to maxillary canine and mandibular molars, respectively, and the measured convergence angle is more than the ideal value of 10-16 degrees. Dyes of the madibular molars were ma"illar" convergent. These conclusions are helpful for professors, dentistry students and dentists, and arc an indicative of the practice quality of General practitioners in Tehran. Due to the fact that a convergence angle, more than the allowed limitation, endangers retention, resistance and marginal integrity of the restoration, paying attention to the principles of tooth preparation and proper application of instruments and dental cements, can progress fwed restorations quality.
The Convergence Angle of Full-coverage Crown Preparations Made by Dental Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Baghai Naini
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: A clinically feasible convergence angle in full-coverage crown preparations, meeting the requirements for proper retention and resistance forms, has always been a matter of interest for laboratory and clinical researches. This study aims to evaluate the angle in teeth prepared by both under- and post-graduate students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics.Materials and Methods: Samples consisted of 196 prepared teeth for full-coverage crown restoration by third year postgraduate and fifth year undergraduate students in the Department of Prosthodontics. Two images were obtained from each die by a scanner and both bucco-lingual and mesio-distal convergence angles were measured, by two different assessors, via Auto CAD 14 software. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the teeth prepared by un-der- and post-graduate students in mesio-distal convergence angles of all maxillary teeth, except for canines. Significant differences were found between bucco-lingual convergence angles of the maxillary canines and molars.Conclusion: The recently recommended convergence angles are more clinically feasible compared to the classic 4 to 10 degrees that was previously suggested for all teeth. It also seems that clinical experience does not necessarily lead to a decrease in convergence an-gles during preparation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben-Ran Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present study experimentally investigates the effect of convergence angle of microchannel on two-phase flow and heat transfer during steam condensation. Three condensation regimes, from the inlet to the outlet, are identified: mist/annular flow, injection flow, and slug-bubbly flow. Flow pattern maps are constructed using superficial vapor and liquid velocities as the coordinates, wherein relatively distinct boundaries between the flow patterns can be identified. The experimental results show that the condensation heat flux increases with an increase in the convergence angle and/or the steam mass flux at a given coolant flow ratebut decreases with an increase in the coolant flow rate at a given steam mass flux. The results further demonstrate that the local condensation heat transfer coefficient in the mist/annular flow region is much higher than that in other condensation regimes. Moreover, the local condensation heat transfer coefficient in the mist/annular flow and injection flow region decreases with an increase in the convergence angle.
Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC
2007-04-25
In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was
Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles
Thomas, Sebastian; Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter
2015-06-01
We theoretically investigate the dependence of the enhancement of optical near-fields at nanometric tips on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm the strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature ≥slant 5 nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ∼ 35 for Au and ∼ 12 for W for large opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials featuring a wide variety in their dielectric response. For dielectrics, the opening angle dependence is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement and shifts the maximum field enhancement to smaller opening angles.
A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension
Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.
1992-01-01
SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-09-01
data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this
Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui
2016-07-01
In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF.
Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui
2016-07-01
In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF.
Notes on large angle crossing graphs
Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat; Wolle, Thomas
2009-01-01
A graph G is an a-angle crossing (aAC) graph if every pair of crossing edges in G intersect at an angle of at least a. The concept of right angle crossing (RAC) graphs (a=Pi/2) was recently introduced by Didimo et. al. It was shown that any RAC graph with n vertices has at most 4n-10 edges and that there are infinitely many values of n for which there exists a RAC graph with n vertices and 4n-10 edges. In this paper, we give upper and lower bounds for the number of edges in aAC graphs for all 0 < a < Pi/2.
Towards Fully Converged GW Calculations for Large Systems
Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Peihong
2016-01-01
Although the GW approximation is recognized as one of the most accurate theories for predicting materials excited states properties, scaling up conventional GW calculations for large systems remains a major challenge. We present a powerful and simple-to-implement method that can drastically accelerate fully converged GW calculations for large systems. We demonstrate the performance of this new method by calculating the quasiparticle band gap of MgO supercells. A speed-up factor of nearly two orders of magnitude is achieved for a system contaning 256 atoms (1024 velence electrons) with a negligibly small numerical error of $\\pm 0.03$ eV.
Showers with large zenith angles observed in emulsion chambers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任敬儒; 陆穗苓; 解卫; 王承瑞; 何瑁; 张乃健
1997-01-01
Showers with large zenith angles are observed in emulsion chambers exposed at Mt.Kanbala.The intensity of high energy muons is given and the multicore showers with large zenith angles are found.It is indicated that a new phenomenon may exist in the high energy nuclear interactions of cosmic rays.
Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles
Thomas, Sebastian; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter
2014-01-01
We theoretically investigate optical near-fields at nanometric tips. We systematically study the dependence of field enhancement on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm a strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a remarkably strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature $\\geq 5\\,$nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ${\\sim}35$ (Au) and ${\\sim}12$ (W) for wide opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials studying the dependence of the field enhancement at nanotips on the dielectric response function. For dielectrics, the increase in field enhancement is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee
2009-01-01
This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....
Large mixing angles for neutrinos from infrared fixed points
Casas, J A; Navarro, I
2003-01-01
Radiative amplification of neutrino mixing angles may explain the large values required by solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Implementation of such mechanism in the Standard Model and many of its extensions (including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) to amplify the solar angle, the atmospheric or both requires (at least two) quasi-degenerate neutrino masses, but is not always possible. When it is, it involves a fine-tuning between initial conditions and radiative corrections. In supersymmetric models with neutrino masses generated through the Kahler potential, neutrino mixing angles can easily be driven to large values at low energy as they approach infrared pseudo-fixed points at large mixing (in stark contrast with conventional scenarios, that have infrared pseudo-fixed points at zero mixing). In addition, quasi-degeneracy of neutrino masses is not always required.
Characteristics of Rotary Electromagnet with Large Tooth-pitch Angle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruan Jian
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Since the conventional electro-mechanical converter of 2D valve had problems of step lose due to its small tooth-pitch angle, a novel rotary electromagnet with large tooth-pitch angle and coreless rotor structure was proposed. Combined with the approaches of magnetic circuit analysis, finite element simulation and experimental study, the static and dynamic characteristics of electromagnet including torque-angle characteristics, frequency response and step response were studied. The experimental results are in a close agreement with the simulated results. The electromagnet has sinusoidal torque-angle characteristics and good dynamic response. The maximum static torque is approximately 0.083N.M, and its frequency width is about 125Hz/-3dB, 130Hz/-90°, respectively, and the rise time is about 5.5 ms. It is appropriate to be used as the electro-mechanical converter of 2D proportional valve.
Rafiee, Seyed Ehsan; Sadeghiazad, M. M.
2016-12-01
Seven adjustments of convergent-type Vortex Tube (VT) with different throttle angles were applied. The adjustments were made to analyze the influences of such angles on cold and hot temperature drops as well as flow structures inside the VTs. An experimental setup was designed, and tests were performed on different convergent VT configurations at injection pressures ranging from 0.45 to 0.65 MPa. The angles of the throttle valve were arranged between 30° to 90°, and the numbers of injection nozzles ranged between 2 and 6. Laboratory results indicated that the maximum hot and cold temperature drops ranged from 23.24 to 35 K and from 22.87 to 32.88 K, respectively, at four injection nozzles. Results also showed that temperature drop is a function of hot throttle valve angle with the maximum hot and cold temperature drops depending on the angle applied. We used graphs to demonstrate the changes in the cold and hot temperature drops with respect to hot throttle angle values. These values were interpreted and evaluated to determine the optimum angle, which was 60°. The CFD outputs agreed very well with the laboratory results. The proposed CFD results can help future researchers gain good insights into the complicated separation process taking place inside the VTs.
Convergence and Distributions of Income in Large European Economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michał Kruszka
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of the convergence process in the years 1993–2008 and the impact of economic growth on income distribution in selected European Union countries. Considering this fact one can state that research was conducted from the perspective of EU citizens. The crucial hypothesis of this paper is statement that convergence is differently perceived in terms of entire economies, and gives a different picture from the perspective of the single citizen of the selected country. The analysis was carried out in several stages. Initially, the authors referred to the classical convergence hypotheses (unconditional β and σ convergence within the EU-27, then the same assumptions were examined taking into account population – weighted indicators. However, the main aim of research undertaken in this study was to investigate the individual within – country distribution of income for the initial and final period, which allowed to answer the question whether faster growth of the ‘new EU’ was accompanied by reduction of inequalities within analyzed economic systems.
Installation of NA62 Large Angle Veto detectors
2012-01-01
In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.
``DELF'', a large solid angle detection system for heavy fragments
Bougault, R.; Duchon, J.; Gautier, J. M.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Mosrin, P.; Regimbart, R.
1987-09-01
To detect the heavy fragments ( Z > 8) emitted at large angle (30° < θ < 150°) in heavy ion collisions at GANIL, a large solid angle detection system has been built. It consists of 18 independent cells surrounding the target, the beam axis being the revolution axis. In each cell, a fragment penetrates at first into a parallel plate avalanche counter with localization which gives velocity, position and {∂E}/{∂x} measurements and then into an ionization chamber with longitudinal field for the residual energy measurement. The Z evaluation is performed over a large range of velocities (0.05 < {E}/{A} < 5 MeV/u) for atomic numbers ranging from 8 to 90.
Large-area, wide-angle, spectrally selective plasmonic absorber
Wu, Chihhui; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady
2011-01-01
A simple metamaterial-based wide-angle plasmonic absorber is introduced, fabricated, and experimentally characterized using angle-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The metamaterials are prepared by nano-imprint lithography, an attractive low-cost technology for making large-area samples. The matching of the metamaterial's impedance to that of vacuum is responsible for the observed spectrally selective "perfect" absorption of infrared light. The impedance is theoretically calculated in the single-resonance approximation, and the responsible resonance is identified as a short-range surface plasmon. The spectral position of the absorption peak (which is as high as 95%) is experimentally shown to be controlled by the metamaterial's dimensions. The persistence of "perfect" absorption with variable metamaterial parameters is theoretically explained. The wide-angle nature of the absorber can be utilized for sub-diffraction-scale infrared pixels exhibiting spectrally selective absorption/emissivity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hyo Min; Utomo, Tony; Ji, Myoung Kuk; Lee, Yong Hun; Lee, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, Han Shik [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong (Korea, Republic of)
2009-09-15
A thermo vapor compressor is simply a steam ejector employed in a multi effect desalination process. A greater understanding of flow phenomena inside an ejector plays an important role in its performance improvement. In this paper, CFD investigation has been carried out to study the flow structure inside a steam ejector. This research revealed the influence of operating pressures and ejector geometries on the flow structure and the performance of a steam ejector. The CFD results were verified with available experimental data. The angle of the converging duct as the geometry parameter was varied as 0 .deg., 0.5 .deg., 1 .deg., 2 .deg., 3.5 .deg. and 4.5 .deg.. The best performance was obtained by the ejector with converging duct angle of 1 .deg.
Large-Angle CMB Suppression and Polarisation Predictions
Copi, C.J.; Schwarz, D.J.; Starkman, G.D.
2013-01-01
The anomalous lack of large angle temperature correlations has been a surprising feature of the CMB since first observed by COBE-DMR and subsequently confirmed and strengthened by WMAP. This anomaly may point to the need for modifications of the standard model of cosmology or may show that our Universe is a rare statistical fluctuation within that model. Further observations of the temperature auto-correlation function will not elucidate the issue; sufficiently high precision statistical observations already exist. Instead, alternative probes are required. In this work we explore the expectations for forthcoming polarisation observations. We define a prescription to test the hypothesis that the large-angle CMB temperature perturbations in our Universe represent a rare statistical fluctuation within the standard cosmological model. These tests are based on the temperature-Q Stokes parameter correlation. Unfortunately these tests cannot be expected to be definitive. However, we do show that if this TQ-correlati...
Refining a triangulation of a planar straight-line graph to eliminate large angles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, S.A.
1993-05-13
Triangulations without large angles have a number of applications in numerical analysis and computer graphics. In particular, the convergence of a finite element calculation depends on the largest angle of the triangulation. Also, the running time of a finite element calculation is dependent on the triangulation size, so having a triangulation with few Steiner points is also important. Bern, Dobkin and Eppstein pose as an open problem the existence of an algorithm to triangulate a planar straight-line graph (PSLG) without large angles using a polynomial number of Steiner points. We solve this problem by showing that any PSLG with {upsilon} vertices can be triangulated with no angle larger than 7{pi}/8 by adding O({upsilon}{sup 2}log {upsilon}) Steiner points in O({upsilon}{sup 2} log{sup 2} {upsilon}) time. We first triangulate the PSLG with an arbitrary constrained triangulation and then refine that triangulation by adding additional vertices and edges. Some PSLGs require {Omega}({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points in any triangulation achieving any largest angle bound less than {pi}. Hence the number of Steiner points added by our algorithm is within a log {upsilon} factor of worst case optimal. We note that our refinement algorithm works on arbitrary triangulations: Given any triangulation, we show how to refine it so that no angle is larger than 7{pi}/8. Our construction adds O(nm+nplog m) vertices and runs in time O(nm+nplog m) log(m+ p)), where n is the number of edges, m is one plus the number of obtuse angles, and p is one plus the number of holes and interior vertices in the original triangulation. A previously considered problem is refining a constrained triangulation of a simple polygon, where p = 1. For this problem we add O({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points, which is within a constant factor of worst case optimal.
Large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1
Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero
1998-04-01
A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed. © 1998
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolai Kolev
2003-01-01
placing n labeled balls into N labeled cells. We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of empty cells when (n,N belongs to the right and left domain of attraction. An application to the estimation of characteristics of agreement among a set of raters which independently classify subjects into one of two categories is also indicated. The case when a large number of raters acts following the zero-inflated binomial law with small probability for positive diagnosis is treated using the zero-inflated Poisson approximation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qin Ni
2001-01-01
An NGTN method was proposed for solving large-scale sparse nonlinear programming (NLP) problems. This is a hybrid method of a truncated Newton direction and a modified negative gradient direction, which is suitable for handling sparse data structure and possesses Q-quadratic convergence rate. The global convergence of this new method is proved,the convergence rate is further analysed, and the detailed implementation is discussed in this paper. Some numerical tests for solving truss optimization and large sparse problems are reported. The theoretical and numerical results show that the new method is efficient for solving large-scale sparse NLP problems.
Hierarchical Least Squares Identification and Its Convergence for Large Scale Multivariable Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁锋; 丁韬
2002-01-01
The recursive least squares identification algorithm (RLS) for large scale multivariable systems requires a large amount of calculations, therefore, the RLS algorithm is difficult to implement on a computer. The computational load of estimation algorithms can be reduced using the hierarchical least squares identification algorithm (HLS) for large scale multivariable systems. The convergence analysis using the Martingale Convergence Theorem indicates that the parameter estimation error (PEE) given by the HLS algorithm is uniformly bounded without a persistent excitation signal and that the PEE consistently converges to zero for the persistent excitation condition. The HLS algorithm has a much lower computational load than the RLS algorithm.
Single Stage Surgical Outcomes for Large Angle Intermittent Exotropia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Yang
Full Text Available Although there were many prior studies about exotropia, few focused on large-angle intermittent exotropia. The goal of this study was to evaluate single-stage surgical outcomes for large-angle intermittent exotropia and analyze risk factors that may affect the success of surgery. Records from intermittent exotropia patients with exodeviations >60 prism diopters(PD who were surgically treated at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University were reviewed. Included within this review were data on, pre- and post-operative ocular motility, primary alignment, binocular vision and complications. Patients with exodeviations ≤70PD received two-muscle surgery, while those with exodeviations >70PD were subjected to a three-muscle procedure. A total of 40 records were reviewed. The mean exodeviation was 73±9PD at distance and 75±26PD at near. There were 25 patients received two-muscle surgery and 15 the three-muscle procedure. Orthophoria (deviation within 8PD was obtained in 77.5% of these patients and the ratios of surgical under-correction and over-correction were 15% and 7.5% respectively. However, when combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, success rates decreased to 30%. No statistically significant differences in success rates were obtained between the two- and three-muscle surgery groups. Seven subjects experienced an abduction deficit during the initial postoperative stages, but eventually showed a full recovery. One patient required a second surgery for overcorrection. No statistically significant risk factors for poor outcome were revealed. Our data showed that single-stage two- and three-muscle surgeries for large-angle intermittent exotropia are effective in achieving a favorable outcome.
Seo, Yong-Joon; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun
2014-01-01
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability of three different methods using a drawing protractor, a digital protractor after tracing, and a CAD system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four artificial abutments that had been prepared by dental students were used in this study. Three dental students measured the convergence angles by each method three times. Bland-Altman plots were applied to examine the overall reliability by comparing the traditional tracing method with a new method using the CAD system. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) evaluated intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS All three methods exhibited high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability (ICC>0.80, P<.05). Measurements with the CAD system showed the highest intra-rater reliability. In addition, it showed improved inter-rater reliability compared with the traditional tracing methods. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, the CAD system may be an easy and reliable tool for measuring the abutment convergence angle. PMID:25006382
A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downer, J.R.; Anastas, G.V. Jr.; Bushko, D.A.; Flynn, F.J.; Goldie, J.H.; Gondhalekar, V.; Hawkey, T.J.; Hockney, R.L.; Torti, R.P.
1992-12-01
SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.
Analytical modeling of large-angle CMBR anisotropies from textures
Magueijo, J
1995-01-01
We propose an analytic method for predicting the large angle CMBR temperature fluctuations induced by model textures. The model makes use of only a small number of phenomenological parameters which ought to be measured from simple simulations. We derive semi-analytically the C^l-spectrum for 2\\leq l\\leq 30 together with its associated non-Gaussian cosmic variance error bars. A slightly tilted spectrum with an extra suppression at low l is found, and we investigate the dependence of the tilt on the parameters of the model. We also produce a prediction for the two point correlation function. We find a high level of cosmic confusion between texture scenarios and standard inflationary theories in any of these quantities. However, we discover that a distinctive non-Gaussian signal ought to be expected at low l, reflecting the prominent effect of the last texture in these multipoles.
Template fitting and the large-angle CMB anomalies
Land, K; Land, Kate; Magueijo, Joao
2006-01-01
We investigate two possible explanations for the large-angle anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): an intrinsically anisotropic model and an inhomogeneous model. We take as an example of the former a Bianchi model (which leaves a spiral pattern in the sky) and of the latter a background model that already contains a non-linear long-wavelength plane wave (leaving a stripy pattern in the sky). We make use of an adaptation of the ``template'' formalism, previously designed to detect galactic foregrounds, to recognize these patterns and produce confidence levels for their detection. The ``corrected'' maps, from which these patterns have been removed, are free of anomalies, in particular their quadrupole and octupole are not planar and their intensities not low. We stress that although the ``template'' detections are not found to be statistically significant they do correct statistically significant anomalies.
Testing large-angle deviation from Gaussianity in CMB maps
Bernui, A; Teixeira, A F F
2010-01-01
A detection of the level of non-Gaussianity in the CMB data is essential to discriminate among inflationary models and also to test alternative primordial scenarios. However, the extraction of primordial non-Gaussianity is a difficult endeavor since several effects of non-primordial nature can produce non-Gaussianity. On the other hand, different statistical tools can in principle provide information about distinct forms of non-Gaussianity. Thus, any single statistical estimator cannot be sensitive to all possible forms of non-Gaussianity. In this context, to shed some light in the potential sources of deviation from Gaussianity in CMB data it is important to use different statistical indicators. In a recent paper we proposed two new large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators which provide measures of the departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. We used these indicators to carry out analyses of non-Gaussianity of the bands and of the foreground-reduced WMAP maps with and without the KQ75 mask. Here we ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy [Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Raccanelli, Alvise [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: daniele.bertacca@pd.infn.it, E-mail: Roy.Maartens@port.ac.uk, E-mail: Alvise@caltech.edu, E-mail: Clarkson@maths.uct.ac.za [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701 (South Africa)
2012-10-01
We extend previous analyses of wide-angle correlations in the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space to include all general relativistic effects. These general relativistic corrections to the standard approach become important on large scales and at high redshifts, and they lead to new terms in the wide-angle correlations. We show that in principle the new terms can produce corrections of nearly 10% on Gpc scales over the usual Newtonian approximation. General relativistic corrections will be important for future large-volume surveys such as SKA and Euclid, although the problem of cosmic variance will present a challenge in observing this.
New machining and testing method of large angle infrared wedge mirror parts
Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fumei; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Xuanmin; Zengqi, Xu; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng
2016-10-01
Large angle wedge parts were widely used in the optical system that was used for achieving a wide range of scanning. Due to the parts having the characteristic of large difference in the thickness of both ends and high density, the accuracy of the wedge angle was hard to ensure to reach second level in optical processing. Generally, wedge mirror angle was measured by contact comparison method which was easy to damage the surface. In view of the existence of two practical problems, in this paper, based on theoretical analysis, by taking three key measures that were the accurate positioning for the central position of the large angle wedge part, the accuracy control of angle precision machined of wedge mirror and fast and non destructive laser assisted absolute measurement of large angle wedge, the qualified rate of parts were increased to 100%, a feasible, controllable and efficient process route for large angle infrared wedge parts was found out.
CONVERGENCE RATES TO TRAVELLING WAVES FOR A RELAXATION MODEL WITH LARGE INITIAL DISTURBANCE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张辉; 赵引川
2004-01-01
This paper is concerned with the convergence rates to travelling waves for a relaxation model with general flux functions. Compared with former results in this direction, the main novelty in this paper lies in the fact that the initial disturbance can be chosen large in suitable norm. Our analysis is based on the L1-stability results obtained by C. Mascia and R. Natalini in [12].
The Norma spiral arm: large-scale pitch angle
Vallée, Jacques P.
2017-09-01
In the inner Galaxy, we statistically find the mean pitch angle of the recently mapped Norma arm in two galactic quadrants (observed tangentially at galactic longitudes near l=328° and near l=20°), using the twin-tangent method, and obtain -13.7°± 1.4°. We compared with other measurements in the literature. Also, using the latest published data on pitch angle and the latest published data on the radial starting point of the four arms (R_{Gal} = 2.2 kpc) in each galactic quadrant, a revised velocity plot of the Norma spiral arm is made, along with other spiral arms in the Milky Way, in each Galactic quadrant.
The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.
Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng
2015-12-21
A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.
Nonaccommodative convergence excess.
von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W
1986-01-15
Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.
Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems.
Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods.
Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)
2015-10-01
The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.
Leptogenesis from Oscillations of Heavy Neutrinos with Large Mixing Angles
Drewes, Marco; Gueter, Dario; Klaric, Juraj
2016-01-01
The extension of the Standard Model by heavy right-handed neutrinos can simultaneously explain the observed neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. If the mass of the heavy neutrinos is below the electroweak scale, they may be found at LHCb, BELLE II, the proposed SHiP experiment or a future high-energy collider. In this mass range, the baryon asymmetry is generated via $CP$-violating oscillations of the heavy neutrinos during their production. We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in this scenario from first principles of non-equilibrium quantum field theory, including spectator processes and feedback effects. We eliminate several uncertainties from previous calculations and find that the baryon asymmetry of the Universe can be explained with larger heavy neutrino mixing angles, increasing the chance for an experimental discovery. For the limiting cases of fast and strongly overdamped oscillations of right-handed neutrinos,...
A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons
Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Bacelar, J.C.S; Brandenburg, S.; Huisman, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Mul, F.A.; Schadmand, S.; van der Schaaf, K.; Schippers, J.M.; Volkerts, M.
2000-01-01
The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected w
The high granularity and large solid angle detection array EXPADES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strano, E., E-mail: estrano@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Anastasio, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bettini, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cassese, C. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Castellani, L.; Corti, D. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Meo, P. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Galet, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, Str. Reactorului No. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grebosz, J. [IFJ PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Guglielmetti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nicoletto, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others
2013-12-15
Highlights: • We realized a detection array for Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams. • High granularity (32 × 32 pixels 2 × 2 mm wide for 8 telescopes). • High solid angle (8 telescopes 64 × 64 mm wide in a cylindrical configuration covering up to 2.6 sr). • We tested each component of the array by both alpha particles and in-beam environment. • We measured the angular distribution for {sup 17}O elastic scattering on a {sup 58}Ni target. -- Abstract: The EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System) detector array consists of 16 Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with active areas of 64 × 64 mm{sup 2}, arranged in 8 ΔE (40/50 μm)–E (300 μm) telescopes. All detector faces are segmented into 32 × 2-mm wide strips, ensuring a 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} pixel configuration. Eight ionization chambers can be alternatively used as ΔE stages or, if needed, as an additional third layer for more complex triple telescopes. The signals from silicon ΔE layers and from ionization chambers are read by standard electronics, while innovative 32-channel ASIC chips are employed for the readout of the E stages. The results of off-line tests with alpha sources and from the first in-beam experiment with a {sup 17}O beam are presented.
Approximation for a large-angle simple pendulum period
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, A; Rodes, J J; Belendez, T; Hernandez, A [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-03-15
An approximation scheme to obtain the period for large amplitude oscillations of a simple pendulum is analysed and discussed. The analytical approximate formula for the period is the same as that suggested by Hite (2005 Phys. Teach. 43 290), but it is now obtained analytically by means of a term-by-term comparison of the power-series expansion for the approximate period with the corresponding series for the exact period. (letters and comments)
Passivity control with practically finite-time convergence for large space structures
Hu, Quan; Li, Jinyue; Zhang, Jingrui
2017-02-01
A nonlinear output feedback control law based on passivity is proposed to reduce the vibration of large space structures. The considered system is assumed to be equipped with collocated actuators and sensors. The concept of practically finite-time stability is first developed to describe the finite-time convergence of a passive system. Then, an output feedback is introduced to drive the trajectories of a passive system into a small set around the origin in finite time. Finally, the proposed control strategy is applied to the vibration suppression of large space structures with distributed thrusters and velocity sensors or torque outputting devices and angular rate sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Improvement of effective solid angle using virtual-pivot holder and large EDS detector.
Koshiya, Shogo; Kimoto, Koji
2017-02-01
This paper describes the effective solid angle improvement achieved using a large-area silicon drift detector together with a virtual-pivot double-tilt specimen holder. The virtual-pivot mechanism enables various designs of specimen-retaining and can reduce the shadowing effect. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were measured and converted into effective solid angles using different types of specimen holders and specimens. The investigated shadowing-free mechanical system yielded effective solid angles approaching the nominal solid angle of 0.464sr. In addition, we have demonstrated the availability of the plastic (polyetheretherketone) specimen holder for low system noise.
Asymmetric dihedral angle offsets for large-size lunar laser ranging retroreflectors
Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masato
2011-08-01
The distribution of two-dimensional velocity aberration is off-centered by 5 to 6 microradians in lunar laser ranging, due to the stable measurement geometry in the motion of the Earth and the Moon. The optical responses of hollow-type retroreflectors are investigated through numerical simulations, especially focusing on large-size, single-reflector targets that can ultimately minimize the systematic error in future lunar laser ranging. An asymmetric dihedral angle offset, i.e. setting unequal angles between the three back faces, is found to be effective for retroreflectors that are larger than 100 mm in diameter. Our numerical simulation results reveal that the optimized return energy increases approximately 3.5 times more than symmetric dihedral angle cases, and the optimized dihedral angle offsets are 0.65-0.8 arcseconds for one angle, and zeroes for the other two angles.
Friction in Orthogonal Cutting Finite Elements Models with Large Negative Rake Angle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.P. Markopoulos
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, orthogonal cutting finite elements models are built for the investigation of the impact of large negative rake angles on the friction coefficient in the tool-chip interface in machining. The simulation results give an insight on the mechanism of chip formation in processes with large negative active rake angle, such as machining with chamfered tools, grinding and micromachining. For the present analysis, cutting conditions resembling the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the aforementioned processes were selected. More specifically, tool rake angles varying from -10o to -55o and Coulomb friction with constant friction coefficient were considered. The results indicate that friction coefficient is greatly affected by the negative tool rake angle, exhibiting values well above 1 for the high extreme of the examined rake angle spectrum.
Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben D. Goscombe
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon
Mlitwa, Nhlanhla Boyfriend
2004-01-01
Convergence in information communication technology is about real issues of technological innovations and change. It encompasses a combination of benefits and challenges, not only for the market, the industry, or technology sectors, but also for the regulatory regime and the society at large. Technology convergence offers massive opportunities for the development of new services and the expansion of consumer choice. It certainly expands the overall information market, and is the catalyst f...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gan Shi-xin
2003-01-01
Lr convergence and convergence in probability for weighted sums of Lq-mixingale arrays have been discussed and the Marcinkiewicz type weak law of large numbers for Lq-mixingale arrays has been obtained.
A Vision-Based Dynamic Rotational Angle Measurement System for Large Civil Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-Jae Lee
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a vision-based rotational angle measurement system for large-scale civil structures. Despite the fact that during the last decade several rotation angle measurement systems were introduced, they however often required complex and expensive equipment. Therefore, alternative effective solutions with high resolution are in great demand. The proposed system consists of commercial PCs, commercial camcorders, low-cost frame grabbers, and a wireless LAN router. The calculation of rotation angle is obtained by using image processing techniques with pre-measured calibration parameters. Several laboratory tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system. Compared with the commercial rotation angle measurement, the results of the system showed very good agreement with an error of less than 1.0% in all test cases. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on the five-story modal testing tower with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally verify the feasibility of the proposed system.
A vision-based dynamic rotational angle measurement system for large civil structures.
Lee, Jong-Jae; Ho, Hoai-Nam; Lee, Jong-Han
2012-01-01
In this paper, we propose a vision-based rotational angle measurement system for large-scale civil structures. Despite the fact that during the last decade several rotation angle measurement systems were introduced, they however often required complex and expensive equipment. Therefore, alternative effective solutions with high resolution are in great demand. The proposed system consists of commercial PCs, commercial camcorders, low-cost frame grabbers, and a wireless LAN router. The calculation of rotation angle is obtained by using image processing techniques with pre-measured calibration parameters. Several laboratory tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system. Compared with the commercial rotation angle measurement, the results of the system showed very good agreement with an error of less than 1.0% in all test cases. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on the five-story modal testing tower with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally verify the feasibility of the proposed system.
Cessation of large-scale convergence within the Tibetan plateau by 23 Ma
Meng, J.; Coe, R. S.; Wang, C.; Gilder, S.; Zhao, X.; Liu, H.; Yushuai, W.
2016-12-01
Understanding the dynamics of double-thickening and uplifting the Tibetan crust requires quantitative constraints on the magnitude and timing of crustal shortening. Key to this is defining the palaeogeography of the Asian continent's southern margin, which constitutes a poorly-known factor over the entire India-Asia collisional history. Our new elongation/inclination (E/I) corrected palaeomagnetic data from 23 Ma sediments show that southern Tibet was essentially at the same latitude in the Early Miocene as it is today. This implies that the southern margin of Asia, which resided around 23-24°N latitude from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene, advanced 8.4±4.7° northward between the Late Eocene and the latest Oligocene. Our results therefore suggest that the majority of continental shortening, about 900 km, produced during the India-Asia collision occurred between 50 and 23 Ma. Cessation of large-scale convergence at 23 Ma within the Tibetan plateau corresponds to a transition from compression to extension, commencement of mountain building north of the plateau (e.g., the Tianshan Mountains), a shift from left- to right-lateral slip on the Red River Fault and a modification in Asian climate that includes strengthening of the East Asian monsoon and heightened desertification.
Tilt Angle and Footpoint Separation of Small and Large Bipolar Sunspot Regions Observed with HMI
McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.
2016-02-01
We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager—Debrecen Data with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within ±96 hr of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (≈30 MSH), midsize (≈50 MSH), and large (≈110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions for separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.°6), midsize (5.°9), and large (9.°3) regions. Within ±48 hr of the time of peak umbral area, large regions steadily increase in tilt angle, midsize regions are nearly constant, and small regions show evidence of negative tilt during emergence. A period of growth in footpoint separation occurs over a 72-hr period for all of the regions from roughly 40 to 70 Mm. The smallest bipoles (Jaramillo et al. (2015) results that the sunspots appear to be two distinct populations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turrell, A.E., E-mail: a.turrell09@imperial.ac.uk; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.
2015-10-15
Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products.
Masiero, Joseph
2008-01-01
We present new imaging polarimetric observations of two Main Belt asteroids, (234) Barbara and (387) Aquitania, taken in the first half of 2008 using the Dual-Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii 2.2 meter telescope, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Barbara had been previously shown to exhibit a very unusual polarization-phase curve by Cellino, et al. (2006). Our observations confirm this result and add Aquitania to the growing class of large inversion angle objects. Interestingly, these asteroids show spinel features in their IR spectra suggesting a mineralogical origin to the phase angle-dependent polarimetric features. As spinel is associated with calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and carbonaceous chondrites, these large inversion angle asteroids may represent some of the oldest surfaces in the solar system. Circular as well as linear polarization measurements were obtained but circular polarization was not detected.
CONVERGENCE RATES IN THE LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS FOR B-VALUED RANDOM ELEMENTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁汉营; 王丽
2001-01-01
The author discusses necessary and sufficient conditions of the complete convergence for sums of B-valued independent but not necessarily identically distributed r.v.'s in Banach space of type p, and obtains characterization of Banach space of type p in terms of the complete convergence. A series of classical results on iid real valued r.v.'s are extended. As application authors give the analogous results for randomly indexed sums.
Lievens, Filip; Chasteen, Christopher S.; Day, Eric Anthony; Christiansen, Neil D.
2006-01-01
This study used trait activation theory as a theoretical framework to conduct a large-scale test of the interactionist explanation of the convergent and discriminant validity findings obtained in assessment centers. Trait activation theory specifies the conditions in which cross-situationally consistent and inconsistent candidate performances are…
Characteristics Of Imaging By Reflecting Prisms In Turning At Large Angle
Zhijian, Wang; Bixin, Deng
1987-01-01
The change in image caused by turning reflecting prism in a large angle has been discussed in this paper. Moving image characteristic of the reflecting prism is expressed by characteristic direction and image deflection extreme value plane, it provides the theory basis for designing, scanning and tracing instruments.
Installation du détecteur NA62 Large Angle Veto
2012-01-01
In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.
Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.
2004-01-01
Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...
Costache, M. V.; Watts, S. M.; Sladkov, M.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Wees, B. J.
2006-01-01
The on-chip resonant driving of large cone-angle magnetization precession of an individual nanoscale Permalloy element is demonstrated. Strong driving is realized by locating the element in close proximity to the shorted end of a coplanar strip waveguide, which generates a microwave magnetic field.
On the impact of large angle CMB polarization data on cosmological parameters
Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Gerbino, Martina; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Salvati, Laura; Trombetti, Tiziana
2016-01-01
(abridged) We study the impact of the large-angle CMB polarization datasets publicly released by the WMAP and Planck satellites on the estimation of cosmological parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM model. To complement large-angle polarization, we consider the high-resolution CMB datasets from either WMAP or Planck, as well as CMB lensing as traced by Planck. In the case of WMAP, we compute the large-angle polarization likelihood starting over from low-resolution frequency maps and their covariance matrices, and perform our own foreground mitigation technique, which includes as a possible alternative Planck 353 GHz data to trace polarized dust. We find that the latter choice induces a downward shift in the optical depth $\\tau$, of order ~$2\\sigma$, robust to the choice of the complementary high-l dataset. When the Planck 353 GHz is consistently used to minimize polarized dust emission, WMAP and Planck 70 GHz large-angle polarization data are in remarkable agreement: by combining them we find $\\tau = 0.066 ^{+0.012...
McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2014-01-01
Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10 (exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.
Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade
McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2013-01-01
Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10(exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.
De Souza, Renate Ferreira; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Viestenz, Anja; Küchle, Michael; Naumann, Gottfried O H
2003-08-01
To study the morphologic properties of perpendicular (P), convergent (C), and divergent (D) cut angles using different speeds of rotations during donor and recipient nonmechanical trephination for experimental penetrating keratoplasty. With a Q-switched 2.94-microm Er:YAG laser corneal trephination was performed in 150 enucleated porcine eyes using ceramic open masks with 8 "orientation teeth/notches" and an automated globe rotation device allowing different cut angles [0 degree (P), 10 and 20 degrees (C and D)] toward the optical axis and variation of the rotation speed [3, 7, and 11 rotations per minute (rpm)]. The regularity of the cut (I, regular; II, slightly irregular; III, irregular) was assessed by light microscopy. The area of thermal damage and the number and size of "spikes" in the stroma at the superficial, intermediate and deep level of the excision were analyzed using digital images and the Optimas image processing software. The regularity of the cut was classified as I in 42%/22% of donor/recipient and as II in 41%/56%, respectively. The thermal damage was least expressed with D20 degree cut angle and donor mask (P trephination, the thermal damage at the deep level was greatest with 7 rpm (P trephination with appropriate settings results in low thermal damage zones at the cut margin. Different cut angles and speeds of trephination may affect the cut performance and quality of the excision. In our study, low rotation speed and divergent donor cut angles showed the best results. The cut quality and the small thermal damage with the Q-switched 2.94-microm Er:YAG laser seem to be tolerable for corneal trephination. Therefore, this modality may be a low-cost, easy-to-handle alternative for nonmechanical corneal transplantation in humans.
A large-angle cold-neutron bender using sequential garland reflections
Suzuki, J; Tasaki, S; Ebisawa, T
2002-01-01
We discuss the principle and performance of a new cold-neutron bender using sequential garland reflections in order to bend a neutron beam with a large divergence to a large angle. Using this bender for a pulsed neutron source, we can distribute cold neutrons or polarized cold neutrons if necessary to plural spectrometers at a cold-neutron-guide tube to avoid the frame-overlap problem of cold neutrons. (orig.)
On the impact of large angle CMB polarization data on cosmological parameters
Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Burigana, Carlo; Gerbino, Martina; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Salvati, Laura; Trombetti, Tiziana
2017-02-01
We study the impact of the large-angle CMB polarization datasets publicly released by the WMAP and Planck satellites on the estimation of cosmological parameters of the ΛCDM model. To complement large-angle polarization, we consider the high resolution (or "high-l") CMB datasets from either WMAP or Planck as well as CMB lensing as traced by Planck's measured four point correlation function. In the case of WMAP, we compute the large-angle polarization likelihood starting over from low resolution frequency maps and their covariance matrices, and perform our own foreground mitigation technique, which includes as a possible alternative Planck 353 GHz data to trace polarized dust. We find that the latter choice induces a downward shift in the optical depth τ, roughly of order 2σ, robust to the choice of the complementary high resolution dataset. When the Planck 353 GHz is consistently used to minimize polarized dust emission, WMAP and Planck 70 GHz large-angle polarization data are in remarkable agreement: by combining them we find τ = 0.066 +0.012‑0.013, again very stable against the particular choice for high-l data. We find that the amplitude of primordial fluctuations As, notoriously degenerate with τ, is the parameter second most affected by the assumptions on polarized dust removal, but the other parameters are also affected, typically between 0.5 and 1σ. In particular, cleaning dust with Planck's 353 GHz data imposes a 1σ downward shift in the value of the Hubble constant H0, significantly contributing to the tension reported between CMB based and direct measurements of the present expansion rate. On the other hand, we find that the appearance of the so-called low l anomaly, a well-known tension between the high- and low-resolution CMB anisotropy amplitude, is not significantly affected by the details of large-angle polarization, or by the particular high-l dataset employed.
X-ray tomography of large objects with limited measurement angle
Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Markkanen, Markku; Sundberg, Pauli
2014-02-01
In this paper we present an efficient implementation of an algorithm for reconstructing a 3D volume from limited angle projection data, based on statistical inversion theory. We demonstrate the strength of the method for detecting structural defects in large composite aerospace components, whose dimensions prevent acquiring measurements over the full circle. In comparison with a number of other tomographic reconstruction methods that can be applied to the limited angle case, such as tomosynthesis or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), we achieve superior depth resolution with reduced noise and artifacts.
Formation of coastline features by large-scale instabilities induced by high-angle waves.
Ashton, A; Murray, A B; Arnault, O
2001-11-15
Along shore sediment transport that is driven by waves is generally assumed to smooth a coastline. This assumption is valid for small angles between the wave crest lines and the shore, as has been demonstrated in shoreline models. But when the angle between the waves and the shoreline is sufficiently large, small perturbations to a straight shoreline will grow. Here we use a numerical model to investigate the implications of this instability mechanism for large-scale morphology over long timescales. Our simulations show growth of coastline perturbations that interact with each other to produce large-scale features that resemble various kinds of natural landforms, including the capes and cuspate forelands observed along the Carolina coast of southeastern North America. Wind and wave data from this area support our hypothesis that such an instability mechanism could be responsible for the formation of shoreline features at spatial scales up to hundreds of kilometres and temporal scales up to millennia.
Characteristics of very large aspect angle E-region coherent echoes at 933 MHz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. J. Jackel
Full Text Available The EISCAT UHF radar system was used to study the characteristics of E-region coherent backscatter at very large magnetic aspect angles (5–11°. Data taken using 60 μs pulses during elevation scans through horizontally uniform backscatter permitted the use of inversion techniques to determine height profiles of the scattering layer. The layer was always singly peaked, with a mean height of 104 km, and mean thickness (full width at half maximum of 10 km, both independent of aspect angle. Aspect sensitivities were also estimated, with the Sodankylä-Tromsø link observing 5 dB/degree at aspect angles near 5°, decreasing to 3 dB/degree at 10° aspect angle. Observed coherent phase velocities from all three stations were found to be roughly consistent with LOS measurements of a common E-region phase velocity vector. The E-region phase velocity had the same orientation as the F-region ion drift velocity, but was approximately 50% smaller in magnitude. Spectra were narrow with skewness of about +1 (for negative velocities, increasing slightly with aspect angle.
Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.
1990-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.
TILT ANGLE AND FOOTPOINT SEPARATION OF SMALL AND LARGE BIPOLAR SUNSPOT REGIONS OBSERVED WITH HMI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClintock, B. H. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 (Australia); Norton, A. A., E-mail: u1049686@umail.usq.edu.au, E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu [HEPL, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States)
2016-02-10
We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager—Debrecen Data with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within ±96 hr of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (≈30 MSH), midsize (≈50 MSH), and large (≈110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions for separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.°6), midsize (5.°9), and large (9.°3) regions. Within ±48 hr of the time of peak umbral area, large regions steadily increase in tilt angle, midsize regions are nearly constant, and small regions show evidence of negative tilt during emergence. A period of growth in footpoint separation occurs over a 72-hr period for all of the regions from roughly 40 to 70 Mm. The smallest bipoles (<9 MSH) are outliers in that they do not obey Joy's law and have a much smaller footpoint separation. We confirm the Muñoz-Jaramillo et al. results that the sunspots appear to be two distinct populations.
Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions
Fukuda, T; Ishida, H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuo, T; Mikado, S; Nishimura, S; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Sudou, J; Ariga, A; Tufanli, S
2014-01-01
We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles $(1.0 \\leq |tan \\theta| \\leq 3.5)$. This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95$\\%$ or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.
Large-angle scattering of multi-GeV muons on thin Lead targets
Longhin, A; Pupilli, F
2015-01-01
The probability of large-angle scattering for multi-GeV muons in thin ($t/X_0 \\sim 10^{-1}$) lead targets is studied. The new estimates presented here are based both on simulation programs (GEANT4 libraries) and theoretical calculations. In order to validate the results provided by simulation, a comparison is drawn with experimental data from the literature. This study is particularly relevant when applied to muons originating from $\
Tilt Angle and Footpoint Separation of Small and Large Bipolar Sunspot Regions Observed with HMI
McClintock, Bruce H
2016-01-01
We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager - Debrecen Data (HMIDD) with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within +/-96 hours of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (~30 MSH), midsize (~50 MSH), and large (~110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions in separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.6 degrees),...
Convergences: Possibilities for Therapeutic Intervention in a Large Scale Community Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola Oddy
2005-07-01
Full Text Available This article describes a small community from the perspective of a musical celebration that encompasses the nature of the community into an expression of commitment, coordination, cooperation and fulfillment. This celebration of youth and community, called "Convergences" will be analysed from a systems perspective considering the perspective of health promotion and prevention that can be offered through the participation of a music therapist in the design and implementation of this type of community event.
A convergent Born series for solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in arbitrarily large media
Osnabrugge, Gerwin; Vellekoop, Ivo M
2016-01-01
We present a fast method for numerically solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Our iterative method is based on the Born series, which we modified to achieve convergence for scattering media of arbitrary size and scattering strength. Compared to pseudospectral time-domain simulations, our modified Born approach is two orders of magnitude faster and nine orders of magnitude more accurate in benchmark tests in 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional systems.
A convergent Born series for solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in arbitrarily large media
Osnabrugge, Gerwin; Leedumrongwatthanakun, Saroch; Vellekoop, Ivo M.
2016-10-01
We present a fast method for numerically solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Our iterative method is based on the Born series, which we modified to achieve convergence for scattering media of arbitrary size and scattering strength. Compared to pseudospectral time-domain simulations, our modified Born approach is two orders of magnitude faster and nine orders of magnitude more accurate in benchmark tests in 1, 2, and 3-dimensional systems.
Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap.
Gao, Haiyang; Tang, Yuanhe; Hua, Dengxin; Liu, Hanchen
2011-10-10
A wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proposed to effectively reduce the size of the glass arms and constraint on material. It provides a novel and practical instrument for ground based wind measurement of the upper atmosphere. The field widening conditions for the large air gap are calculated in theory. For the five spectral lines of 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm, 732.0 nm, 834.6 nm, and 865.7 nm, the optimal results under ideal condition are obtained with air gaps of 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.0 cm, respectively. With the fixed optical path difference (OPD) of 7.495 cm, three pairs of glass arms are optimized. The pair with length of 1.5 cm for air gap, 5.765 cm for H-ZF12, and 2.956 cm for H-ZLaF54, has better effect of field widening than the other two pairs and its OPD variation is only within 0.30 wavelengths at incident angle of 3°. For developing a more practical wide-angle Michelson interferometer, the H-K9L glass with size of 4.445 cm is employed as the arm material of solid interferometer. The experiment for field of view of 3° is designed and the data processing and analysis for 60 images show the agreement between experimental results and theoretical simulation. The OPD variations are only within 0.27 wavelengths for image edge. The feasibility and practicality of the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proved by means of theory and experiment.
Performance of the Fourier rebinning algorithm for PET with large acceptance angles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S.; Lewitt, Robert M.; Becher, Amir J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Blockley Hall 4th floor, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021 (United States)
1998-04-01
The recently proposed Fourier rebinning (FORE) technique of 3D PET reconstruction is investigated over a wide range of axial acceptance angles. In this study we evaluate the performance of the FORE technique using spatial resolution, contrast and noise figures of merit and compare reconstruction performance of the FORE (followed by multislice 2D reconstruction) to the 3D-RP technique for large-acceptance-angle data ({+-}26.25 deg.). Our results show that the FORE technique does not affect the transverse resolution. On the other hand the axial resolution using FORE deteriorates faster, compared with the 3D-RP, at large radii as the acceptance angle increases. Concerning the noise behaviour, we have found that filtering has better ability to suppress the noise in the FORE reconstruction, compared with the 3D-RP reconstruction, especially in the slices near the edge of the axial field of view. Overall, the combination of good performance and fast reconstruction time makes the FORE technique a practical choice for 3D PET applications. (author)
Lai, Xuandi; Feng, Xiumei; Zhang, Menghuan; Hong, Ruijin; Chen, Yongxiang; Li, Aiqing; Deng, Xiulong; Hu, Jianqiang
2014-03-01
Angled silver/silver (Ag/Ag) homojunction nanowires (HNWs) with an average diameter of about 72 nm have been prepared by a straightforward and effective solvothermal method. The synthesis involves a one-step, non-seed, and template-less process to large-scale Ag/Ag HNWs, which is low-cost and proceeds at moderate temperatures. Two neighboring Ag nanorods or nanowires were connected into obtuse angle by Ag/Ag homojunction. It was found that synthesizing Ag/Ag HNWs were very sensitive to reaction temperature and polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration. Only through finely controlling these reaction parameters, the high-quality Ag/Ag HNWs could be formed in large scale and their surface plasmon resonance properties could be effectively tailored. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction investigations showed that the Ag/Ag HNWs were generated with a twinned crystalline structure. We also proposed a primary experimental model to illustrate the growth mechanism of the angled Ag/Ag HNWs.
Characteristics of very large aspect angle E-region coherent echoes at 933 MHz
Jackel, B. J.; Moorcroft, D. R.; Schlegel, K.
1997-01-01
The EISCAT UHF radar system was used to study the characteristics of E-region coherent backscatter at very large magnetic aspect angles (5-11Â°). Data taken using 60 s pulses during elevation scans through horizontally uniform backscatter permitted the use of inversion techniques to determine height profiles of the scattering layer. The layer was always singly peaked, with a mean height of 104 km, and mean thickness (full width at half maximum) of 10 km, both independent of aspect angle. Aspect sensitivities were also estimated, with the Sodankylä-Tromsø link observing 5 dB/degree at aspect angles near 5Â°, decreasing to 3 dB/degree at 10Â° aspect angle. Observed coherent phase velocities from all three stations were found to be roughly consistent with LOS measurements of a common E-region phase velocity vector. The E-region phase velocity had the same orientation as the F-region ion drift velocity, but was approximately 50% smaller in magnitude. Spectra were narrow with skewness of about +1 (for negative velocities), increasing slightly with aspect angle. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood (Imperial College, London), J. C. Samson (University of Alberta, Edmonton), L. J. Lanzerotti (AT&T Bell Laboratories), A. Wolfe (New York City Technical College) and to Dr. M. Vellante (University of LÁquila) for helpful discussions. They also thank Dr. A. Meloni (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma) who made available geomagnetic field observations from LÁquila Geomagnetic Observatory. This research activity at LÁquila is supported by MURST (40% and 60% contracts) and by GIFCO/CNR. Topical Editor K.-H. Glaßmeier thanks C. Waters and S. Fujita for their help in evaluating this paper.-> Correspondence to :P. Francia->
Johannessen, Kim
2010-01-01
An analytic approximation of the solution to the differential equation describing the oscillations of a simple pendulum at large angles and with initial velocity is discussed. In the derivation, a sinusoidal approximation has been applied, and an analytic formula for the large-angle period of the simple pendulum is obtained, which also includes…
Johannessen, Kim
2010-01-01
An analytic approximation of the solution to the differential equation describing the oscillations of a simple pendulum at large angles and with initial velocity is discussed. In the derivation, a sinusoidal approximation has been applied, and an analytic formula for the large-angle period of the simple pendulum is obtained, which also includes…
Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera
Petry, D
2001-01-01
The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.
The ISW effect and the lack of large-angle CMB temperature correlations
Copi, Craig J; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
It is by now well established that the magnitude of the two-point angular-correlation function of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is anomalously low for angular separations greater than about 60 degrees. Physics explanations of this anomaly typically focus on the properties of the Universe at the surface of last scattering, relying on the fact that large-angle temperature fluctuations are dominated by the Sachs-Wolfe effect (SW). However, these fluctuations also receive important contributions from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) at both early (eISW) and late ($\\ell$ISW) times. Here we study the correlations in those large-angle temperature fluctuations and their relative contributions to $S_{1/2}$ -- the standard measure of the correlations on large angular scales. We find that in the best-fitting $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, while the auto-correlation of the early contributions (SW plus eISW) dominates $S_{1/2}$, there are also significant contributions originating from cross-ter...
Xu, Chunyun; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Jing, Xiaoli
2016-09-01
A type of laser semiactive angle measurement system is designed for target detecting and tracking. Only one detector is used to detect target location from four distributed aperture optical systems through a 4×1 imaging fiber bundle. A telecentric optical system in image space is designed to increase the efficiency of imaging fiber bundles. According to the working principle of a four-quadrant (4Q) detector, fiber diamond alignment is adopted between an optical system and a 4Q detector. The structure of the laser semiactive angle measurement system is, we believe, novel. Tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits of manufacture and installation errors of the optical system. The performance of the proposed method is identified by computer simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that the linear region of the system is ±12°, with measurement error of better than 0.2°. In general, this new system can be used with large field of view and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable, and fast method for angle measurement in practical situations.
Convergence of Godunov-Type Schemes for Scalar Conservation Laws Under Large Time Steps
2006-01-01
f(u) = 0, in Rm × [0, T ] u(x, 0) = u0(x), in R m (1.1) where u0(x) ∈ BV, the space of functions with bounded variation . We do not consider boundary...entropy solution operator S∆t of (1.1) [10]. Also for a bounded variation function w, it is easy to verify that ‖w − A(w)‖L1 ≤ C∆xTV (w) (2.6) 7 In...it is of bounded variation . The proof for the multi-dimensional case is similar. We can now proceed to prove the desired convergence en = ‖u(·, tn
Future constraints on angle-dependent non-Gaussianity from large radio surveys
Raccanelli, Alvise; Shiraishi, Maresuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Bertacca, Daniele; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino; Norris, Ray P.; Parkinson, David
2017-03-01
We investigate how well future large-scale radio surveys could measure different shapes of primordial non-Gaussianity; in particular we focus on angle-dependent non-Gaussianity arising from primordial anisotropic sources, whose bispectrum has an angle dependence between the three wavevectors that is characterized by Legendre polynomials PL and expansion coefficients cL. We provide forecasts for measurements of galaxy power spectrum, finding that Large-Scale Structure (LSS) data could allow measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity that would be competitive with, or improve upon, current constraints set by CMB experiments, for all the shapes considered. We argue that the best constraints will come from the possibility to assign redshift information to radio galaxy surveys, and investigate a few possible scenarios for the EMU and SKA surveys. A realistic (futuristic) modeling could provide constraints of fNLloc ≈ 1(0 . 5) for the local shape, fNL of O(10) (O(1)) for the orthogonal, equilateral and folded shapes, and cL=1 ≈ 80(2) , cL=2 ≈ 400(10) for angle-dependent non-Gaussianity showing that only futuristic galaxy surveys will be able to set strong constraints on these models. Nevertheless, the more futuristic forecasts show the potential of LSS analyses to considerably improve current constraints on non-Gaussianity, and so on models of the primordial Universe. Finally, we find the minimum requirements that would be needed to reach σ(cL=1) = 10, which can be considered as a typical (lower) value predicted by some (inflationary) models.
Future Constraints on Angle-Dependent Non-Gaussianity from Large Radio Surveys
Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Bertacca, Daniele; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino; Norris, Ray P; Parkinson, David
2015-01-01
We investigate how well future large-scale radio surveys could measure different shapes of primordial non-Gaussianity; in particular we focus on angle-dependent non-Gaussianity arising from primordial anisotropic sources, whose bispectrum has an angle dependence between the three wavevectors that is characterized by Legendre polynomials $\\mathcal{P}_L$ and expansion coefficients $c_L$. We provide forecasts for measurements of galaxy power spectrum, finding that Large-Scale Structure (LSS) data could allow measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity competitive or improving upon current constraints set by CMB experiments, for all the shapes considered. We argue that the best constraints will come from the possibility to assign redshift information to radio galaxy surveys, and investigate a few possible scenarios for the EMU and SKA surveys. A realistic (futuristic) modeling could provide constraints of $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm loc} \\approx 1 (0.5)$ for the local shape, $f_{\\rm NL}$ of $\\mathcal{O}(10) (\\mathcal{O}(1))$...
Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishikawa, Ryo, E-mail: ishikawa@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lupini, Andrew R. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hinuma, Yoyo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, 328 Ferris Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
2015-04-15
To fully understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us to measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation. - Highlights: • We theoretically demonstrate 3D near-atomic depth resolution imaging by large-angle illumination STEM. • This method can be useful to identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies within materials. • This method can be useful to determine reconstructed surface atomic structures.
Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at large inclination angle.
Bourguet, Rémi; Triantafyllou, Michael S
2015-01-28
The free vibrations of a flexible circular cylinder inclined at 80° within a uniform current are investigated by means of direct numerical simulation, at Reynolds number 500 based on the body diameter and inflow velocity. In spite of the large inclination angle, the cylinder exhibits regular in-line and cross-flow vibrations excited by the flow through the lock-in mechanism, i.e. synchronization of body motion and vortex formation. A profound reconfiguration of the wake is observed compared with the stationary body case. The vortex-induced vibrations are found to occur under parallel, but also oblique vortex shedding where the spanwise wavenumbers of the wake and structural response coincide. The shedding angle and frequency increase with the spanwise wavenumber. The cylinder vibrations and fluid forces present a persistent spanwise asymmetry which relates to the asymmetry of the local current relative to the body axis, owing to its in-line bending. In particular, the asymmetrical trend of flow-body energy transfer results in a monotonic orientation of the structural waves. Clockwise and counter-clockwise figure eight orbits of the body alternate along the span, but the latter are found to be more favourable to structure excitation. Additional simulations at normal incidence highlight a dramatic deviation from the independence principle, which states that the system behaviour is essentially driven by the normal component of the inflow velocity.
Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System
Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.
2014-02-01
The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.
Large mixing angle solution to the solar neutrino problem and random matter density perturbations
Guzzo, M M; Reggiani, N
2003-01-01
There are reasons to believe that mechanisms exist in the solar interior which lead to random density perturbations in the resonant region of the Large Mixing Angle solution to the solar neutrino problem. We find that, in the presence of these density perturbations, the best fit point in the (sin^2(2\\theta), Delta_m^2) parameter space moves to smaller values, compared with the values obtained for the standard LMA solution. Combining solar data with KamLAND results, we find a new compatibility region, which we call VERY-LOW LMA, where sin^2(2\\theta) ~ 0.6 and Delta_m^2~2e-5 eV^2, for random density fluctuations of order 5% < \\xi< 8%. We argue that such values of density fluctuations are still allowed by helioseismological observations at small scales of order 10 - 1000 km deep inside the solar core.
Null reconstruction of orthogonal circular polarization hologram with large recording angle.
Wu, An'an; Kang, Guoguo; Zang, Jinliang; Liu, Ying; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo
2015-04-01
We report on the null reconstruction of polarization volume hologram recorded by orthogonal circularly polarized waves with a large cross angle. Based on the recently developed tensor theory for polarization holography, the disappearance of the reconstruction was analytically verified, where a nice agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results. When the polarization and intensity hologram attain a balance, not only the null reconstruction but also the faithful reconstruction can be realized by the illumination of the orthogonal reference wave and original reference wave. As a consequence of the hologram recorded without paraxial approximation, the null reconstruction may lead to important applications, such as a potential enhancement in optical storage capacity for volume holograms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xixiang Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.
Loop myopexy with true muscle transplantation for very large angle heavy eye syndrome patient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitendra Jethani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presenting with complaints of squint for last 20 years. His visual acuity was 20/400 in right eye (RE and 20/30 in left eye (LE with glasses. His refraction was RE -16.75/-2.5 D cycl 180 and LE was -14.5/-1.5 D cycl 180. His axial length was 31.23 mm In RE and 29.72 mm in LE. On examination we found he had RE large esotropia with hypotropia measuring 130 pd base out and 40 pd base up in RE. A computerized tomography scan revealed that the superior rectus (SR was shifted nasally, and lateral rectus (LR was shifted inferiorly. A RE medial rectus (MR recession and LR resection with muscle transplantation on the MR was done. A loop myopexy was done to correct the path of the LR and SR. The patient had only 18 pd eso and 20 pd hypo on follow-up after 3 months. Loop myopexy in conjunction with muscle transplantation is a safe and effective procedure for large angle esotropia associated with heavy eye syndrome.
The Convergence of High Performance Computing and Large Scale Data Analytics
Duffy, D.; Bowen, M. K.; Thompson, J. H.; Yang, C. P.; Hu, F.; Wills, B.
2015-12-01
As the combinations of remote sensing observations and model outputs have grown, scientists are increasingly burdened with both the necessity and complexity of large-scale data analysis. Scientists are increasingly applying traditional high performance computing (HPC) solutions to solve their "Big Data" problems. While this approach has the benefit of limiting data movement, the HPC system is not optimized to run analytics, which can create problems that permeate throughout the HPC environment. To solve these issues and to alleviate some of the strain on the HPC environment, the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) has created the Advanced Data Analytics Platform (ADAPT), which combines both HPC and cloud technologies to create an agile system designed for analytics. Large, commonly used data sets are stored in this system in a write once/read many file system, such as Landsat, MODIS, MERRA, and NGA. High performance virtual machines are deployed and scaled according to the individual scientist's requirements specifically for data analysis. On the software side, the NCCS and GMU are working with emerging commercial technologies and applying them to structured, binary scientific data in order to expose the data in new ways. Native NetCDF data is being stored within a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) enabling storage-proximal processing through MapReduce while continuing to provide accessibility of the data to traditional applications. Once the data is stored within HDFS, an additional indexing scheme is built on top of the data and placed into a relational database. This spatiotemporal index enables extremely fast mappings of queries to data locations to dramatically speed up analytics. These are some of the first steps toward a single unified platform that optimizes for both HPC and large-scale data analysis, and this presentation will elucidate the resulting and necessary exascale architectures required for future systems.
Large-angle elastic scattering of. pi. /sup +/ and. pi. /sup -/ from /sup 16/O at 114 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhuga, K.S.; Burleson, G.R.; Faucett, J.A.; Boudrie, R.L.; Cottingame, W.B.; Greene, S.J.; Morris, C.L.; Tanaka, N.; Wang, Z.F.; Nanda, S.
1985-12-01
Elastic cross sections have been measured for the scattering of ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ from /sup 16/O at 114 MeV in the angular range of 115/sup 0/ to 175/sup 0/ (c.m.). Large cross sections and large ..pi../sup +//..pi../sup -/ differences have been observed beyond 140/sup 0/ (c.m.). First-order optical model calculations fail to reproduce the large-angle data. Second-order effects generally improve the fits, but the details of the present data together with the results of earlier measurements at smaller angles have not been satisfactorily explained.
A Double-Porosity Model for Pumping Test in a Fractured Formation of a Large Dip Angle
Ho, Shin-Wei; Chen, chia-shyun
2016-04-01
A Cenozoic sandstone fractured formation is found to have a dip angle, θ, as large as 47 degree. Assuming the dip angle creates a uniform regional flow in the fractured formation, the flow field due to pumping is no longer radially symmetric with respect to the pumping. Instead, a capture zone will appear in the neighborhood of the pumping well. A double porosity model is developed for the problem of interest, where the matrix flow is taken into account by the distributed parameter approach. Neglecting fracture storage, there are three hydrogeological parameters in the model; namely, fracture transmissivity Tf, matrix hydraulic conductivity Km, and matrix storage coefficient Sm. A Laplace-domain solution is determined, and its large time asymptotic solution analytically inverted, which indicates that the drawdown variation of large times exhibits a straight line in a semilog plot. When the dip angle is known, the slope of this straight line can be used to determine Tf, and the intercept of the logarithmic time axis can be used to estimate Sm. The remaining Km can be uniquely determined by the curve-matching method for drawdown of small and intermediate times without difficulty. The larger the dip angle, the closer the stagnation point to the pumping well, and the smaller the capture zone. An overestimate of Tf by a factor of cosθ results if the dip angle effect is neglected. However, neglecting the dip angle has less effect on the estimates of Km and Sm.
Saunders, John E; Chen, Hao; Brauer, Chris; Clayton, McGregor; Chen, Weijian; Barnes, Jack A; Loock, Hans-Peter
2015-12-07
The uptake and release of sorbates into films and coatings is typically accompanied by changes of the films' refractive index and thickness. We provide a comprehensive model to calculate the concentration of the sorbate from the average refractive index and the film thickness, and validate the model experimentally. The mass fraction of the analyte partitioned into a film is described quantitatively by the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and the Clausius-Mosotti equation. To validate the model, the uptake kinetics of water and other solvents into SU-8 films (d = 40-45 μm) were explored. Large-angle interferometric refractometry measurements can be used to characterize films that are between 15 μm to 150 μm thick and, Fourier analysis, is used to determine independently the thickness, the average refractive index and the refractive index at the film-substrate interface at one-second time intervals. From these values the mass fraction of water in SU-8 was calculated. The kinetics were best described by two independent uptake processes having different rates. Each process followed one-dimensional Fickian diffusion kinetics with diffusion coefficients for water into SU-8 photoresist film of 5.67 × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1) and 61.2 × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1).
Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets
Apollonio, M.; Bagulya, A.; Barr, G.; Blondel, A.; Bobisut, F.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.; Borghi, S.; Bunyatov, S.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Catanesi, M.G.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chimenti, P.; Coney, L.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Dumarchez, J.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Ferri, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Giani, S.; Giannini, G.; Gibin, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Gossling, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Grichine, V.; Grossheim, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Howlett, L.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kolev, D.; Krasnoperov, A.; Martin-Albo, J.; Meurer, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mills, G.B.; Morone, M.C.; Novella, P.; Orestano, D.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pastore, F.; Piperov, S.; Polukhina, N.; Popov, B.; Prior, G.; Radicioni, E.; Schmitz, D.; Schroeter, R.; Skoro, G.; Sorel, M.; Tcherniaev, E.; Temnikov, P.; Tereschenko, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tsenov, R.; Tsukerman, I.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.
2009-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential pi+/- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p <= 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad using pi+/- beams incident on beryllium, aluminium, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections d2sigma/dpdtheta at six incident beam momenta. Data at 3 GeV/c, 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c, and 12 GeV/c are available for all targets while additional data at 8.9 GeV/...
Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets
Apollonio, M; Bagulya, A; Barr, G; Blondel, A; Bobisut, F; Bogomilov, M; Bonesini, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Bunyatov, S; Burguet-Castell, J; Catanesi, M G; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Chimenti, P; Coney, L; Di Capua, E; Dore, U; Dumarchez, J; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Ferri, F; Gastaldi, U; Giani, S; Giannini, G; Gibin, D; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Gößling, C; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Grant, A; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grichine, V; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Howlett, L; Ivanchenko, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kirsanov, M; Kolev, D; Krasnoperov, A; MartíinAlbo, J; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; B Mills, G; Morone, M C; Novella, P; Orestano, D; Palladino, V; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pastore, F; Piperov, S; Polukhina, N; Popov, B; Prior, G; Radicioni, E; Schmitz, D; Schroeter, R; Skoro, G; Sorel, M; Tcherniaev, E; Temnikov, P; Tereschenko, V; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P
2009-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential pi+/- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p <= 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad using pi+/- beams incident on beryllium, aluminium, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections d2sigma/dpdtheta at six incident beam momenta. Data at 3 GeV/c, 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c, and 12 GeV/c are available for all targets while additional data at 8.9 GeV/...
Kwong, David N.; Zhang, Yang; Hosseini, Amir; Chen, Ray T.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a highly compact silicon nano-membrane based optical phased array fabricated using conventional CMOS processing on silicon-on-insulator that provides for over 10 degrees of beam steering in a silicon slab at λ=1.55μm using transverse-electrical polarized light. A low loss 1-to-12 multi-mode interference (MMI) optical beam splitter with high uniformity is used to provide inputs to the optical phased array. Using an unequally spaced waveguide array permits us to relax the half-wavelength spacing requirement for large angle beam steering, thereby avoiding the optical coupling between adjacent waveguides and reducing the side-lobe-level of the array radiation pattern. S-bend waveguides convert the equally spaced MMI output to the unequally spaced wave guide array, while passively equalizing the phases of each array element to compensate for the MMI output phase profile. Independently controllable thin film metal heaters are used to achieve phase shifting using the strong thermo-optic response of silicon. Heat-insulating air grooves minimize thermal crosstalk, while also achieving and low power consumption.
Optical phase curves of exoplanets at small and large phase angles
García Muñoz, Antonio
2016-10-01
Phase curves and secondary eclipses provide key information on exoplanet atmospheres. Indeed, recent work on close-in giant planets observed by Kepler has shown that it is possible to constrain various reflecting, dynamical and thermal properties of their atmospheres from the analysis of the planets' phase curves. This presentation discusses new diagnostic possibilities for the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres with optical phase curves. These possibilities benefit from the fact that at optical wavelengths the signal from the planet is either partly or mostly determined by scattering of starlight within its atmosphere, which entails that the structure of the planet's phase curve mimics to some extent the optical properties of the atmospheric medium. In particular, we will show how cloud properties such as the particle size or the atmospheric scale height might be constrained through observations at small (i.e. near transit) and large (i.e. near occultation) phase angles. We will emphasize how the interpretation of optical phase curves differs from the interpretation of phase curves obtained at longer wavelengths. The conclusions are relevant to the study of Kepler planets, but also to the investigation of phase curves to be delivered by upcoming space missions such as CHEOPS, JWST, PLATO and TESS.
Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; McClernan, K.
2003-07-01
This study examines the degree of two-dimensional curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large "discontinuity angles" of 90° or greater. The discontinuity angle (ω) is measured in the DD's current sheet, the normal (n) to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft and the DD's center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points. The average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE.; the most probable thickness is ≈6 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probable value is 290 RE. The average ω is 140° with a relatively large spread (σ = 28°). The average direction of propagation is: longitude (ϕn) = 194° and latitude (θn) = 7° (but = 27°), where ϕn = 0° is sunward and θn = 0° is the ecliptic plane. Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, i.e., rotational or tangential discontinuity (RD or TD), defined in terms of the "ratio" (in percent) of speed of propagation to net speed of the DD surface, where the net speed is the sum of the convection velocity (along n) plus the propagation speed. The RD %-ratio is moderately small, but the TD ratio is very small or zero. The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal
Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.; McClernan, K.
2002-12-01
This study examines the degree of 2-D curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large ``discontinuity angles" of 90° or greater. The discontinuity angle (ω ) is measured in the DDs current sheet, the normal to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft, and the DDs center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points; average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probably value is 290 RE. The average ω is 140° with a relatively large spread (σ =28°). The average direction of propagation is: longitude = 194° and latitude = 7° (but = 27°). Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, defined in terms the ratio of speed of propagation to net speed (``ratio") of the DD surface, (the RD ratio is high and the TD ratio is very low or zero). The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal component of the magnetic field. There is little difference in any average parameter value according to type. However, the average ω appears to depend slightly on type with the for the RDs being smaller. A DDs type was shown to change in either direction between the two observation positions about 40% of the
System identification of the Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Facility (LAMSTF)
Huang, Jen-Kuang
1993-01-01
The Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Facility (LAMSTF), a laboratory-scale research project to demonstrate the magnetic suspension of objects over wide ranges of attitudes, has been developed. This system represents a scaled model of a planned Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LAMSTF system consists of a planar array of five copper electromagnets which actively suspend a small cylindrical permanent magnet. The cylinder is a rigid body and can be controlled to move in five independent degrees of freedom. Five position variables are sensed indirectly by using infra-red light-emitting diodes and light-receiving phototransistors. The motion of the suspended cylinder is in general nonlinear and hence only the linear, time-invariant perturbed motion about an equilibrium state is considered. One of the main challenges in this project is the control of the suspended element over a wide range of orientations. An accurate dynamic model plans an essential role in controller design. The analytical model of the LAMSTF system includes highly unstable real poles (about 10 Hz) and low-frequency flexible modes (about 0.16 Hz). Projection filters are proposed to identify the state space model from closed-loop test data in time domain. A canonical transformation matrix is also derived to transform the identified state space model into the physical coordinate. The LAMSTF system is stabilized by using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) feedback controller. The rate information is obtained by calculating the back difference of the sensed position signals. The reference inputs contain five uncorrelated random signals. This control input and the system reponse are recorded as input/output data to identify the system directly from the projection filters. The sampling time is 4 ms and the model is fairly accurate in predicting the step responses for different controllers while the analytical model has a deficiency in the pitch axis.
System identification of the Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF)
Huang, Jen-Kuang
1994-01-01
The Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF), a laboratory-scale research project to demonstrate the magnetic suspension of objects over wide ranges of attitudes, has been developed. This system represents a scaled model of a planned Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LAMSTF consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet suspended element which is levitated above a planar array of five electromagnets mounted in a circular configuration. The cylinder is a rigid body and can be controlled to move in five independent degrees of freedom. Six position variables are sensed indirectly by using infrared light-emitting diodes and light-receiving phototransistors. The motion of the suspended cylinder is in general nonlinear and hence only the linear, time-invariant perturbed motion about an equilibrium state is considered. One of the main challenges in this project is the control of the suspended element over a wide range of orientations. An accurate dynamic model plays an essential role in controller design. The analytical model is first derived and open-loop characteristics discussed. The system is shown to be highly unstable and requires feedback control for system identification. Projection filters are first proposed to identify the state space model from closed-loop input/output test data in the time domain. This method is then extended to identify linear systems from the frequency test data. A canonical transformation matrix is also derived to transform the identified state space model into the physical coordinate. The LAMSTF system is stabilized by using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) feedback controller for closed-loop identification. The rate information is obtained by calculating the back difference of the sensed position signals. Only the closed-loop random input/output data are recorded. Preliminary results from numerical simulations demonstrate that the identified system model is fairly accurate from either time domain or
基于CKF的SINS大方位失准角初始对准%Initial alignment of large azimuth misalignment angle in SINS based on CKF
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙枫; 唐李军
2012-01-01
The error equation of large azimuth misalignment angle in SINS is nonlinear. To improve the accuracy of the initial alignment in nonlinear model, a new nonlinear filtering method named cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is applied in the initial alignment of SINS. Therefore, an initial alignment nonlinear model under large azimuth misalignment angle is established, and the CKF filter theory based on the spherical-radial cubature criteria is analyzed; then the nonlinear model is simulated with CKF. Simulation results show that the CKF can nicely deal with the nonlinear problems in initial alignment and improve the precision of initial alignment; and the azimuth misalignment angle error can converge to -33.13', which is close to the theoretical estimation precision -32.40' and is better than the-84.14' of EKF.%大方位失准角捷联惯导系统(strapdown inertial narigation system,SINS)误差方程是非线性的,为改善非线性模型下初始对准的精度,提出将一种新的非线性滤波方法(cubature Kalman filter,CKF)应用于捷联惯导系统初始对准中.为此建立了大方位失准角下初始对准非线性模型,分析了基于spherical-radial cubature准则的CKF滤波原理,对非线性模型进行了CKF滤波仿真.仿真结果表明CKF能够很好地处理初始对准中的非线性问题,提高初始对准精度,方位失准角误差能够收敛到- 33.13′,接近理论估计精度-32.40′,优于EKF的-84.14′.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lin Cheng-You; Chen Shu-Jing; Liu Da-He
2013-01-01
The improvement of attosecond pulse reflection by large angle incidence for a periodic multilayer mirror in the extreme ultraviolet region has been discussed.Numerical simulations of both spectral and temporal reflection characteristics of periodic multilayer mirrors under various incident angles have been analyzed and compared.It was found that the periodic multilayer mirror under a larger incidence angle can provide not only higher integrated reflectivity but also a broader reflection band with negligible dispersion,making it possible to obtain better a reflected pulse that has a higher pulse reflection efficiency and shorter pulse duration for attosecond pulse reflection.In addition,by increasing the incident angle,the promotion of attosecond pulse reflection capability has been proven for periodic multilayer mirrors with arbitrary layers.
Kato, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kinsho, Michikazu
2013-07-01
In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, significant losses were observed at the branching of the H0 dump line and the beam position monitor that was inserted downstream of the H0 dump branch duct. These losses were caused by the large-angle scattering of the injection and circulating beams at the charge-exchange foil. To realize high-power operation, these losses must be mitigated. Therefore, a new collimation system was developed and installed in October 2011. To efficiently optimize this system, the behavior of particles scattered by the foil and produced by the absorber were simulated, and the optimal position and angle of the absorber were investigated. During this process, an angle regulation method for the absorber was devised. An outline of this system, the angle regulation method for the absorber, and the performance of this new collimation system are described.
Double Augmented Vertical Rectus Transposition for Large-Angle Esotropia Due to Sixth Nerve Palsy.
Singh, Priyanka; Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Shetty, Shashikant; Vora, Priyanka; Kalwaniya, Suresh
2016-11-01
To study the binocular alignment and ocular motility in patients with large-angle esotropia due to sixth nerve palsy treated with double augmented vertical recti transposition. This was a prospective interventional study. Fifteen patients with non-resolving sixth nerve palsy who underwent surgical correction were included in the study. Fourteen patients also underwent an additional medial rectus recession. Two patients with an associated small vertical deviation had a selective augmentation of one vertical rectus muscle. Binocular alignment, ocular motility, duction limitation, improvement in head posture, induced vertical deviations, and field of diplopia-free binocular single vision (when possible) were analyzed. Successful outcome was defined as a residual horizontal deviation of 10 prism diopters (PD) or less with no vertical deviation at final follow-up (6 months). The double augmented Hummelsheim procedure improved esotropia from 58.3 ± 10.8 PD preoperatively to 7.2 ± 5.1 PD postoperatively (P = .001). Three (20%) patients had residual deviation of greater than 10 PD, of which 1 patient had diplopia and was treated with prisms. Postoperative binocular field of vision was performed in 6 patients, the mean of which was 20° for abduction and 45° for adduction. Three of 6 patients had elimination of face turn and the rest had residual head posture of less than 5°. Two patients had an induced vertical deviation of less than 4 PD. In patients who had selective augmentation, the vertical deviation was completely corrected. The patients operated on with double augmentation of the Hummelsheim procedure combined with medial rectus recession had reduced mean primary esotropia and improved diplopia-free field of vision postoperatively. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(6):369-374.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周玭; 陈新民; 马砚南; 杨艳
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: The residual root of anterior teeth are usually repaired by means of post and cores plus porcelain fused metal crown in clinic, and the retention force is mainly provided by the post because of the deletion of crown, so the retention force provided by the post is directly correlated with the long-term effect of repair.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes of retention of cast metal post and core restorations with different convergence angles, and investigate the influence of convergence angles on retention.DESIGN: A repeated observational measurement.SETTING: Department of Prosthodontics, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the building of high polymer material of Sichuan University in May 2005. Fifty-four simulated tooth roots were manufactured by the numerical control machine tools.They were divided into six groups according to the convergence angles of post being 0°, 3.93°, 5.71°, 7.48°, 11.31° and 14.71°, with nine specimens in each group.METHODS: ① Manufacture of the standard specimens: The tooth roots with the convergence angles of 0°,3.93°, 5.71°, 7.48°, 11.31° and 14.71° were prepared with the digital control precision machine. ② Manufacture of the cast post and cores: The post and core wax patterns of the specimens were made in the condition similar to the clinical practice. The post and cores were cast and tried in, necessary grinding was made to ensure the adoption of the posts and the specimens. Then the posts were luted to the specimens with ZPC after the posts and the simulated root canals having een cleaned by alcohol. The posts and the specimens were pressed until the ZPC solidified. ③ Retention Force test: After having been dipped in physiological saline for 24 hours, the bonded castings and specimens were subjected to a tensile testing at the drawing speed of 10 mm per minute.The retention force of post was the load recorded when the post was pulled out from
Maslen, S. H.
1974-01-01
A general method developed for the analysis of inviscid hypersonic shock layers is discussed for application to the case of the shuttle vehicle at high (65 deg) angle of attack. The associated extensive subsonic flow region caused convergence difficulties whose resolution is discussed. It is required that the solution be smoother than anticipated.
Anlauf, H; Manakos, P; Ohl, T
1995-01-01
This manual describes version 2.2 of the Monte Carlo event generator UNIBAB for large angle Bhabha scattering at LEP and SLC. UNIBAB implements higher order electromagnetic radiative corrections and the effects of soft photon exponentiation in a photon shower approach. Weak corrections are included through the use of an electroweak library.
Is bi-maximal mixing compatible with the large angle MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem?
1998-01-01
It is shown that the large angle MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem with a bi-maximal neutrino mixing matrix implies an energy-independent suppression of the solar nu_e flux. The present solar neutrino data exclude this solution of the solar neutrino problem at 99.6% CL.
Slip-stick wetting and large contact angle hysteresis on wrinkled surfaces.
Bukowsky, Colton; Torres, Jessica M; Vogt, Bryan D
2011-02-15
Wetting on a corrugated surface that is formed via wrinkling of a hard skin layer formed by UV oxidation (UVO) of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) slab is studied using advancing and receding water contact angle measurements. The amplitude of the wrinkled pattern can be tuned through the pre-strain of the PDMS prior to surface oxidation. These valleys and peaks in the surface topography lead to anisotropic wetting by water droplets. As the droplet advances, the fluid is free to move along the direction parallel to the wrinkles, but the droplet moving orthogonal to the wrinkles encounters energy barriers due to the topography and slip-stick behavior is observed. As the wrinkle amplitude increases, anisotropy in the sessile droplet increases between parallel and perpendicular directions. For the drops receding perpendicular to the wrinkles formed at high strains, the contact angle tends to decrease steadily towards zero as the drop volume decreases, which can result in apparent hysteresis in the contact angle of over 100°. The wrinkled surfaces can exhibit high sessile and advancing contact angles (>115°), but the receding angle in these cases is generally vanishing as the drop is removed. This effect results in micrometer sized drops remaining in the grooves for these highly wrinkled surfaces, while the flat analogous UVO-treated PDMS shows complete removal of all macroscopic water drops under similar conditions. These wetting characteristics should be considered if these wrinkled surfaces are to be utilized in or as microfluidic devices.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Arjomandi, Maziar; Kotsonis, Marios;
2015-01-01
The current paper investigates the effects of various elements including turbulence, wind shear, yawed inflow, tower shadow, gravity, mass and aerodynamic imbalances on variations of angle of attack and lift coefficient for a large horizontal-axis wind turbine. It will identify the individual...... and the aggregate effect of elements on variations of mean value and standard deviation of the angle of attack and lift coefficient in order to distinguish the major contributing factors. The results of the current study is of paramount importance in the design of active load control systems for wind turbine....
Pradas, Marc; Pumir, Alain; Huber, Greg; Wilkinson, Michael
2017-07-01
Chaos is widely understood as being a consequence of sensitive dependence upon initial conditions. This is the result of an instability in phase space, which separates trajectories exponentially. Here, we demonstrate that this criterion should be refined. Despite their overall intrinsic instability, trajectories may be very strongly convergent in phase space over extremely long periods, as revealed by our investigation of a simple chaotic system (a realistic model for small bodies in a turbulent flow). We establish that this strong convergence is a multi-facetted phenomenon, in which the clustering is intense, widespread and balanced by lacunarity of other regions. Power laws, indicative of scale-free features, characterize the distribution of particles in the system. We use large-deviation and extreme-value statistics to explain the effect. Our results show that the interpretation of the ‘butterfly effect’ needs to be carefully qualified. We argue that the combination of mixing and clustering processes makes our specific model relevant to understanding the evolution of simple organisms. Lastly, this notion of convergent chaos, which implies the existence of conditions for which uncertainties are unexpectedly small, may also be relevant to the valuation of insurance and futures contracts.
Rapidly converging multigrid reconstruction of cone-beam tomographic data
Myers, Glenn R.; Kingston, Andrew M.; Latham, Shane J.; Recur, Benoit; Li, Thomas; Turner, Michael L.; Beeching, Levi; Sheppard, Adrian P.
2016-10-01
In the context of large-angle cone-beam tomography (CBCT), we present a practical iterative reconstruction (IR) scheme designed for rapid convergence as required for large datasets. The robustness of the reconstruction is provided by the "space-filling" source trajectory along which the experimental data is collected. The speed of convergence is achieved by leveraging the highly isotropic nature of this trajectory to design an approximate deconvolution filter that serves as a pre-conditioner in a multi-grid scheme. We demonstrate this IR scheme for CBCT and compare convergence to that of more traditional techniques.
Large-angle. pi. /sup +/p elastic scattering at 66. 8 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brack, J.T.; Kraushaar, J.J.; Rilett, D.J.; Ristinen, R.A.; Ottewell, D.F.; Smith, G.R.; Jeppesen, R.G.; Stevenson, N.R.
1988-11-01
Pion-proton elastic scattering measurements at six angles from 101/sup 0/ to 147/sup 0/ center of mass at 66.8 MeV verify previously published differential cross sections which are at variance with earlier data of others and with generally accepted phase-shift solutions which incorporate these earlier data. The present single-arm measurements were made with solid targets and an array of scintillation counters which measured the time of flight of scattered pions.
Low Angle Silicon Sheet Growth. Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Low Cost Solar Array Project
1982-01-01
The results of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of a low angle silicon ribbon growth process are described. Twenty-six experimental runs were performed. Ribbons were grown at pull rates from 5 to 68 cm/min. Ribbon lengths up to 74 cm were grown while widths varied from 5 to 25 mm. Thicknesses varied from 0.6 to 2.5 mm, with typical values of about 1 mm.
Mechanism study on pressure fluctuation of pump-turbine runner with large blade lean angle
Yulin, Fan; Xuhe, Wang; Baoshan, Zhu; Dongyue, Zhou; Xijun, Zhou
2016-11-01
Excessive pressure fluctuations in the vaneless space can cause mechanical vibration and even mechanical failures in pump-turbine operation. Mechanism studies on the pressure fluctuations and optimization design of blade geometry to reduce the pressure fluctuations have important significance in industrial production. In the present paper, two pump-turbine runners with big positive and negative blade lean angle were designed by using a multiobjective design strategy. Model test showed that the runner with negative blade lean angle not only had better power performance, but also had lower pressure fluctuation than the runner with positive blade lean angle. In order to figure out the mechanism of pressure fluctuation reduction in the vaneless;jik8space, full passage model for both runners were built and transient CFD computations were conducted to simulate the flow states inside the channel. Detailed flow field analyses indicated that the difference of low-pressure area in the trailing edge of blade pressure side were the main causes of pressure fluctuation reduction in the vaneless space.
King, S F
2002-01-01
Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We first present a model-independent analysis in which we diagonalise each of these two mass matrix structures to leading order in $\\theta_{13}$ and extract the neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases. In this analysis we express the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle $\\theta_{13}$ including the neutrino {\\em and} charged lepton mixing angles and phases, the latter playing a crucial r\\^{o}le for allowing the inverted hierarchy solution to be consistent with the LMA MSW solution. We then consider the see-saw mechanism with right-handed neutrino dominance and show how the successful neutrino mass matrix structures may be constructed with no tuning and with small radiative corrections, leading to...
Search for narrow baryons in pi /sup -/p elastic scattering at large angles
Baillon, Paul; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Chew, D; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Kahane, J; Lellouch, D; Leruste, P; Liaud, P; Moreau, F; Perreau, J M; Séguinot, Jacques; Sené, R; Tocqueville, J; Urban, M
1980-01-01
Hoping to find resonant structures in the momentum dependence of pi /sup -/p elastic scattering the authors have measured the differential cross section for this reaction at c.m. angles near 90 degrees . An intense pion beam ( approximately=10/sup 7/ pi /s) has been used, together with a high incident momentum resolution (dP/P approximately =2*10/sup -4/), to scan the region of laboratory momenta from 5.75 to 13.02 GeV/c (c.m. energy from 3.42 to 5.03 GeV). The sensitivity attained by the experiment is such that signals would have been seen corresponding to the formation of non-strange baryon resonances having width larger than approximately=0.1 MeV and elasticity larger than a few per cent. Within these limits no resonances were sighted. (4 refs) .
... from convergence insufficiency? Symptoms of convergence insufficiency include diplopia (double vision) and headaches when reading. Many patients ... another time or simply watched for symptoms of diplopia or headaches with near work. A patient who ...
Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2016-05-15
We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.
Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Maoshuai; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Hua
2016-01-01
Catalyst selection is very crucial for controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Here we introduce a well-designed Fe-Ti-O solid solution for SWNT growth with a high preference to large chiral angles. The Fe-Ti-O catalyst was prepared by combining Ti layer deposition onto premade...... Fe nanoparticles with subsequent high-temperature air calcination, which favours the formation of a homogeneous Fe-Ti-O solid solution. Using CO as the carbon feedstock, chemical vapour deposition growth of SWNTs at 800 °C was demonstrated on the Fe-Ti-O catalyst. Nanobeam electron diffraction...... characterization on a number of individual SWNTs revealed that more than 94% of SWNTs have chiral angles larger than 15°. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study was carried out to reveal the catalyst dynamics upon reduction. Our results identify that the phase segregation through reducing Fe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Under very weak condition 0＜r(t)↑∞, t→∞, we obtain a series of equivalent conditions of complete convergence for maxima of m-dimensional products of iid random variables, which provide a useful tool for researching this class of questions. Some results on strong law of large numbers are given such that our results are much stronger than the corresponding result of Gadidov's.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王岳宝; 苏淳; 梁汉营; 成凤旸
2000-01-01
Under very weak condition 0 < r(t)↑∞ , t→∞. we obtain a series of equivalent conditions of complete convergence for maxima of m-dimensional products of iid random variables, which provide a useful tool for researching this class of questions. Some results on strong law of large numbers are given such that our results are much stronger than the corresponding result of Gadidov’s.
The Large Angle Photon Veto System for the NA62 Experiment at CERN
Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, A; Constantini, F; D’Agostini, G; Di Filippo, D; Fantechi, R; Gallorini, S; Giudici, S; Leonardi, E; Mannelli, I; Massarotti, P; Moulson, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Raffaelli, F; Raggi, M; Saracino, G; Serra, M; Spadaro, T; Valente, P; Venditti, S
2012-01-01
The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims at measuring-100 events of the very rare decay K+ →π +ννˉ (BR∼8.5xlO∼10). It poses stringent requirements on PID capabilities to reject the overwhelming π+π0 (63%) and Kμ2(21%) backgrounds. The photon veto system must provide a rejection factor of 10∼8 on π0 decays. As a main γ veto detector, the NA48 liquid Kripton calorimeter will be used. To have full geometrical acceptance up to 50 mr, a set of 12 veto stations should be placed along the vacuum decay tank, with an inefficiency <10∼4 in a wide energy range (200 MeV-35 GeV). Good energy resolution (∼10% at 1 GeV) for threshold definition, good time resolution (∼1 ns) to be used at the trigger level, sensitivity to MIP for calibration with muons of the beam halo are needed. A moderate segmentation in the azimuthal angle is desirable, for reducing the counting rate and providing information on the γ direction. We performed an intense R&D program on three solutions: “spaghetti” calorimeter...
Observations of Mkn 421 in 2004 with H.E.S.S. at large zenith angles
Aharonian, F; Aye, K M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Bussons-Gordo, J; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; De Jager, O C; Johnston, S; Khelifi, B; Kirk, J G; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Martineau-Huynh, O; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Redondo, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Skjraasen, O; Sol, H; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J
2005-01-01
Mkn 421 was observed during a high flux state for nine nights in April and May 2004 with the fully operational High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in Namibia. The observations were carried out at zenith angles of 60$^\\circ$--65$^\\circ$, which result in an average energy threshold of 1.5 TeV and a collection area reaching 2~km$^2$ at 10~TeV. Roughly 7000 photons from Mkn~421 were accumulated with an average gamma-ray rate of 8 photons/min. The overall significance of the detection exceeds 100 standard deviations. The light-curve of integrated fluxes above 2~TeV shows changes of the diurnal flux up to a factor of 4.3. For nights of high flux, intra-night variability is detected with a decay time of less than 1 hour. The time averaged energy spectrum is curved and is well described by a power-law with a photon index $\\egamm$ and an exponential cutoff at $\\ecut$~TeV and an average integral flux above 2~TeV of 3 Crab flux units. Significant variations of the spectral shape are detected with a spectral harde...
Large angle elastic and inelastic scattering of 14.93 keV photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, P.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, M.; Puri, S.; Shahi, J.S.; Singh, N. E-mail: nsingh@pu.ac.in
2004-07-01
Elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections for the 14.93 keV photons (Y-K{alpha} X-rays) were measured at an angle of 141 deg. in the elements with 6 {<=} Z {<=} 92 and 1 {<=} Z {<=} 50, respectively. A reflection mode geometrical arrangement involving a Y-foil excited by the 59.54 keV {gamma}-rays from the {sup 241}Am radioisotope as photon source and an HPGe/Si(Li) detector was used. The measurements were performed under vacuum {approx}10{sup -2} Torr. Special care was taken in determination of the incident photon intensity and geometrical factors and to check effects due to occurrence of Bragg diffraction from the target lattice. The measured elastic scattering cross-sections have been compared with predictions from the form-factor formalism and relativistic second-order S-matrix calculations. The modified form-factor (MF) cross-sections are higher up to 50% than the measured ones in the case of elements with the electron binding energy (BE) in vicinity of the incident photon energy and are lower up to 20% for the other elements. These deviations are smoothed by incorporating the Anomalous Scattering Factors (ASFs) to the MF values [Acta Cryst. A 46 (1990) 170]. The S-matrix values exhibit general agreement with the measured cross-sections. The measured inelastic scattering cross-sections are found to be in good agreement with those calculated using the Klein-Nishina cross-section incorporating the Hartree-Fock incoherent scattering function (ISF)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heidarzadeh Habibollah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent fluid flow and convective heat transfer over the wall mounted cube in different flow angle of attack have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Cube faces and plate have a constant heat flux. Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS subgrid scale model were used in this study. Angles were in the range 0≤θ≤45 and Reynolds number based on the cube height and free stream velocity was 4200. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [6, 7]. Characteristics of fluid flow field and heat transfer compared for four angles of attack. Flow around the cube was classified to four regimes. Results was represented in the form of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, temperature contours, local and average Nusselt number over the faces of cube. Local convective heat transfer on cube faces was affected by flow pattern around the cube. The local convective heat transfer from the faces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complex phenomena such as horse shoe vortex, arch vortexes in behind the cube, separation and reattachment. Results show that overall convective heat transfer of cube and mean drag coefficient have maximum and minimum value at θ=0 deg and θ=25 deg respectively.
Large angle CMB anisotropy in an open universe in the one-bubble inflationary scenario
Yamamoto, K; Tanaka, T; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro
1995-01-01
We consider an alternative scenario of inflation which can account for a spatially open universe. It is similar to the old inflation in which the bubble nucleation occurs in the sea of false vacuum, but differs from it in that the second slow rollover inflation occurs inside a nucleated bubble. Hence our observable universe is entirely contained in one nucleated bubble. The significance of the scenario is that apart from a variance due to model parameters it gives us a definite prediction on the spectrum of the primordial density perturbations, hence is observationally testable. Here we investigate the spectrum of CMB anisotropies on large angular scales. We find that the contribution from peculiar modes which never appear in the usual harmonic analysis is significant in the case \\Omega_0\\lesssim0.1.
Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system
Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.
1998-03-03
A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material are disclosed. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.
Spackman, Peter R; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Karton, Amir
2016-09-14
We examine the basis set convergence of the CCSD(T) method for obtaining the structures of the 108 neutral first- and second-row species in the W4-11 database (with up to five non-hydrogen atoms). This set includes a total of 181 unique bonds: 75 H-X, 49 X-Y, 43 X=Y, and 14 X≡Y bonds (where X and Y are first- and second-row atoms). As reference values, geometries optimized at the CCSD(T)/aug'-cc-pV(6+d)Z level of theory are used. We consider the basis set convergence of the CCSD(T) method with the correlation consistent basis sets cc-pV(n+d)Z and aug'-cc-pV(n+d)Z (n = D, T, Q, 5) and the Weigend-Ahlrichs def2-n ZVPP basis sets (n = T, Q). For each increase in the highest angular momentum present in the basis set, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) over the bond distances is decreased by a factor of ∼4. For example, the following RMSDs are obtained for the cc-pV(n+d)Z basis sets 0.0196 (D), 0.0050 (T), 0.0015 (Q), and 0.0004 (5) Å. Similar results are obtained for the aug'-cc-pV(n+d)Z and def2-n ZVPP basis sets. The double-zeta and triple-zeta quality basis sets systematically and significantly overestimate the bond distances. A simple and cost-effective way to improve the performance of these basis sets is to scale the bond distances by an empirical scaling factor of 0.9865 (cc-pV(D+d)Z) and 0.9969 (cc-pV(T+d)Z). This results in RMSDs of 0.0080 (scaled cc-pV(D+d)Z) and 0.0029 (scaled cc-pV(T+d)Z) Å. The basis set convergence of larger basis sets can be accelerated via standard basis-set extrapolations. In addition, the basis set convergence of explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 calculations is investigated in conjunction with the cc-pVnZ-F12 basis sets (n = D, T). Typically, one "gains" two angular momenta in the explicitly correlated calculations. That is, the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVnZ-F12 level of theory shows similar performance to the CCSD(T)/cc-pV(n+2)Z level of theory. In particular, the following RMSDs are obtained for the cc-pVnZ-F12 basis sets 0.0019 (D
Spackman, Peter R.; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Karton, Amir
2016-09-01
We examine the basis set convergence of the CCSD(T) method for obtaining the structures of the 108 neutral first- and second-row species in the W4-11 database (with up to five non-hydrogen atoms). This set includes a total of 181 unique bonds: 75 H—X, 49 X—Y, 43 X=Y, and 14 X≡Y bonds (where X and Y are first- and second-row atoms). As reference values, geometries optimized at the CCSD(T)/aug'-cc-pV(6+d)Z level of theory are used. We consider the basis set convergence of the CCSD(T) method with the correlation consistent basis sets cc-pV(n+d)Z and aug'-cc-pV(n+d)Z (n = D, T, Q, 5) and the Weigend-Ahlrichs def2-n ZVPP basis sets (n = T, Q). For each increase in the highest angular momentum present in the basis set, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) over the bond distances is decreased by a factor of ˜4. For example, the following RMSDs are obtained for the cc-pV(n+d)Z basis sets 0.0196 (D), 0.0050 (T), 0.0015 (Q), and 0.0004 (5) Å. Similar results are obtained for the aug'-cc-pV(n+d)Z and def2-n ZVPP basis sets. The double-zeta and triple-zeta quality basis sets systematically and significantly overestimate the bond distances. A simple and cost-effective way to improve the performance of these basis sets is to scale the bond distances by an empirical scaling factor of 0.9865 (cc-pV(D+d)Z) and 0.9969 (cc-pV(T+d)Z). This results in RMSDs of 0.0080 (scaled cc-pV(D+d)Z) and 0.0029 (scaled cc-pV(T+d)Z) Å. The basis set convergence of larger basis sets can be accelerated via standard basis-set extrapolations. In addition, the basis set convergence of explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 calculations is investigated in conjunction with the cc-pVnZ-F12 basis sets (n = D, T). Typically, one "gains" two angular momenta in the explicitly correlated calculations. That is, the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVnZ-F12 level of theory shows similar performance to the CCSD(T)/cc-pV(n+2)Z level of theory. In particular, the following RMSDs are obtained for the cc-pVnZ-F12 basis sets 0
Quist, Brady; Hargreaves, Brian A; Cukur, Tolga; Morrell, Glen R; Gold, Garry E; Bangerter, Neal K
2012-04-01
Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MRI is a rapid and signal-to-noise ratio-efficient imaging method, but suffers from characteristic bands of signal loss in regions of large field inhomogeneity. Several methods have been developed to reduce the severity of these banding artifacts, typically involving the acquisition of multiple bSSFP datasets (and the accompanying increase in scan time). Fat suppression with bSSFP is also challenging; most existing methods require an additional increase in scan time, and some are incompatible with bSSFP band-reduction techniques. This work was motivated by the need for both robust fat suppression and band reduction in the presence of field inhomogeneity when using bSSFP for flow-independent peripheral angiography. The large flip angles used in this application to improve vessel conspicuity and contrast lead to specific absorption rate considerations, longer repetition times, and increased severity of banding artifacts. In this work, a novel method that simultaneously suppresses fat and reduces bSSFP banding artifact with the acquisition of only two phase-cycled bSSFP datasets is presented. A weighted sum of the two bSSFP acquisitions is taken on a voxel-by-voxel basis, effectively synthesizing an off-resonance profile at each voxel that puts fat in the stop band while keeping water in the pass band. The technique exploits the near-sinusoidal shape of the bSSFP off-resonance spectrum for many tissues at large (>50°) flip angles.
Sakievich, Philip; Peet, Yulia; Adrian, Ronald
2016-11-01
At high Rayleigh numbers in moderate aspect-ratio cylindrical domains turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) exhibits coherent large-scale motions with patterns like some of those found in laminar flow. In this work we show how the patterns of the largest scales in turbulent RBC affect the bias and convergence of the flow statistics at aspect-ratio 6.3 (diameter/ height). Large scale motions influence two of the finite-time statistical mean's inherent properties: 1) the orientation of the patterns changes so slowly that it may appear almost fixed during a finite averaging time interval, thereby imbedding a preferred azimuthal direction in the sampled data; 2) they also have at least two states associated with the occurrence of up and down motions near the center of the convection cell. We will present a novel technique for triggering additional states of RBC in DNS simulations that are targeted for improving the statistical convergence of the flow. This technique gently perturbs the flow so that the new variations of the large scale patterns can be sampled. Funding through U. S. National Science Foundation Grants CBET-1335731, CMMI-1250124 and XSEDE research allocation TG-CTS150039.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai Lan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This study optimizes the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV panels on a large oil tanker ship system and considers the impact of partial shading to improve the performance of the PV system. This work presents a novel method that considers the difference between the expected and real outputs of PV modules to optimize the size of energy storage system (ESS. The method also takes into account the cost of wasted power, the capital cost of the system, fuel cost and the CO2 emissions. Unlike on land, power generation using a PV on a ship depends on the date, latitude and longitude of the navigation. Accordingly, this work considers a route from Dalian in China to Aden in Yemen, accounting for the seasonal and geographical variations of solar irradiation. This proposed method adopts five conditions associated with the navigation route to model the total shipload. Various cases are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Measurement of the DA$\\Phi$NE luminosity with the KLOE detector using large angle Bhabha scattering
Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Bowring, D; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Xu, G
2006-01-01
We describe the method of measuring the integrated luminosity of the $e^+e^-$ collider DA$\\Phi$NE, the Frascati $\\phi-$factory. The measurement is done with the KLOE detector selecting large angle Bhabha scattering events and normalizing them to the effective cross section. The $e^+e^- \\to e^+e^-(\\gamma)$ cross section is calculated using different event generators which account for the $O(\\alpha)$ radiative initial and final state corrections, and the $\\phi$ resonance contribution. The accuracy of the measurement is 0.6%, where 0.3% comes from systematic errors related to the event counting and 0.5% from theoretical evaluations of the cross section.
Chien, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Chang-Han; Liu, Chi-Ching; Chang, Shih-Hui; Kong, Kien Voon; Chang, Yun-Chorng
2017-07-26
Nanophotonics has been a focused research discipline for the past decade and has resulted in many novel concepts that promise to change human life. However, the actual penetration of this research into real products is severely limited mostly due to the slow development of economic nanofabrication. In this study, we have demonstrated a versatile and low-cost nanofabrication method referred to as "angled nanospherical-lens lithography (A-NLL)", which is able to produce large-scale and periodic nanopatterns. The nanopatterns designed within a two-dimensional polar chart can be carefully fabricated on the substrate. The fabricated patterns easily cover an area larger than 1 cm(2), which is beneficial as platforms for surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) where an expensive and bulky IR microscope is not required. We believe that the proposed A-NLL method is ideal for industrialization of future nanophotonic applications.
Reply to 'Comment on Approximation for the large-angle simple pendulum period''
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, A; Rodes, J J; Belendez, T; Hernandez, A [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-09-15
In their comment, Yuan and Ding derived another analytical approximate expression for the large-angle pendulum period, which they compare with other expressions previously published. Most of these approximate formulas are based on the approximation of the original nonlinear differential equation for the simple pendulum motion. However, we point out that another procedure is possible to obtain an approximate expression for the period. This procedure is based on the approximation of the exact period formula-which is expressed in terms of a complete elliptic integral of the first kind-instead of the approximation of the original differential equation. This last procedure is used, for example, by Carvalhaes and Suppes using the arithmetic-geometric mean. (letters and comments)
Krause, Martin; Riley, Julia; Hopton, Daniel
2012-01-01
In the case of an initially conical jet, we study the relation between jet collimation by the external pressure and large-scale morphology. We first consider the important length-scales in the problem, and then carry out axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations that include, for certain parameters, all these length-scales. We find three important scales related to the collimation region: (i) where the sideways ram-pressure equals the external pressure, (ii) where the jet density equals the ambient density, and (iii) where the forward ram-pressure falls below the ambient pressure. These scales are set by the external Mach-number and opening angle of the jet. We demonstrate that the relative magnitudes of these scales determine the collimation, Mach-number, density and morphology of the large scale jet. Based on analysis of the shock structure, we reproduce successfully the morphology of Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I and II radio sources. Within the framework of the model, an FR I radio source must have a large intr...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
翁浚; 严恭敏; 秦永元; 张金红
2012-01-01
To solve the initial self-alignment problem of strapdown inertial navigation system(SINS) under large error angle condition, a new gyrocompass alignment scheme is put forward by analyzing SINS large error angle model and based on the principle of compass effect in platform inertial navigation system(PINS). The scheme can be divided into three steps: horizontal alignment with azimuth angle uncertainty; time-vary parameter gyrocompass alignment for large error angle; fixed parameter gyrocompass alignment. Converge time can be shorten by adjusting gyrocompass parameter in real time in this scheme. A more accurate error transfer mode in strapdown inertial navigation system(SINS) is depicted by large azimuth error angle model instead of small error angle model. At last, a simulation is made using this scheme which shows that the gyro bias is stabilized at 0.01 (°)/h, and azimuth precision can reach 1° in 60 s and 3' at end of alignment.%为了解决大失准角条件下的捷联惯导初始自对准问题,通过分析捷联惯导系统大失准角误差模型,利用平台惯导系统罗经对准原理,提出了一种新的捷联惯导系统罗经对准方案.该方案的具体实现划分为三个阶段:方位角未知情况下的水平对准；大失准角时变参数罗经方位对准；定参数罗经对准.该方案通过实时调节罗经参数缩短了对准时间；利用大方位失准角模型代替小失准角模型,在算法收敛阶段更加准确地描述了捷联惯导系统的误差传递方式.仿真试验表明,使用陀螺随机漂移稳定性为0.01(°)/h的捷联惯导系统,该对准方案能在60 s内方位精度到达1°,并能在对准结束时达到3′的方位对准精度.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaoe RUAN; Huizhuo WU; Na LI; Baiwu WAN
2009-01-01
In this paper, a decentralized iterative learning control strategy is embedded into the procedure of hierarchical steady-state optimization for a class of linear large-scale industrial processes which consists of a number of subsystems. The task of the learning controller for each subsystem is to iteratively generate a sequence of upgraded control inputs to take responsibilities of a sequential step functional control signals with distinct scales which are determined by the local decision-making units in the two-layer hierarchical steady-state optimization processing. The objective of the designated strategy is to consecutively improve the transient performance of the system. By means of the generalized Young inequality of convolution integral, the convergence of the learning algorithm is analyzed in the sense of Lebesgue-p norm. It is shown that the inherent feature of system such as the multi-dimensionality and the interaction may influence the convergence of the non-repetitive learning rule. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the validity of the conclusion.
Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narita Keiko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.
Ogunlewe, M O; Adeyemo, W L; Ladeinde, A L; Bamgbose, B O; Ajayi, O F
2005-12-01
Large complex odontomas of the jaws are rare. A report of a large complex odontoma of the mandibular angle-ramus region enucleated through intra-oral buccal approach is presented. A review of the literature on different modalities of treatment is also undertaken. A large expansile complex odontoma of the angle-ramus region of the mandible was excised through an intraoral buccal approach under general anaesthesia. Recovery and immediate post-operative period were uneventful. There was no altered sensation in the distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve; and wound healing was satisfactory. Post-operative radiograph 2 years after the operation showed satisfactory bone regeneration. Intraoral buccal approach to large complex odontomas of the angle-ramus region of the mandible is a relatively safe procedure with minimal complication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao-Ting Wang
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA is rare in the central nervous system. To our knowledge, there have only been 14 cases reported worldwide so far. Here, we report our findings in a 57-year-old man, who presented with bilateral sudden hearing loss followed by left facial palsy within 1 month. Radiologic study and magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogeneous enhancing mass, 1.6 × 0.5 × 1.1 cm in size, in the left CPA cistern region with mild extension to the left internal auditory canal. The tumor was removed through left retromastoid craniectomy, and the histopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed as diffuse large B-cell type malignant lymphoma. After a series of tumor surveys, there was no evidence of other original lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (including intra-Ommaya injection with methotrexate and Ara-C and systemic injection with vincristine, methotrexate and ifosfamide for the primary CPA lymphoma. He was still alive 19 months after the initial treatment.
Apollonio, M.; Bagulya, A.; Barr, G.; Blondel, A.; Bobisut, F.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.; Borghi, S.; Bunyatov, S.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Catanesi, M.G.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chimenti, P.; Coney, L.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Dumarchez, J.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Ferri, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Giani, S.; Giannini, G.; Gibin, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Gossling, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Grichine, V.; Grossheim, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Howlett, L.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kolev, D.; Krasnoperov, A.; Martin-Albo, J.; Meurer, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mills, G.B.; Morone, M.C.; Novella, P.; Orestano, D.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pastore, F.; Piperov, Stefan; Polukhina, N.; Popov, B.; Prior, G.; Radicioni, E.; Schmitz, D.; Schroeter, R.; Skoro, G; Sorel, M.; Tcherniaev, E.; Temnikov, P.; Tereschenko, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tsenov, R.; Tsukerman, I.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.
2009-01-01
The HARP collaboration has presented measurements of the double-differential pi+/pi- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad with proton beams hitting thin nuclear targets. In many applications the extrapolation to long targets is necessary. In this paper the analysis of data taken with long (one interaction length) solid cylindrical targets made of carbon, tantalum and lead is presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams of protons with momenta 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c and 12 GeV/c. The tracking and identification of the produced particles were performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident protons were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential yields per target nucleon d2 sigma / dp dtheta. The measure...
Artamonov, A; Barr, G; Blondel, A; Bobisut, F; Bogomilov, M; Bonesini, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Bunyatov, S; Burguet-Castell, J; Catanesi, M G; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Chimenti, P; Coney, L; Di Capua, E; Dore, U; Dumarchez, J; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Ferri, F; Gastaldi, U; Giani, S; Giannini, G; Gibin, D; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Gößling, C; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Grant, A; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grichine, V; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Howlett, L; Ivanchenko, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kirsanov, M; Kolev, D; Krasnoperov, A; MartíinAlbo, J; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; B Mills, G; Morone, M C; Novella, P; Orestano, D; Palladino, V; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pastore, F; Piperov, S; Polukhina, N; Popov, B; Prior, G; Radicioni, E; Schmitz, D; Schroeter, R; Skoro, G; Sorel, M; Tcherniaev, E; Temnikov, P; Tereschenko, V; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P
2009-01-01
The HARP collaboration has presented measurements of the double-differential pi+/pi- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad with proton beams hitting thin nuclear targets. In many applications the extrapolation to long targets is necessary. In this paper the analysis of data taken with long (one interaction length) solid cylindrical targets made of carbon, tantalum and lead is presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams of protons with momenta 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c and 12 GeV/c. The tracking and identification of the produced particles were performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident protons were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential yields per target nucleon d2 sigma / dp dtheta. The measure...
Large solid-angle polarisation analysis at thermal neutron wavelengths using a sup 3 He spin filter
Heil, W; Cywinski, R; Humblot, H; Ritter, C; Roberts, T W; Stewart, J R
2002-01-01
The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarised sup 3 He opens up the possibility of polarising neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. In this paper we describe the first large solid-angle polarisation analysis measurement using a sup 3 He neutron spin filter at thermal neutron wavelengths (lambda=2.5 A). This experiment was performed on the two-axis diffractometer D1B at the Institut Laue-Langevin using a banana-shaped filter cell (530 cm sup 3 ) filled with sup 3 He gas with a polarisation of P=52% at a pressure of 2.7 bar. A comparison is made with a previous measurement on D7 using a cold neutron beam on the same sample, i.e. amorphous ErY sub 6 Ni sub 3. Using uniaxial polarisation analysis both the nuclear and magnetic cross-sections could be extracted over the range of scattering-vectors [0.5<=Q(A sup - sup 1)<=3.5]. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the D7-data, whe...
Recent results in the study of heavy-ion elastic scattering at large angles. [180/sup 0/
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrette, J.; Kahana, S.
1983-01-01
The observation, a few years ago, of unexpected large cross sections at backward angles in the elastic scattering of mass-asymmetric heavy ion systems gave us hope that we could learn something new and more precise on the properties of the average ion-ion potential. The subsequent observation of broad regular structures in the elastic and inelastic excitation functions near theta/sub cm/ = 180/sup 0/ were also very promising. Numerous models were proposed to explain some or all the observed features. These models can be divided mainly in two groups. Some try to modify directly the average optical potential whereas others associate the observed cross sections to a modification of specific partial waves outside the scope of the optical potential. This separation in two groups is not always clear since as demonstrated adding a Regge pole to a strongly absorbing potential is under some conditions perfectly equivalent to changing the shape of this potential. Similarly the resonances added to an S matrix can be understood as the manifestation of the potential resonances of a completely different optical potential. We describe recent calculations which have been carried on to try to understand the behavior of the data near the barrier.
Huotari, S; Sahle, Ch J; Henriquet, Ch; Al-Zein, A; Martel, K; Simonelli, L; Verbeni, R; Gonzalez, H; Lagier, M C; Ponchut, C; Moretti Sala, M; Krisch, M; Monaco, G
2017-03-01
An end-station for X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at beamline ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. This end-station is dedicated to the study of shallow core electronic excitations using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. The spectrometer has 72 spherically bent analyzer crystals arranged in six modular groups of 12 analyzer crystals each for a combined maximum flexibility and large solid angle of detection. Each of the six analyzer modules houses one pixelated area detector allowing for X-ray Raman scattering based imaging and efficient separation of the desired signal from the sample and spurious scattering from the often used complicated sample environments. This new end-station provides an unprecedented instrument for X-ray Raman scattering, which is a spectroscopic tool of great interest for the study of low-energy X-ray absorption spectra in materials under in situ conditions, such as in operando batteries and fuel cells, in situ catalytic reactions, and extreme pressure and temperature conditions.
Large angle. lambda. sup(o) production in exclusive reactions between 3 and 12 GeV/c
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachman, L.; Bogdanski, M.; Jeannet, E.; Perrin, D.; Schwarz, R.; Gago, J.; Sonderegger, P.; Bellefon, A. de; Billoir, P.; Brunet, J.M.
1986-01-20
The analysis of exclusive neutral strange particle production in the reactions ..pi../sup -/p->K/sup 0/..lambda..+K/sup 0/..sigma../sup 0/ and anti pp->anti ..lambda lambda..+anti ..lambda sigma../sup 0/ + c.c. at 3.15, 4.95, 7.9, and 12 GeV/c yielded the differential cross section distributions up to about 90/sup 0/ c.m.s. scattering angle and the ..lambda..-particle polarization at large transverse momentum. Applying a fit to dsigma/dtproportionalssup(-n) resulted in n=8.6+-0.9 for the K/sup 0/..lambda..+K/sup 0/..sigma../sup 0/ final state which is compatible with the quark counting rule n=8 for meson-baryon reactions. The average ..lambda.. polarization around t=-1.6 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ was Psub(..lambda..)=-0.79+-0.17 at 3.15 GeV/c beam energy. (orig.).
Nguyen, Ha; Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji
2011-07-01
New homologs of bent molecules with a large bent-angle central core of 4,6-dichloro benzene and an alkylthio terminal tail have been synthesized. Although the corresponding alkoxy-tail homologs show only the calamitic phases because of its large bent angles around 160°, the new homologs with an alkylthio tail exhibit the antiferroelectric smectic APA (SmAPA) banana phase that is transformed on cooling from the calamitic smectic A (SmA) phase. The biaxial polar packing of bent molecules in the SmAPA phase is considered to arise from the hindered rotation around the molecular long axis due to the expansion of the mesophase temperatures to a lower temperature region. This study indicates that the bent molecules, even with a large bent angle, have the potential to form a switchable banana phase with a remarkable decrease in its phase temperature range to around 60 °C.
Measurement of large angle fragments induced by 400 MeV n-1 carbon ion beams
Aleksandrov, Andrey; Consiglio, Lucia; De Lellis, Giovanni; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Lauria, Adele; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Patera, Vincenzo; Sirignano, Chiara; Tioukov, Valeri
2015-09-01
The use of carbon ion beams in radiotherapy presents significant advantages when compared to traditional x-ray. In fact, carbon ions deposit their energy inside the human body at the end of their range, the Bragg peak. Unlike x-ray beams, where the energy deposition decreases exponentially inside the irradiated volume, the shape of carbon beams is sharp and focused. Advantages are an increased energy released in the cancer volume while minimizing the irradiation to healthy tissues. Currently, the use of carbon beams is limited by the poor knowledge we have about the effects of the secondary fragments on the irradiated tissues. The secondary particles produced and their angular distribution is crucial to determine the global dose deposition. The knowledge of the flux of secondary particles plays a key role in the real time monitoring of the dose profile in hadron therapy. We present a detector based on nuclear emulsions for fragmentation measurements that performs a sub-micrometric tridimensional spatial resolution, excellent multi-particle separation and large angle track recognition. Nuclear emulsions are assembled in order to realize a hybrid detector (emulsion cloud chamber (ECC)) made of 300 μm nuclear emulsion films alternated with lead as passive material. Data reported here have been obtained by exposing two ECC detectors to the fragments produced by a 400 MeV n-1 12C beam on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The ECC was exposed inside a more complex detector, named FIRST, in order to collect fragments with a continuous angular distribution in the range 47°-81° with respect to the beam axis. Results on the angular distribution of fragments as well as their momentum estimations are reported here.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihir Kothari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain the effect of digitally induced large angle strabismus and its correction on social bias against strabismic adults. Subjects and Methods: This prospective, observational study included 10 orthotropic subjects whose face photographs were digitally altered to produce esotropia, exotropia, and hypertropia. Three batches of non-medical professionals, each consisting of 14 subjects, adjudged personality traits of the altered face photographs on a 10-item questionnaire. The same evaluators effected the appraisal of the orthotropic photographs. The personality score of the strabismic photograph of a subject was compared with its own orthotropic photograph. Results: The 10 subjects whose photographs were digitally modified were of the same age (21 years and had equal gender distribution. The evaluation of the photographs was performed by 42 evaluators aged 38.3 ± 14.9 years, of whom 21 were males. Different personality traits were rated negatively in the strabismic photographs. The statistically significant negative impact was apparent on more number of personality traits for esotropia (7 out of 10 as compared to exotropia (4 out of 10 or hypertropia (3 out of 10. Rating of the strabismic photographs was significantly lower by female evaluators (P = 0.006. However, there was no difference whether the subject evaluating the photograph of the strabismic individual was of the same gender or the opposite gender. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was excellent (Cronbach′s Alpha = 0.81. Conclusion: There was a significant negative impact of strabismus on the perceived personality traits of the digitally altered face photographs of the adults when compared to their orthotropic photograph.
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.
2015-01-01
We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.
2015-01-01
We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60 degrees and 80 degrees. We perform two Rayleigh ana
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.
2015-01-01
We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60 degrees and 80 degrees. We perform two Rayleigh ana
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.
2015-01-01
We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in
Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao
2015-09-01
Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the
Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao
2015-09-01
Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008), 10.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the behavior of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
Mao, Shan; Cui, Qingfeng; Piao, Mingxu; Zhao, Lidong
2016-05-01
A mathematical model of diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency affected by environment temperature change and incident angle for three-layer diffractive optics with different dispersion materials is put forward, and its effects are analyzed. Taking optical materials N-FK5 and N-SF1 as the substrates of multilayer diffractive optics, the effect on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency with intermediate materials POLYCARB is analyzed with environment temperature change as well as incident angle. Therefore, three-layer diffractive optics can be applied in more wide environmental temperature ranges and larger incident angles for refractive-diffractive hybrid optical systems, which can obtain better image quality. Analysis results can be used to guide the hybrid imaging optical system design for optical engineers.
Synchro-betatron effects in the presence of large Piwinski angle and crab cavities at the HL-LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White S.; Calaga, R.; Miyamoto, R.
2012-05-20
The reduction of {beta}* at the collision points for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) requires an increment in the crossing angle to maintain the normalized beam separation to suppress the effects of long-range beam-beam interactions. However, an increase in the crossing angle may give rise to synchro-betatron resonances which may negatively affect the beam emittance and lifetime. 6D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations were performed to study the effect of synchro-betatron resonances in the context of the HL-LHC layout and its suppression via crab crossing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Shi-bo; LIAN Lian; REN Ping; HUANG Guo-liang
2012-01-01
This article presents the newly designed oblique towing test in the horizontal plane for the scaled model of 4 500 m deep sea open-framed Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV),which is being researched and developed by Shanghai Jiao Toug University.Accurate hydrodynamics coefficients measurement is significant for the maneuverability and control system design.The scaled model of ROV was constructed by 1∶1.6.Hydrodynamics tests of large drift angle were conducted through Large Amplitude Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism (LAHPMM) under low speed.Multiple regression method is adopted to process the test data and obtain the related hydrodynamic coefficients.Simulations were designed for the horizontal plane motion of large drift angle to verify the coefficients calculated.And the results show that the data can satisfy with the design requirements of the ROV developed.
Grützner, Christoph; Campbell, Grace; Elliott, Austin; Walker, Richard; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek
2016-04-01
The Tien Shan and the Dzhungarian Ala-tau mountain ranges in Eastern Kazakhstan and China take up a significant portion of the total convergence between India and Eurasia, despite the fact that they are more than 1000 km away from the actual plate boundary. Shortening is accommodated by large thrust faults that strike more or less perpendicular to the convergence vector, and by a set of conjugate strike-slip faults. Some of these strike-slip faults are major features of several hundred kilometres length and have produced great historical earthquakes. In most cases, little is known about their slip-rates and earthquake history, and thus, about their role in the regional tectonic setting. This study deals with the NW-SE trending Dzhungarian Fault, a more than 350 km-long, right-lateral strike slip feature. It borders the Dzhungarian Ala-tau range and forms one edge of the so-called Dzhungarian Gate. The fault curves from a ~305° strike at its NW tip in Kazakhstan to a ~328° strike in China. No historical ruptures are known from the Kazakh part of the fault. A possible rupture in 1944 in the Chinese part remains discussed. We used remote sensing, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), differential GPS, field mapping, and Quaternary dating of offset geological markers in order to map the fault-related morphology and to measure the slip rate of the fault at several locations along strike. We also aimed to find out the age of the last surface rupturing earthquake and to determine earthquake recurrence intervals and magnitudes. We were further interested in the relation between horizontal and vertical motion along the fault and possible fault segmentation. Here we present first results from our 2015 survey. High-resolution digital elevation models of offset river terraces allowed us to determine the slip vector of the most recent earthquake. Preliminary dating results from abandoned fluvial terraces allow us to speculate on a late Holocene surface rupturing event. Morphological
Noise Characteristics of Overexpanded Jets from Convergent-Divergent Nozzles
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2008-01-01
A broadband noise component occurring in the overexpanded flow regime with convergent-divergent nozzles is identified. Relative to a convergent nozzle, at same pressure ratios, this excess noise can lead to a large increase in the overall sound pressure levels. Several features distinguish it from the more familiar broadband shock associated noise. Unlike the latter, it is observed even at shallow polar locations and there is no noticeable shift of the spectral content in frequency with observation angle. The amplitudes are found to be more pronounced with nozzles having larger half-angle of the divergent section. The noise apparently occurs when a shock resides within the divergent section of the nozzle and results from random unsteady motion of the shock.
Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-07-01
We propose an ultra-wideband polarization-conversion metasurface with polarization selective and incident-angle insensitive characteristics using anchor-shaped units through multiple resonances. The broadband characteristic is optimized by the genetic optimization algorithm, from which the anchor-shaped unit cell generates five resonances, resulting in expansion of the operating frequency range. Owing to the structural feature of the proposed metasurface, only x- and y-polarized incident waves can reach high-efficiency polarization conversions, realizing the polarization-selective property. The proposed metasurface is also insensitive to the angle of incident waves, which indicates a promising future in modern communication systems. We fabricate and measure the proposed metasurface, and both the simulated and measured results show ultra-wide bandwidth for the x- and y-polarized incident waves.
Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations
Varade, Vijay; Agrawal, Amit; Pradeep, A. M.
2015-02-01
An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Niranjan Sahoo; S Saravanan; G Jagadeesh; K P J Reddy
2006-10-01
Aerodynamic forces and fore-body convective surface heat transfer rates over a 60° apex-angle blunt cone have been simultaneously measured at a nominal Mach number of 5·75 in the hypersonic shock tunnel HST2. An aluminum model incorporating a three-component accelerometer-based balance system for measuring the aerodynamic forces and an array of platinum thin-ﬁlm gauges deposited on thermally insulating backing material ﬂush mounted on the model surface is used for convective surface heat transfer measurement in the investigations. The measured value of the drag coefﬁcient varies by about $\\pm 6$% from the theoretically estimated value based on the modiﬁed Newtonian theory, while the axi-symmetric Navier–Stokes computations overpredict the drag coefﬁcient by about 9%. The normalized values of measured heat transfer rates at 0° angle of attack are about 11% higher than the theoretically estimated values. The aerodynamic and the heat transfer data presented here are very valuable for the validation of CFD codes used for the numerical computation of ﬂow ﬁelds around hypersonic vehicles.
Large-angle elastic scattering of 88.03-keV photons by elements with 30{<=}Z{<=}92
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Ajay; Shahi, J.S.; Garg, M.L.; Puri, Sanjiv; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal E-mail: nsingh@panjabuniv.chd.nic.in
2001-10-01
Elastic-scattering differential cross-sections for 88.03-keV photons have been measured at an angle of 125 deg. for 17 elements in the atomic region 30{<=}Z{<=}92. The measured elastic-scattering cross-sections have been compared with those obtained in the independent-particle approximation through calculations of the modified-relativistic form factors (MFs), a combination of the MFs and angle-independent 'anomalous' scattering factors (ASFs), and the relativistic second-order S-matrix. The S-matrix cross-sections, in general, represent the trend of the measured data over the whole atomic region under investigation. However, these values are, on an average, lower by 10% than the measured ones. The MF cross-sections, in general, exhibit considerable deviations ({approx}30%) from the measured values. In the case of Bi with K-shell binding energy, E{sub K}(Bi)=90.526 keV, just above the incident photon energy (E{sub inc}) of 88.03 keV, the MF cross-section is found to be enormously ({approx}5 times) higher than the measured value. The MF cross-sections in combination with ASFs are in good agreement with the measured values for all the elements except for Pb (E{sub K}(Pb)=88.004 keV) and Bi, where these values are enormously ({approx}28 times) smaller and higher by 31%, respectively.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Competition has been playing a dominant role among telecommunication equipment manufacturers. In 2006, however, merger overwhelmed competition. In the tide of converging, a large number of equipment manufacturers were involved in mergers. At the same time, telecommunication equipment manufacturers, the most innovative community in the world, drive 3G technology fast in line with its technical roadmap. In addition, Chinese equipment manufacturers cut a figure in world-class telecommunication markets, whic...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Balla Venukumar; K P J Reddy
2007-02-01
Substantial aerodynamic drag, while ﬂying at hypersonic Mach number, due to the presence of strong standing shock wave ahead of a large-angle bluntcone conﬁguration, is a matter of great design concern. Preliminary experimental results for the drag reduction by a forward-facing supersonic air jet for a 60° apex-angle blunt cone at a ﬂow Mach number of 8 are presented in this paper. The measurements are carried out using an accelerometer-based balance system in the hypersonic shock tunnel HST2 of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. About 29% reduction in the drag coefﬁcient has been observed with the injection of a supersonic gas jet.
Bracing System of Large Attack Angle in Low Speed Wind Tunnel%低速风洞大攻角张线式支撑系统
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨恩霞; 刁彦飞; 庞永刚
2001-01-01
Based on traditional bracing system of wind tunnel testing, a system of hanging brace of large angle of attack was designed, which can reduce frame interference. The contradiction between bracing rigidity and aerodynamic interference can be resolved by this system.%基于传统的风洞试验支撑系统，设计了能减小支架干扰的大攻角张线式支撑系统。该系统能解决支架的支撑刚度与气动干扰之间的矛盾。
Korda, V. Yu.; Molev, A. S.; Klepikov, V. F.; Korda, L. P.
2015-02-01
Using the evolutionary model-independent S -matrix approach, we show that a simultaneous correct description of the pictures of nuclear rainbow, prerainbow, and anomalous large-angle scattering (ALAS) in the 4He-40Ca elastic scattering can be achieved with help of the S -matrix moduli and the real nuclear phases exhibiting smooth monotonic dependencies on angular momentum, while the quantum deflection functions have a form characteristic of the nuclear rainbow case. The special role of the surface partial waves in the formation of ALAS is revealed.
Wang, J.; Hastings, D. E.
1992-01-01
The paper presents the theory and particle simulation results for the ionospheric plasma flow over a large high-voltage space platform at a zero angle of attack and at a large angle of attack. Emphasis is placed on the structures in the large, high-voltage regime and the transient plasma response on the ion-plasma time scale. Special consideration is given to the transient formation of the space-charge wake and its steady-state structure.
挠性航天器大角度姿态机动路径规划%Path planning for large angle attitude maneuver of flexible spacecraft
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑立君; 郭毓; 赖爱芳; 周端
2011-01-01
针对挠性航天器大角度姿态快速机动快速稳定的控制要求,通过分析挠性航天器姿态动力学特性,提出了一种基于抛物线型角加速度曲线的三段式机动路径规划算法.该算法考虑了机动过程中对最大角加速度与最大角速度限制,充分发挥执行机构的功能来提高系统的快速性,并使角加速度平滑变化以减小帆板的振动.该路径规划方法简单,适于在轨实现.仿真结果表明该路径规划算法能够明显提高机动快速性和姿态的稳定度.%In order to meet the control requirement of rapid maneuvering and rapid stable for flexible spacecraft with large angle attitude maneuver, a kind of there-segment slew path planning algorithm based on a parabolic angle acceleration curve was proposed by analyzing its dynamic characteristics. This algorithm considers the process of flexible spacecraft large angle attitude maneuver limited to maximal acceleration and maximal angular velocity, makes the most of actuator ability to improve the criterions of rapidly, and lets the acceleration variate smoothly to decrease the vibration of solar panel. The algorithm is simple and easy to be realized, suitable for implementation on orbit. Simulation results indicate that this path planning algorithm can significantly improve the criterions of rapidly, highstability degree of attitude and decrease the vibration of flexible panel.
Wang, A-Q; Guo, L-X; Chai, C
2011-02-01
A fast numerical method has been proposed in this paper for calculating the electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly electric conducting object above a two-layered dielectric rough surface. The focus in this study is large incidence. The parallel fast multipole method is combined with the method of moments for fast implementation of the scattering from this composite model. The biconjugate gradient method is adopted to solve the unsymmetrical matrix equation and parallelized. The simulating time and parallel speedup ratio with different processors are provided. Several numerical results are shown and analyzed to discuss the influences of the parameters of the rough surface, the object, and the intermediate medium on the bistatic scattering.
Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.
2015-02-01
The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.
Huang, Danhong; Michelle Easter, M.; David Wellems, L.; Mozer, Henry; Gumbs, Godfrey; Cardimona, D. A.; Maradudin, A. A.
2013-07-01
Both dynamic and static approaches are proposed and investigated for controlling the optical phase of a p-polarized light wave guided through a surface-patterned metallic structure with subwavelength features. For dynamic control, the important role of photo-excited electrons in a slit-embedded atomic system with field-induced transparency (FIT) is discovered within a narrow frequency window for modulating the intensity of focused transmitted light in the near-field region. This is facilitated by electromagnetic coupling to surface plasmons between the two FIT-atom embedded slits. The near-field distribution can be adjusted by employing a symmetric (or asymmetric) slit configuration and by a small (or large) slit separation. In addition, the cross-transmission of a light beam is also predicted as a result of this strong coupling between optical transitions in embedded FIT atoms and surface plasmons. For static control, the role of surface curvature is found for focused transmitted light passing through a Gaussian-shaped metallic microlens embedded with a linear array of slits. A negative light-refraction pattern, which is associated with higher-order diffraction modes, was also found for large angles of incidence in the near-field region. This anomalous negative refraction can be suppressed when higher-order waveguide modes of light leak through a very thin film. In addition, this negative refraction can also be suppressed with a reinforced reflection at the left foothill of a Gaussian-shaped slit array of the forward-propagating surface-plasmon wave at large angles of incidence. A prediction is given of near-field focusing of light with its sharpness dynamically controlled by the frequency of the light in a very narrow window. Moreover, a different scheme based on Green's second integral identity is proposed for overcoming a difficulty in calculating the near-field distribution very close to a metallic surface by means of a finite-difference-time-domain method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edmilson Gigante
2009-02-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a viabilidade da cirurgia monocular no tratamento das esotropias de grande ângulo, praticando-se amplos recuos do reto medial (6 a 10 mm e grandes ressecções do reto lateral (8 a 10 mm. MÉTODOS: Foram operados, com anestesia geral e sem reajustes per ou pósoperatórios, 46 pacientes com esotropias de 50δ ou mais, relativamente comitantes. Os métodos utilizados para refratometria, medida da acuidade visual e do ângulo de desvio, foram os, tradicionalmente, utilizados em estrabologia. No pós-operatório, além das medidas na posição primária do olhar, foi feita uma avaliação da motilidade do olho operado, em adução e em abdução. RESULTADOS: Foram considerados quatro grupos de estudo, correspondendo a quatro períodos de tempo: uma semana, seis meses, dois anos e quatro a sete anos. Os resultados para o ângulo de desvio pós-cirúrgico foram compatíveis com os da literatura em geral e mantiveram-se estáveis ao longo do tempo. A motilidade do olho operado apresentou pequena limitação em adução e nenhuma em abdução, contrariando o encontrado na literatura estrabológica. Comparando os resultados de adultos com os de crianças e de amblíopes com não amblíopes, não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre eles. CONCLUSÃO:Em face dos resultados encontrados, entende-se ser possível afirmar que a cirurgia monocular de recuo-ressecção pode ser considerada opção viável para o tratamento das esotropias de grande ângulo, tanto para adultos quanto para crianças, bem como para amblíopes e não amblíopes.PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of monocular surgery in the treatment of large-angle esotropias through large recessions of the medial rectus (6 to 10 mm and large resections of the lateral rectus (8 to 10 mm. METHODS: 46 patients were submitted to surgery. They had esotropias of 50Δor more that were relatively comitant. The patients were operated under general
Large-angle production of charged pions with 3-12.9 GeV/c incident protons on nuclear targets
Catanesi, M.G.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, Malcolm; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Meurer, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Howlett, L.; Skoro, G.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.
2008-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential charged pion production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c < p < 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 < \\theta < 2.15 rad in proton-beryllium, proton-carbon, proton-aluminium, proton-copper, proton-tin, proton-tantalum and proton-lead collisions are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length.
Kato, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Saha, Pranab K.; Kinsho, Michikazu
The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) has adopted the multi-turn charge-exchange injection scheme that uses H- beams. During injection, both the injected and circulating beams scatter from the charge-exchange foil. Therefore, the beam loss caused by the large-angle scattering from the foil occurs downstream of the injection point. For countermeasure against the uncontrolled beam loss, a new collimation system was developed and installed in the summer shutdown period in 2011. During beam commissioning, this uncontrolled beam loss was successfully localized for a 300 kW beam. Since the present target power of the RCS is 1 MW, the accurate simulation model to reproduce experimental results has been constructed in order to evaluate residual dose at higher power operation.
Large-angle production of charged pions with 3-12.9 GeV/c incident protons on nuclear targets
Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Soler, F J P; Goling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisuta, F; Gibina, D; Guglielmib, A; Mezzettob, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestanoc, D; Pastorec, F; Tonazzoc, A; Tortorad, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Skoro, G; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martn Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A
2008-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential charged pion production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c < p < 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 < \\theta < 2.15 rad in proton-beryllium, proton-carbon, proton-aluminium, proton-copper, proton-tin, proton-tantalum and proton-lead collisions are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length.
Strong path convergence from Loewner driving convergence
Sheffield, Scott
2010-01-01
We show that, under mild assumptions on the limiting curve, a sequence of simple chordal planar curves converges uniformly whenever certain Loewner driving functions converge. We extend this result to random curves. The random version applies in particular to random lattice paths that have chordal SLE as a scaling limit, with kappa less than 8 (non-space-filling). Existing SLE convergence proofs often begin by showing that the Loewner driving functions of these paths (viewed from infinity) converge to Brownian motion. Unfortunately, this is not sufficient, and additional arguments are required to complete the proofs. We show that driving function convergence is sufficient if it can be established for both parametrization directions and a generic target.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edmilson Gigante
2010-08-01
Full Text Available As primitivas cirurgias de estrabismo, as miotomias e as tenotomias, eram feitas, simplesmente, seccionando-se o músculo ou o seu tendão, sem nenhuma sutura. Estas cirurgias eram feitas, geralmente, em um só olho, tanto em pequenos como em grandes desvios e os resultados eram pouco previsíveis. Jameson, em 1922, propôs uma nova técnica cirúrgica, usando suturas e fixando, na esclera, o músculo seccionado, tornando a cirurgia mais previsível. Para as esotropias, praticou recuos de, no máximo, 5 mm para o reto medial, o que se tornou uma regra para os demais cirurgiões que o sucederam, sendo impossível, a partir daí, a correção de esotropias de grande ângulo com cirurgia monocular. Rodriguez-Vásquez, em 1974, superou o parâmetro de 5 mm, propondo amplos recuos dos retos mediais (6 a 9 mm para o tratamento da síndrome de Ciancia, com bons resultados. Os autores revisaram a literatura, ano a ano, objetivando comparar os vários trabalhos e, com isso, concluíram que a cirurgia monocular de recuo-ressecção pode constituir uma opção viável para o tratamento cirúrgico das esotropias de grande ângulo.The primitive strabismus surgeries, myotomies and tenotomies, were performed simply by sectioning the muscle or its tendon without any suture. Such surgeries were usually performed in just one eye both in small and in large angles with not really predictable results. In 1922, Jameson introduced a new surgery technique using sutures and fixing the sectioned muscle to the sclera, increasing surgery predictability. For the esotropias he carried out no more than 5 mm recession of the medial rectus, which became a rule for the surgeons who followed him, which made it impossible from then on to correct largeangle esotropias with a monocular surgery. Rodriguez-Vásquez, in 1974, exceeded the 5 mm parameter by proposing large recessions of the medial recti (6 to 9 mm to treat the Ciancia syndrome with good results. The authors revised the
Gnanvo, Kondo; Gua, Chao; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Zhao, Yuxiang
2015-01-01
A large-area and light-weight Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was built at the University of Virginia as a prototype for the detector R$\\&$D program of the future Electron Ion Collider. The prototype has a trapezoidal geometry designed as a generic sector module in a disk layer configuration of a forward tracker in collider detectors. It is based on light-weight material and narrow support frames in order to minimize multiple scattering and dead-to-sensitive area ratio. The chamber has a novel type of two dimensional (2D) stereo-angle readout board with U-V strips that provides (r,$\\varphi$) position information in the cylindrical coordinate system of a collider environment. The prototype was tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013 and the analysis of the test beam data demonstrates an excellent response uniformity of the large area chamber with an efficiency higher than 95%. An angular resolution of 60 $\\mu$rad in the azimuthal direction and a position resolution better than 550 ...
Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.
2016-01-01
Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...
Financial Development and Convergence Clubs
N. Basturk (Nalan); R. Paap (Richard); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)
2010-01-01
textabstractThis paper studies the economic development process, measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), for a large panel of countries. We propose a methodology that identifies groups of countries (convergence clubs) that show similar GDP structures, while allowing for changes in club membersh
Testing for convergence from the micro-level
Giorgio Fazio; Davide Piacentino
2011-01-01
In the growth literature, researchers are typically concerned with macro convergence. However, to the extent that macro dynamics result from the underlying microeconomic relations, convergence should also be investigated at the micro-level. In this paper, we suggest an approach that allows exploiting large micro panels to test for convergence. Compared to the traditional convergence analysis, this approach allows obtaining, at the same time, β and σ like convergence parameters for both the mi...
Convergence S-compactifications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernd Losert
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Properties of continuous actions on convergence spaces are investigated. The primary focus is the characterization as to when a continuous action on a convergence space can be continuously extended to an action on a compactification of the convergence space. The largest and smallest such compactifications are studied.
Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.
Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
章浙锋; 王晓玲; 胡军
2016-01-01
Objective To evaluate the effect of different convergence angles on the fitness of using selective laser melting( SLM) to fabricate the Co-Cr inner crown, and to compare it with Lost-wax( LW) technique. Methods 60 resin base teeth were prepared by CAD/CAM, comprising 3 types of occlusal convergence (6°,8°,12°) and 20 for each;then each type of the specimens was further di-vided into SLM and LW group ( selective laser melting or Lost-wax) to fabricate the Co-Cr inner crown; there are altogether 6 groups with 10 specimens for each group. Each specimen received the treatment of being cleaned, cemented, and cut. The cement thickness of the inner and outer chamfer edge was then measured by scanning electronic microscopy. Analysis of Variance was performed to deter-mine the differences using SPSS 17. 0 software package. Results With the convergence angles from 6°,8° to 12°, the cement thick-nesses of inner and outer chamfer edge of SLM groups (the outer edge:(59. 20±16. 14)μm, (46. 62± 8. 26)μm, (62. 66±14. 11)μm respectively;inner edge:(59. 74±21. 44)μm, (47. 69±13. 53)μm, (73. 38±23. 03)μm) were smaller than those of the LW groups (outer edge:(63. 52±13. 97) μm, (61. 06±16. 12) μm, (65. 57±13. 85) μm;inner edge:(67. 48±23. 06) μm, (62. 94± 18. 19) μm, (77. 84±17. 52) μm); and the difference was statistically significant(P6°>8°group, and the difference was statistically significant(P6°组>8°组,差别具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 聚合度控制在12°以内,两种方法 制作的钴铬内冠边缘适合性均在临床可接受范围内,而选择性激光熔化钴铬内冠的边缘适合性要好于脱蜡法铸造钴铬内冠.
Huang, Danhong; Wellems, L David; Mozer, Henry; Gumbs, Godfrey; Cardimona, D A; Maradudin, A A
2013-01-01
Both dynamic and static approaches are proposed and investigated for controlling the optical phase of a p-polarized light wave that is guided through a surface-patterned metallic structure with subwavelength features. For dynamic control, field-induced transparency (FIT) from photo-excited electrons in a slit-embedded atomic system show up within a narrow frequency window for modulating the intensity of focused transmitted light in the near-field region. Based on the electromagnetic coupling, this is facilitated by surface plasmons between the two FIT-atom embedded slits. For static control, the role of surface curvature is obtained for focused transmitted light passing through a Gaussian-shaped metallic microlens embedded with a linear array of slits, in addition to a negative light-refraction pattern, which is associated with higher-diffraction modes of light, under a large angle of incidence in the near-field region. Most interesting, however, this anomalous negative light-refraction pattern becomes suppre...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salinas-Luna, J.; Cornejo-Rodriguez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Luna-Aguilar, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada, B.C (Mexico); Cordero-Davila, A. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)
2001-02-01
We show some results about the tolerance on the pointing angle of the sections of the LMT (GTM) in R{sup 2} and R{sup 3}, by means of an analysis of the inclination range, energy concentration within the airy disk, spot diagrams and caustic surface of rays and normals produced with misalignment in all segments of The Large Millimeter Telescope, (LMT). All the analysis is done on the focal plane. [Spanish] Se presentan resultados para las tolerancias en el angulo de apuntado de los sectores que componen la superficie del GTM (LMT), tanto en R{sup 2} como en R{sup 3}. El analisis de las tolerancias para diferentes rangos de inclinacion angular se estudiaron, conociendo sus efectos en la concentracion de energia en el disco de airy, diagrama de manchas, variacion de las superficies causticas de rayos y de las normales a la superficie para cuando se desalinean los sectores del espejo segmentado principal del Gran Telescopio Milimetrico, (GTM); todo este analisis se realiza en el plano focal.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨文晖
2015-01-01
Changping Company develop the perfect mining scheme of broken roof working face with large dip angle and large mining high, by moving the head of scraper conveyer, pushing the scraper conveyer in one-way, playing a side support, and mining along the inclined direction, solve the problem of scraper conveyor slipping forward, the crowding and slanting support and the exceed standard of bracket skewness caused by the broken false roof of 4314 working face with large mining height, provides reliable guarantee for working face successfully mining.%长平公司制定完善的大倾角大采高破碎顶板工作面回采方案，采用磨机头、单向顶溜、打戗柱、工作面伪倾斜推进等多种措施，解决了4314大采高工作面因机头机尾高差过大、工作面顶板伪顶破碎严重等因素造成的刮板输送机前窜、支架歪斜度超标、支架挤架咬架等难题，为工作面的顺利回采提供了可靠保障。
High-fidelity angle-modulated analog optical link.
Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William
2016-07-25
There has long existed a debate over whether analog or digital optical link is more suitable for wireless convergence applications. Digital link achieves the highest fidelity, with the sacrifice of huge bandwidth due to the high resolution of digitization, and large power consumption due to the exhaustive digital data recovery. Analog link avoids these drawbacks, but it inevitably suffers from the SNR degradation. In this paper, we propose the angle modulation for analog optical link, which successfully breaks the SNR ceiling of amplitude modulation, and achieves ultrahigh link fidelity. Using the digital link (CPRI) equivalent bandwidth, angle modulation exhibits around 30-dB SNR advantage over the conventional amplitude modulation. Combined with its high tolerance on link nonlinearity, angle modulation has great potential in the future SNR-hungry analog optical applications.
Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Collot, J.-Y.; Operto, S.
2009-02-01
Improving seismic imaging of the crust is essential for understanding the structural factors controlling subduction zones processes. We developed a processing work flow based on the combined analysis of multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and wide angle (WA) reflection/refraction data to derive both shallow and deep velocities suitable for prestack depth migration and to construct a blocky velocity model integrating all identifiable seismic phases contained in MCS and WA data. We apply this strategy to the study of the north Ecuador-SW Colombia subduction margin to improve the imaging and geostructural interpretation of a splay fault and surrounding outer and inner margin wedges. Results show improvements over tomographic inversion of WA data only, such as (1) sediment velocity variation across the trench and margin slope that correlates with lateral lithologic changes, tectonic compaction and effect of mass wasting processes; (2) a two-layer velocity structure of the inner wedge basement that is consistent with the crust of an oceanic plateau; (3) a complex velocity structure of the outer wedge basement that consists of a deep, high-velocity (5.0-5.5 km s-1) core and a low-velocity zone (3.8-5.0 km s-1) associated with the major splay fault; (4) a ˜1.3-km-thick, low-velocity (3.5-4.0 km s-1) subduction channel that extends beneath the margin outer wedge. Both the splay fault and subduction channel are expected to direct fluid flows; and (5) downdip velocity increase (5-6 km s-1) in the subducting oceanic crust associated with a low (7.8 km s-1) upper mantle velocity, possibly reflecting changes in rock nature or properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Notermans Ton
2015-02-01
Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely
Park, Jin-Young; Jung, Seok Won; Jeon, Seung-Hyub; Cho, Hyoung-Weon; Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Kyung-Soo
2014-01-01
For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the
Converged Registries Solution (CRS)
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...
Numerical Optimization of converging diverging miniature cavitating nozzles
Chavan, Kanchan; Bhingole, B.; Raut, J.; Pandit, A. B.
2015-12-01
The work focuses on the numerical optimization of converging diverging cavitating nozzles through nozzle dimensions and wall shape. The objective is to develop design rules for the geometry of cavitating nozzles for desired end-use. Two main aspects of nozzle design which affects the cavitation have been studied i.e. end dimensions of the geometry (i.e. angle and/or curvature of the inlet, outlet and the throat and the lengths of the converging and diverging sections) and wall curvatures(concave or convex). Angle of convergence at the inlet was found to control the cavity growth whereas angle of divergence of the exit controls the collapse of cavity. CFD simulations were carried out for the straight line converging and diverging sections by varying converging and diverging angles to study its effect on the collapse pressure generated by the cavity. Optimized geometry configurations were obtained on the basis of maximum Cavitational Efficacy Ratio (CER)i.e. cavity collapse pressure generated for a given permanent pressure drop across the system. With increasing capabilities in machining and fabrication, it is possible to exploit the effect of wall curvature to create nozzles with further increase in the CER. Effect of wall curvature has been studied for the straight, concave and convex shapes. Curvature has been varied and effect of concave and convex wall curvatures vis-à-vis straight walls studied for fixed converging and diverging angles.It is concluded that concave converging-diverging nozzles with converging angle of 20° and diverging angle of 5° with the radius of curvature 0.03 m and 0.1530 m respectively gives maximum CER. Preliminary experiments using optimized geometry are indicating similar trends and are currently being carried out. Refinements of the CFD technique using two phase flow simulations are planned.
Little, T. A.; Webber, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.
2016-12-01
The Mai'iu Fault is an active and corrugated low-angle normal fault (LANF) in Woodlark Rift, Eastern Papua New Guinea, which dips 21° NNE, accommodating rapid N-S extension. The Gwoira rider block is a large fault-bounded sedimentary slice comprising the Gwoira Conglomerate, located within a large synformal megamullion in the Mai'iu Fault surface. The Gwoira Conglomerate was originally deposited on the Mai'iu Fault hanging wall concurrent with extension, and has since been buried to a maximum depth of 1600-2100 m (evidenced by vitrinite reflectance data), back-tilted, and synformally folded. Both the Gwoira Conglomerate (former hanging wall) and mylonitic foliation (footwall) of the Mai'iu Fault have been shortened E-W, perpendicular to the extension direction. We show that E-W synformal folding of the Gwoira Conglomerate was concurrent with ongoing sedimentation and extension on the Mai'iu Fault. Structurally shallower Gwoira Conglomerate strata are folded less than deeper strata, indicating that folding was progressively accrued concurrent with N-S extension. We also show that abandonment of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault in favor of the Gwoira Fault, which resulted in formation of the Gwoira rider block, occurred in response to progressive megamullion amplification and resultant misorientation of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault. We attribute E-W folding to extension-perpendicular constriction. This is consistent with observations of outcrop-scale conjugate strike-slip faults that deform the footwall and hanging wall of the Mai'iu Fault, and accommodate E-W shortening. Constrictional folding remains active in the near-surface as evidenced by synformal tilting of inferred Late Quaternary fluvial terraces atop the Gwoira rider block. This sequence of progressive constrictional folding is dated using 26Al/10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of the Gwoira Conglomerate. Finally, because rider block formation records abandonment of the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁亚湘
1995-01-01
The DFP method is one of the most famous numerical algorithms for unconstrained optimization. For uniformly convex objective functions convergence properties of the DFP method are studied. Several conditions that can ensure the global convergence of the DFP method are given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.
1982-01-01
Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60......-65°. Only at large angles and low energies were the results different for H2 and D2, those for H2 being the lower ones. The angular variation of the SEE coefficient δ may be written as δ(θ)=δ(0)(cos θ)3/2 up to an angle of 65-75°. For H2 the SEE coefficient is around 0.65 times that the D2 except...... at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition...
Eklund, Lars; Hofer, Tomas S.
2014-01-01
Theoretical ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) has been applied in conjunction with experimental large angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and EXAFS measurements to study structure and dynamics of the hydrated oxo chloro anions chlorite, ClO2−, chlorate, ClO3−, and perchlorate, ClO4−. In addition, the structures of the hydrated hypochlorite, ClO−, bromate, BrO3−, iodate, IO3− and metaperiodate, IO4−, ions have been determined in aqueous solution by means of LAXS. The structures of the bromate, metaperiodate, and orthoperiodate, H2IO63−, ions have been determined by EXAFS as solid sodium salts and in aqueous solution as well. The results show clearly that the only form of periodate present in aqueous solution is metaperiodate. The Cl-O bond distances in the hydrated oxo chloro anions as determined by LAXS and obtained in the QMCF MD simulations are in excellent agreement, being 0.01–0.02 Å longer than in solid anhydrous salts due to hydration through hydrogen bonding to water molecules. The oxo halo anions, all with unit negative charge, have low charge density making them typical structure breakers, thus the hydrogen bonds formed to the hydrating water molecules are weaker and more short-lived than those between water molecules in pure water. The water exchange mechanism of the oxo chloro anions resembles those of the oxo sulfur anions with a direct exchange at the oxygen atoms for perchlorate and sulfate. The water exchange rate for the perchlorate ion is significantly faster, τ0.5=1.4 ps, compared to the hydrated sulfate ion and pure water, τ0.5=2.6 and 1.7 ps, respectively. The angular radial distribution functions show that the chlorate and sulfite ions have a more complex water exchange mechanism. As the chlorite and chlorate ions are more weakly hydrated than the sulfite ion the spatial occupancy is less well-defined and it is not possible to follow any well-defined migration pattern as it is difficult to
Čirgić, Emina; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Hansen, Ken
2016-10-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness in reducing large overjet between a prefabricated functional appliance (PFA) and a slightly modified Andresen activator (AA). Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden. A multicentre, prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted with patients from 12 general dental practices. One hundred and five patients with an Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion and an overjet of ≥6mm were eligible for the study. Eight patients were excluded due to various reasons and the sample consisted thus of 97 subjects (44 girls, 53 boys) with a mean age of 10.3 years. The study was designed as intention to treat and the patients were randomly allocated by lottery to treatment with either a PFA or an AA. The PFA and AA group consisted of 57 subjects (28 girls, 29 boys) and 40 subjects (16 girls, 24 boys), respectively. Overjet, overbite, lip seal, and sagittal molar relationship were recorded before, at the end of treatment and 1-year post-treatment. Blinding was not performed. The endpoint of treatment was set to overjet ≤3mm and after this a 6 months retention period followed. No significant difference was found in overjet, overbite, sagittal relation, and lip seal between the two groups for the total observation period. The treatment of 40 (70 per cent) patients with PFA and 21 (53 per cent) with AA were considered unsuccessful mainly due to poor compliance. No cephalometric records were taken as only patient-centred clinical outcome were used as an indicator for treatment success. The criteria of reduction of overjet to as low as 3mm could have affected the success rate. No difference in effectiveness could be shown between PFAs and AAs in correcting overjet, overbite, sagittal molar relation, and lip seal. The success rate in treatment with both appliances is, however, low. This trial was registered in "FoU i Sverige" (http://www.fou.nu/is/sverige), registration number: 97131. The protocol was not
Convergence of Fuzzy Set Sequences
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Yu-hu
2002-01-01
There are more than one mode of convergence with respect to the fuzzy set sequences. In this paper,common six modes of convergence and their relationships are discussed. These six modes are convergence in uniform metric D, convergence in separable metric Dp or D*p, 1 ≤ p ＜∞, convergence in level set, strong convergence in level set and weak convergence. Suitable counterexamples are given. The necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence in uniform metric D are described. Some comme nts on the convergence of LRfuzzy number sequences are represented.
Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.
2015-12-01
Solar energetic particle (SEP) pitch angle distributions arise from the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering as the particles travel through the interplanetary medium, and can therefore indicate interplanetary conditions far from the observer. The STEREO Low Energy Telescopes measure SEP pitch angle distributions for protons, helium, and heavier ions with energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. A wide variety of particle anisotropies was observed in the extreme SEP event of 23 July 2012. At the STEREO-Ahead spacecraft, the solar source of the activity was near central meridian and the pitch angle distribution was initially an outward-flowing beam. High time resolution (1-minute) observations revealed peculiar oscillations in beam width on a timescale of several minutes; such behavior does not seem to have been previously reported in other events. Particle flow became bidirectional while inside a magnetic cloud following a tremendous shock. Particle intensities at the Behind spacecraft, from which the event occurred over the east limb of the Sun, were about 1000 times lower than at Ahead. Pitch angle distributions during the peak of the event show inward-flowing particles that underwent partial mirroring closer to the Sun and formed a distinctive loss-cone distribution (indicating that the magnetic field strength at the mirror point was too small to turn around particles with the smallest pitch angles). We present the observations of this rich variety of anisotropies within a single event, compare with observations in other events, and discuss the implications for SEP transport in the inner heliosphere.
Structural analysis of converging jets in a triple torch plasma system
Ramachandran, K
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical model is developed to clarify the structure of the converging jets in a triple torch plasma system. Three individual argon plasma jets, issued into atmospheric argon, are mixed with given angle of convergence and form a converged plasma jet. Predicted results show that thermo-fluid fields of the converging plasma jets are symmetric with three symmetric sections at an interval 120 deg. Symmetry and uniformity of thermo-fluid fields increase with decreasing angle of convergence. Temperature field is more sensitive to angle of convergence than the velocity field. Symmetry of thermo-fluid fields is improved in downstream direction. A dip in the velocity fields corresponds to poor mixing and diffusion of velocity fields of three individual plasma jets. Central gas injection decreases converging jets temperature significantly.
Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...
Fixed mobile convergence handbook
Ahson, Syed A
2010-01-01
From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo
Subsequential Convergence Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dik Mehmet
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a sequence of real numbers and let be any regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence or its generator sequence generated regularly by a sequence in a class of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for , then for any integer , the repeated arithmetic means of , , generated regularly by a sequence in the class , is also a subsequential convergence condition for .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-12-15
This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.
Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.
2017-01-01
Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.
Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.
2016-03-01
Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.
Posterior fixation suture and convergence excess esotropia.
Steffen; Auffarth; Kolling
1998-09-01
The present study investigates the results of Cuppers' 'Fadenoperation' in patients with non-accommodative convergence excess esotropia. Particular attention is given to postoperative eye alignment at distance fixation. Group 1 (n=96) included patients with a 'normal' convergence excess. The manifest near angles (mean ET 16.73 degrees +/- 6.33 degrees, range 4 degrees -33 degrees ) were roughly twice the size of the distance angles (mean ET 6.50 degrees +/- 3.62 degrees, range 0 degrees -14 degrees ). These patients were treated with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti without additional eye muscle surgery. Three months after surgery, the mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees (range XT 11 degrees -ET 5 degrees ) for distance fixation, and ET 2.7 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees (range XT 5 degrees -ET 14 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. Postoperative convergent angles at near fixation >ET 10 degrees were present in two patients (1.9%). Group 2 (n=21) included patients with a mean preoperative distance angle of ET 9.2 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees (range 6 degrees -16 degrees ) and a mean preoperative near angle of ET 23.4 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees (range 16 degrees -31 degrees ). These patients were operated on with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti and a simultaneous recession of one or both medial rectus muscles. Mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees (range XT 12 degrees -ET 7 degrees ) for distance fixation and ET 1.4 degrees +/- 4.5 degrees (range XT 8 degrees -ET 13 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. In this group, 2 patients (10.6%) had a postoperative exotropia >XT 5 degrees at distance fixation, and two patients had residual esotropia>ET 10 degrees at near fixation. Group 3 (n=17) included patients with a pronounced non-accommodative convergence excess. Near angle values (mean of 17.8 degrees +/- 5.3 degrees, range ET 7 degrees -26 degrees ) were several times higher than the distance
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gale, R. W.
1997-05-01
The likelihood of convergence in the electric power industry in Canada and the United Sates was examined, and the impact of such a development with respect to electricity and natural gas was explored. Based on developments to date, convergence between gas and electric utilities was considered an inevitable step towards the ultimate consolidation of the energy industry as a whole. Characteristics shared by gas and electric utilities were described, and likely developments leading to convergence of the two industries were reviewed. According to this author the competition between the opposing utilities will lead to price wars, loss leaders and other marketing strategies. Prices will be set by supply and demand principles. While users will be able to select customized, money-saving energy solutions, for suppliers, the new utility market will be a Darwinian battle royale, where only the most viable will survive. The end result will be a larger market dominated by a few super players.
Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; Larsen, Shawn
1988-01-01
Comparison of angles from historical triangulation observations dating as far back as 1932 with Global Positions System (GPS) measurements taken in 1987 indicates that rapid convergence may be taking place on decade timescales in the central and eastern part of the Ventura basin, an east-west trending trough bounded by thrust faults. Changes in angles over this time were analyzed using Prescott's modified Frank's method and in terms of a model which assumes that the regions to the north and south of the basin are rigid blocks undergoing relative motion. For the two block model, inversion of the observed angle changes over the last 28 years for the relative motion vector leads to north-south convergence across the basin of 30 + or - 5 mm/yr, with a left lateral component of 10 + or - 1 mm/yr in the Fillmore-Santa Paula area in the central part of the basin. The modified Frank's method yields strain rates of approximately 2 microrad/yr in both the east and central parts of the basin for measurements spanning the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Assuming no east-west strain yeilds north-south compression of approximately 3.5 + or - .2 cm/yr. Comparison of triangulation data prior to the earthquake shows no strain outside the margin of error. The convergence rates determined by geodetic techniques are consistent with geologic observations in the area. Such large geodetic deformation rates, with no apparent near-surface creep on the major thrust, can be understood if these faults become subhorizontal at relatively shallow depths and if the subhorizontal portions of the faults are creeping. An alternative explanation of the large displacement rates might be that the pumping of oil in the vicinity of the benchmarks caused large horizontal motions, although it is unlikely that meter scale horizontal motions are due to oil withdrawal. These and other hypotheses are evaluated to better constrain the tectonics of this active region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
The convergence of chaotic integrals
Bauer, O; Bauer, Oliver; Mainieri, Ronnie
1995-01-01
We review the convergence of chaotic integrals computed by Monte Carlo simulation, the trace method, dynamical zeta function, and Fredholm determinant on a simple one-dimensional example: the parabola repeller. There is a dramatic difference in convergence between these approaches. The convergence of the Monte Carlo method follows an inverse power law, whereas the trace method and dynamical zeta function converge exponentially, and the Fredholm determinant converges faster than any exponential.
Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J
2016-01-01
Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of
A specially curved wedge for eliminating wedge angle effect in unsteady shock reflection
Wang, He; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng; Yang, Jiming; Lu, Xiyun
2017-08-01
A curved wedge with a specific shape is designed and manufactured to guarantee the wedge angle unvaried during the cylindrically converging shock moving along the wedge. Thus the variation of the wedge angle caused by the wedge will be eliminated in unsteady shock reflection. Different initial wedge angles are considered to observe regular reflection and Mach reflection. When Mach reflection occurs, it is found that direct Mach reflection is persisted over the wedge without wave pattern transitions, which differs from our previous work with varied wedge angles [Zhang et al. "Reflection of cylindrical converging shock wave over a plane wedge," Phys. Fluids 28, 086101 (2016)]. Moreover, the Mach stem is nearly straight when the wedge angle is relatively large, and the trajectory of triple point can be well predicted by three-shock theory. It is believed that the straight Mach stem results from the coupling effect of the converging shock and the convexly curved wedge, which exert opposite effects on the Mach stem curvature. As the wedge angle reduces, the three-shock theory prediction deviates from the present results owing to the curved Mach stem. Stronger vortices are produced near the wall, which are caused by the interaction of two shear layers, and whether the stronger vortices will be generated near the wall depends on the reflection number of the shock wave over the tube wall and wedge. The length of disturbed shock front in the Mach reflection is found to increase nonlinearly due to the unsteady feature of the flow. The growth rate of length reduces as the shock converges because of the geometrical contraction effect. Further the lengths of the Mach stem and the disturbed shock front are compared, and the results show that although the difference exists between them, both of them show a similar variation tendency. Compared with our previous work with varied wedge angles, the variation of the wedge angle has great effects on the Mach stem length and wave
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Coghetto Roland
2015-01-01
We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Language Convergence Infrastructure
V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva
2011-01-01
htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Summable series and convergence factors
Moore, Charles N
1938-01-01
Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that
Catanesi, M.G.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, Malcolm; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Meurer, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in the range of momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\leq \\theta < 2.15 \\rad$ in proton--beryllium, proton--aluminium and proton--lead collisions are presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12.9 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections at six incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc, 8.9 \\GeVc (Be only), 12 \\GeVc and 12.9 \\GeVc (Al only)) and compared to previously available data.
Catanesi, M.G.; Ellis, Malcolm; Robbins, S.; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Arce, P.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, M.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.
2008-01-01
A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).
Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Engel, R; Meurer, C; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Paganoni, M; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A
2008-01-01
A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).
Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, Malcolm; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, U; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
Measurements of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in the range of momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\leq \\theta < 2.15 \\rad$ in proton--beryllium, proton--aluminium and proton--lead collisions are presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12.9 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections at six incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc, 8.9 \\GeVc (Be only), 12 \\GeVc and 12.9 \\GeVc (Al only)) and compared to previously available data.
Reflection of a converging cylindrical shock wave segment by a straight wedge
Gray, B.; Skews, B.
2017-01-01
As a converging cylindrical shock wave propagates over a wedge, the shock wave accelerates and the angle between the shock wave and the wedge decreases. This causes the conditions at the reflection point to move from what would be the irregular reflection domain for a straight shock wave into the regular reflection domain. This paper covers a largely qualitative study of the reflection of converging shock wave segments with Mach numbers between 1.2 and 2.1 by wedges inclined at angles between 15° and 60° from experimental and numerical results. The sonic condition conventionally used for predicting the type of reflection of straight shock waves was found to also be suitable for predicting the initial reflection of a curved shock wave. Initially regular reflections persisted until the shock was completely reflected by the wedge, whereas the triple point of initially irregular reflections was observed to return to the wedge surface, forming transitioned regular reflection. After the incident shock wave was completely reflected by the wedge, a shock wave focusing mechanism was observed to amplify the pressure on the surface of the wedge by a factor of up to 100 for low wedge angles.
The Convergent Learning Space:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering
2013-01-01
is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...
Subsequential Convergence Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İbrahim Çanak
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Let (un be a sequence of real numbers and let L be any (C,1 regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence (un or its generator sequence (Vn(0(ÃŽÂ”u generated regularly by a sequence in a class Ã°ÂÂ’Âœ of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for L, then for any integer mÃ¢Â‰Â¥1, the mth repeated arithmetic means of (Vn(0(ÃŽÂ”u, (Vn(m(ÃŽÂ”u, generated regularly by a sequence in the class Ã°ÂÂ’Âœ(m, is also a subsequential convergence condition for L.
Surgery for residual convergence excess esotropia.
Patel, Himanshu I; Dawson, Emma; Lee, John
2011-12-01
The outcome of bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures +/- central tenotomy was assessed as a secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia in 11 patients. Ten had previously undergone bilateral medial rectus recessions. One had recess/resect surgery on the deviating eye. The average preoperative near angle was 30 prism diopters with a range of 16 to 45 prism diopters. Eight patients underwent bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with central tenotomy. Two had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures only, and one had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation suture, a lateral rectus resection, and an inferior oblique disinsertion. The postoperative near angle ranged from 4-30 prism diopters, with mean of 12 prism diopters. Five patients demonstrated some stereopsis preoperatively, all needing bifocals. Postoperatively, nine patients demonstrated an improvement in stereopsis, none needing bifocals. Two showed smaller near angles and better control without bifocals. Final stereopsis ranged from 30 seconds of arc to 800 seconds of arc. We feel that bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with or without central tenotomy is a viable secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia.
Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Thézé
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.
Exponential convergence rates for weighted sums in noncommutative probability space
Choi, Byoung Jin; Ji, Un Cig
2016-11-01
We study exponential convergence rates for weighted sums of successive independent random variables in a noncommutative probability space of which the weights are in a von Neumann algebra. Then we prove a noncommutative extension of the result for the exponential convergence rate by Baum, Katz and Read. As applications, we first study a large deviation type inequality for weighted sums in a noncommutative probability space, and secondly we study exponential convergence rates for weighted free additive convolution sums of probability measures.
IT Convergence and Security 2012
Chung, Kyung-Yong
2013-01-01
The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.
Stayton, C. Tristan
2015-01-01
Convergent evolution is central to the study of life's evolutionary history. Researchers have documented the ubiquity of convergence and have used this ubiquity to make inferences about the nature of limits on evolution. However, these inferences are compromised by unrecognized inconsistencies in the definitions, measures, significance tests and inferred causes of convergent evolution. I review these inconsistencies and provide recommendations for standardizing studies of convergence. A fundamental dichotomy exists between definitions that describe convergence as a pattern and those that describe it as a pattern caused by a particular process. When this distinction is not acknowledged it becomes easy to assume that a pattern of convergence indicates that a particular process has been active, leading researchers away from alternative explanations. Convergence is not necessarily caused by limits to evolution, either adaptation or constraint; even substantial amounts of convergent evolution can be generated by a purely stochastic process. In the absence of null models, long lists of examples of convergent events do not necessarily indicate that convergence or any evolutionary process is ubiquitous throughout the history of life. Pattern-based definitions of convergence, coupled with quantitative measures and null models, must be applied before drawing inferences regarding large-scale limits to evolution. PMID:26640646
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢万强; 罗忠良; 向前波; 傅骏
2015-01-01
核电大汽缸是核电机组的基础部件，汽缸体上的复合角度斜深孔加工是汽缸体加工的重难点。通过分析复合角度斜深孔的加工难点和加工现状，着重从加工方法、加工刀具、装夹方式、冷却润滑等方面进行详细研究，将专用工装与铲钻技术相结合，成功完成复合角度斜深孔的加工，满足产品加工要求，从根本上解决了核电大汽缸复合角度斜深孔的加工技术难题。%Nuclear large cylinder is one of the basic components of nuclear power generating units, compound angle inclined deep hole processing is key and difficulty of cylinder block machining. Through analyzing processing difficulty and processing status of com⁃posite angle deep hole, the machining method, cutting tool, clamping, cooling and lubrication were researched emphatically. Special fixture and spade drills were combined to successfully complete processing of composite angle deep hole. The product meets the pro⁃cessing requirements. So the processing technical problems of nuclear power cylinder composite angle inclined deep hole is solved fun⁃damentally.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunhai Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical aspects combined with stress analysis over the floor strata of coal seam and the calculation model for the stress on the coal floor. Basically, this research presents the relevant results obtained for the rock burst prevention in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf in the exploitation of thick coal seam with large obliquity in deep well and rock burst tendency. The control mechanism of rock burst in the roadway driven along next goaf is revealed in the present work. That is, the danger of rock burst can be removed by changing the stress environment for the energy accumulation of the floor and by reducing the impact on the roadway floor from the strong dynamic pressure. This result can be profitable being used at the design stage of appropriate position of roadway undergoing rock burst tendency in similar conditions. Based on the analysis regarding the control mechanism, this paper presents a novel approach to the prevention of rock burst in roadway floor under the above conditions. That is, the return airway is placed within the goaf of the upper working face that can prevent the rock burst effectively. And in this way, mining without coal pillar in the thick coal seam with large obliquity and large burial depth (over a thousand meters is realized. Practice also proves that the rock burst in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf is controlled and solved.
Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning
Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.
2007-01-01
This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
In view of the structure of traditional five-coord in ate machine tool, the work-piece and machine tool often move along their respec tive guides simultaneously on the whole. In this kind of machine structure, the total mass of moving parts including work-pieces, fixtures, rotating table, wor king table and so on is often very large. Besides, the elastic reform of transmi ssion and the viscous friction force of the guide can not be ignored. As a resul t, the machine tool can not move with high velocity and...
Convergence Patterns in Latin America
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos
Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...
Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordahl, Rolf
2007-01-01
for changes in society, developments in taste etc. However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...... between art and science....
Converging spherical wave propagation in a hemispherical solid lens
Zhang, Yaoju; Ye, Xuehua; Chen, Junfeng
2006-06-01
The propagation of converging spherical waves through a hemispherical solid lens (HSL) is studied, and the multiple reflections inside the HSL are considered. It is found that the reflectivity and transmissivity have an oscillatory behaviour related to the optical radius of the HSL. When the refractive index of the HSL is smaller than that of the sample, the small mismatch in refractive indices is preferable for transmission-mode microscopy. But when the refractive index of the HSL is larger than that of the sample, the reflectivity increases rapidly as the mismatch in refractive indices and the converging angle of incident light increase, the larger mismatch and converging angle are useful for reflection-mode microscopy. The magnitude of the whole reflectivity and its modulation depth are strongly sensitive to the incident polarization, which is also discussed.
Phase Angle of Electromagnetic Field in Large Gap Magnetic Drive System%大间隙磁力传动系统电磁场切换相位角研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘云龙; 谭建平; 祝忠彦; 许焰; 刘恒拓
2012-01-01
基于ANSYS软件建立了行波磁场驱动的大间隙磁力传动系统的二维电磁场仿真模型,分析了电磁体四种磁极状态下,永磁体角位移位于0°到360°之间所受的磁力矩情况.为使系统获得最大驱动力矩,提出了电磁体磁极状态切换的最佳切换相位角的概念,并对其进行了求解.通过分析系统中电磁体和永磁体间耦合距离及两电磁体间磁极距离对系统最佳切换相位角的影响,得到了最佳切换相位角的近似计算公式.通过轴流式血泵负载实验,结合血泵负载力矩模型,计算并比较了各种切换相位角下血泵的最大负载力矩.结果表明:按仿真所得的最佳切换相位角进行相位切换可使系统具有最大驱动能力.%A 2-D electromagnetic simulation model of the large gap magnetic drive system driven by traveling wave magnetic field was established, and the magnetic moment for the four pole-states when the angular displacement of the permanent magnet ranged from 0° to 360° was simulated with ANSYS software. In order to get the largest driving torque of the system, the concept of the best phase angle for the pole-state of the electromagnets was presented. The approximate formula for the best phase angle was drawn by analyzing the influence of the coupling distance and electromagnet-pole distance on the best phase angle of the system. The largest load torque of the axial-flow blood pump for different phase angles was calculated and compared by using load torque model through experiment. The results have shown that the best phase angles obtained through simulation can get the largest driving torque.
Revisiting world energy intensity convergence for regional differences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liddle, Brantley [Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)
2010-10-15
World convergence in energy intensity is revisited using two new large data sets: a 111-country sample spanning 1971-2006, and a 134-country sample spanning 1990-2006. Both data sets confirm continued convergence. However, the larger data set, which adds the former Soviet Union republics and additional Balkan countries, indicates greater convergence over its more recent time-frame. Further investigation of geographical differences reveals that the OECD and Eurasian countries have shown considerable, continued convergence, while the Sub-Saharan African countries have converged amongst themselves, but at a slower rate than the OECD and Eurasian countries; by contrast, Latin American and Caribbean and Middle East and North African countries have exhibited no convergence to divergence in energy intensity. (author)
Winding angles of long lattice walks
Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov
2016-07-01
We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio /2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio /2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.
Rôle de la convergence oculomotrice dans le contrôle de la posture
2008-01-01
The present thesis concerns human orthostatic postural balance in the young and in the elderly. Several sensory modalities are used in order to maintain postural stability (somatosensory, proprioceptive, vestibular and visual information). The objective of the thesis is to demonstrate the role of convergence of the eyes (angle of the visual axes) which varies with the distance. Study 1 shows that an increased angle of convergence, for instance when fixating at near distance or when fixating t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁艳; 盛业华; 杨林
2013-01-01
针对近景数字摄影测量中大交角影像的匹配问题,本文提出了一种仿射不变特征提取与匹配方法.该方法集成Hessain-Affine和MSER特征检测算法提取一定数量的仿射不变特征区域,并将提取的椭圆形特征区域归一化处理为圆形区域,再用SIFT特征描述算子对特征区域进行描述,然后进行基于距离的粗匹配,最后在核线约束下进行精匹配.实验表明,本文的方法在对大交角近景图像进行匹配时,可以得到相对多数量的匹配对和较高的正确匹配率,具有很好的稳定性和鲁棒性.%To solve such problem for matching the large-angle and close-range images of digital photogrammetry, the affine invariant feature extraction and matching method was proposed in the paper. The method integrated Hessain-Affine and MSER algorithms to extract certain number of affine invariant regions, normalized irregular feature areas into circle areas, and described them with SIFT descriptor, then roughly matched based on the distance, finally, in order to improve the accuracy of matching, fine matching on the epi-polar constraint was carried out. The experiments showed that this method could get the relatively large amount of matched point pairs and higher matching auuracy rate with good stability and robustness in matching the large-angle and close-range images.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
2016-01-01
. The article is based on participant observation of the Blockupy event and interviews with a group of Danish activists who also participated. The article constructs sociospatial narrative that unfolds through three different scales of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal...... organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a ‘convergence space’ (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different ‘roots’ and ‘routes’ of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event......, this article restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality. It concludes by posing a set of questions for further discussion among both activists...
Homology, convergence and parallelism.
Ghiselin, Michael T
2016-01-05
Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. © 2015 The Author(s).
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
Vladimir P. Kulagin; Victor Y. Tsvetkov; Maiya V. Maksimova
2013-01-01
The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher ed...
A new angle on the Euler angles
Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.
1995-01-01
We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.
A hierarchical view of convergent evolution in microbial eukaryotes.
Leander, Brian S
2008-01-01
Distinguishing convergent evolution from other causes of similarity in organisms is necessary for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, inferring patterns of character evolution, and investigating the forces of natural selection. In contrast to animals and land plants, the pervasiveness and adaptive significance of convergent evolution in microbes has yet to be systematically explored or articulated. Convergent evolution in microbial eukaryotes, for instance, often involves very distantly related lineages with relatively limited repertoires of morphological features. These large phylogenetic distances weaken the role of ancestral developmental programs on the subsequent evolution of morphological characters, making convergent evolution between very distantly related lineages fundamentally different from convergent evolution between closely related lineages. This suggests that examples of convergence at different levels in the phylogenetic hierarchy offer different clues about the causes and processes of macroevolutionary diversification. Accordingly (and despite opinions to the contrary), I recognize three broad and overlapping categories of phenotypic convergence-"parallel", "proximate" and "ultimate"-that represent either (1) subcellular analogues, (2) subcellular analogues to multicellular systems (and vice versa), or (3) multicellular analogues. Microbial eukaryotes living in planktonic environments, interstitial environments, and the intestinal environments of metazoan hosts provide compelling examples of ultimate convergence. After describing selected examples in microbial eukaryotes, I suggest some future directions needed to more fully understand the hierarchical structure of convergent evolution and the overall history of life.
Large angle attitude control of spacecraft based on on-off actuators%基于开关执行器的空间飞行器大角度姿态控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周荻; 周成宝
2014-01-01
Considering the switching-type characteristic of attitude control actuators used in spacecraft three loop coupling attitude control systems,a large angle attitude maneuver control scheme of spacecraft is proposed.To avoid the singularity due to the use of Euler angle in large angle attitude maneuvers,the attitude kinematics of the spacecraft is described by quaternion.A variable structure controller with bounded inputs is designed by the method of Lyapunov and the stability of the system is proved.In order to avoid chattering,a boundary layer is used to replace the sign func-tion in the variable structure control law.The rest-to-rest attitude tracking control problem is simulated.Numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed attitude control method.%针对空间飞行器姿态控制系统采用开关式姿控发动机的特点，研究了空间飞行器大角度机动三通道耦合姿态控制问题。为克服大角度机动时使用欧拉角可能产生的奇异问题，采用四元数描述的空间飞行器姿态运动数学模型，应用 Lyapunov 方法设计了控制量受限情况下的基于误差四元数的大角度姿态运动变结构控制器，并给出了严格的数学证明。为了避免控制律中的颤动问题，用边界层来代替控制律中符号函数。给出了从一种静态到另外一种静态的姿态跟踪四元数指令确定方法。数值仿真结果说明了所提出的控制器的有效性。
Closed-form on-off control for large angle maneuver of flexible spacecraft%柔性航天器大角度机动闭环开关序列控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔宪仁; 杨正贤; 廖俊; 张也弛
2011-01-01
针对柔性航天器大角度姿态机动时柔性附件的振动抑制问题，提出了一种闭环脉冲序列控制方法．该方法利用姿态角和角速度作为反馈信号，分别使用喷气推力器、反作用飞轮完成姿态的粗、精控制，以实现航天器的快速大角度机动；同时，为实现平稳的机动过程，设计成形的喷气开关控制指令，以避免机动过程中推力器激起柔性结构的持续振动．全物理实验结果表明，该方法不仅使航天器完成姿态的机动，而且显著地减少了柔性结构的弹性振动，并且具有节省燃料、算法简单、易于在轨实时计算、工程可行性及有效性高的优点．%A closed-form pulse train control algorithm is presented for vibration suppression of flexible spacecraft during large angle maneuver. Based on attitude angle and angular velocity, the control algorithm uses thrusters for coarse attitude control and reaction wheels for high precision attitude control at the final stage of operations. The input shaping is introduced to modulate thruster pulses with a set of properly timed impulses to suppress vibrations introduced by on-off control. Physical experiment results demonstrate that the proposed ap- proach can significantly reduce the vibration of flexible appendages during fast large angle maneuver, and the presented control algorithm has the advantages of less fuel consumption, as well as simplicity and efficiency for practical on-board computer operation.
... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;
2016-01-01
the simulation convergence without adding complexity to the generic models, a first order filtering approach is proposed as a phase angle calculation algorithm in the grid synchronization of the rms type 4 wind turbine models. The proposed approach provides robustness for the simulation of large scale power......In order to conduct power system simulations with high shares of wind energy, standard wind turbine models, which are aimed to be generic rms models for a wide range of wind turbine types, have been developed. As a common practice of rms simulations, the power electronic interface of wind turbines...... is assumed to be ideally synchronized, i.e. grid synchronization (e.g. PLL) is not included in simplified wind turbine models. As will be shown in this paper, this practice causes simulation convergence problems during severe voltage dips and when the loss of synchronism occurs. In order to provide...
Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Designed to answer some fundamental questions: How is the corona heated? Where and how is the solar wind accelerated? What causes coronal mass ejections,...
[Conservative and surgical treatment of convergence excess].
Ehrt, O
2016-07-01
Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach. The most effective operations include those which reduce the muscle torque, e. g. bimedial Faden operations or Y‑splitting of the medial rectus muscles.
Strain Partitioning and the Geometry of Oblique Plate Convergence
Guzman-Speziale, M.
2004-05-01
Strain partitioning occurs at convergent margins where oblique subduction takes place, a fact that has been known for a number of years. The geometry of plate subduction controls strain-partitioning mode in the forearc region. Deformation in the forearc depends on the direction of relative plate convergence, earthquake slip vectors, and trench-normal direction. Two basic angles are derived from these vectors: obliquity of plate convergence, the angle of plate motion direction and trench normal, and slip partitioning which is the angle between the earthquake slip vector and trench normal. Traditionally, oblique convergence models consider the trench (convergent margin) a straight line on a flat Earth. This is correct for small-scale (in the order of a few kilometers) models. However, earthquakes along convergent margins often have fault lengths of tens and even hundreds (for magnitude 7 or greater) of kilometers. On the other hand, the direction normal to the trench is usually calculated averaging contiguous points along the deepest part of the digitized bathymetry, yielding the local trend of the trench. The direction normal to the trench thus calculated varies greatly along a specific trench. In this work we propose an alternate treatment of the geometry of the trench. On a spherical Earth, trench segments form arcs of small circles. Usually, a trench of interest will contain a few (three-five) such segments, which can be fitted (in a least-squares sense) with small circles with a known center of curvature (or pole) on the surface of the Earth. Also known are the initial and final points. Instead of the standard direction normal to the trench, we use the average azimuth from the segment of small circle to its corresponding pole. We use this direction instead of trench normal and calculate obliquity of plate convergence. We test our model along the western Sunda arc, from the eastern Himalayan sintaxis to Sumatra. Five contiguos small circles were fitted to the
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.
Givnish, Thomas J
2010-01-14
Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Givnish Thomas J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
Notes on Some Convergences in Riesz Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zhi-jie; AI Fu-ju
2007-01-01
An equivalent description of u-uniform convergence is presented first. Then the relations among the order convergence,u-uniform convergence and norm convergence of sequences are discussed in Riesz spaces. An equivalence of the three convergences is brought forward; namely, {fn} is a u-uniform Cauchy sequence. Finally the relations among the three convergences of sequences am also extended to the relations among the convergences of nets in Riesz spaces.
Cosmic Reionization On Computers: Numerical and Physical Convergence
Gnedin, Nickolay Y
2016-01-01
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce a weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ~20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, like stellar m...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖冉; 刘艳芬; 许文贞; 谭宗泉; 成斌; 孔伟; 叶邦角
2014-01-01
高通量µ子源是国际上µ子科学研究的重要条件。在中国散裂中子源的高能质子应用区中，运用蒙特卡罗工具Geant4和G4beamline软件设计了使用内靶超导螺线管俘获高通量表面µ子的束线。与传统的分离靶和基于四极磁铁的收集系统相比，大孔径超导螺线管可以将收集效率提高两个量级。通过对不同靶材的粒子产率进行分析得出石墨是最佳靶材，然后比较俘获螺线管与束流的不同偏转角度下收集的表面µ的产率，提出了合理的较高产率的俘获和输运螺线管的设计方案，并与常规磁铁方案比较，最终在衰变螺线管端口的表面µ通量高达108/s。%High intense muons are required by many applications in muon science. A large acceptance channel for surface muons was designed at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) using a superconducting solenoid and an internal target, which can provide a large solid angle to collect intense surface muons. Compared to conventional separate target and collection system based on quadrupole magnets, a superconducting solenoid with large aperture can collect two orders larger of surface muons. This device was simulated by Geant4 and G4beamline. By analyzing the surface muon production ratio produced by the process that protons bombard four different materials, we chose the graphite as the target material. Then comparing the intensity of surface muon by different angles between the axis of the capture solenoids and the proton beam line, we proposed the capture and transport solenoid system with higher muon production ratio. Finally, the yield of surface muon at the exit of decay solenoid can be up to 108/s.
Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glaser, R
2001-12-11
;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.
The Convergence of Intelligences
Diederich, Joachim
Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Siriram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
辛菁; 苟蛟龙; 马晓敏; 黄凯; 刘丁; 张友民
2014-01-01
To solve the performance degradation problem of the mobile robot 3D V-SLAM (visual simultaneous local-ization and mapping) in the presence of large viewing angle, an affine invariant features matching algorithm AORB (affine oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF) is proposed, and a mobile robot large viewing angle 3D V-SLAM system using Kinect camera is further developed. Firstly, AORB algorithm is adopted to implement the fast and efficient matching between ad-jacent frames captured by the Kinect RGB camera in the presence of large changes of viewing angle, and the corresponding relationship between adjacent frames is created. Secondly, 2D image points are converted into 3D color cloud data through using the calibrated intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of Kinect, and pixel depth values after alignment correction. Thirdly, the relative pose between adjacent frames is computed by using the least-squares algorithm after removing outliers using RANSAC (RANdom Sample Consensus). Finally, the 3D model is obtained by optimizing the resulting pose using g2o (gen-eral graph optimization). Mobile robot large viewing angle 3D V-SLAM is realized ultimately. Both the off-line (based on well-known and available benchmark data sets) and the online (with a developed mobile robot system) experimental testing show that the proposed matching algorithm and the developed 3D V-SLAM system can accurately update the local model, successfully reconstruct the environment model, and effectively estimate the motion trajectory of the mobile robot in the presence of large viewing angle.%针对大视角情况下，移动机器人3维视觉同步定位与地图构建（visual simultaneous localization and mapping，V-SLAM）性能下降的问题，提出了一种仿射不变特征匹配算法AORB（affine oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF）并在此基础上构建了基于Kinect的移动机器人大视角3D V-SLAM系统．首先对Kinect相机采集到的彩色RGB数据采用AORB算法实现具有大
A Globally Convergent Matrix-Free Method for Constrained Equations and Its Linear Convergence Rate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A matrix-free method for constrained equations is proposed, which is a combination of the well-known PRP (Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method and the famous hyperplane projection method. The new method is not only derivative-free, but also completely matrix-free, and consequently, it can be applied to solve large-scale constrained equations. We obtain global convergence of the new method without any differentiability requirement on the constrained equations. Compared with the existing gradient methods for solving such problem, the new method possesses linear convergence rate under standard conditions, and a relax factor γ is attached in the update step to accelerate convergence. Preliminary numerical results show that it is promising in practice.
Media and democracy: false convergences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco C. P. Fonseca
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1 naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b focus on the (supposedly public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir P. Kulagin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.
Some Comments on Tectonic Erosion and Sediment Subduction in Convergent Margins
Clift, P. D.; Vannucchi, P.
2003-12-01
Subduction plate boundaries at which tectonic erosion removes material from the overriding plate account for 57% of the total length of the global subduction system are favored where convergence rates exceed about 6 cm/yr and where the sedimentary cover is less than 1 km. Accretion conversely preferentially occurs in regions of slow orthogonal convergence (1 km. The slope gradients and taper angle of accretionary plate margins correlates with plate convergence rates, while erosive margin slopes appear to be independent of this. Rates of trench retreat do not appear to correlate with any simple characteristic of the plate interaction, but are largely a function of the history of seamount or ridge collisions. 55% of the total continental crustal material subducted globally below forearc regions in the modern ocean comprises material removed by tectonic erosion from the over-riding plate, 45% trench sediment. Even in accretionary margins a median of only 17% of the incoming sedimentary mass is accreted over time scales of 10 my or greater, resulting in long-term net loss of continental crust along convergent margins. Average magmatic productivity in the active margins must exceed 90 km3/my to preserve the current volume of the continental crust. Geological arguments indicate that magmatic accretion rates must be faster in oceanic arcs (91-149 km3/my) and less in the continental arcs (27-135 km3/my). Mass balance arguments in oceanic arcs require that their crustal thicknesses must be Continental growth is principally achieved through the collision of oceanic island arcs to continental margins. Although oceanic arcs are chemically distinct from continental crust, the collision process involves the loss of mafic and ultramafic lower crust and the emplacement of voluminous, high silica, light rare earth element enriched melts, transforming the net composition into something more continental in character.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴星男; 江浩斌; 唐斌; 王志忠
2013-01-01
为提高车辆在高速大转角工况下的横向稳定性，以装备管柱式EPS的某微型乘用车为研究对象，建立其非线性3自由度整车模型，对车辆转向特性和转向行驶稳定性进行理论分析；在没有电子稳定程序或车辆动态稳定性控制装置的情况下，引入可控的补偿电流对EPS控制策略进行改进，并在matlab/simulink中进行仿真分析。结果表明，所研究的EPS电流补偿控制策略有效提高了高速大转角时车辆转向系统阻尼，增强了车辆的横向稳定性和驾驶员“路感”，使车辆的横摆运动得到良好控制。%In order to improve the vehicle's lateral stability in high-speed and large steering angle operation, the researchers established a 3-DOF model of the whole vehicle using a mini passenger car equipped with column-type EPS as research object, and analyzed vehicle steering characteristic and steering stability theoretically. A controllable compensation current has been introduced to improve the control strategy for EPS with the absence of electronic stability program (ESP) or vehicle dynamic control (VDC) system. The simulation was made in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the EPS current compensation control strategy has effectively increased the steering system damping in high-speed and large steering angle operation, it has also enhanced the lateral stability and the road feel. The vehicle's yaw motion is well controlled.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈祖华
2014-01-01
倾角对于CO2驱利用重力来改善驱油效率和提高原油采收率具有重要意义。针对ZJD油田阜宁组大倾角油藏，应用数值模拟方法研究了地层倾角和注气部位对CO2驱油效果的影响。结果表明：随着地层倾角的增加，注CO2驱油采出程度也增加，而油藏高部位剩余油饱和度降低。低部位注气采出程度均低于高部位注气，且地层倾角越小，高部位注气的优势越不明显，地层倾角越大，高部位注气效果越好，CO2可在高部位形成小的气顶，更有利于气驱油。应用大倾角油藏实际地质模型研究注气方式对CO2驱油效果的影响，高部位注气比低部位注气可提高采收率8.69%，并可动用更多的储量。油藏现场实际应用后取得初步效果，高部位注气半年后油藏腰部的中心井从无产量恢复到9.3 t的原油产量。%It is reported in domestic and foreign literatures that higher displacement efficiency an d oil recovery will be achieved with gas injection by utilizing gravity in a tilt reservoir than in a reservoir with a little tilt. In this paper,by using numerical simulation,the effects of dip angle and injecting position on CO2 displacement efficiency is studied. The result of the simulation shows that with the increase of dip angle,recovery percentage by CO2 injection increases while the residual oil saturation in the high part of the reservoir decreases. Furthermore,oil recoveries by injecting CO2 in the high part are higher than that in the low part in all scenarios. And the larger dip angle,the better displacement effect can be obtained by injecting CO2 in the high part as CO2 can form a small CO2 cap which is helpful for flooding oil. Experiments of the effect of different injection scenarios with the practical geological model of large angle reservoir indicates that injecting CO2 in the high part can enhance oil recovery by 8.69%more than injecting in the low part,and it activates
Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. COBHAM
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.
Broadband converging plasmon resonance at a conical nanotip.
Wang, Yunshan; Plouraboue, Franck; Chang, Hsueh-Chia
2013-03-11
We propose an analytical theory which predicts that Converging Plasmon Resonance (CPR) at conical nanotips exhibits a red-shifted and continuous band of resonant frequencies and suggests potential application of conical nanotips in various fields, such as plasmonic solar cells, photothermal therapy, tip-enhanced Raman and other spectroscopies. The CPR modes exhibit superior confinement and ten times broader scattering bandwidth over the entire solar spectrum than smooth nano-structures. The theory also explicitly connects the optimal angles and resonant optical frequencies to the material permittivities, with a specific optimum half angle that depends only on the real permittivity for high-permittivity and low-loss materials.
Scaling of misorientation angle distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.
1998-01-01
The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...
Systematic variations in divergence angle
Okabe, Takuya
2012-01-01
Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.
Dynamical Convergence Trajectory in Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Ning; ZHANG Yun-Jun; OUYANG Qi; GENG Zhi
2005-01-01
@@ It is well known that topology and dynamics are two major aspects to determine the function of a network. We study one of the dynamic properties of a network: trajectory convergence, i.e. how a system converges to its steady state. Using numerical and analytical methods, we show that in a logical-like dynamical model, the occurrence of convergent trajectory in a network depends mainly on the type of the fixed point and the ratio between activation and inhibition links. We analytically proof that this property is induced by the competition between two types of state transition structures in phase space: tree-like transition structure and star-like transition structure. We show that the biological networks, such as the cell cycle network in budding yeast, prefers the tree-like transition structures and suggest that this type of convergence trajectories may be universal.
Spaces of Ideal Convergent Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mursaleen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ=Mk. We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO FuQing; LI LiNa
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Periodic Convergences: Dance and Computers
deLahunta, Scott
2002-01-01
Published in German and English, this chapter is one of deLahunta's major outputs to emerge from a group of related research outputs, concerning "dance and technology". In it he explores the history of the convergence between dance and computers from the 1960s to the 1990s, arguing that this convergence has been periodic, involving particular artists at particular times, rather than producing a genre of work (as others have speculated). As the mainstream of contemporary dance evolved alongsid...
Measure theory of statistical convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG LiXin; LIN GuoChen; LAN YongYi; LIU Hui
2008-01-01
The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.
Measure theory of statistical convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra A of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set S of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on A forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.
Segment-specific adhesion as a driver of convergent extension.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renske M A Vroomans
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo, and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pretto, Dalyir I.; Tsutakawa, Susan; Brosey, Chris A.; Castillo, Amalchi; Chagot, Marie-Eve; Smith, Jarrod A.; Tainer, John A.; Chazin, Walter J.
2010-03-11
Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein utilized in diverse DNA transactions in the cell. RPA is a heterotrimeric protein with seven globular domains connected by flexible linkers, which enable substantial inter-domain motion that is essential to its function. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on two multi-domain constructs from the N-terminus of the large subunit (RPA70) were used to examine the structural dynamics of these domains and their response to the binding of ssDNA. The SAXS data combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial interdomain flexibility for both RPA70AB (the tandem high affinity ssDNA binding domains A and B connected by a 10-residue linker) and RPA70NAB (RPA70AB extended by a 70-residue linker to the RPA70N protein interaction domain). Binding of ssDNA to RPA70NAB reduces the interdomain flexibility between the A and B domains, but has no effect on RPA70N. These studies provide the first direct measurements of changes in orientation of these three RPA domains upon binding ssDNA. The results support a model in which RPA70N remains structurally independent of RPA70AB in the DNA bound state and therefore freely available to serve as a protein recruitment module.
Performance of Several Conical Convergent-Divergent Rocket-Type Exhaust Nozzles
Campbell, C. E.; Farley, J. M.
1960-01-01
An investigation was conducted to obtain nozzle performance data with relatively large-scale models at pressure ratios as high as 120. Conical convergent-divergent nozzles with divergence angles alpha of 15, 25, and 29 deg. were each tested at area ratios of approximately 10, 25, and 40. Heated air (1200 F) was supplied at the nozzle inlet at pressures up to 145 pounds per square inch absolute and was exhausted into quiescent air at pressures as low as 1.2 pounds per square inch absolute. Thrust ratios for all nozzle configurations are presented over the range of pressure ratios attainable and were extrapolated when possible to design pressure ratio and beyond. Design thrust ratios decreased with increasing nozzle divergence angle according to the trend predicted by the (1 + cos alpha)/2 parameter. Decreasing the nozzle divergence angle resulted in sizable increases in thrust ratio for a given surface-area ratio (nozzle weight), particularly at low nozzle pressure ratios. Correlations of the nozzle static pressure at separation and of the average static pressure downstream of separation with various nozzle parameters permitted the calculation of thrust in the separated-flow region from unseparated static-pressure distributions. Thrust ratios calculated by this method agreed with measured values within about 1 percent.
Landweber Iterative Methods for Angle-limited Image Reconstruction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gang-rong Qu; Ming Jiang
2009-01-01
We introduce a general itcrative scheme for angle-limited image reconstruction based on Landwe-ber's method. We derive a representation formula for this scheme and consequently establish its convergence conditions. Our results suggest certain relaxation strategies for an accelerated convergcnce for angle-limited im-age reconstruction in L2-norm comparing with alternative projection methods. The convolution-backprojection algorithm is given for this iterative process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗兵
2012-01-01
目的:探讨和研究大角度基本型外斜视主眼与非主眼手术的临床效果对比.方法:摘取我院近年来收治的对斜视度数≥60°的基本型外斜视患者74例的临床资料作为研究对象,按照手术类型分为观察组和对照组个37例,观察组患者采用主眼手术,对照组患者采用非主眼手术,统计并对比两组患者治疗前后的视力、眼位以及双眼单视功能等.结果:观察组患者术后双眼正位者37例,对照组则为35例,两组对比无明显差异(P＞0.05).两组术后的注视情况较治疗前均有好转,但是观察组的非主眼裸眼视力提高在2行以上者明显多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P＜0.05).而且观察组患者中I、III级视功能者明显多于对照组,手术时间和手术次数均明显低于对照组,对比均具有统计学意义(P＜0.05).结论:对于大角度基本型外斜视患者的治疗,主眼手术的方法较非主眼手术明显有着疗效好、损伤轻以及手术次数少等特点.%Objective:To explore and research of large angle exotropia with the non-dominant eye operation clinical effect comparison. Methods:For removal of treated in our hospital for strabismus degree is greater than or equal to 60DEG basic external strabismus patients with 74 cases of clinical data as the research object, according to the type of operation is divided into the observation group and the control group of 37 cases, the observation group were treated by eye operation, patients in the control group using the non-dominant eye operation, statistics and contrast of two groups of patients before and after treatment the vision, eye and binocular vision function. Results:Observed in the group of patients postoperative binocular alignment in 37 cases,35cases of control group, two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). The two groups after the attention condition than before treatment has improved, but the group observed the non-dominant eye
Schwieters, Charles D; Clore, G Marius
2007-02-06
The structure and dynamics of the Dickerson DNA dodecamer [5'd(CGCGAATTCGCG)2] in solution have been investigated by joint simulated annealing refinement against NMR and large-angle X-ray scattering data (extending from 0.25 to 3 A-1). The NMR data comprise an extensive set of hetero- and homonuclear residual dipolar coupling and 31P chemical shift anisotropy restraints in two alignment media, supplemented by NOE and 3J coupling data. The NMR and X-ray scattering data cannot be fully ascribed to a single structure representation, indicating the presence of anisotropic motions that impact the experimental observables in different ways. Refinement with ensemble sizes (Ne) of >or=2 to represent the atomic motions reconciles all the experimental data within measurement error. Cross validation against both the dipolar coupling and X-ray scattering data suggests that the optimal ensemble size required to account for the current data is 4. The resulting ensembles permit one to obtain a detailed view of the conformational space sampled by the dodecamer in solution and permit one to analyze fluctuations in helicoidal parameters, sugar puckers, and BI-BII backbone transitions and to obtain quantitative metrics of atomic motion such as generalized order parameters and thermal B factors. The calculated order parameters are in good agreement with experimental order parameters obtained from 13C relaxation measurements. Although DNA behaves as a relatively rigid rod with a persistence length of approximately 150 bp, dynamic conformational heterogeneity at the base pair level is functionally important since it readily permits optimization of intermolecular protein-DNA interactions.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael John Starks
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.
Order Handling in Convergent Environments
Vrtanoski, Jordan
2012-01-01
The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...
Are China and Europe converging?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bastianin; Andrea; Cattanceo; Cristina; Markandya; Anil
2009-01-01
This analysis aims at giving a flavour of what is happening between the European and Chinese markets with reference to selected energy indicators and economic variables. More precisely the analysis is concerned with the convergence between European countries (EU15 + Norway) and China in terms of both per capita GDP and "sustainability indicators". The variables we refer to as "sustainability indicators" are two: energy intensity (EI) and carbon intensity (CI). The paths of such variables will be investigated both looking at the economy as a whole and by analysing what is happening in three sectors of economic activity, namely industry, agriculture and services. It finds strong evidence of convergence in energy intensity and carbon intensity between the EU and China, with rates fast enough to achieve 90% convergence in a matter of two decades.
Strategies for fast convergence in semiotic dynamics
Baronchelli, A; Dall'Asta, L; Loreto, V; Asta, Luca Dall'; Baronchelli, Andrea; Barrat, Alain; Loreto, Vittorio
2005-01-01
Semiotic dynamics is a novel field that studies how semiotic conventions spread and stabilize in a population of agents. This is a central issue both for theoretical and technological reasons since large system made up of communicating agents, like web communities or artificial embodied agents teams, are getting widespread. In this paper we discuss a recently introduced simple multi-agent model which is able to account for the emergence of a shared vocabulary in a population of agents. In particular we introduce a new deterministic agents' playing strategy that strongly improves the performance of the game in terms of faster convergence and reduced cognitive effort for the agents.
Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence
Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu
2014-01-01
Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the
Convergence results on iteration algorithms to linear systems.
Wang, Zhuande; Yang, Chuansheng; Yuan, Yubo
2014-01-01
In order to solve the large scale linear systems, backward and Jacobi iteration algorithms are employed. The convergence is the most important issue. In this paper, a unified backward iterative matrix is proposed. It shows that some well-known iterative algorithms can be deduced with it. The most important result is that the convergence results have been proved. Firstly, the spectral radius of the Jacobi iterative matrix is positive and the one of backward iterative matrix is strongly positive (lager than a positive constant). Secondly, the mentioned two iterations have the same convergence results (convergence or divergence simultaneously). Finally, some numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms are correct and have the merit of backward methods.
Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.
A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis
Makkonen, Lasse
2017-08-01
When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.
1982-01-01
Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60...... at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition......, an ionization cascade treatment leads to an expression for the behavior of the yield of those secondary electrons that are generated directly by the primaries. The agreement with experimental data is good...
A network convergence zone in the hippocampus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bratislav Mišić
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The hippocampal formation is a key structure for memory function in the brain. The functional anatomy of the brain suggests that the hippocampus may be a convergence zone, as it receives polysensory input from distributed association areas throughout the neocortex. However, recent quantitative graph-theoretic analyses of the static large-scale connectome have failed to demonstrate the centrality of the hippocampus; in the context of the whole brain, the hippocampus is not among the most connected or reachable nodes. Here we show that when communication dynamics are taken into account, the hippocampus is a key hub in the connectome. Using a novel computational model, we demonstrate that large-scale brain network topology is organized to funnel and concentrate information flow in the hippocampus, supporting the long-standing hypothesis that this region acts as a critical convergence zone. Our results indicate that the functional capacity of the hippocampus is shaped by its embedding in the large-scale connectome.
Auto-converging stereo cameras for 3D robotic tele-operation
Edmondson, Richard; Aycock, Todd; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed a Stereovision Upgrade Kit for TALON robot to provide enhanced depth perception to the operator. This kit previously required the TALON Operator Control Unit to be equipped with the optional touchscreen interface to allow for operator control of the camera convergence angle adjustment. This adjustment allowed for optimal camera convergence independent of the distance from the camera to the object being viewed. Polaris has recently improved the performance of the stereo camera by implementing an Automatic Convergence algorithm in a field programmable gate array in the camera assembly. This algorithm uses scene content to automatically adjust the camera convergence angle, freeing the operator to focus on the task rather than adjustment of the vision system. The autoconvergence capability has been demonstrated on both visible zoom cameras and longwave infrared microbolometer stereo pairs.
Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces
Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.
2015-03-01
In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Converging Information and Communication Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øst, Alexander
2003-01-01
This Ph.D.-project investigates the process of convergence between television and computers. Identifying three “promises of convergence”: interoperability, quality and interactivity, the project examines the key properties of the computer and television sectors, which have had - or are expected...... in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...... and communication, as well as the nature of the content and the usage scenarios of consumers....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张明春; 燕金华; 相玉辉
2012-01-01
To ensure the trajectory quality of the wellbore of the construction well in Mexican EPC oilfield, im- prove drilling efficiency and effectively prevent the occurrence of downhole accident, the technology of large-angle compound drilling power drills was studied. After a full understanding of the construction difficulties, the structure and properties of the power drills were studied and the high-efficiency PDC bit model was optimized. The field test of 5 wells shows that only one-trip drilling is needed if the technology of the power drills is adopted to complete the construction of deviated interval. Compared with the construction before the test, 82.2 h are saved for each well. The technology can shorten the drilling cycle remarkably, improving drilling efficiency and saving large costs. Meanwhile, it shows that the technology is of high value in spread and application in wells of the same kind in this region.%为了保证墨西哥EPC油田施工井的井身轨迹质量，提高钻井效率，并有效避免井下事故的发生，研究开发了大度数可复合钻进动力钻具技术。在充分认识施工难点的基础上，研究了大度数可复合钻进动力钻具的结构及性能特点，并优选了高效PDC钻头型号。现场5口井的试验结果表明，采用大度数可复合钻进动力钻具技术完成斜井段施工仅需要1趟钻，比试验前平均每口井节约82.2h；该技术可以大大缩短钻井周期，提高钻井时效，从而节约钻井成本，同时也．说明该技术对该地区同类型井的施工有较高的推广府用价倌一
Optical studies of the flow start-up processes in four convergent-divergent nozzles
Opalka, Klaus O.
1991-03-01
In the context of design studies for the U.S. Large Blast/Thermal Simulator, BRL has sponsored optical studies of the flow start-up in convergent-divergent nozzles which have the flow-initiating diaphragm located in the nozzle throat. The experiments were performed in the 200 mm shock tube at the Ernst-Mach Institute in Freiburg (Breisgau), West-Germany. The scope of the studies included divergent nozzles with half cone angles of 6, 16, 45 and 90 deg tested at seven diaphragm pressure ratios ranging from 4 to 188 and resulting in shock strengths ranging from 1.4 to 4.4. Results were summarized in graphs of significant parameters, e.g., shock formation time, flow start-up period, flow expansion angle, and shock strength versus the driver pressure ratio and further compared with numerical results obtained with the BRL-Q1D hydrocode. The numerical-experimental comparison shows qualitative agreement. The flow phenomena are generally reproduced by the computations as long as they are not strongly dependent on viscous effects. The study shows that a pressure loss of 10 percent is connected to the presence of a large area discontinuity at the exit plane of the nozzle throat when no divergent nozzle is attached. Results suggest that a 45 deg divergent nozzle may present an acceptable compromise for minimizing these pressure losses by reducing the associated area discontinuities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakagawa, Masafumi [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Berana, Menandro Serrano [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Kishine, Akinori [Machine Tool Division, Murata Machinery, Ltd., 2 Nakajima, Hashizume, Inuyama City, Aichi 484-8502 (Japan)
2009-09-15
CO{sub 2} is environmentally friendly, safe and more suitable to ejector refrigeration cycle than to vapor compression cycle. Supersonic two-phase flow of CO{sub 2} in the diverging sections of rectangular converging-diverging nozzles was investigated. The divergence angles with significant variation of decompression were 0.076 , 0.153 , 0.306 and 0.612 . This paper presents experimental decompression phenomena which can be used in designing nozzles and an assessment of Isentropic Homogeneous Equilibrium (IHE). Inlet conditions around 6-9 MPa, 20-37 C were used to resemble ejector nozzles of coolers and heat pumps. For inlet temperature around 37 C, throat decompression boiling from the saturated liquid line, supersonic decompression and IHE solution were obtained for the two large divergence angles. For divergence angles larger than 0.306 , decompression curves for inlet temperature above 35 C approached IHE curves. For divergence angles smaller than 0.306 or for nozzles with inlet temperature below 35 C, IHE had no solution. (author)
Statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability
Pratulananda Das; Sanjoy Ghosal; Sumit Som
2016-01-01
In this paper ideas of different types of convergence of a sequence of random variables in probability, namely, statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, strong $p$-Ces$\\grave{\\mbox{a}}$ro summability of order $\\alpha$ in probability, lacunary statistical convergence or $S_{\\theta}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, ${N_{\\theta}}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability have been introduced and their certain basic properties have been studied.
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2014-01-01
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps a
Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frøslev Christensen, Jens
2011-01-01
The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...
System Convergence in Transport Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.
2010-01-01
-of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...
Convergence of a Catalan Series
Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang
2012-01-01
This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lotfi Tadj
1993-01-01
Full Text Available Although intended for college teachers/students, Converge presents a feature that may interest all scientists: it allows an easy export of graphic files to most known word processors, specifically to the ℙ, Version 2.1, a powerful WYSIWYG mathematical word processor.
Exponential convergence rate in entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mu-Fa Chen
2007-01-01
The exponential convergence rate in entropy is studied for symmetric forms, with a specia! attention to the Markov chain with a state space having two points only. Some upper and lower bounds of the rate are obtained and five examples with precise or qualitatively exact estimates are presented.
Convergence analysis of cautious control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis on stability and convergence of the cautious control, which has advantages over the traditional certainty equivalence adaptive control, since it takes the parameter estimation error into account in the design,and is also one-step-ahead optimal in the mean square sense under Gaussian assumptions.
Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy
Rooijen, van M.
2011-01-01
Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and h
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps
Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.
2016-06-01
A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should
Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.
2017-06-01
A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should
Instability and Tsunamigenic Potential at Convergent Margins
von Huene, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Watts, P.
2001-12-01
Along many convergent margins multibeam echosounding navigated with GPS has revealed large slope failures that were probably tsunamigenic. Bathymetric data combined with seismic reflection imaging indicate multiple causes. The 55-km wide Nicoya Slump resulted from the steepening slope above an underthrusting seamount on the subducting oceanic plate. This slump may have generated a 27-m high wave. Several 5-7 km wide mid-slope slides off central Nicaragua probably resulted from steepening of the continental slope by tectonic erosion. They may have generated waves 6-7 m high. A 30 km wide mid-slope slump off northern Peru may have generated a 5 m high wave. Its cause will not be understood without better seismic reflection imaging but considerable fluid venting was observed across its headwall. In the Gulf of Alaska a large slide appears to have resulted from rapid sedimentation. Tsunamigenic slope failure along convergent margins is only beginning to be resolved and the causes vary. Subducted ocean floor relief, tectonically steepened slopes, and sites of rapid sedimentation can help target potential failure and possible future tsunami hazards.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尹经禅
2014-01-01
设计了一套S频段圆极化相控阵天线，该相控阵天线采用9个微带贴片天线单元进行优化排列与旋转组阵实现。通过HFSS软件仿真，在辐射功率10 dBW的情况下，该相控阵天线在方位360o俯仰±80o的大扫描角范围内，具有大于15 dBW的等效全向辐射功率（EIRP），法向轴比在整个频带内平坦且小于0.5 dB。设计并装配好该相控阵天线后进行测试，得到扫描范围内大于15 dBW的EIRP值，同时测得法向轴比在整个频带内平坦且小于1 dB，测试值与仿真设计值吻合很好。%An S band circularly polarized phased-array antenna was designed, which was realized by arranging and properly rotating 9 microstrip-patch antenna units. Through simulation by HFSS software, in case of 10 dBW radiation power, the phased-array antenna’s EIRP can be larger than 15 dBW in any azimuth of 360o with the large scanning angle of ±80o. Meanwhile, the simulated axial ratio of normal direction is flat in the working band and lower than 0.5 dB. The antenna was assembled and measured. Results show that EIRP is larger than 15 dBW in all the scanning range. Meanwhile, the measured axial ratio of normal direction is flat and lower than 1 dB in the working band. All the measured data matches well with the simulation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱现磊; 杨仁树; 蔡志炯; 祁海军
2014-01-01
为了探讨大倾角松软煤层综放开采顶板活动规律,运用物理相似模拟试验与现场实测相结合的方法,研究了覆岩运移特征、顶板垮落步距及矿压显现规律。结果表明：覆岩下沉曲线呈非对称性,最大下沉量随高度增加而减小；工作面上段矿压显现强于中段,下段最弱,且两端头来压时间滞后于中部来压；工作面巷道支承压力最大值位于超前工作面17~25 m,超前工作面约40 m范围内应重点加强支护。试验结果与现场观测基本相符,为工作面支架选型提供了依据。%In order to study the roof movement features of fully-mechanized top coal mining in soft large inclined angle seams,the overlaying strata displacement,roof weighting step and mining pressure appearance were researched by using analogy simulation tests and the field monitoring.The results showed that overlaying strata sinked asymmetry and maximum subsidence decreased with increasing height in the process of mining face.The greatest strength and biggest weakness of mining pressure appearance were upper and lower part,taking on faster in the middle than in the ends.The maximum abutment pressure was in 17~25 m ahead the working face,the support strength should be strengthened within 40 m ahead the working face.The test results and field observation were in substantial agreement,which could provide the guidance references to the hydraulic powered support selection.
COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS: NUMERICAL AND PHYSICAL CONVERGENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2016-04-10
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce a weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite-resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ∼20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, such as stellar masses and metallicities. Yet other properties of model galaxies, for example, their H i masses, are recovered in the weakly converged runs only within a factor of 2.
Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.
2001-06-01
The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...... in communication infrastructures. A graph theoretical approach is presented as an approach to reliability management in complex communication infrastructures. Real life examples are provided and specific problems are presented and discussed. Wireless technologies are discussed as a complement, providing not only...
Quantifying convergence in the sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Lumbreras
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help
Farley, Gary L.
1990-01-01
Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.
Proliferating Connections and Communicating Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aylish Wood
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I use the work of Niklas Luhmann to explore what pressure the concept of convergence exerts over how we communicate about the changing expressive practices of digital games following the emergence of digital technologies. My claim will be that in its current form, convergence privileges either the human users of technological platforms, or the combination of aesthetic conventions from different media what connects is either the user or the aesthetic code. While neither of these two positions would be likely to deny a reliance on the interplay between humans and technologies, such an interplay is taken for granted rather than explored. By using Luhmann’s version of systems theory, I argue that we can more effectively grasp the interplay of human and technological participants by understanding their combined roles in changing expressive practices.
Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains
Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric
How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).
Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.
Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A
2013-03-26
Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.
Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations
Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-11-01
The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.
Optimality Functions and Lopsided Convergence
2015-03-16
Problems involving functions defined in terms of integrals or optimization problems (as the maxi - mization in Example 3), functions defined on infinite...optimization methods in finite time. The key technical challenge associate with the above scheme is to establish ( weak ) consistency. In the next...Theorem 4.3. In view of this result, it is clear that ( weak ) consistency will be ensured by epi-convergence of the approximating objective functions and
ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCE ON ECONOMIC CRISIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available If normalization accounting is the process of harmonizing the presentation of financial statements, accounting methods and terminology, accounting convergence is the process by which accounting standards are developed in a way that is able to lead to the same fact or purpose, by highlighting the similarity of national - regional - international. This paper put in light the importance of the normalization and harmonization process, what its done in and what we have to do for that in Romania.
Figueroa, R G; Valente, M
2015-09-21
The main purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility and physical characteristics of a new teletherapy device of radiation therapy based on the application of a convergent x-ray beam of energies like those used in radiotherapy providing highly concentrated dose delivery to the target. We have denominated it Convergent Beam Radio Therapy (CBRT). Analytical methods are developed first in order to determine the dosimetry characteristic of an ideal convergent photon beam in a hypothetical water phantom. Then, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, a similar convergent beam that is applied to the water phantom is compared with that of the analytical method. The CBRT device (Converay(®)) is designed to adapt to the head of LINACs. The converging beam photon effect is achieved thanks to the perpendicular impact of LINAC electrons on a large thin spherical cap target where Bremsstrahlung is generated (high-energy x-rays). This way, the electrons impact upon various points of the cap (CBRT condition), aimed at the focal point. With the X radiation (Bremsstrahlung) directed forward, a system of movable collimators emits many beams from the output that make a virtually definitive convergent beam. Other Monte Carlo simulations are performed using realistic conditions. The simulations are performed for a thin target in the shape of a large, thin, spherical cap, with an r radius of around 10-30 cm and a curvature radius of approximately 70 to 100 cm, and a cubed water phantom centered in the focal point of the cap. All the interaction mechanisms of the Bremsstrahlung radiation with the phantom are taken into consideration for different energies and cap thicknesses. Also, the magnitudes of the electric and/or magnetic fields, which are necessary to divert clinical-use electron beams (0.1 to 20 MeV), are determined using electromagnetism equations with relativistic corrections. This way the above-mentioned beam is manipulated and guided for its perpendicular impact
Formation Tracking with Orientation Convergence for Groups of Unicycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime González-Sierra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents three trajectory tracking control strategies for unicycle-type robots based on a leader-followers scheme. The leader robot converges asymptotically to a smooth trajectory, while the follower robots form an undirected open-chain configuration at the same time. It is also shown that the orientation angles of all the robots converge to the same value. The control laws are based on a dynamic extension of the kinematic model of each robot. The output function to be controlled is the midpoint of the wheel axis of every robot. This choice leads to an ill-defined control law when the robot is at rest. To avoid such singularities, a complementary control law is enabled momentarily when the linear velocity of the unicycles is close to zero. Finally, numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the performance of the control strategies.
Alzahrani, Hani Ataiq
2014-09-01
ABSTRACT Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications Hani Ataiq Alzahrani Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is a non-linear optimization problem aimed to estimating subsurface parameters by minimizing the mis t between modeled and recorded seismic data using gradient descent methods, which are the only practical choice because of the size of the problem. Due to the high non-linearity of the problem, gradient methods will converge to a local minimum if the starting model is not close to the true one. The accuracy of the long-wavelength components of the initial model controls the level of non-linearity of the inversion. In order for FWI to converge to the global minimum, we have to obtain the long wavelength components of the model before inverting for the short wavelengths. Ultra-low temporal frequencies are sensitive to the smooth (long wavelength) part of the model, and can be utilized by waveform inversion to resolve that part. Un- fortunately, frequencies in this range are normally missing in eld data due to data- acquisition limitations. The lack of low frequencies can be compensated for by uti- lizing wide-aperture data, as they include arrivals that are especially sensitive to the long wavelength components of the model. The higher the scattering angle of a 5 recorded event, the higher the model wavelength it can resolve. Based on this prop- erty, a scattering-angle ltering algorithm is proposed to start the inversion process with events corresponding to the highest scattering angle available in the data, and then include lower scattering angles progressively. The large scattering angles will resolve the smooth part of the model and reduce the non-linearity of the problem, then the lower ones will enhance the resolution of the model. Recorded data is rst migrated using Pre-stack Exploding Re ector Migration (PERM), then the resulting pre-stack image is transformed into angle gathers to which
Convergences and divergences in mortality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.
W波段大容量光纤无线融合系统的关键技术%Key technologies for large-capacity W-band converged fiber-wireless systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
施剑阳; 李欣颖; 王源泉; 王一光; 迟楠
2014-01-01
W波段(75~110 GHz)作为一个新的 RF(射频)波段，相比于其他波段有着更宽的带宽和更高的频率，在这个波段能够为移动数据通信提供千兆的无线链路，这已经成为下一代无线通信系统的一个热点话题。实现 W波段大容量通信系统有多种方法，如高阶调制、天线复用和多频带调制等，目前这些技术从调制效率、频带利用率和带宽宽度等多方面已实现了系统的优化。文章深入介绍了 W波段大容量光纤无线融合系统的背景、研究成果及技术支持，以期为未来的研究提供参考。%As a new Radio-Frequency (RF)band,W-band (75~110 GHz)has wider bandwidth and higher frequency in com-parison with other bands,enabling itself to provide mobile data communications with gigabit wireless links,which has become a hot topic about the next generation wireless communication systems.There are a variety of W-band technologies for realizing large-capacity W-band communication systems,e.g.high-order modulation,antenna multiplexing and multi-band modulation. These technologies optimize the system in terms of modulation efficiency,band utilization and bandwidth.This paper intro-duces in depth the system background,research results and technical support,so as to offer a reference for future researches.
CONVERGENCE THEOREMS FOR THE AOR METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄廷祝; 王广彬
2002-01-01
Practical sufficient conditions for the convergence of the AOR method and a practical sufficient condition for H-matrices are studied. The obtained convergence conditions suited to matrices which need not to be diagonally dominant.
User Configurations and Convergence in Consumer Electronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ulrik
2000-01-01
Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies.......Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies....
Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.
Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W
2007-10-31
Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only
Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgeta VINTILĂ
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-02-12
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Structure and convergence of Poincaré-like normal forms
Louies, S
1997-01-01
The general term of the Poincare normalizing series is explicitly constructed for non-resonant systems of ODE's in a large class of equations. In the resonant case, a non-local transformation is found, which exactly linearizes the ODE's and whose series expansion always converges in a finite domain. Examples are treated.
A New Look at the Convergence of a Famous Sequence
Dobrescu, Mihaela
2010-01-01
A new proof for the monotonicity of the sequence [image omitted] is given as a special case of a large family of monotomic and bounded, hence convergent sequences. The new proof is based on basic calculus results rather than induction, which makes it accessible to a larger audience including business and life sciences students and faculty. The…
Composite orthogonal projection methods for large matrix eigenproblems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾仲孝
1999-01-01
For classical orthogonal projection methods for large matrix eigenproblems, it may be much more difficult for a Ritz vector to converge than for its corresponding Ritz value when the matrix in question is non-Hermitian. To this end, a class of new refined orthogonal projection methods has been proposed. It is proved that in some sense each refined method is a composite of two classical orthogonal projections, in which each refined approximate eigenvector is obtained by realizing a new one of some Hermitian semipositive definite matrix onto the same subspace. A priori error bounds on the refined approximate eigenvector are established in terms of the sine of acute angle of the normalized eigenvector and the subspace involved. It is shown that the sufficient conditions for convergence of the refined vector and that of the Ritz value are the same, so that the refined methods may be much more efficient than the classical ones.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Antonio Meireles-Teixeira
2000-10-01
Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos de esotropias de grande ângulo (no mínimo 60 dioptrias prismáticas - dp, associadas à baixa de acuidade visual (BAV unilateral, cuja cirurgia foi planejada com o intuito de não se operar o olho de melhor visão. Casuística e Métodos: Foram selecionados 17 casos de esotropias não-acomodativas, associadas à BAV (AV 15 dp ou rotações de ± 4. Resultados: 13 (76,4% tinham AV de conta-dedos no olho não-fixador, 2 (11,7% atingiam 0,1 e outros 2 (11,7% 0,4. Em 3 havia alta miopia (equivalente esférico > ou = -6,00 dioptrias esféricas em ambos os olhos. Entre os 17 pacientes, 12 (70,5% obtiveram bom resultado cirúrgico, 3 (17,6% foram regulares e 2 (11,7% ruins. Conclusão: A cirurgia de estrabismo sob anestesia tópica mostrou ser eficaz e segura nestes casos especiais de BAV em um dos olhos, sendo que na maioria das vezes consegue-se não operar o olho de melhor visão; o que a nosso ver, só se tornou possível pelo uso da anestesia tópica.Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of large angle esotropia (minimum of 60 prism diopters -- pd associated with unilateral low visual acuity (LVA in which the surgical strategy was applied in order to operate only the non-fixating eye. Patients and Methods: We selected 17 patients with non-accommodative esotropia, LVA (VA<= 0,4 in the non-fixating eye with the better visual correction and no previous treatment. Patients were classified as good result if they had a postoperative deviation of maximally 10 pd with binocular rotations of up to --2 of medial rectus and +2 of lateral rectus. Exotropia/esotropia between 10 and 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±3 were considered as a regular outcome. Deviations greater than 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±4 were included regarded as poor results. Results: Thirteen (76.4% patients had counts fingers VA in the non-fixating eye, 2 (11.7% achieved 0.1 and another two had 0.4. Three of them were also highly
Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.
TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng-Kuang Kuo
2011-01-01
The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.
Convergence phonétique en interaction Phonetic convergence in interaction
Lelong, Amélie
2012-01-01
The work presented in this manuscript is based on the study of a phenomenon called phonetic convergence which postulates that two people in interaction will tend to adapt how they talk to their partner in a communicative purpose. We have developed a paradigm called “Verbal Dominoes“ to collect a large corpus to characterize this phenomenon, the ultimate goal being to fill a conversational agent of this adaptability in order to improve the quality of human-machine interactions.We have done sev...
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.
2016-01-26
© 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Weak* convergence of operator means
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-12-31
For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito
2016-12-01
We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.
SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chernyshov Alexander V.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.
Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.
Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P
2016-08-23
Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field.
Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. I. Theoretical analysis
Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G
2006-01-01
We performed a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We prove that errors in any measured quantity are bounded by a sum of a linear and quadratic term in the size of a dipole d, when the latter is in the range of DDA applicability. Moreover, the linear term is significantly smaller for cubically than for non-cubically shaped scatterers. Therefore, for small d errors for cubically shaped particles are much smaller than for non-cubically shaped. The relative importance of the linear term decreases with increasing size, hence convergence of DDA for large enough scatterers is quadratic in the common range of d. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out for a wide range of d. Finally we discuss a number of new developments in DDA and their consequences for convergence.
The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mary Moran
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Global Health 2035 report notes that the "grand convergence"--closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries--is dependent on research and development (R&D of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health.
Linkographic Evidence for Concurrent Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Creative Design
Goldschmidt, Gabriela
2016-01-01
For a long time, the creativity literature has stressed the role of divergent thinking in creative endeavor. More recently, it has been recognized that convergent thinking also has a role in creativity, and the design literature, which sees design as a creative activity a priori, has largely adopted this view: Divergent and convergent thinking are…
On Complete Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Strong Mixing Random Variables
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU XING-CAI; LIN JIN-GUAN; WANG XUE-JUN; HU SHU-HE
2011-01-01
In this paper,we present a general method to prove the complete convergence for arrays of rowwise strong mixing random variables,and give some results on complete convergence under some suitable conditions.Some Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type strong laws of large numbers are also obtained.
Linkographic Evidence for Concurrent Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Creative Design
Goldschmidt, Gabriela
2016-01-01
For a long time, the creativity literature has stressed the role of divergent thinking in creative endeavor. More recently, it has been recognized that convergent thinking also has a role in creativity, and the design literature, which sees design as a creative activity a priori, has largely adopted this view: Divergent and convergent thinking are…
Determining the area of convergence in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: a probabilistic approach
Camana, Francesco
2013-01-01
A complete procedure for identifying the area of convergence of blood drops originated from a single static source is presented. Both for bloodstains lying on an horizontal and on a vertical plane a complete study is developed, based on error analysis and on an opportunely defined joint probability density for the orientation of the horizontal projections of the trajectories of the drops. The method generates a probabilistic map for the area of convergence, directly linking the angles of impact, and their uncertainties, to the projection on the ground of the point of origin. One of the objectives consists in providing a statistical definition of area of convergence, extending to this topic the mathematical accuracy of the calculation of the angle of impact in bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA).
Determining the area of convergence in bloodstain pattern analysis: a probabilistic approach.
Camana, Francesco
2013-09-10
A complete procedure for identifying the area of convergence of blood drops originated from a single static source is presented. Both for bloodstains lying on a horizontal and on a vertical plane a complete study is developed, based on error analysis and on an opportunely defined joint probability density for the orientation of the horizontal projections of the trajectories of the drops. The method generates a probabilistic map for the area of convergence, directly linking the angles of impact, and their uncertainties, to the projection on the ground of the point of origin. One of the objectives consists in providing a statistical definition of area of convergence, extending to this topic the mathematical accuracy of the calculation of the angle of impact in bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wing, David J.
1994-01-01
A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla
2015-10-26
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona
2012-01-01
: Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...
Pointwise convergence of Fourier series
Arias de Reyna, Juan
2002-01-01
This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.
Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with thrust vectoring
Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.
1987-01-01
A parametric investigation of the static internal performance of multifunction two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles has been made in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. All nozzles had a constant throat area and aspect ratio. The effects of upper and lower flap angles, divergent flap length, throat approach angle, sidewall containment, and throat geometry were determined. All nozzles were tested at a thrust vector angle that varied from 5.60 tp 23.00 deg. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for all configurations.
Convergent Validity of the PUTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerie Cathérine Brandt
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively
A MATHEMATICAL THEORY FOR LES CONVERGENCE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H. Lim; B. Plohr; T. Kaman; Y. Yu; V. Mahadeo; Y. Xu; H. Zhang; J. Glimm; S. Dutta; D. H. Sharp
2012-01-01
Practical simulations of turbulent processes are generally cutoff,with a grid resolution that stops within the inertial range,meaning that multiple active regions and length scales occur below the grid level and are not resolved.This is the regime of large eddy simulations (LES),in which the larger but not the smaller of the turbulent length scales are resolved.Solutions of the fluid Navier-Stokes equations,when considered in the inertial regime,are conventionally regarded as solutions of the Euler equations.In other words,the viscous and diffusive transport terms in the Navier-Stokes equations can be neglected in the inertial regime and in LES simulations,while the Euler equation becomes fundamental.For such simulations,significant new solution details emerge as the grid is refined. It follows that conventional notions of grid convergence are at risk of failure,and that a new,and weaker notion of convergence may be appropriate.It is generally understood that the LES or inertial regime is inherently fluctuating and its description must be statistical in nature.Here we develop such a point of view systematically,based on Young measures,which are measures depending on or indexed by space time points.In the Young measure dv(ξ)x,t,the random variable ξ of the measure is a solution state variable,i.e.,a solution dependent variable,representing momentum,density,energy and species concentrations,while the space time coordinates,x,t,serve to index the measure.Theoretical evidence suggests that convergence via Young measures is sufficiently weak to encompass the LES/inertial regime; numerical and theoretical evidence suggests that this notion may be required for passive scalar concentration and thermal degrees of freedom.Our objective in this research is twofold:turbulent simulations without recourse to adjustable parameters (calibration) and extension to more complex physics,without use of additional models or parameters,in both cases with validation through comparison
Professional convergence in forensic practice.
Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J
2001-06-01
This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.
Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions
Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent
2008-01-01
Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent
Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Lazzari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible
Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science
Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.
2010-01-01
The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.
Contact angle hysteresis explained.
Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J
2006-07-04
A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.
2013-01-01
measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....
Vadose zone flow convergence test suite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-05
Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.
Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.
A FAST CONVERGENT METHOD OF ITERATED REGULARIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Xiaowei; Wu Chuansheng; Wu Di
2009-01-01
This article presents a fast convergent method of iterated regularization based on the idea of Landweber iterated regularization, and a method for a-posteriori choice by the Morozov discrepancy principle and the optimum asymptotic convergence order of the regularized solution is obtained. Numerical test shows that the method of iterated regu-larization can quicken the convergence speed and reduce the calculation burden efficiently.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LuisaDiPiazza
1994-01-01
Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.
Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.
Caspi, A; Herbener, E S
1993-01-01
This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.
Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence
Sormani, Christina
2016-01-01
Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter
2011-01-01
Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this work is to extend the work done in, Tamer (2009, to provide high accuracy satellite attitude and orbit estimates needed for imaging purposes and also before execution of spacecraft orbital maneuvers for the next Egyptian scientific satellite. The problem of coarse satellite attitude and orbit estimation based on magnetometer measurements has been treated in the literature. The current research expands the field of application from coarse and slow converging estimates to accurate and fast converging attitude and orbit estimates within 0.1°, and 10 m for attitude angles and spacecraft location respectively (1-σ. The magnetometer is used for both spacecraft attitude and orbit estimation, aided with gyro to provide angular velocity measurements, star sensor to provide attitude quaternion, and GPS receiver to provide spacecraft location. The spacecraft under consideration is subject to solar radiation pressure forces and moments, aerodynamics forces and moments, earth’s oblateness till the fourth order (i.e. J4, gravity gradient moments, and residual magnetic dipole moments. The estimation algorithm developed is powerful enough to converge quickly (actually within 10 s despite very large initial estimation errors with sufficiently high accuracy estimates.
Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression ... such a granular material is sharp, making a steep .... study. Therefore, grains had to be condi- tioned to the respective moisture contents by adding ...
Convergence of transition amplitudes obtained with the Schwinger variational principle
Rodríguez, V D
2016-01-01
An exactly solvable time-dependent quantum mechanical problem is employed to study the convergence properties of transition amplitudes calculated by using the Schwinger variational principle. A detailed comparison between the amplitudes approximated by the perturbative series and by their associated Schwinger variational principles is performed. The much better performance obtained by the variational principle is documented through different case studies. For a given order of the Schwinger principle, it is observed that the transition amplitudes do not converge to the exact one for large perturbations. The latter is true even though large combinations of unperturbed states with constant coefficients are taken as trial wave functions. As a matter of fact, it is shown that the improvement of the method comes from using better trial wave functions and increasing the order of the Schwinger principle employed.
Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.
Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I
2014-08-21
We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.
An experimental analysis on OSPF-TE convergence time
Huang, S.; Kitayama, K.; Cugini, F.; Paolucci, F.; Giorgetti, A.; Valcarenghi, L.; Castoldi, P.
2008-11-01
Open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol is commonly used as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) in MPLS and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) networks to determine the topology over which label-switched paths (LSPs) can be established. Traffic-engineering extensions (network states such as link bandwidth information, available wavelengths, signal quality, etc) have been recently enabled in OSPF (henceforth, called OSPF-TE) to support shortest path first (SPF) tree calculation upon different purposes, thus possibly achieving optimal path computation and helping improve resource utilization efficiency. Adding these features into routing phase can exploit the OSPF robustness, and no additional network component is required to manage the traffic-engineering information. However, this traffic-engineering enhancement also complicates OSPF behavior. Since network states change frequently upon the dynamic trafficengineered LSP setup and release, the network is easily driven from a stable state to unstable operating regimes. In this paper, we focus on studying the OSPF-TE stability in terms of convergence time. Convergence time is referred to the time spent by the network to go back to steady states upon any network state change. An external observation method (based on black-box method) is employed to estimate the convergence time. Several experimental test-beds are developed to emulate dynamic LSP setup/release, re-routing upon single-link failure. The experimental results show that with OSPF-TE the network requires more time to converge compared to the conventional OSPF protocol without TE extension. Especially, in case of wavelength-routed optical network (WRON), introducing per wavelength availability and wavelength continuity constraint to OSPF-TE suffers severe convergence time and a large number of advertised link state advertisements (LSAs). Our study implies that long convergence time and large number of LSAs flooded in the network might cause scalability problems in OSPF
Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Phillip Martin
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.
The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia
Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel
2012-01-01
KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study
Converging Supergranular Flows and the Formation of Coronal Plumes
Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.; Muglach, K.
2016-01-01
Earlier studies have suggested that coronal plumes are energized by magnetic reconnection between unipolar flux concentrations and nearby bipoles, even though magnetograms sometimes show very little minority-polarity flux near the footpoints of plumes. Here we use high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to clarify the relationship between plume emission and the underlying photospheric field. We find that plumes form where unipolar network elements inside coronal holes converge to form dense clumps, and fade as the clumps disperse again. The converging flows also carry internetwork fields of both polarities. Although the minority-polarity flux is sometimes barely visible in the magnetograms, the corresponding EUV images almost invariably show loop-like features in the core of the plumes, with the fine structure changing on timescales of minutes or less. We conclude that the SDO observations are consistent with a model in which plume emission originates from interchange reconnection in converging flows, with the plume lifetime being determined by the approximately 1-day evolutionary timescale of the supergranular network. Furthermore, the presence of large EUV bright points and/or ephemeral regions is not a necessary precondition for the formation of plumes, which can be energized even by the weak, mixed-polarity internetwork fields swept up by converging flows.
Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era
Noor, Ahmed
2012-09-01
Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.
CONVERGING SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS AND THE FORMATION OF CORONAL PLUMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Muglach, K., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov [Code 674, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-02-20
Earlier studies have suggested that coronal plumes are energized by magnetic reconnection between unipolar flux concentrations and nearby bipoles, even though magnetograms sometimes show very little minority-polarity flux near the footpoints of plumes. Here we use high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to clarify the relationship between plume emission and the underlying photospheric field. We find that plumes form where unipolar network elements inside coronal holes converge to form dense clumps, and fade as the clumps disperse again. The converging flows also carry internetwork fields of both polarities. Although the minority-polarity flux is sometimes barely visible in the magnetograms, the corresponding EUV images almost invariably show loop-like features in the core of the plumes, with the fine structure changing on timescales of minutes or less. We conclude that the SDO observations are consistent with a model in which plume emission originates from interchange reconnection in converging flows, with the plume lifetime being determined by the ∼1 day evolutionary timescale of the supergranular network. Furthermore, the presence of large EUV bright points and/or ephemeral regions is not a necessary precondition for the formation of plumes, which can be energized even by the weak, mixed-polarity internetwork fields swept up by converging flows.
Convergence of a Linear Recursive Sequence
Tay, E. G.; Toh, T. L.; Dong, F. M.; Lee, T. Y.
2004-01-01
A necessary and sufficient condition is found for a linear recursive sequence to be convergent, no matter what initial values are given. Its limit is also obtained when the sequence is convergent. Methods from various areas of mathematics are used to obtain the results.
ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ILEANA BUCUR
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.
ON LACUNARY STATISTICAL CONVERGENCE OF ORDER α
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hacer SENGUL; Mikail ET
2014-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concept of lacunary statistical convergence of orderαof real number sequences and give some inclusion relations between the sets of lacu-nary statistical convergence of order α and strong Nαθ (p)-summability. Furthermore, some relations between the spaces Nαθ (p) and Sαθ are examined.
Numerical simulation of converging shock waves
Yee, Seokjune; Abe, Kanji
We can achieve the high pressure and high temperature state of gas if the shock wave converges stably. In order to check the stability of the converging shock wave, we introduce two kinds of perturbed initial conditions. The Euler equations of conservation form are integrated by using explicit Non-Muscl TVD finite difference scheme.
CONVERGENCE RATE OFDISTRIBUTIONS OF TRIMMED SUMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIYONGCHENG; CHENGSHIHONG
1996-01-01
The authors first derive the normal expansion of the joint density function of two orderstatistics from the uniform distribution and then, using the approximation, establish a wayto estimate the normal convergence rate for trimmed sums. For applications, the convergence rates for the intermediately trimmed sums and heavily trimmed sums are found out.
Convergence of Symmetric Diffusions on Wiener Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.Posilicano; T.S.Zhang
2004-01-01
In this paper,we study the distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes associated with given densities on an abstract Wiener space.We prove that the laws of distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes converge in total variation norm if the densities converge in Sobolev space D 1/2.
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Variable angle correlation spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.
Convergence properties of polynomial chaos approximations for L2 random variables.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)
2007-03-01
Polynomial chaos (PC) representations for non-Gaussian random variables are infinite series of Hermite polynomials of standard Gaussian random variables with deterministic coefficients. For calculations, the PC representations are truncated, creating what are herein referred to as PC approximations. We study some convergence properties of PC approximations for L{sub 2} random variables. The well-known property of mean-square convergence is reviewed. Mathematical proof is then provided to show that higher-order moments (i.e., greater than two) of PC approximations may or may not converge as the number of terms retained in the series, denoted by n, grows large. In particular, it is shown that the third absolute moment of the PC approximation for a lognormal random variable does converge, while moments of order four and higher of PC approximations for uniform random variables do not converge. It has been previously demonstrated through numerical study that this lack of convergence in the higher-order moments can have a profound effect on the rate of convergence of the tails of the distribution of the PC approximation. As a result, reliability estimates based on PC approximations can exhibit large errors, even when n is large. The purpose of this report is not to criticize the use of polynomial chaos for probabilistic analysis but, rather, to motivate the need for further study of the efficacy of the method.
Angle-deviation optical profilometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu
2011-01-01
@@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.
Thermal metamaterial for convergent transfer of conductive heat with high efficiency
Shen, Xiangying; Jiang, Chaoran; Li, Ying; Huang, Jiping
2016-11-01
It is crucially important to focus conductive heat in an efficient way, which has received much attention in energy science (say, solar cells), but is still far from being satisfactory due to the diffusive (divergent) nature of the heat. By developing a theory with hybrid transformations (rotation and stretch-compression), here we provide theoretical and experimental evidences for a type of thermal metamaterial called thermal converger. The converger is capable of convergently conducting heat in contrast to the known divergent behavior of heat diffusion, thus yielding a large heating region with high temperatures close to the heat source (high efficiency). The thermal converger further allows us to design a thermal grating—a thermal counterpart of optical grating. This work has relevance to heat focus with high efficiency, and it offers guidance both for efficient heat transfer and for designing thermal-converger-like metamaterials in other fields, such as electrics/magnetics, electromagnetics/optics, acoustics, and particle diffusion.
Predictable transcriptome evolution in the convergent and complex bioluminescent organs of squid
Pankey, M. Sabrina; Minin, Vladimir N.; Imholte, Greg C.; Suchard, Marc A.; Oakley, Todd H.
2014-01-01
Despite contingency in life’s history, the similarity of evolutionarily convergent traits may represent predictable solutions to common conditions. However, the extent to which overall gene expression levels (transcriptomes) underlying convergent traits are themselves convergent remains largely unexplored. Here, we show strong statistical support for convergent evolutionary origins and massively parallel evolution of the entire transcriptomes in symbiotic bioluminescent organs (bacterial photophores) from two divergent squid species. The gene expression similarities are so strong that regression models of one species’ photophore can predict organ identity of a distantly related photophore from gene expression levels alone. Our results point to widespread parallel changes in gene expression evolution associated with convergent origins of complex organs. Therefore, predictable solutions may drive not only the evolution of novel, complex organs but also the evolution of overall gene expression levels that underlie them. PMID:25336755
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.
2014-10-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology
Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud
2010-01-01
A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.
Dynamic contact angle at nano-scale: a unified view
Lukyanov, Alex V.; Likhtman, Alexei E.
2016-01-01
Generation of dynamic contact angle in the course of wetting is a fundamental phenomenon of nature. Dynamic wetting processes have a direct impact on flows at nano-scale, and therefore their understanding is exceptionally important to emerging technologies. Here, we reveal the microscopic mechanism of dynamic contact angle generation. It has been demonstrated using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of bead-spring model fluids that the main cause of local contact angle variations is t...
Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?
Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A
2014-04-01
It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.
Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems.
Becker, Stefan; Urbassek, Herbert M; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans
2014-11-18
Molecular dynamics simulations are used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150,000 particles. For particle numbers below 10,000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of θ = 90° is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed that describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature, and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.
Convergence of Corporate and Information Security
Syed,; Donahue, Shannon E
2010-01-01
As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security value to the business within an enterprise.
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....
Taylor, John G.
1990-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.
Non-local convergence coupling in a simple stochastic convection model
Brenowitz, N. D.; Frenkel, Y.; Majda, A. J.
2016-06-01
Observational studies show a strong correlation between large-scale wind convergence and precipitation. However, using this as a convective closure assumption to determine the total precipitation in a numerical model typically leads to deleterious wave-CISK behavior such as grid-scale noise. The quasi-equilibrium (QE) schemes ameliorate this issue and smooth the precipitation field, but still inadequately represent the intermittent and organized nature of tropical convection. However, recent observational evidence highlights that the large-scale convergence field primarily affects precipitation by increasing the overall convective cloud fraction rather than the energetics of individual convective elements. In this article, the dynamical consequences of this diagnostic observation are studied using a simple one baroclinic mode stochastic model for convectively coupled waves. A version of this model is implemented which couples the stochastic formation of convective elements to the wind convergence. Linearized analysis shows that using the local convergence results in a classic wave-CISK standing instability where the growth rate increases with the wavenumber. However, using a large-scale averaged convergence restricts the instability to physically plausible scales. Convergence coupling is interpreted as a surrogate for the non-local effects of gregarious convection. In nonlinear stochastic simulations with a non-uniform imposed sea surface temperature (SST) field, the non-local convergence coupling introduces desirable intermittent variability on intraseasonal time scales. Convergence coupling leads to a circulation with a similar mean but higher variability than the equivalent parameterization without convergence coupling. Finally, the model is shown to retain these features on fine and coarse mesh sizes.
Coherent convergent-beam time-resolved X-ray diffraction
Spence, John C. H.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Li, Chufeng
2014-01-01
The use of coherent X-ray lasers for structural biology allows the use of nanometre diameter X-ray beams with large beam divergence. Their application to the structure analysis of protein nanocrystals and single particles raises new challenges and opportunities. We discuss the form of these coherent convergent-beam (CCB) hard X-ray diffraction patterns and their potential use for time-resolved crystallography, normally achieved by Laue (polychromatic) diffraction, for which the monochromatic laser radiation of a free-electron X-ray laser is unsuitable. We discuss the possibility of obtaining single-shot, angle-integrated rocking curves from CCB patterns, and the dependence of the resulting patterns on the focused beam coordinate when the beam diameter is larger or smaller than a nanocrystal, or smaller than one unit cell. We show how structure factor phase information is provided at overlapping interfering orders and how a common phase origin between different shots may be obtained. Their use in refinement of the phase-sensitive intensity between overlapping orders is suggested. PMID:24914153
Coherent convergent-beam time-resolved X-ray diffraction.
Spence, John C H; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Li, Chufeng
2014-07-17
The use of coherent X-ray lasers for structural biology allows the use of nanometre diameter X-ray beams with large beam divergence. Their application to the structure analysis of protein nanocrystals and single particles raises new challenges and opportunities. We discuss the form of these coherent convergent-beam (CCB) hard X-ray diffraction patterns and their potential use for time-resolved crystallography, normally achieved by Laue (polychromatic) diffraction, for which the monochromatic laser radiation of a free-electron X-ray laser is unsuitable. We discuss the possibility of obtaining single-shot, angle-integrated rocking curves from CCB patterns, and the dependence of the resulting patterns on the focused beam coordinate when the beam diameter is larger or smaller than a nanocrystal, or smaller than one unit cell. We show how structure factor phase information is provided at overlapping interfering orders and how a common phase origin between different shots may be obtained. Their use in refinement of the phase-sensitive intensity between overlapping orders is suggested. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Flow visualisation of the external flow from a converging slot-hole film-cooling geometry
Sargison, J. E.; Oldfield, M. L. G.; Guo, S. M.; Lock, G. D.; Rawlinson, A. J.
2005-03-01
This paper presents flow visualisation experiments for a novel film-cooling hole, the converging slot-hole or console for short. Previously published experimental results have demonstrated that the console improved both the heat transfer and the aerodynamic performance of turbine vane and rotor blade cooling systems. Flow visualisation data for a row of consoles were compared with that of cylindrical and fan-shaped holes and a slot at the same inclination angle of 35° to the surface, on a large-scale, flat-plate model at engine-representative Reynolds numbers in a low speed tunnel with ambient temperature mainstream flow. In the first set of experiments, the flow was visualised by using a fine nylon mesh covered with thermochromic liquid crystals, allowing the measurement of gas temperature contours in planes perpendicular to the flow. This data demonstrated that the console film was similar to a slot film, and remained thin and attached to the surface for the coolant-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios of 1.1 to 40 and for a case with no crossflow (infinite momentum flux ratio). A second set of flow visualisation experiments using water/dry-ice fog have confirmed these results and have shown that the flow through all coolant geometries is unsteady.
Mechanical basis of morphogenesis and convergent evolution of spiny seashells
Chirat, R.
2013-03-25
Convergent evolution is a phenomenon whereby similar traits evolved independently in not closely related species, and is often interpreted in functional terms. Spines in mollusk seashells are classically interpreted as having repeatedly evolved as a defense in response to shell-crushing predators. Here we consider the morphogenetic process that shapes these structures and underlies their repeated emergence. We develop a mathematical model for spine morphogenesis based on the mechanical interaction between the secreting mantle edge and the calcified shell edge to which the mantle adheres during shell growth. It is demonstrated that a large diversity of spine structures can be accounted for through small variations in control parameters of this natural mechanical process. This physical mechanism suggests that convergent evolution of spines can be understood through a generic morphogenetic process, and provides unique perspectives in understanding the phenotypic evolution of this second largest phylum in the animal kingdom.
The asymptotic convergence factor for a polygon under a perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, X. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)
1994-12-31
Let Ax = b be a large system of linear equations, where A {element_of} C{sup NxN}, nonsingular and b {element_of} C{sup N}. A few iterative methods for solving have recently been presented in the case where A is nonsymmetric. Many of their algorithms consist of two phases: Phase I: estimate the extreme eigenvalues of A; Phase II: construct and apply an iterative method based on the estimates. For convenience, it is rewritten as an equivalent fixed-point form, x = Tx + c. Let {Omega} be a compact set excluding 1 in the complex plane, and let its complement in the extended complex plane be simply connected. The asymptotic convergence factor (ACF) for {Omega}, denoted by {kappa}({Omega}), measures the rate of convergence for the asymptotically optimal semiiterative methods for solving, where {sigma}(T) {contained_in} {Omega}.
Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations
Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan
2016-01-01
The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .
Genomic basis for the convergent evolution of electric organs
Gallant, Jason R.; Traeger, Lindsay L.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Moffett, Howell; Chen, Po-Hao; Novina, Carl D.; Phillips, George N.; Anand, Rene; Wells, Gregg B.; Pinch, Matthew; Güth, Robert; Unguez, Graciela A.; Albert, James S.; Zakon, Harold H.; Samanta, Manoj P.; Sussman, Michael R.
2017-01-01
Little is known about the genetic basis of convergent traits that originate repeatedly over broad taxonomic scales. The myogenic electric organ has evolved six times in fishes to produce electric fields used in communication, navigation, predation, or defense. We have examined the genomic basis of the convergent anatomical and physiological origins of these organs by assembling the genome of the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) and sequencing electric organ and skeletal muscle transcriptomes from three lineages that have independently evolved electric organs. Our results indicate that, despite millions of years of evolution and large differences in the morphology of electric organ cells, independent lineages have leveraged similar transcription factors and developmental and cellular pathways in the evolution of electric organs. PMID:24970089
Mechanical basis of morphogenesis and convergent evolution of spiny seashells.
Chirat, Régis; Moulton, Derek E; Goriely, Alain
2013-04-09
Convergent evolution is a phenomenon whereby similar traits evolved independently in not closely related species, and is often interpreted in functional terms. Spines in mollusk seashells are classically interpreted as having repeatedly evolved as a defense in response to shell-crushing predators. Here we consider the morphogenetic process that shapes these structures and underlies their repeated emergence. We develop a mathematical model for spine morphogenesis based on the mechanical interaction between the secreting mantle edge and the calcified shell edge to which the mantle adheres during shell growth. It is demonstrated that a large diversity of spine structures can be accounted for through small variations in control parameters of this natural mechanical process. This physical mechanism suggests that convergent evolution of spines can be understood through a generic morphogenetic process, and provides unique perspectives in understanding the phenotypic evolution of this second largest phylum in the animal kingdom.
Degree Fluctuations and the Convergence Time of Consensus Algorithms
Olshevsky, Alex
2011-01-01
We consider a consensus algorithm in which every node in a time-varying undirected connected graph assigns equal weight to each of its neighbors. Under the assumption that the degree of any given node is constant in time, we show that the algorithm achieves consensus within a given accuracy epsilon on n nodes in time O(n^3 log(n/epsilon)). Because there is a direct relation between consensus algorithms in time-varying environments and inhomogeneous random walks, our result also translates into a general statement on such random walks. Moreover, we give simple proofs that the convergence time becomes exponentially large in the number of nodes n under slight relaxations of the above assumptions. We prove that exponential convergence time is possible for consensus algorithms on fixed directed graphs, and we use an example of Cao, Spielman, and Morse to give a simple argument that the same is possible if the constant degrees assumption is even slightly relaxed.
System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2015-01-01
much in the literature. The paper first investigates several variants of the Method of Successive Averages (MSA) by simulation experiments on a toy-network. It is found that the simulation experiments produce support for a weighted MSA approach. The weighted MSA approach is then analysed on large......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually dampened...... in the MSA process. In connection to DNTM it is shown that MSA works well when applied to travel-time averaging, whereas trip averaging is generally infected by random noise resulting from the assignment model. The latter implies that the minimum uncertainty in the final model output is dictated...
Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali
2016-11-21
Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Detong
2000-01-01
This paper proposes projected gradient algorithms in association with using both trust region and line search techniques for convex constrained optimization problems.The mixed strategy is adopted which switches to back tracking steps when a trial projected gradient step produced by the trust region subproblem is unacceptable. A nonmonotone criterion is used to speed up the convergence progress in some curves with large curvature.A theoretical analysis is given which proves that the proposed algorithms are globally convergent and have local superlinear convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.The results of numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Convergence of Attitudes among College Students
Whatley, Alice E.; Appel, Victor H.
1973-01-01
Attempts to determine whether the intersex convergence phenomenon could be applicable to the measured attitudes of collegiate samples. Both sexes seemed to be moving toward a more liberal view on issues related to marriage and the family. (Author)
Cultivate technology convergence for product innovation.
Wilkinson, J Malcolm
2006-04-01
Technologies from diverse scientific disciplines are being combined to drive innovation in medical devices. How technology convergence and innovation could be further stimulated is explored here using developments in imaging and point-of-care devices as examples.
Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2016-09-02
Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.
Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...
A Convergent Total Synthesis of Methoxatin
Hendrickson, James B.; Vries, Johannes G. de
1982-01-01
We report a convergent total synthesis of the coenzyme methoxatin (1) by linking a pyrrole subunit with an uvitonic acid derivative and oxidative photocyclization to a deoxymethoxatin triester, followed by seven refunctionalization steps to 1.
On Convergence Results for Lipschitz Pseudocontractive Mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shin Min Kang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We establish the strong convergence for the Ishikawa iteration scheme associated with Lipschitz pseudocontractive mappings in real Banach spaces. Moreover, our technique of proofs is of independent interest.
On Paranorm Zweier -Convergent Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vakeel A. Khan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the paranorm Zweier -convergent sequence spaces , , and , a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem, and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.
Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective
Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey
2016-04-01
Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent margins. A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger when, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M N 8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along the convergent margins. When oceanic slabs subduct beneath a continent, a gap in the seismogenic zone exists at depths between ca. 250 km and 500 km. Given that the seismogenic zone terminates at ca. 200 km depth in case of continent-continent collision, we propose oceanic origin of subducting slabs beneath the Zagros, the Pamir, and the Vrancea zone. (3) Dip angle of the subducting slab in continent-ocean collision does not correlate neither with the age of subducting oceanic slab, nor with the convergence rate. For ocean-ocean subduction, clear trends are recognized: steeply dipping slabs are characteristic of young subducting plates and of oceanic plates with high convergence rate, with slab rotation towards a near-vertical dip angle at depths below ca. 500 km at very high
Regional disparities and convergences in America
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Blížkovský
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a
Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bernard SHIFFMAN
2008-01-01
We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in-creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses.In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor-malized on a regular compact set K(∪)Cm,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N →∞.
Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bernard; SHIFFMAN
2008-01-01
We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in- creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses. In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor- malized on a regular compact set K(?)C~m,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N→∞.
Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B
2006-01-12
We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.
Creation of a multi-reference-angle comparator
Bručas, Domantas; Giniotis, Vytautas
2009-03-01
Many geodetic and industrial instruments utilize precise angle determination. Metrological calibration and testing of such devices is very complicated, due to the large number of angular position values generated, and often cannot be accomplished using classical means of angle determination. Therefore a special comparator (test rig) capable of calibration geodetic and other angle-measuring instruments and implementing multiple references for angle determination has been created. Several modernized optical devices were used on the test rig, together with the implementation of a special calibration method. In this paper the construction of the rig, modernization of the optical devices, calibration, and some results of measurements are presented.
International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
Koishi, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2011-09-27
We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to measure the contact-angle hysteresis for a nanodroplet of water placed on a nanopillared surface. The water droplet can be in either the Cassie state (droplet being on top of the nanopillared surface) or the Wenzel state (droplet being in contact with the bottom of nanopillar grooves). To measure the contact-angle hysteresis in a quantitative fashion, the molecular dynamics simulation is designed such that the number of water molecules in the droplets can be systematically varied, but the number of base nanopillars that are in direct contact with the droplets is fixed. We find that the contact-angle hysteresis for the droplet in the Cassie state is weaker than that in the Wenzel state. This conclusion is consistent with the experimental observation. We also test a different definition of the contact-angle hysteresis, which can be extended to estimate hysteresis between the Cassie and Wenzel state. The idea is motivated from the appearance of the hysteresis loop typically seen in computer simulation of the first-order phase transition, which stems from the metastability of a system in different thermodynamic states. Since the initial shape of the droplet can be controlled arbitrarily in the computer simulation, the number of base nanopillars that are in contact with the droplet can be controlled as well. We show that the measured contact-angle hysteresis according to the second definition is indeed very sensitive to the initial shape of the droplet. Nevertheless, the contact-angle hystereses measured based on the conventional and new definition seem converging in the large droplet limit.
Generalization of the Euler Angles
Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis
2002-01-01
It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.
Ramasamy, Balasubramanian; Rowe, Fiona; Whitfield, Kath; Nayak, Harish; Noonan, Carmel P
2007-06-01
Five patients with true convergence excess esotropia were surgically managed with combined resection and recession of the medial rectus muscles. This technique was chosen to address the near/distance angle disparity. The use of this surgical technique produced full asymptomatic binocular control at near and distance fixation in four patients. One patient developed a consecutive exotropia but regained full binocular control following a second surgical procedure.
Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josifidis Kosta
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .
Fixing convergence of Gaussian belief propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bickson, Danny [IBM RESEARCH LAB; Dolev, Danny [HEBREW UNIV
2009-01-01
Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) is an iterative message-passing algorithm for inference in Gaussian graphical models. It is known that when GaBP converges it converges to the correct MAP estimate of the Gaussian random vector and simple sufficient conditions for its convergence have been established. In this paper we develop a double-loop algorithm for forcing convergence of GaBP. Our method computes the correct MAP estimate even in cases where standard GaBP would not have converged. We further extend this construction to compute least-squares solutions of over-constrained linear systems. We believe that our construction has numerous applications, since the GaBP algorithm is linked to solution of linear systems of equations, which is a fundamental problem in computer science and engineering. As a case study, we discuss the linear detection problem. We show that using our new construction, we are able to force convergence of Montanari's linear detection algorithm, in cases where it would originally fail. As a consequence, we are able to increase significantly the number of users that can transmit concurrently.
Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras
Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit
2012-03-01
Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.
Convergence of functional areas in information operations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett van Niekerk
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Contemporary technology and its rapid rise to a ubiquitous nature are affecting the way in which technology is used. This holds implications for military information operations and information warfare concepts as the previously separate functional areas are increasingly overlapping due to the increased convergence of information technology.Objective: The aim of the article is to illustrate the convergence of the functional areas of information operations through the use of reported examples and descriptive models. Methods: A qualitative review and analysis of practitioner documents, academic publications, and other reports is conducted. The diverse views of this phenomenon are contrasted and discussed. The possible implications of the convergence and possible management techniques are proposed and discussed. Results: There is strong opinion that the domains are not converging, however practice shows that there is an increasing overlap of operational considerations and organisational structure. Conclusion: It is concluded that the domains are not converging, but the operations and management of the information operations functional areas may converge, and this has an impact across all functional areas that needs to be taken into consideration.
CONVERGENCE RATES IN THE STRONG LAWS OF ASYMPTOTICALLY NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM FIELDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZhangLixin; WangXiuyun
1999-01-01
In this paper, a notion of negative side p-mixing (p -mixing) which can be regardedas asymptotic negative association is defined, and some Rosenthal type inequalities for p -mix-ing random fields are established. The complete convergence and almost sure summability onthe convergence rates with respect to the strong law of large numbers are also discussed for p--mixing random fields. The results obtained extend those for negatively associated sequences andp" -mixing random fields.
Convergence results for MHD system
Ridha Selmi
2006-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic system is investigated in both cases of the periodic domain T3 and the whole space R3. Existence and uniqueness of strong solution are proved. Asymptotic behavior of the solution when the Rossby number ε goes to zero is studied. The proofs use the spectral properties of the penalization operator and involve Friedrich's method, Schochet's methods, and product laws in Sobolev spaces of sufficiently large exponents.
Small angle neutron scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cousin Fabrice
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨思亮; 徐世杰
2011-01-01
The dynamic model of flexible multi-body spacecraft with topological tree configuration has been established based on the Lagrange＇s equations in terms of quasi-coordinates. The kinematics of the spacecraft is described by Modified Rodrigues Parameters （MRPs）. For this time-varing uncertainty flexible multi-body spacecraft dynamic system, a modified fractal controller via variable universe of discourse was designed and the numerical simulation was done. The results show that this control scheme avoids the flaw caused by real-time calculating of shrinkable factors, realizes the effective control of flexible multi-body spacecraft for large angte attitude maneuver, and assures the vibration suppression of the spacecraft flexible appendages at the same time%针对具有开环树状拓扑结构的柔性多体航天器，基于真一伪坐标形式的拉格朗日方程，建立柔性多体航天器的动力学模型，充分考虑了柔性航天器的时变与不确定性的动力学特征，设计了改进的变论域分形模糊控制器，并对该系统进行了仿真验证．仿真结果表明，该方案回避了实时计算收缩因子所导致的论域范围实时收缩的缺点，实现了对柔性多体航天器大角度姿态机动的有效控制，同时保证了航天器柔性附件振动的有效抑制．
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeokseong Lee
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.
Friedberg, R; Zhao, W Q
2005-01-01
We present an explicit convergent iterative solution for the lowest energy state of the Schroedinger equation with an $N$-dimensional radial potential $V=\\frac{g^2}{2}(r^2-1)^2$ and an angular momentum $l$. For $g$ large, the rate of convergence is similar to a power series in $g^{-1}$.
Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2009-10-11
Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qunying Wu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the complete convergence and complete moment convergence for negatively associated sequences of random variables with E X = 0 $\\mathbb{E}X=0$ , E exp ( ln α | X | 1 $\\alpha>1$ . As a result, we extend some complete convergence and complete moment convergence theorems for independent random variables to the case of negatively associated random variables without necessarily imposing any extra conditions. Our results generalize corresponding results obtained by Gut and Stadtmüller (Stat. Probab. Lett. 81:1486-1492, 2011 and Qiu and Chen (Stat. Probab. Lett. 91:76-82, 2014.
Moment-angle manifolds, intersection of quadrics and higher dimensional contact manifolds
Barreto, Yadira; Verjovsky, Alberto
2013-01-01
We construct new examples of contact manifolds in arbitrarily large dimensions. These manifolds which we call quasi moment-angle manifolds, are closely related to the classical moment-angle manifolds.
Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.
Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu
2016-05-12
Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for
Pitch angle scattering of energetic particles by oblique whistler waves
Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.
1991-01-01
First order cyclotron or Landau resonant pitch angle scattering of electrons by oblique whistler waves propagating at large angles to the ambient field are found to be at least as large as that due to parallel propagating waves. Commonly observed precipitation of more than 40 keV electrons in association with ducted whistlers may thus be accompanied by substantial fluxes of lower energy (10 eV-40 keV) electrons precipitated by the nonducted components.
Estimation of crank angle for cycling with a powered prosthesis.
Lawson, B E; Shultz, A; Ledoux, E; Goldfarb, M
2014-01-01
In order for a prosthesis to restore power generation during cycling, it must supply torque in a manner that is coordinated with the motion of the bicycle crank. This paper outlines an algorithm for the real time estimation of the angular position of a bicycle crankshaft using only measurements internal to an intelligent knee and ankle prosthesis. The algorithm assumes that the rider/prosthesis/bicycle system can be modeled as a four-bar mechanism. Assuming that a prosthesis can generate two independent angular measurements of the mechanism (in this case the knee angle and the absolute orientation of the shank), Freudenstein's equation can be used to synthesize the mechanism continuously. A recursive least-squares algorithm is implemented to estimate the Freudenstein coefficients, and the resulting link lengths are used to reformulate the equation in terms of input-output relationships mapping both measured angles to the crank angle. Using two independent measurements allows the algorithm to uniquely determine the crank angle from multi-valued functions. In order to validate the algorithm, a bicycle was mounted on a trainer and configured with the prosthesis using an artificial hip joint attached to the seat post. Motion capture was used to monitor the mechanism for forward and backward pedaling and the results are compared to the output of the presented algorithm. Once the parameters have converged, the algorithm is shown to predict the crank angle within 15° of the externally measured value throughout the entire crank cycle during forward rotation.
Repulsion-based model for contact angle saturation in electrowetting.
Ali, Hassan Abdelmoumen Abdellah; Mohamed, Hany Ahmed; Abdelgawad, Mohamed
2015-01-01
We introduce a new model for contact angle saturation phenomenon in electrowetting on dielectric systems. This new model attributes contact angle saturation to repulsion between trapped charges on the cap and base surfaces of the droplet in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line, which prevents these surfaces from converging during contact angle reduction. This repulsion-based saturation is similar to repulsion between charges accumulated on the surfaces of conducting droplets which causes the well known Coulombic fission and Taylor cone formation phenomena. In our model, both the droplet and dielectric coating were treated as lossy dielectric media (i.e., having finite electrical conductivities and permittivities) contrary to the more common assumption of a perfectly conducting droplet and perfectly insulating dielectric. We used theoretical analysis and numerical simulations to find actual charge distribution on droplet surface, calculate repulsion energy, and minimize energy of the total system as a function of droplet contact angle. Resulting saturation curves were in good agreement with previously reported experimental results. We used this proposed model to predict effect of changing liquid properties, such as electrical conductivity, and system parameters, such as thickness of the dielectric layer, on the saturation angle, which also matched experimental results.
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W
2002-02-25
Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention
The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.
Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Champagne, Donald E; Scheib, Holger; Tyndall, Joel D A; King, Glenn F; Nevalainen, Timo J; Norman, Janette A; Lewis, Richard J; Norton, Raymond S; Renjifo, Camila; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez
2009-01-01
Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have included AVIT/colipase/prokineticin, CAP, chitinase, cystatin, defensins, hyaluronidase, Kunitz, lectin, lipocalin, natriuretic peptide, peptidase S1, phospholipase A(2), sphingomyelinase D, and SPRY. Many of these same venom protein types have also been convergently recruited for use in the hematophagous gland secretions of invertebrates (e.g., fleas, leeches, kissing bugs, mosquitoes, and ticks) and vertebrates (e.g., vampire bats). Here, we discuss a number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited and propose a revised and expanded working definition for venom. Given the large number of striking similarities between the protein compositions of conventional venoms and hematophagous secretions, we argue that the latter should also fall under the same definition.
The Hubble series: convergence properties and redshift variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)
2007-12-07
In cosmography, cosmokinetics and cosmology, it is quite common to encounter physical quantities expanded as a Taylor series in the cosmological redshift z. Perhaps the most well-known exemplar of this phenomenon is the Hubble relation between distance and redshift. However, we now have considerable high-z data available; for instance, we have supernova data at least back to redshift z {approx} 1.75. This opens up the theoretical question as to whether or not the Hubble series (or more generally any series expansion based on the z-redshift) actually converges for large redshift. Based on a combination of mathematical and physical reasonings, we argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in z is less than or equal to 1, and that z-based expansions must break down for z > 1, corresponding to a universe less than half of its current size. Furthermore, we shall argue on theoretical grounds for the utility of an improved parametrization y = z/(1 + z). In terms of the y-redshift, we again argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in y is less than or equal to 1, so that y-based expansions are likely to be good all the way back to the big bang (y = 1), but that y-based expansions must break down for y < -1, now corresponding to a universe more than twice its current size.
Magnetically-Driven Convergent Instability Growth platform on Z.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knapp, Patrick; Mattsson, Thomas; Martin, Matthew; Benage, John F.,
2017-09-01
Hydrodynamic instability growth is a fundamentally limiting process in many applications. In High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) systems such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and stellar explosions, hydro instabilities can dominate the evolution of the object and largely determine the final state achievable. Of particular interest is the process by which instabilities cause perturbations at a density or material interface to grow nonlinearly, introducing vorticity and eventually causing the two species to mix across the interface. Although quantifying instabilities has been the subject of many investigations in planar geometry, few have been done in converging geometry. During FY17, the team executed six convergent geometry instability experiments. Based on earlier results, the platform was redesigned and improved with respect to load centering at installation making the installation reproducible and development of a new 7.2 keV, Co He-a backlighter system to better penetrate the liner. Together, the improvements yielded significantly improved experimental results. The results in FY17 demonstrate the viability of using experiments on Z to quantify instability growth in cylindrically convergent geometry. Going forward, we will continue the partnership with staff and management at LANL to analyze the past experiments, compare to hydrodynamics growth models, and design future experiments.
Convergent and invariant object representations for sight, sound, and touch.
Man, Kingson; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar; Kaplan, Jonas T
2015-09-01
We continuously perceive objects in the world through multiple sensory channels. In this study, we investigated the convergence of information from different sensory streams within the cerebral cortex. We presented volunteers with three common objects via three different modalities-sight, sound, and touch-and used multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to map the cortical regions containing information about the identity of the objects. We could reliably predict which of the three stimuli a subject had seen, heard, or touched from the pattern of neural activity in the corresponding early sensory cortices. Intramodal classification was also successful in large portions of the cerebral cortex beyond the primary areas, with multiple regions showing convergence of information from two or all three modalities. Using crossmodal classification, we also searched for brain regions that would represent objects in a similar fashion across different modalities of presentation. We trained a classifier to distinguish objects presented in one modality and then tested it on the same objects presented in a different modality. We detected audiovisual invariance in the right temporo-occipital junction, audiotactile invariance in the left postcentral gyrus and parietal operculum, and visuotactile invariance in the right postcentral and supramarginal gyri. Our maps of multisensory convergence and crossmodal generalization reveal the underlying organization of the association cortices, and may be related to the neural basis for mental concepts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A tilted interference filter in a converging beam
Löfdahl, Mats G; Kiselman, Dan
2011-01-01
Context. Narrow-band interference filters can be tuned toward shorter wavelengths by tilting them from the perpendicular to the optical axis. This can be used as a cheap alternative to real tunable filters, such as Fabry-P\\'erot interferometers and Lyot filters. At the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, such a setup is used to scan through the blue wing of the Ca II H line. Because the filter is mounted in a converging beam, the incident angle varies over the pupil, which causes a variation of the transmission over the pupil, different for each wavelength within the passband. This causes broadening of the filter transmission profile and degradation of the image quality. Aims. We want to characterize the properties of our filter, at normal incidence as well as at different tilt angles. Knowing the broadened profile is important for the interpretation of the solar images. Compensating the images for the degrading effects will improve the resolution and remove one source of image contrast degradation. In particular, w...
Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.
Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M
1996-01-01
Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was
Regional disparities and convergences in Asia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Blížkovský
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the disparity and convergence between the 10 and 11 countries of ASEAN and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS respectively and the 31 sub-national regions (provinces in China.The regional disparity levels and trends were analysed using the Gini coefficient between the regions (nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita in Purchasing Parity Power, PPP. The convergence analysis was evaluated using the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, and the σ- and b-convergence. The time period covered was 2000–2008 (ASEAN and CIS and 2000–2006 (China.The results show a relatively high regional disparity between the Asian macro-regions of ASEAN and CIS and much lower disparities between the China sub-regions. The disparities were highest if based on the nominal GDP and lower if based on the DGP per capita. The GDP per capita was lower, between 0.30 to 0.4 for the CIS and China, and around 0.7 in ASEAN. The convergence analysis showed mixed results. Based on the DRC analysis, none of the Asian macro-regions converged. All three macro-regions diverged 1.4 to 12.68 times quicker than the average macro-regional GDP per capita grew, ASEAN being at the divergence top and China at the bottom. Based on the ADRC analysis, all macro-regions also proved to diverge. However, the divergence rates were much lower. For macro-regions China and CIS, the divergence was slower than macro-regional growth, thus their divergence was moderate. On the other side, if the macro-region was calculated using the σ-convergence analysis, the converging macro-regions were ASEAN and China, with 2.13% and 0.47% respectively. CIS was diverging at the speed of 1.25% per year. Based on b-convergence, ASEAN and China were converging (1.54% and 1.32%, and a slow divergence trend was registered for CIS, 1.01%.
Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.
Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart
2011-10-01
A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.
Hooft, G
2002-01-01
In the first part of this lecture, the 1/N expansion technique is illustrated for the case of the large-N sigma model. In large-N gauge theories, the 1/N expansion is tantamount to sorting the Feynman diagrams according to their degree of planarity, that is, the minimal genus of the plane onto which the diagram can be mapped without any crossings. This holds both for the usual perturbative expansion with respect to powers of {tilde g}^2=g^2 N, as well as for the expansion of lattice theories in positive powers of 1/{tilde g}^2. If there were no renormalization effects, the tilde g expansion would have a finite radius of convergence. The zero-dimensional theory can be used for counting planar diagrams. It can be solved explicitly, so that the generating function for the number of diagrams with given 3-vertices and 4-vertices, can be derived exactly. This can be done for various kinds of Feynman diagrams. We end with some remarks about planar renormalization.