WorldWideScience

Sample records for language system concept

  1. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  2. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  3. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  4. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    languages, and will study the implementation of Java and C# with their underlying platforms, the Java Virtual Machine and .NET Common Language Runtime. We emphasize implementation exercises and experiments. This comes at the expense of classical compiler course subjects such as register allocation......This note describes and motivates our current plans for an undergraduate course on programming language concepts for software development students. We describe the competences we expect students to acquire as well as the topics covered by the course. We plan to use C# and Scheme as instruction...

  5. Sortal concepts, object individuation, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei

    2007-09-01

    Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise. This review highlights how the philosophical notion of a 'sortal'--a concept that provides principles of individuation and principles of identity - has been introduced into cognitive developmental psychology. Although the notion 'sortal' originated in metaphysics, importing it into the cognitive sciences has bridged a gap between philosophical and psychological discussions of concepts and has generated a fruitful and productive research enterprise. As I review here, the sortal concept has inspired several lines of empirical work in the past decade, including the study of object individuation; object identification; the relationship between language and acquisition of kind concepts; the representational capacities of non-human primates; object-based attention and cognitive architecture; and the relationship between kind concepts and individual concepts.

  6. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  7. Absorption of language concepts in the machine mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In our approach, the machine mind is the applicative dynamic system represented by its algorithmically evolvable internal language. By other words, the mind and the language of mind are synonyms. Coming out from Shaumyan's semiotic theory of languages, we present the representation of language concepts in the machine mind as a result of our experiment, to show non-redundancy of the language of mind. To provide useful restriction for further research, we also introduce the hypothesis of semantic saturation in Computer-Computer communication, which indicates that a set of machines is not self-evolvable. The goal of our research is to increase the abstraction of Human-Computer and Computer-Computer communication. If we want humans and machines comunicate as a parent with the child, using different symbols and media, we must find the language of mind commonly usable by both machines and humans. In our opinion, there exist a kind of calm language of thinking, which we try to propose for machines in this paper. We separate the layers of a machine mind, we present the structure of the evolved mind and we discuss the selected properties. We are concentrating on the representation of symbolized concepts in the mind, that are languages, not just grammars, since they have meaning.

  8. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMIT, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  9. Programming languages for MIS concepts and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computers Computer Programming Languages     Role of Computer Programming Language      Software Systems     Taxonomies of Computer Programming LanguagesComputing Architecture in the Internet Environment Key Characteristics Shared by All Procedural Programming Languages      Syntax, Sentence, and Word     Variable     Arithmetic Operation     Execution Sequence      If-Then-Else Logic      Loop      Module C++ Introduction to Function-Oriented and Object-Oriented Programming A Tour of C Language      C and C++ Keyword and User-Defined Word      Comment Statements      Preprocessor

  10. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  11. Two key concepts of language endangerment : language obsolescence and language death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary context of world-wide language endangerment, of linguistic imperialism and regression of minority languages, it is of vital importance to take initiatives for the maintenance and protection of linguistic biodiversity.  Languages that become extinct are a major loss, not only for the communities concerned but also for humanity in general. The role of linguists should not be confined to documentation and recording of threatened languages, but should be extended to policies  aimed at the revitalization of languages in the process of obsolescence and extinction, and to programs for stimulating language awareness and language cult. Although practical work and immediate political interventions remain the most urgent tasks, there is also need for a theoretical discussion on the value of language maintenance and preservation. It is important to define adequately the basic concepts to be used in discussions, as well as in scholarly and "bureaucratic" writings in the field of language endangerment. The aim of the present paper has been to clarify the concepts of 'language obsolescence' and 'language death', with an eye at offering a general characterization and typology of both phenomena. Accurate information on the causes and contextual factors involved in language obsolescence and language death can help to elaborate a theoretically coherent frame for construing open-minded language policies and for arousing a widespread feeling of respect for the linguistic rights of speech communities, however small and unprotected they may be.

  12. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  13. Using Concept Maps as a Tool for Cross-Language Relevance Determination

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Concept maps, introduced by Novak, aid learnersâ understanding. I hypothesize that concept maps also can function as a summary of large documents, e.g., electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). I have built a system that automatically generates concept maps from English-language ETDs in the computing field. The system also will provide Spanish translations of these concept maps for native Spanish speakers. Using machine translation techniques, my approach leads to concept maps that could...

  14. Native Language Self-Concept and Reading Self-Concept: Same or Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…

  15. Concepts, Language, and Privacy: An Argument "Vaguely Viennese in Provenance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Considers two notable recent philosophical theories of concepts in relation to some challenges set by Wittgenstein in his notorious private language argument. The challenge is formulated in terms of constraints on the explanation of the relation between thought and language. Shows how these theories of concepts relate to constraints that arise…

  16. The Conception on Future Language Reading Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉灵

    2015-01-01

    Language testing never appears in isolation,it serves and is served by language teaching.The purpose of English teaching is to cultivate students' abilities to communicate in English.It seems that there are as many teaching approaches as language testing methods.Nowadays,communicative language teaching has increasingly dominated foreign teaching field,communicative language testing draws high attention accordingly.This discussion mainly focuses on the two characteristics of authenticity and interactiveness behind communicative language testing,by analysis of the nature of this testing method and the development trend of the times,providing an significant reference for university English reading testing in the years to come.

  17. Intersections between Law and Language: Disciplinary Concepts in Second Language Legal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartig Alissa J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International mobility among graduate students of law presents unique challenges for the teaching and learning of Legal English. Master of Laws (LL.M. students, for example, often bring both prior legal training and professional experience from their home jurisdiction to their graduate studies abroad. Taking a closer look at the experience of these students as they engage with genres associated with another legal system provides insight into broader issues of intersections between language and content in English for Legal Purposes. This article draws on case studies of four LL.M students from China and Saudi Arabia, a civil law jurisdiction and an Islamic law jurisdiction, respectively, as they learn to read and write common law genres in the United States. Considering students’ experiences with these texts, the article outlines a potential framework for understanding the role of disciplinary concepts in second language legal literacy development. Specifically, the article elaborates a tentative taxonomy for disciplinary concepts that distinguishes between discourse-relevant concepts and discourse-structuring concepts in considering the interaction between language and content in ESP and CLIL for law.

  18. THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE LEARNING IN BEHAVIORISM PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Rakhman Abidin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so  human gets  knowledge of language through learning.

  19. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  20. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  1. New teaching concepts of the German language as a modern language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BIRIŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to give an overview over the different types of methods of German lessons, where German considered as a foreign language. These methods describe the complex ways of using those as teaching-/study-methods taught German as a foreign language in foreign language teaching environment, as opposed to the teaching of “old” languages such as Greek and Latin is. The different approaches extend the scientific study of methods of derivation and concepts in the context of developing foreign language education and language teaching research. As with the “how” teaching and learning of foreign languages should be in the foreground for themselves.

  2. New teaching concepts of the German language as a modern language

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to give an overview over the different types of methods of German lessons, where German considered as a foreign language. These methods describe the complex ways of using those as teaching-/study-methods taught German as a foreign language in foreign language teaching environment, as opposed to the teaching of “old” languages such as Greek and Latin is. The different approaches extend the scientific study of methods of derivation and concepts in the context of developing fo...

  3. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  4. Communicative Language Teaching:conceptions and misconceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. G. Widdowson

    2008-01-01

    @@ 'The old order changeth, yielding place to new'... Tennyson: The Idylls of the King In English language teaching, as in everything else,ideas and assumptions change, and fashions come and go.Novelty always has a seductive appeal, and there is a tendency for ideas to get adopted because they are fashionable and prestigious rather than because they have been critically evaluated.

  5. ENTROPY OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AS MAIN DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the research of language system entropy. It is one of the main concept of synergetics and synergy. Entropy can be applied to description of language processes and detection of functioning and development features of language. Bilateral representation of entropy is caused by dichotomy of language and speech and it is feature of transference of entropy concept to linguistics area. Entropy can be representing by language entropy and speech entropy. These concepts are interdependent and interconnected, but not coinciding phenomena. Entropy existence is caused by language nature and it abilities to express all thoughts of native speakers. Entropy of natural language aspires to infinity. But language system never becomes language chaos, because negentropy counteracts entropy. Negentropy is negative entropy and it is measure of language system organization. Negentropy makes language by universal means of communication, which is cleared to all native speakers. Negentropy stabilizes system, but on the contrary entropy destabilizes system and staticizes changes in it. It process results in language development. Entropy of natural language will be never equal to zero, because zero indicator will be testify about impossibility of further development of language. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-4

  6. Measuring concept relatedness using language models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, D.; Meij, E.; Rijke, M.de; Kraaij, W.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the notion of concept relatedness has attracted considerable attention. A variety of approaches, based on ontology structure, information content, association, or context have been proposed to indicate the relatedness of abstract ideas. We propose a method based on the cross entropy

  7. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  8. What Is P-16 Education? A Primer for Legislators. A Practical Introduction to the Concept, Language and Policy Issues of an Integrated System of Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Water, Gordon; Rainwater, Terese

    A growing number of states are taking steps to transform three largely disconnected levels of public education--preschool, K-12, and postsecondary--into a more coherent, integrated system called P-16. P-16 is based on the concept of a seamless continuum of public education stretching from preschool to grade 16, culminating in a baccalaureate…

  9. Constructing Concept Schemes From Astronomical Telegrams Via Natural Language Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Zhang, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using hierarchical clustering of processed natural language. This allows us to automatically organize ATELs based on the vocabulary used. We conclude that we can use simple algorithms to process and extract meaning from astronomical textual data.

  10. Benjamin's conception of language and Adorno's aesthetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Duarte

    Full Text Available According to the theory of language of the young Benjamin, the primary task of language isn't the communication of contents, but to express itself as a "spiritual essence" in which also men take part. That conception according to which language would be a medium to signification of something outside it leads to a necessary decrease of its original strength and is thus denominated by Benjamin bürgerlich. The names of human language are remainders of an archaic state, in which things weren't yet mute and had their own language. Benjamin suggests also that all the arts remind the original language of things, as they make objects "speak" in form of sounds, colors, shapes etc. That relationship between arts as reminders of the "language of things" and the possible reconciliation of mankind with itself and with nature has been developed by Theodor Adorno in several of his writings, specially in the Aesthetic Theory, where the artwork is ultimately conceived as a construct pervaded by "language" in the widest meaning - not in the "bourgeois" sense.

  11. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit.

  12. Semiotic diversity in utterance production and the concept of 'language'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Adam

    2014-09-19

    Sign language descriptions that use an analytic model borrowed from spoken language structural linguistics have proved to be not fully appropriate. Pictorial and action-like modes of expression are integral to how signed utterances are constructed and to how they work. However, observation shows that speakers likewise use kinesic and vocal expressions that are not accommodated by spoken language structural linguistic models, including pictorial and action-like modes of expression. These, also, are integral to how speaker utterances in face-to-face interaction are constructed and to how they work. Accordingly, the object of linguistic inquiry should be revised, so that it comprises not only an account of the formal abstract systems that utterances make use of, but also an account of how the semiotically diverse resources that all languaging individuals use are organized in relation to one another. Both language as an abstract system and languaging should be the concern of linguistics.

  13. A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

  14. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  15. VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In software engineering, an architecture description language (ADL) is intended to aid designers in defining software architectures in terms of abstractions that they find useful, and in making a smooth transi- tion to code. Based on ADL, the concept and models of the Virtual instrunent system Software architecture Description Language (VSDL) is provided in this paper. The VSDL put forward provides a new method for vir- tual instrunent system's application design and development by describing the virtual instrument system soft- ware architecture effectively. In this paper, the model description、component description and line description are analyzed in detail, and the structure language based on the model is also provided. VSDL provides a smooth interface to graphic software platform, and has been applied to many virtual instrument systems' inte- gration and already yielded good results both in technology and economy.

  16. Semantic annotation for concept-based cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Ripplinger, Bärbel; Vintar, Spela; Buitelaar, Paul; Raileanu, Diana; Sacaleanu, Bogdan

    2002-12-04

    We present a framework for concept-based cross-language information retrieval in the medical domain, which is under development in the MUCHMORE project. Our approach is based on using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as the primary source of semantic data. Documents and queries are annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information. Linguistic processing includes part-of-speech tagging, morphological analysis, phrase recognition and the identification of medical terms and semantic relations between them. The paper describes experiments in monolingual and cross-language document retrieval, performed on a corpus of medical abstracts. Results show that linguistic processing, especially lemmatization and compound analysis for German, is a crucial step in achieving a good baseline performance. On the other hand, they show that semantic information, specifically the combined use of concepts and relations, increases the performance in monolingual and cross-language retrieval.

  17. The Concept "System of Philosophy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    In this article I shall examine and discuss the conceptsystem of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...

  18. Quantum language and the migration of scientific concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Burwell, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    How highly abstract quantum concepts were represented in language, and how these concepts were later taken up by philosophers, literary critics, and new-age gurus. The principles of quantum physics -- and the strange phenomena they describe -- are represented most precisely in highly abstract algebraic equations. Why, then, did these mathematically driven concepts compel founders of the field, particularly Erwin Schrödinger, Niels Bohr, and Werner Heisenberg, to spend so much time reflecting on ontological, epistemological, and linguistic concerns? What is it about quantum concepts that appeals to latter-day Eastern mystics, poststructuralist critics, and get-rich-quick schemers? How did their interpretations and misinterpretations of quantum phenomena reveal their own priorities? In this book, Jennifer Burwell examines these questions and considers what quantum phenomena -- in the context of the founders' debates over how to describe them -- reveal about the relationship between everyday experience, percep...

  19. TRADITION, PERMANENCY AND SUBVERSION OF CONCEPTS IN LANGUAGE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Brait

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aims at showing how, in the XX century, the concept of dialogue starts to be integrated to language studies, gaining consistency and diversity in different trends.  Amid the wealth contribution brought by this concept, we highlight here the works of Emile Benveniste, Lev Jakubinskij, Valentin Voloshinov and Mikhail Bakhtin. Besides the theoretical route, an example of the book cover titled Retrato calado (Silent Portrait, written by Luiz Roberto Salinas Fortes, impels dialogue, in the XXI century, as a way to address, by its verbal-visuality, aesthetic and ideological forces in tension

  20. Three Fundamental Concepts in Second Language Acquisition and Their Relevance in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire; Whiteside, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This article considers how 3 fundamental concepts of second language acquisition (SLA), the native speaker, interlanguage, and the language learner have fared since Firth and Wagner (1997). We review the ascendancy of these concepts and their relationship to the traditional dichotomies of language learning versus language use and individual mind…

  1. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics. -- Pa...

  2. QUERY TRANSLATION USING CONCEPTS SIMILARITY BASED ON QURAN ONTOLOGY FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaini Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR process, the translation effects have a direct impact on the accuracy of follow-up retrieval results. In dictionary-based approach, we are dealing with the words that have more than one meaning which can decrease the retrieval performance if the query translation return an incorrect translations. These issues need to be overcome using efficient technique. In this study we proposed a Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR method based on domain ontology using Quran concepts for disambiguating translation of the query and to improve the dictionary-based query translation. For experimentation, we use Quran ontology written in English and Malay languages as a bilingual parallel-corpora and Quran concepts as a resource for cross-language query translation along with dictionary-based translation. For evaluation, we measure the performance of three IR systems. IR1 is natural language query IR, IR2 is natural language query CLIR based on dictionary (as a Baseline and IR3 is the retrieval of this research proposed method using Mean Average Precision (MAP and average precision at 11 points of recall. The experimental result shows that our proposed method brings significant improvement in retrieval accuracy for English document collections, but deficient for Malay document collections. The proposed CLIR method can obtain query expansion effect and improve retrieval performance in certain language.

  3. How grammaticized concepts shape event conceptualization in language production: Insights from linguistic analysis, eye tracking data, and memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, C. von; Andermann, M.; Carroll, M.; Flecken, M.E.P.; Schmiedtová, B.

    2012-01-01

    The role of grammatical systems in profiling particular conceptual categories is used as a key in exploring questions concerning language specificity during the conceptualization phase in language production. This study focuses on the extent to which crosslinguistic differences in the concepts

  4. From grasp to language: embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the macaque monkey and the discovery of a homologous "mirror system for grasping" in Broca's area in the human brain has revived the gestural origins theory of the evolution of the human capability for language, enriching it with the suggestion that mirror neurons provide the neurological core for this evolution. However, this notion of "mirror neuron support for the transition from grasp to language" has been worked out in very different ways in the Mirror System Hypothesis model [Arbib, M.A., 2005a. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, 105-167; Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A., 1998. Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience 21(5), 188-194] and the Embodied Concept model [Gallese, V., Lakoff, G., 2005. The brain's concepts: the role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22, 455-479]. The present paper provides a critique of the latter to enrich analysis of the former, developing the role of schema theory [Arbib, M.A., 1981. Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Brooks, V.B. (Ed.), Handbook of Physiology--The Nervous System II. Motor Control. American Physiological Society, pp. 1449-1480].

  5. Language of sociology: the problem of artificial and natural (everyday) concepts

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to considering and analysis of the language situation in sociology. There are two different approaches of construction of sociological concepts: 1) construction concepts from ordinary language of social actors – the tradition in sociology, and 2) construction concepts that are not present in natural language – artificial. Recently some sociologists, in particular poststructuralists, began to lobby the latter approach of construction concepts. But what brings sociolog...

  6. Language as an evolutionary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Henry; Smith, Kenny; Kirby, Simon

    2005-09-01

    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry argued that human language signified the eighth major transition in evolution: human language marked a new form of information transmission from one generation to another [Maynard Smith J, Szathmáry E. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 1995]. According to this view language codes cultural information and as such forms the basis for the evolution of complexity in human culture. In this article we develop the theory that language also codes information in another sense: languages code information on their own structure. As a result, languages themselves provide information that influences their own survival. To understand the consequences of this theory we discuss recent computational models of linguistic evolution. Linguistic evolution is the process by which languages themselves evolve. This article draws together this recent work on linguistic evolution and highlights the significance of this process in understanding the evolution of linguistic complexity. Our conclusions are that: (1) the process of linguistic transmission constitutes the basis for an evolutionary system, and (2), that this evolutionary system is only superficially comparable to the process of biological evolution.

  7. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  8. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Granito

    Full Text Available While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand

  9. RLV Hopper: consolidated system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Johann [Astrium - Space Infrastructure, Bremen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The Hopper, a concept for a reusable launch system was developed and found attractive in the frame of FESTIP, ESA's Future European Space Transportation Initiation Programme. Later, in the national German ASTRA programme this concept was adapted to newly emerged requirement and subjected to a detailed design loop. Taking off horizontally and staging at high sub-orbital velocity, the Hopper needs a rail-guided launch sled, downrange landing, re-transportation back to the launch site, and one, but only one upper stage. Horizontal take-off is used to improve safety and to reduce thrust requirement, and number, mass, and cost of main engines, and also problems with vehicle centering. Transporting of the cargo (e.g. payload and expendable upper stage) in the RLV results in only one aerodynamically affected flight configuration. Staging at high sub-orbital velocity above the sensible atmosphere enables the use of only one standardised upper stage for all missions. Using a cryogenic upper stage the Hopper system is nearly optimally staged for the dimensioning GTO mission. The paper describes the consolidated unmanned RLV concept and highlights areas of special interest, evolution potential, and further steps. (Author)

  10. Formal languages in dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Troll, G

    1993-01-01

    We treat here the interrelation between formal languages and those dynamical systems that can be described by cellular automata (CA). There is a well-known injective map which identifies any CA-invariant subshift with a central formal language. However, in the special case of a symbolic dynamics, i.e. where the CA is just the shift map, one gets a stronger result: the identification map can be extended to a functor between the categories of symbolic dynamics and formal languages. This functor additionally maps topological conjugacies between subshifts to empty-string-limited generalized sequential machines between languages. If the periodic points form a dense set, a case which arises in a commonly used notion of chaotic dynamics, then an even more natural map to assign a formal language to a subshift is offered. This map extends to a functor, too. The Chomsky hierarchy measuring the complexity of formal languages can be transferred via either of these functors from formal languages to symbolic dynamics and p...

  11. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneling, Christina

    1993-01-01

    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…

  12. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  13. Explorations in Mathematical Physics The Concepts Behind an Elegant Language

    CERN Document Server

    Koks, Don

    2006-01-01

    Have you ever wondered why the language of modern physics centres on geometry? Or how quantum operators and Dirac brackets work? What a convolution really is? What tensors are all about? Or what field theory and lagrangians are, and why gravity is described as curvature? This book takes you on a tour of the main ideas forming the language of modern mathematical physics. Here you will meet novel approaches to concepts such as determinants and geometry, wave function evolution, statistics, signal processing, and three-dimensional rotations. You'll see how the accelerated frames of special relativity tell us about gravity. On the journey, you'll discover how tensor notation relates to vector calculus, how differential geometry is built on intuitive concepts, and how variational calculus leads to field theory. You will meet quantum measurement theory, along with Green functions and the art of complex integration, and finally general relativity and cosmology. The book takes a fresh approach to tensor analysis buil...

  14. Developing Embodied Cognition: Insight from Children's Concepts and Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eWellsby

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children’s embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition.

  15. The Control System Modeling Language

    CERN Document Server

    Zagar, K; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Vodovnik, A; Zagar, Klemen; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Vodovnik, Anze

    2001-01-01

    The well-known Unified Modeling Language (UML) describes software entities, such as interfaces, classes, operations and attributes, as well as relationships among them, e.g. inheritance, containment and dependency. The power of UML lies in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools such as Rational Rose, which are also capable of generating software structures from visual object definitions and relations. UML also allows add-ons that define specific structures and patterns in order to steer and automate the design process. We have developed an add-on called Control System Modeling Language (CSML). It introduces entities and relationships that we know from control systems, such as "property" representing a single controllable point/channel, or an "event" specifying that a device is capable of notifying its clients through events. Entities can also possess CSML-specific characteristics, such as physical units and valid ranges for input parameters. CSML is independent of any specific language or technology...

  16. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  17. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld.

  18. Benjamin's conception of language and Adorno's aesthetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Duarte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of language of the young Benjamin, the primary task of language isn't the communication of contents, but to express itself as a "spiritual essence" in which also men take part. That conception according to which language would be a medium to signification of something outside it leads to a necessary decrease of its original strength and is thus denominated by Benjamin bürgerlich. The names of human language are remainders of an archaic state, in which things weren't yet mute and had their own language. Benjamin suggests also that all the arts remind the original language of things, as they make objects "speak" in form of sounds, colors, shapes etc. That relationship between arts as reminders of the "language of things" and the possible reconciliation of mankind with itself and with nature has been developed by Theodor Adorno in several of his writings, specially in the Aesthetic Theory, where the artwork is ultimately conceived as a construct pervaded by "language" in the widest meaning - not in the "bourgeois" sense.De acordo com a teoria da linguagem do jovem Benjamin, a tarefa primordial da linguagem não é a comunicação de Conteúdos, mas expressar a si própria como uma "essência espiritual", da qual também o gênero humano toma parte. Essa concepção, de acordo com a qual a linguagem seria um médium para a significação de algo fora dela leva necessariamente a uma diminuição de sua potência originária e é, portanto, chamada por Benjamin burguesa (bürgerlich. Os nomes da linguagem humana são resquícios de um estado arcaico, no qual as coisas ainda não eram mudas e tinham sua própria linguagem. Benjamin sugere também que todas as artes rememoram a linguagem originária das coisas, na medida em que fazem os objetos "falarem" em forma de sons, cores, formas etc. Essa relação entre arte como resquício da "linguagem das coisas" e a possível reconciliação do gênero humano consigo próprio e com a

  19. Advanced Languages for Systems Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    these are too numerous to list here. Edoardo Biagioni . Post-doctoral researcher. System networking and kernel design and imple- mentation. Kenneth Cline...John Backus, John H. Williams, and Edward L. Wimmers. The programming language FL. In Turner [131], pages 219-247. [12] Edoardo Biagioni , Nicholas

  20. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  1. P systems generating iso-plcture languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subbaiah Annadurai; Thiyagarajan Kalyani; Vincent Rajkumar Dare; Durairaj Gnanaraj Thomas

    2008-01-01

    P systems generating rectangular arrays and hexagonal arrays have been studied in the literature,bringing together the two areas of theoretical computer science,namely membrane computing and picture languages.Recently,a new class of picture languages called the class of iso-picture languages generating interesting picture languages has been introduced.In this paper,we develop a class of tissue-like P systems with active membranes as a generative device for iso-picture languages.

  2. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed ConceptRefinery, a

  3. Integrating language in theories on long-distance movement: migration vs mobility & the concept of motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.

    2014-01-01

    Language in the context of migration is an unexplored concept. This paper takes a first step towards integrating language into current theories of international mobility. The current state of migration research will be briefly outlined. Subsequently, the differences between the concepts ‘migration’

  4. Using the Concept of Perspective to Integrate Cultural, Communicative, and Form-Focused Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Katra A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Modern Language Association Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages advocated for revising postsecondary second language programs to cultivate students' "translingual and transcultural competence." Since then, the meaning, merits, and difficulties of these goals have been much discussed. This article presents the concept of linguistic…

  5. ["Kaitai-Shinsho": a change of languages and concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masanobu

    2003-07-01

    The translation of "Outleedkundige Tafelen (Dutch) [Anatomische Tabellen (German)]" to "Kaitai-Shinsho" by Gempaku Sugita and others was not the mere substitution of Dutch for Japanese. They responded to the writing according to the situation of the change to modern medicine from the medicine of ancient-medieval times based on Galen's teachings, by using the Japanese culture of those days in a form of "bricolage" (a term used by Claude Levi-Strauss), in combination with Western medicine, leading to its establishment as Japanese medicine. That is, their work was not a mere translation, but an innovation of Japanese medical language system.

  6. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  7. Maxi-Min Language Use A Critical Remark on a Concept by Philippe van Parijs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Jan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Philippe van Parijs explains in Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World the concept of maxi-min language use as a process of language choice. He suggests that the language chosen as a common language should maximize the minimal competence of a community. Within a multilingual group of people, the chosen language is the language known best by a participant who knows it least. For obvious reasons, only English would qualify for having that status. This article argues that maxi-min is rather a normative concept, not only because the process itself remains empirically unfounded. Moreover, language choice is the result of complex social and psychological structures. As a descriptive process, the maxi-min choice happens in the reality fairly seldom, whereas the max-min use of languages seen as a normative process could be a very effective tool to measure linguistic justice.

  8. Aspects of self-concept and their relationship to language performance and verbal reasoning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, I; Efklides, A

    2000-01-01

    It has been claimed that self-concept is multidimensional, with dimensions such as mathematical self-concept and self-concept in language. The present study investigated the relationship of academic self-concept in language with performance on school-related language tasks and verbal reasoning ability. A total of 512 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 rated four aspects of their academic self-concept in language: self-perception, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and others' perception of their abilities. Verbal reasoning ability and performance on language tasks were assessed. Path analysis showed that performance on language tasks was influenced strongly by verbal reasoning abilities. Self-esteem and others' perception of one's abilities were affected directly by language performance. No direct relationship was found between academic self-concept in language and verbal reasoning ability. The results suggest that adolescents do not construe their academic self-concept according to their abilities but according to their performance in school and others' response to it.

  9. IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLINICS FOR REMEDIAL TEACHING: CONCEPT, FUNCTIONING AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Ameerchund Maharaj,; Intakhab Alam Khan King

    2017-01-01

    Although EFL students learn English at schools and colleges, the time allotted for their English lessons per day is very limited. Setting up English Language Clinics at EFL colleges/institutes will help students improve and develop their language skills. This paper aims at helping EFL students develop their English language skills by opening English language clinics in schools and colleges. The paper presents the concept and scope of ELC and its usefulness. It also provides an overview of som...

  10. Speech Recognition System Architecture for Gujarati Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinal H Tailor; Dipti B Shah

    2016-01-01

    .... To achieve good accuracy and efficiency of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system for Indian Gujarati language is challenging task due to its morphology, language barriers, different dialects, and unavailability of resources...

  11. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  12. SYSTEMS AND SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACHES TO THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the distinctive features of biological and cognitive approaches to the study of the origin and evolution of language. Their advantages in understanding and explaining of the individual foundations of language faculty are considered. The study shows that these approaches do not take into account the socio-cultural and supra-individual nature of language and its close evolutionary and functional relation with communication in nature and society. The paper argues that the aim of many researchers to find specific genes of language or special cognitive linguistic ‘modules’ are achievable only in part due to systems and social nature of language, which cannot be reduced to any individual innate or acquired abilities. Nevertheless, biological and cognitive foundations should not be excluded from the system analysis of the language and have to be studied in their integrity with other sign systems (mathematic, expressive means of art, writing system, non-verbal communication, etc.. The article also discusses new insights into the theory of evolution and their applicability to the study of the origin and development of language (in particular, the problem of gradualistic/abrupt emergence of language. It is argued that the question of the "abrupt", "punctuated" evolution of language cannot be "Darwin's problem", as a number of modern scholars believe. As an alternative to the evolution of language on the basis of "macromutations" it is offered the concept of socio-cultural evolution model based on an understanding of language as a supra-individual, sociocultural sign system that develops due to the cumulative nature of culture and plasticity of individual development

  13. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  14. Solar Rocket System Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    seconds. A stage mass fraction of 0.80 was used to pre- pare this curve. More precise mass fractions were computed and are discussed in Section 8.0...as heliostat mirrors, are thereby avoided. Additional versions of the selected collector/vehicle concept are shown in Section 7.0, Spacecraft Design...plane de-orbit operations would be approximately 7000 fps. Precision orbit maintenance or special orbit positioning missions can be performed by the

  15. ENTROPY AND NEGENTROPY SIGNS IN LANGUAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of entropy in language. Complexity of the description of entropy is connected with that it is not a material factor of development of language, because language is not real, but the imaginable category, existing only in humans thinking. For this reason the modern researches devoted to studying and calculating of entropy are concentrated on the speech and text material. For understanding of the idea of entropy of language (not of its speech expression it is necessary to investigate the entropy of structure of objective language, not sets of subjective languages, i.e. language as model. The research has showed that in system of a natural language signs of entropy are such language phenomena as synonimy, polysemanticism, language redundancy, variability of forms, loyalty and flexibility of rules, existence of styles. These signs are detected in comparison with signs of absolutely systematized language system, acting as a hypothesis.  Entropy of such system is reduced to zero. The negentropy as negative entropy is opposed to entropy. Negentropy markers are homonymy, absence of a synonimy, invariancy, strict rules of language, monostyle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-58

  16. Language, Culture, and the Mathematics Concept of American Indian Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Duane E.; Davison, David M.

    1985-01-01

    Recognizes two critical factors in cross-cultural mathematics teaching: the perceived utility of mathematics and the direct relationship of mathematics learning to language development. Reviews current literature and reports the results of their study of perceived utility of mathematics and technical language development in the Crow Indian…

  17. On the Implications of Vygotskian Concepts for Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabdaftari, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to search for the implications of Vygotsky's approach to "the genesis of mind" for second language acquisition (SLA). In so doing, the present author has adopted first a retrospective view--what has already gone in the field of foreign language instruction, and a prospective view--what is contingent on…

  18. Extraction of UMLS® Concepts Using Apache cTAKES™ for German Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Automatic information extraction of medical concepts and classification with semantic standards from medical reports is useful for standardization and for clinical research. This paper presents an approach for an UMLS concept extraction with a customized natural language processing pipeline for German clinical notes using Apache cTAKES. The objectives are, to test the natural language processing tool for German language if it is suitable to identify UMLS concepts and map these with SNOMED-CT. The German UMLS database and German OpenNLP models extended the natural language processing pipeline, so the pipeline can normalize to domain ontologies such as SNOMED-CT using the German concepts. For testing, the ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 training dataset translated into German was used. The implemented algorithms are tested with a set of 199 German reports, obtaining a result of average 0.36 F1 measure without German stemming, pre- and post-processing of the reports.

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF A CULTURAL CONCEPT: MEANS OF LANGUAGE AND DISCOURSE REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononova Inna Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some modern approaches to the analysis of the structure of a cultural concept and introduces a new method that is an efficient addition to current trends on the concept structure investigation accepted in modern linguistics. The structure of a cultural concept is viewed as including imagery, associative, notional, evaluative, etymological and historical components. The national peculiarity of a cultural concept is reflected mainly in its evaluative and associative components and is largely determined by its etymological component. The associative component of a cultural concept is formed by the dominant associative relations (thematic, paradigmatic, syntagmatic of its language representatives. The notional component has some intersection zones with the associative one as it can be drawn from the dominant associative links. However, the generic features of a concept constitute the basic part of the notional component. The imagery component of a concept may include a visually-perceptible representation (a perceptual image or a combination of conceptual metaphors deduced by a native speaker from the collocations of the word(s, representing the concept in the language. The suggested method can be used in analyzing the diachronic changes of the national concept sphere. Theoretical statements are exemplified with the structural analysis of the British ethical concept SELF-POSSESSION. The language data observation helps to discover the interrelations of the concept in question with some other dominant concepts of the ethical concept sphere represented by British English. The author emphasizes cultural importance of the concept within the bounds of the British national mentality. Representation of the analyzed concept in the phraseological fund of the language is in the focus of the author's attention.

  20. FOREIGN LANGUAGE ELEMENTS IN THE ASSOCIATIVE FIELD OF THE CONCEPT BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitjaeva A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is written in line with contemporary cognitive studies of language and devoted to identifying meaning content of the concept of “business” and its associative field, verbalized in modern speech of Russian students and definition of the role of foreign language elements in creating this field in Russian language. A linguistic associative experiment (both free and chain is used as the main method of investigation. As a result of experiment interpretation a structure of the associative field of the concept of business is determined. The field consists of 8 semantic microfields: 1 processes that are typical for business; 2 business entities; 3 business attributes / institutions; 4 positive events and business results; 5 negative events and consequences; 6 personal characteristics of businessmen; 7 money; 8 economic / political terms, related to business. Specific weight of foreign language element in associative field of the concept of “business” is determined generally and in each semantic microfield. An analysis of the ratio of original and foreign language elements of the associative field has found that such microfields as «business attributes» and «business entities» are mostly represented by foreign words (loanwords and their derivatives. Foreign language elements influence verbalization of human and universal components of the semantic field of the concept of «business» such as personality traits and emotions. The conclusion correlates with the basic tendency to borrowing words from English into Russian language. To sum up, 40% of vocabulary of the associative field of the concept of “business” is foreign words

  1. The Concept of Progression in the Teaching and Learning of Foreign Languages - Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, Theo; Witte, Arnd

    2006-01-01

    This volume is based on the selected proceedings from an international conference 'Concept of Progression in Foreign Langua;:e Teaching and Learning' held in Dublin in February 2004. Although progression always has been at the centre of any methodology of teaching and learning foreign language, there has been surprisingly little published on the concept of progression. Since the inclusion of the pragmatic and socio-cultural context into foreign language teaching methodolo...

  2. Language Management Theory as a Basis for the Dynamic Concept of EU Language Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovalil, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Language law is a tool used to manage problems of linguistic diversity in the EU. The paper analyzes the processes in which language law is found in the discursive practice of agents addressing the Court of Justice of the European Union with their language problems. The theoretical-methodological basis for the research is Language Management…

  3. Rhetoric, Grammar, and the Conception of Language As a Substantial Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gerald L.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses language as being (1) substance, and as such a reflection of the mind, and (2) an activity played out in oratory and the pattern of discourse. Examples from classical, medieval, and contemporary works are cited to illustrate the various concepts of language and to present a historical view of the literary and oral traditions. (DS)

  4. Rhetoric, Grammar, and the Conception of Language As a Substantial Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gerald L.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses language as being (1) substance, and as such a reflection of the mind, and (2) an activity played out in oratory and the pattern of discourse. Examples from classical, medieval, and contemporary works are cited to illustrate the various concepts of language and to present a historical view of the literary and oral traditions. (DS)

  5. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Intelligence and Their Roles in Teacher Care and Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the relationships among teachers' conceptions of intelligence, teacher care, and teacher feedback in the realm of English Language Teaching (ELT). To this aim, three scales were developed to measure the aforementioned constructs. The participants consisted of 81 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and…

  6. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw......The yaw system is the subsystem on a wind turbine which ensures that the rotor plane of the turbine always is facing the wind direction. Studies from [1] show that a soft yaw system may be utilized to dampen the loads in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates much like...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  7. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  8. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  9. Flexible logistic concepts for assembly systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Logistics is a crucial issue for small and medium sized enterprises (SME. This paper deals with logistical concepts for assembly systems. The IPH is currently conducting a project with the aim of developing a method to combine allocation and delivery concepts for assembly systems to increase the logistical efficiency of SME. Via this method SME are able to adapt quickly to changing market environments.

  10. Perceived Attachment Security to Father, Academic Self-Concept and School Performance in Language Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…

  11. The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condry, Kirsten F.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    What are the origins of abstract concepts such as "seven," and what role does language play in their development? These experiments probed the natural number words and concepts of 3-year-old children who can recite number words to ten but who can comprehend only one or two. Children correctly judged that a set labeled eight retains this label if…

  12. Language Is an Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆东

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides several insights into the nature of language,some of which are quite an eye-opener for me.For example,a viewpoint is presented in the paper that language acquisition is a sampling problem,which is an indicator that first and second language acquisition are similar in nature.The only difference between native speakers and L2 learners is that

  13. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: An Egyptian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Atta

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the assessment conceptions of both pre-service and in-service English teachers within a high-stakes, test-driven context in Egypt. For this purpose, 170 Egyptian pre-service and in-service teachers completed an assessment conceptions questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed to answer…

  14. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: An Egyptian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Atta

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the assessment conceptions of both pre-service and in-service English teachers within a high-stakes, test-driven context in Egypt. For this purpose, 170 Egyptian pre-service and in-service teachers completed an assessment conceptions questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed to answer…

  15. Co-development of manner and path concepts in language, action, and eye-gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Katrin S; Griffiths, Sascha S; Sciutti, Alessandra; Partmann, Tim C; Rohlfing, Katharina J

    2014-07-01

    In order for artificial intelligent systems to interact naturally with human users, they need to be able to learn from human instructions when actions should be imitated. Human tutoring will typically consist of action demonstrations accompanied by speech. In the following, the characteristics of human tutoring during action demonstration will be examined. A special focus will be put on the distinction between two kinds of motion events: path-oriented actions and manner-oriented actions. Such a distinction is inspired by the literature pertaining to cognitive linguistics, which indicates that the human conceptual system can distinguish these two distinct types of motion. These two kinds of actions are described in language by more path-oriented or more manner-oriented utterances. In path-oriented utterances, the source, trajectory, or goal is emphasized, whereas in manner-oriented utterances the medium, velocity, or means of motion are highlighted. We examined a video corpus of adult-child interactions comprised of three age groups of children-pre-lexical, early lexical, and lexical-and two different tasks, one emphasizing manner more strongly and one emphasizing path more strongly. We analyzed the language and motion of the caregiver and the gazing behavior of the child to highlight the differences between the tutoring and the acquisition of the manner and path concepts. The results suggest that age is an important factor in the development of these action categories. The analysis of this corpus has also been exploited to develop an intelligent robotic behavior-the tutoring spotter system-able to emulate children's behaviors in a tutoring situation, with the aim of evoking in human subjects a natural and effective behavior in teaching to a robot. The findings related to the development of manner and path concepts have been used to implement new effective feedback strategies in the tutoring spotter system, which should provide improvements in human

  16. The linguistic-cultural concept YANKEE in the English-language world-picture

    OpenAIRE

    Красницька, К. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis of the nominative, connotative and image constituents of the concept YANKEE in the English-language world-picture and to the determination of discrepancies in the perception of this concept in the American and British linguistic culture. The bonds between the concepts YANKEE and NORTH have also been examined and an important role of the former in the conceptualization of the American North has been proved. The purpose of this study is to determine the...

  17. Jan Baudouin de Courtenay’s concept of mixed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado L. Lencek

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of defining the notion of mixture in languages and dialects as used by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay (1845 - 1929. Focussing on the types of interference which were formulated on the basis of observations of the dialects of the Slovene language (5 , the paper deals primarily with those Baudouin's theoretical positions (4, observations and deductions (5.1 which are today part of a theory of linguistic interference. The article is an English version of a paper, presented at the Eighth International Congress of Slavists which was held in Zagreb from the 3rd to the 9th September 1978.

  18. Implementation of Text To Speech for Marathi Language Using Transcriptions Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangramsing N. Kayte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the approach towards converting text to speech using new methodology. The text to speech conversion system enables user to enter text in Marathi and as output it gets sound. The paper presents the steps followed for converting text to speech for Marathi language and the algorithm used for it. The focus of this paper is based on the tokenisation process and the orthographic representation of the text that shows the mapping of letter to sound using the description of language’s phonetics. Here the main focus is on the text to IPA transcription concept. It is in fact, a system that translates text to IPA transcription which is the primary stage for text to speech conversion. The whole procedure for converting text to speech involves a great deal of time as it’s not an easy task and requires efforts.

  19. Effective Foreign Language Teaching: Broadening the Concept of Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott; Algozzine, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating teacher candidate performance on traditional assessments of content knowledge place emphasis on just one of many skills needed to be an effective foreign language teacher; they also fail to explain why many teacher candidates with advanced oral proficiency struggle in the classroom and why some with less advanced language…

  20. Concept-Based Problem Solving: Making Concepts the Language of Physics. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    This document identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' understanding of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of…

  1. Isomer Energy System Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D

    2003-09-01

    Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to accommodate varying power needs. Other materials with similar energy density (for example isotopic energy sources such as {sup 238}Pu) do not offer the potential to increase power with time. Often the design life of an energy source is significant when compared to the half-life of the isotope. As a result, the conventional isotopic energy supplies operate with significant excess power at start of life to meet the power needs at end-of-life. For example a {sup 238}Pu radioisotope energy supply with a 35-year design life must account for radioactive decay losses of about 25% of the plutonium present at the start of life. This decay loss is significant if the required output power from the device is constant with time. If the required power output from the device increases with time (such as some space applications), significant increases in power supply weight are required to meet design power requirements. Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to meet varying power needs, thereby offering a significant advantage over conventional systems. Isomer energy supplies also offer the possibility of being ''turned on'' based on need at a specific time. These characteristics offer distinct advantages to isomer energy supplies. This report examines the basic engineering characteristics of a hypothetical isomer energy supply in order to gain insight into properties of isomers that will make them potentially useful as energy sources in engineered systems. These isomer properties provide a basis for identification of candidate isomers and provide a basis for an isomer search.

  2. Smart grids concept in electrical distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Željko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines key business processes in electrical distribution systems and key elements and priority components that should be (redefined in these processes in order to enable the goals of smart grids concept to be fulfilled in the cost effective way. Activities undertaken in the Power Distribution Company of “Elektrovojvodina” (Serbia, which provide the basis for fulfilling the Smart Grids goals and thus enable full implementation of smart grids concept are presented in details.

  3. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Basak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF was first described in 2000 as a scleromyxedema-like illness in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The relationship between NSF and gadolinium contrast during magnetic resonance imaging was postulated in 2006, and subsequently, virtually all published cases of NSF have had documented prior exposure to gadolinium-containing contrast agents. NSF has been reported in patients from a variety of ethnic backgrounds from America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Skin lesions may evolve into poorly demarcated thickened plaques that range from erythematous to hyperpigmented. With time, the skin becomes markedly indurated and tethered to the underlying fascia. Extracutaneous manifestations also occur. The diagnosis of NSF is based on the presence of characteristic clinical features in the setting of chronic kidney disease, and substantiated by skin histology. Differential diagnosis is with scleroderma, scleredema, scleromyxedema, graft-versus-host disease, etc. NSF has a relentlessly progressive course. While there is no consistently successful treatment for NSF, improving renal function seems to slow or arrest the progression of this condition. Because essentially all cases of NSF have developed following exposure to a gadolinium-containing contrast agent, prevention of this devastating condition involves the careful avoidance of administering these agents to individuals at risk.

  4. Repetition priming within and between languages in verb generation: evidence for shared verb concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Riva López, Eva M; Francis, Wendy S; García, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although translation equivalents for concrete nouns are known to have shared core conceptual representations in bilingual memory (Francis, 1999), the status of translation-equivalent verbs has not been systematically tested. Three repetition-priming experiments using a verb generation task were used to determine whether verbs have shared representations across languages and to identify the processes facilitated in repeated verb generation. In Experiment 1 fluent Spanish-English bilingual speakers exhibited repetition priming both within and between languages, but between-language priming was weaker. In Experiment 2 performance of non-bilingual English and Spanish speakers was equivalent to that of bilingual speakers responding in their dominant language. Experiment 3 used manipulations meant to isolate noun comprehension, verb concept selection, and verb production. The between-language priming in Experiments 1 and 3 indicates that verb concepts are shared across languages and that verb concept selection exhibits facilitation. Experiment 3 showed that the greater within-language priming was due primarily to facilitation of verb production processes.

  5. Teaching Embedded System Concepts for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzker, M.; Schwandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic understanding of technology is recognized as important knowledge even for students not connected with engineering and computer science. This paper shows that embedded system concepts can be taught in a technological literacy course. An embedded system teaching block that has been used in an electronics module for non-engineers is…

  6. Extensible Markup Language Data Mining System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The existing data mining methods are mostly focused on relational databases and structured data, but not on complex structured data (like in extensible markup language(XML)). By converting XML document type description to the relational semantic recording XML data relations, and using an XML data mining language, the XML data mining system presents a strategy to mine information on XML.

  7. Ontology development for unified traditional Chinese medical language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yin, Aining; Wu, Lancheng; Fan, Weiyu; Zhang, Ruen

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complete knowledge system researches into human health conditions via a different approach compared to orthodox medicine. We are developing a unified traditional Chinese medical language system (UTCMLS) through an ontology approach that will support TCM language knowledge storage, concept-based information retrieval and information integration. UTCMLS is a huge knowledge project, which is a broad collaboration of 16 distributed groups, most of them with no prior experience of formal ontology development. Therefore, the cooperative and comprehensive ontology engineering is crucial. We use Protégé 2000 for ontology development of concepts and relationships that represent the domain and that will permit storage of TCM knowledge. This paper focuses on the methodology, design and development of ontology for UTCMLS.

  8. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  9. An iconic language for the graphical representation of medical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Alain

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many medication errors are encountered in drug prescriptions, which would not occur if practitioners could remember the drug properties. They can refer to drug monographs to find these properties, however drug monographs are long and tedious to read during consultation. We propose a two-step approach for facilitating access to drug monographs. The first step, presented here, is the design of a graphical language, called VCM. Methods The VCM graphical language was designed using a small number of graphical primitives and combinatory rules. VCM was evaluated over 11 volunteer general practitioners to assess if the language is easy to learn, to understand and to use. Evaluators were asked to register their VCM training time, to indicate the meaning of VCM icons and sentences, and to answer clinical questions related to randomly generated drug monograph-like documents, supplied in text or VCM format. Results VCM can represent the various signs, diseases, physiological states, life habits, drugs and tests described in drug monographs. Grammatical rules make it possible to generate many icons by combining a small number of primitives and reusing simple icons to build more complex ones. Icons can be organized into simple sentences to express drug recommendations. Evaluation showed that VCM was learnt in 2 to 7 hours, that physicians understood 89% of the tested VCM icons, and that they answered correctly to 94% of questions using VCM (versus 88% using text, p = 0.003 and 1.8 times faster (p Conclusion VCM can be learnt in a few hours and appears to be easy to read. It can now be used in a second step: the design of graphical interfaces facilitating access to drug monographs. It could also be used for broader applications, including the design of interfaces for consulting other types of medical document or medical data, or, very simply, to enrich medical texts.

  10. Concept of JINR Corporate Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filozova, I. A.; Bashashin, M. V.; Korenkov, V. V.; Kuniaev, S. V.; Musulmanbekov, G.; Semenov, R. N.; Shestakova, G. V.; Strizh, T. A.; Ustenko, P. V.; Zaikina, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the concept of JINR Corporate Information System (JINR CIS). Special attention is given to the information support of scientific researches - Current Research Information System as a part of the corporate information system. The objectives of such a system are focused on ensuring an effective implementation and research by using the modern information technology, computer technology and automation, creation, development and integration of digital resources on a common conceptual framework. The project assumes continuous system development, introduction the new information technologies to ensure the technological system relevance.

  11. Launch processing system concept to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Launch Processing System represents Kennedy Space Center's role in providing a major integrated hardware and software system for the test, checkout and launch of a new space vehicle. Past programs considered the active flight vehicle to ground interfaces as part of the flight systems and therefore the related ground system was provided by the Development Center. The major steps taken to transform the Launch Processing System from a concept to reality with the successful launches of the Shuttle Programs Space Transportation System are addressed.

  12. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  13. The Concept of Body Language in the Medical Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Isabella; Woodhead, Sophie; Micallef, Claranne; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we wish to argue that the human body is an instrument of communication that can be used by the individual. This can be shown by the use of phenomenology, as described by Husserl, and that indeed empathy, as described by phenomenology, can be seen as a link enabling two human bodies/persons to communicate. We then wish to show from neuroscience that empathy can itself be seen as a bodily function. We then will describe how the doctor-patient relationship in the consultation is an extremely important type of communication between two persons, and how teaching of consultation skills has developed. We will show that, once consultation skills teaching was established, then study of body language became an essential part of this teaching, as soon as the technology was developed, and finally we will demonstrate that it is now possible to confirm by observational and controlled trials that appropriate use of body language does indeed enhance the effectiveness of the consultation, including, we would suggest, by appropriate communication of empathy and understanding.

  14. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPT OF “FRIEND” DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovich E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the development of the social aspects of the concept of "Friend" in Russian dating from the 12th century. The article describes the main stages of formation of the concept "Friend", states the social aspects of its development, as well as their reflection in the semantics of the Russian words. Based on the works of authoritative linguists, we found out that the conceptual sphere of language is undergoing changes, depending on the social and historical factors – it may be restricted, expanded, changed in its evaluation, the disappearance of parts of concepts or even the whole concepts may occur, which are naturally reflected in the vocabulary of the language. In addition, such a phenomenon as a change in the nominative density of the concept can be observed, which is the loss of some of the nominations and / or acquisition of new ones. The considered concept "Friend" is defined in the article as a non-parametric, non-regulatory, socio-specific concept, which usage depends on the specifics of the society in which it is used. The analysis of the concept "Friend" usage based on the material of different literary, documentary and historical sources showed that the social sphere of functioning of the concept "Friend" from the 12th to the 20th century includes the sphere of generic communication, non-blood everyday social contacts, trade and other economic relations, warfare and communication at the highest levels

  15. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  16. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    on the π calculus fragment of BioAmbients. In both cases the analyses compute very precise estimates of the temporal structure of the underlying pathways; hence they are applicable across a family of widely used bio-ware languages that descend from Milner’s Calculus of Communicating Systems. The presented...... calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological...

  17. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  18. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  19. QUrdPro: Query processing system for Urdu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsana Thaker,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in the multilingual data on the internet has increased the demand for efficient retrieval of information. Urdu is one of the widely spoken and written languages of south Asia. Due to unstructured format of Urdu language information retrieval of information is a big challenge. Question Answering systems aims to retrieve point-to-point answers rather than flooding with documents. It is needed when the user gets an in depth knowledge in a particular domain. When user needs some information, it must give the relevant answer. The question-answer retrieval of ontology knowledge base provides a convenient way to obtain knowledge for use, but the natural language need to be mapped to the query statement of ontology. This paper describes a query processing system QUrdPro based on ontology. This system is a combination of NLP and Ontology. It makes use of ontology in several phases for efficient query processing. Our focus is on the knowledge derived from the concepts used in the ontology and the relationship between these concepts. In this paper we describe the architecture of QUrdPro ,query processing system for Urdu and process model for the system is also discussed in detail.

  20. Aerobrake concepts for NTP systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Manuel I.

    1992-06-01

    Design concepts are described for landing large spacecraft masses on the Mars surface in support of manned missions with interplanetary transportation using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Included are the mission and systems analyses, trade studies and sensitivity analyses, design analyses, technology assessment, and derived requirements to support this concept. The mission phases include the Mars de-orbit, entry, terminal descent, and terminal touchdown. The study focuses primarily on Mars surface delivery from orbit after Mars orbit insertion using an NTP. The requirements associated with delivery of logistical supplies, habitats, and other equipment on minimum energy Earth to Mars transfers are also addressed in a preliminary fashion.

  1. Health Information Systems (HIS): Concept and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2012-01-01

    A health information system (HIS) is the intersection of between healthcare's business process, and information systems to deliver better healthcare services. The nature of healthcare industry, which is highly influenced by economic, social, politic, and technological factors, has changed over time. This paper will address some important concepts of healthcare and related terminologies to provide a holistic view for HIS. Related technological milestones and major events are briefly summarized. The trends and rapid development of health information technologies are also discussed.

  2. Health Information Systems (HIS): Concept and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Anshari, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    A health information system (HIS) is the intersection of between healthcare's business process, and information systems to deliver better healthcare services. The nature of healthcare industry, which is highly influenced by economic, social, politic, and technological factors, has changed over time. This paper will address some important concepts of healthcare and related terminologies to provide a holistic view for HIS. Related technological milestones and major events are briefly summarized...

  3. A NEW CONCEPT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: APPLICATION OF EUROPEAN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNEYLI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to adapt European Language Portfolio (ELP to teaching Turkish as a foreign languagewhose application has been planned since 2005 in all European countries. With the European Language Passport programEuropean Validity Committee aims to set a langugage learning standard and encourage multi-culturalism among EUcountries. This program targets to find out which langugages the individuals speak and to discover where, how and whenthey have learnt the language. It also provides an opportunity for them to travel, reside and work in European countries.Today, ELP is in progress of becoming a common purpose in Europe. Therefore, ELP must be utilized in teaching Turkishas a foreign language. ELP must be piloted in laboratory schools through experimental studies with an approprietlydeveloped portfolio. Pilot projects must be applied in elementary, secondary, high schools and universities with acollaboration with the Ministry of Education. This study was conducted in TOMER ( the language center of AnkaraUniversity. For this study an experimental design was used. The sample includes 20 students in the control group and 20students in the experimental group. In this study students’ proficiency level of Turkish related to four basic language skills(reading, writing, listening and speaking and their attitude towards ELP application were examined.

  4. Mechatronic Systems Design Methods, Models, Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Janschek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this textbook, fundamental methods for model-based design of mechatronic systems are presented in a systematic, comprehensive form. The method framework presented here comprises domain-neutral methods for modeling and performance analysis: multi-domain modeling (energy/port/signal-based), simulation (ODE/DAE/hybrid systems), robust control methods, stochastic dynamic analysis, and quantitative evaluation of designs using system budgets. The model framework is composed of analytical dynamic models for important physical and technical domains of realization of mechatronic functions, such as multibody dynamics, digital information processing and electromechanical transducers. Building on the modeling concept of a technology-independent generic mechatronic transducer, concrete formulations for electrostatic, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrodynamic transducers are presented. More than 50 fully worked out design examples clearly illustrate these methods and concepts and enable independent study of th...

  5. Conceptions over Time: Are Language and the Here-and-Now up to the Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to explain students' conceptions of natural phenomena purely in terms of the interactions between two people and the language they use during an interview? I argue that this hypothesis cannot be accepted on several grounds. First, contextual factors prior to the interview influence the course of its events, and that these in turn…

  6. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  7. Using natural language processing to improve biomedical concept normalization and relation mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis concerns the use of natural language processing for improving biomedical concept normalization and relation mining. We begin with introducing the background of biomedical text mining, and subsequently we will continue by describing a typical text mining pipeline, some key

  8. Using natural language processing to improve biomedical concept normalization and relation mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis concerns the use of natural language processing for improving biomedical concept normalization and relation mining. We begin with introducing the background of biomedical text mining, and subsequently we will continue by describing a typical text mining pipeline, some key iss

  9. A new concept drilling hoisting systems rigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Artymiuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In rig constructions two nev designs have been introduced apart from the conventional hoisting system. The first one is the Maritime Hydraulics A.S RamRig© drilling concept, based on hydraulic cylinders as actuators powered by up to 3.4 MW of hydraulic power in a closed loop hydraulic system. This synthesis of the well-known technology allows for the use of integrated active and passive heave compensation, as well as the storing and reuse of energy from the lowering phase of an operation. The RamRig concept makes mechanical brakes and clutches obsolete, since hoisting and lowering of the load is controlled solely by the closed loop hydraulics. This decreases the number of critical mechanical components in the hoisting system to a minimum. Safe handling and emergency shut down of extreme amounts of hydraulic power is taking care of by cartridge valves, which make rerouting of hydraulic power possible with minor losses of transferred effect.The second is a new land rig concept based on a patented rack & pinion drive system with a new generation of rigs which can instantly switch between the workover, drilling and the snubbing operations. The new rig concept has a direct drive, thus no drill line. The mobilization time is reduced as the rig has fewer truck loads, a faster rig up and a higher automation level. One land rig currently under construction will be the world’s first single operator unit, with a full pipe handling capability and a fully automated control system. The rig is fully equipped with the 250 T top drive which can be used for the rotation and snubbing, the purpose designed snubbing slips and other features supporting the multifunctional well operations. The paper will focus on features related to the land rig under construction, and how it may reduce the operational cost and improve the well performance.

  10. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  11. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova; Elvira Galievna Zarifullina

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when...

  12. Introducing Sign Language Systems to Parents of Young Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Barbara Walsh

    1987-01-01

    The three major sign language systems (American Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, and Manual English) are compared in table form. A brief description of each language highlights salient points that parents of deaf children need to understand. (DB)

  13. Languages and P Systems: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Paun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Languages appeared from the very beginning in membrane computing, by their length sets or directly as sets of strings. We briefly recall here this relationship, with some details about certain recent developments. In particular, we discuss the possibility to associate a control word with a computation in a P system. An improvement of a result concerning the control words of spiking neural P systems is given: regular languages can be obtained as control words of such systems with only four neurons (and with usual extended rules: no more spikes are produced than consumed. Several research topics are pointed out.

  14. FORMAL MODELS OF LANGUAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chetverikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic construction concepts of unifying two-digit and multi-valued means of processing symbolic data are considered. The present approach is based upon a single methodological and special purpose principle by applying the proposed methods of the intelligence theory for mathematical input/output data and their intermediate transformations by an appropriate AFP-structure of the third grade.

  15. Natural Language Processing methods and systems for biomedical ontology learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-02-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of Natural Language Processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Concepts and trends in healthcare information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsouris, Dionysios-Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Concepts and Trends in Healthcare Information Systems covers the latest research topics in the field from leading researchers and practitioners. This book offers theory-driven research that explores the role of Information Systems in the delivery of healthcare in its diverse organizational and regulatory settings. In addition to the embedded role of Information Technology (IT) in clinical and diagnostics equipment, Information Systems are uniquely positioned to capture, store, process, and communicate timely information to decision makers for better coordination of healthcare at both the individual and population levels. For example, data mining and decision support capabilities can identify potential adverse events for an individual patient while also contributing to the population's health by providing insights into the causes of disease complications. Information systems have great potential to reduce healthcare costs and improve outcomes. The healthcare delivery systems share similar characteristics w...

  17. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  18. Conceptions over time: Are language and the here-and-now up to the task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.

    2008-07-01

    Is it possible to explain students' conceptions of natural phenomena purely in terms of the interactions between two people and the language they use during an interview? I argue that this hypothesis cannot be accepted on several grounds. First, contextual factors prior to the interview influence the course of its events, and that these in turn influence future events. Second, people have agency over their interactions and the ability to use language creatively in ways that a strong version of language preordination inherent in this hypothesis would not permit. Third, people bring language fluency and ideas to an interview that allow them to grapple with phenomena and issues they might not have previously considered, and formulate conceptions that they can and do use in future interactions. In addition, I argue that the field of science education is able to consider curricular and instructional issues relating to students' conceptions without resorting to the extremes of cultural relativism or intellectual imperialism, and that conceptual change theory addresses both the processes and outcomes of students' interactions.

  19. The effect of teachers' language on students' conceptions of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Lederman, Norman G.

    Conveying an adequate conception of the nature of science to students is implicit in the border context of what has come to be known as scientific literacy. However, it has previously been demonstrated that possession of valid conceptions of the nature of science does not necessarily result in the performance of those teaching behaviors that are related to improved student conceptions. The present study examines the possibility that the language teachers use to communicate science content may provide the context (Realist or Instrumentalist orientations) in which students come to formulate a world view of science. Eighteen high school biology teachers and one randomly selected class from each of their sections (n = 409 students) were administered pre- and posttests at the beginning and end of the fall term using the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Composite scores of the student changes on the Testable, Developmental, and Creative subscales were used to compare those six classes that exhibited the greatest change with those six classes that had the least change on the NSKS. Intensive qualitative observations of each teacher were also conducted over the fall semester, resulting in complete transcripts of teacher-student interactions. Qualitative comparisons of classes with respect to six variables related to Realist and Instrumentalist conceptions of the nature of science were conducted. TEACHERS' ordinary language in the presentation of subject matter was found to have significant impact on students' conceptions of the nature of science. These variables represented different contexts (Realist-Instrumental) teachers used to express themselves, scientific information, and concepts. Determining the extent to which TEACHERS' language has an impact on changes in students' conception of the nature of science has direct bearing on all preservice and inservice science teacher education programs.

  20. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when condense of information into syntagmatic level occurs. Language redundancy is potential and speech redundancy is actual. In general, it should be noted that the language redundancy is necessary for language: complicating the relationships between language units, language redundancy creates in language situation of choice, leading to a disorder of language system, increasing of entropy and, as a result, the appearing of the information that can be accepted or cannot be by language system. Language redundancy is one of the reasons for growth of information in language. In addition, the information redundancy in language is one of the factors of language system development.

  1. EO system concepts in the littoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  2. Student Perception Problems in Using Historical Language: Semantic/Phonetic Connotation and Concept Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan METİN

    2012-05-01

    , literature is reviewed, observation and interview techniques are used. In this study, the students in secondary schools are observed in history classes to see how they use historical language. Moreover, the relationship between history education and language is analyzed from student perspective thus, perception problems which emerge while the students use historical language are identified. The results about these perception problems, semantic connotation and phonetic connotation, which are identified and defined in this study, are illustrated. The study is based on the observations of 168 9-grade students in four different schools. Student-centered language problems which are identified according to the results of data collected and mentioned in detail in the study are defined as semantic connotation, phonetic connotation and concept loss. The connotation problem in this study is not being able to associate definite or specific meanings with words, historical names and concepts exactly. The meanings of the words differ according to the contexts they are used in and also to the contexts the speaker and the listener encounter them. When the words are used, they evoke the previous contexts the listener used them and these connotations are the possible meanings that the listener may understand. These results may explain secondary school students’ language problems in history classes. However, is should never be forgotten that history education is a part of life. Therefore, history education contains some things from human life. We can see this in the students’ use of historical language. In sum, in this study language problems in history education are emphasized. Moreover, it is revealed that history teachers play a significant role in developing students’ perception by enhancing the number of language sources used. Thus, it is aimed that students are able to analyze the past with its all richness and complexity. Students’ perception problems in using historical

  3. An Alternative to Mapping a Word onto a Concept in Language Acquisition: Pragmatic Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta; Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classic mapping metaphor posits that children learn a word by mapping it onto a concept of an object or event. However, we believe that a mapping metaphor cannot account for word learning, because even though children focus attention on objects, they do not necessarily remember the connection between the word and the referent unless it is framed pragmatically, that is, within a task. Our theoretical paper proposes an alternative mechanism for word learning. Our main premise is that word learning occurs as children accomplish a goal in cooperation with a partner. We follow Bruner's (1983) idea and further specify pragmatic frames as the learning units that drive language acquisition and cognitive development. These units consist of a sequence of actions and verbal behaviors that are co-constructed with a partner to achieve a joint goal. We elaborate on this alternative, offer some initial parametrizations of the concept, and embed it in current language learning approaches.

  4. An alternative to mapping a word onto a concept in language acquisition: pragmatic frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina J. Rohlfing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The classic mapping metaphor posits that children learn a word by mapping it onto a concept of an object or event. However, we believe that a mapping metaphor cannot account for word learning, because even though children focus attention on objects, they do not necessarily remember the connection between the word and the referent unless it is framed pragmatically, that is, within a task. Our theoretical paper proposes an alternative mechanism for word learning. Our main premise is that word learning occurs as children accomplish a goal in cooperation with a partner. We follow Bruner’s (1983 idea and further specify pragmatic frames as the learning units that drive language acquisition and cognitive development. These units consist of a sequence of verbal behaviors and actions that are co-constructed with a partner to achieve a joint goal. We elaborate on this alternative, offer some initial parametrizations of the concept, and embed it in current language learning approaches.

  5. An Alternative to Mapping a Word onto a Concept in Language Acquisition: Pragmatic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta; Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classic mapping metaphor posits that children learn a word by mapping it onto a concept of an object or event. However, we believe that a mapping metaphor cannot account for word learning, because even though children focus attention on objects, they do not necessarily remember the connection between the word and the referent unless it is framed pragmatically, that is, within a task. Our theoretical paper proposes an alternative mechanism for word learning. Our main premise is that word learning occurs as children accomplish a goal in cooperation with a partner. We follow Bruner’s (1983) idea and further specify pragmatic frames as the learning units that drive language acquisition and cognitive development. These units consist of a sequence of actions and verbal behaviors that are co-constructed with a partner to achieve a joint goal. We elaborate on this alternative, offer some initial parametrizations of the concept, and embed it in current language learning approaches. PMID:27148105

  6. Numeral systems in Alor-Pantar languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapper, Antoinette; Klamer, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth analysis of numeral forms and systems in the Alor-Pantar (AP) languages. The AP family reflects a typologically rare combination of mono-morphemic ‘six’ with quinary forms for numerals ‘seven’ to ‘nine’, a pattern which we reconstruct to go back to proto-AP. We focu

  7. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  8. A Historical Overview on the Concept of Validity in Language Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraban Hamavandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview on language test validation theories, especially the Messickian view on construct validity and the way it’s been translated into practice. First, a brief historical synopsis will be set forth, followed by recent views on test validity as advanced by Messick and Kane. The review goes on to lay out the similarities and differences between various validity conceptions, and concludes with their critical evaluation.

  9. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  10. What does children's spatial language reveal about spatial concepts? Evidence from the use of containment expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Megan; Papafragou, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Children's overextensions of spatial language are often taken to reveal spatial biases. However, it is unclear whether extension patterns should be attributed to children's overly general spatial concepts or to a narrower notion of conceptual similarity allowing metaphor-like extensions. We describe a previously unnoticed extension of spatial expressions and use a novel method to determine its origins. English- and Greek-speaking 4- and 5-year-olds used containment expressions (e.g., English into, Greek mesa) for events where an object moved into another object but extended such expressions to events where the object moved behind or under another object. The pattern emerged in adult speakers of both languages and also in speakers of 10 additional languages. We conclude that learners do not have an overly general concept of Containment. Nevertheless, children (and adults) perceive similarities across Containment and other types of spatial scenes, even when these similarities are obscured by the conventional forms of the language. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. ASLan++ — A Formal Security Specification Language for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Oheimb, David; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces ASLan++, the AVANTSSAR Specification Language. ASLan++ has been designed for formally specifying dynamically composed security-sensitive web services and service-oriented architectures, their associated security policies, as well as their security properties, at both...... communication and application level. We introduce the main concepts of ASLan++ at a small but very instructive running example, abstracted form a company intranet scenario, that features non-linear and inter-dependent workflows, communication security at different abstraction levels including an explicit...... credentialsbased authentication mechanism, dynamic access control policies, and the related security goals. This demonstrates the flexibility and expressiveness of the language, and that the resulting models are logically adequate, while on the other hand they are clear to read and feasible to construct for system...

  12. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  13. Tawhidic Based Economic System: A Preliminary Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hilmiyah Hilmiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates contemporary mainstream economic system, does Islamic Economics taking advantage of the shortfall of the system outlined above based on Tawhidical approach? By using descriptive qualitative method this paper proposed the appropriate of Islamic economics theorize that the Islamic system provide the ideal form of a socio-economic order. This paper found that Tawhidic based economics approaches can be focused towards seeing wholes of economics, rather than parts; seeing economics activities as a worship, rather than competition; cultivating the solidarity (charity, rather than individualism and creating the justice, rather than injustice. Thus this paper designed to provide the concept of Islamic economic system with Tawhid as the basis, to fit the philosophy of economic science and reality of human life. The paper also shows the position of Tawhid in the system and theory of economy in creating prosperity and benefit for all mankind comparing to mainstream economic system and their theory.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3481 

  14. Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle [5] and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem [1] proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we

  15. An expert system for natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  16. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  17. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  18. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  19. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  20. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  1. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  2. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  3. Programming language impact on the development of distributed systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Debasish; Sheehy, Justin; Thorup, Kresten Krab; Vinoski, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Programming languages have long impacted the development of distributed systems. While much middleware and distributed systems code continues to be developed today using mainstream languages such as Java and C++...

  4. A Rule Based System for Speech Language Context Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran Sarwar Bajwa; Muhammad Abbas Choudhary

    2006-01-01

    Speech or Natural language contents are major tools of communication. This research paper presents a natural language processing based automated system for understanding speech language text. A new rule based model has been presented for analyzing the natural languages and extracting the relative meanings from the given text. User writes the natural language text in simple English in a few paragraphs and the designed system has a sound ability of analyzing the given script by the user. After composite analysis and extraction of associated information, the designed system gives particular meanings to an assortment of speech language text on the basis of its context. The designed system uses standard speech language rules that are clearly defined for all speech languages as English,Urdu, Chinese, Arabic, French, etc. The designed system provides a quick and reliable way to comprehend speech language context and generate respective meanings.

  5. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  6. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  7. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  8. Concept of Best Practices in English Language Teaching to Pakistani ELT Fraternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Soomro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching industry of English as a second or foreign language has grown massively in recent times in Pakistan. There are many public sectors universities and English academies established all over Pakistan offering English language proficiency courses. Therefore, this wave led to conduct this research. The purpose of conducting this study was to investigate contemporary pedagogical techniques used for teaching and learning English and to introduce the concept of ESL /EFL Best Practices for effective language teaching in Pakistan. Purposive Sampling method was used to collect the information from respondents regarding their contemporary-used teaching techniques in ESL/EFL class. The questionnaire was implied as the main tool for data collection among twenty English language teachers from two public sector universities. The results of the study indicated that teachers were attached  with some outdated techniques and activities secondly, they also faced problems applying new techniques while teaching in a large multilevel classrooms, thirdly, teachers’ had willingness to adopt and employ innovative techniques in classrooms and lastly, the notion of ESL best practices was uncommon among them. Most of the teaching strategies do not create better learning environment, and learners do not interestingly participate due outdated activities. Therefore, the suggested solution was utilizing best practices that are based on modern techniques, approaches considerable for multiple levels depending upon the needs and developmental state of the individual learners. Keywords: pedagogical strategies, ESL/EFL Best Practices, Pakistani teachers, English teaching/learning

  9. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  10. The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparski, W

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.

  11. Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann's Systems-Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Maurer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the function and reality of language in Niklas Luhmann's systems theory. How can one interpret the systems-theoretical assumption that language is based on communication? Luhmann describes language as a dynamic media/form relationship, which is able to couple the social and psychological system. This structural coupling, which constructs consciousness and language as two autonomous systems, raises problems if one defines language from a cognitive point of view. This article discusses these problems and aims to develop assumptions and questions within the systems-theoretical approach.

  12. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  13. Content and Target Aspects of the Relativism Concept of National Stereotypes in the Higher School Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the innovative educational concept of teaching the foreign languages to the senior university students. The research methodology is based on M. Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivitydevelopment necessary for the gradual transformation of ethnocentrism into ethno-relativism. The development of students’ relativistic perception of national stereotypes is perceived by the author as an important factor of both the natural cognitive mechanism and intercultural communication. The author argues that relativistic perception of national stereotypes can be achieved by fostering the intercultural world outlook, and therefore recommends incorporating a relativistic world view component in educational content structure along with the traditional components of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, creative activity expertise, etc.The paper emphasizes three consequent educational modules of ethnodifferentiation, ethno-integration and ethno-relativity in the proposed methodological system. The gradual fulfillment of educational goals, relatedto the above modules, can ensure the transformation of students’ perception of national stereotypes at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. The proposed educational concept, approbated in the GermanLanguage Department of Zabaykalsky State University in 2010 – 2013, along with the research data prove the effectiveness of the given method, and demonstrate a substantial development of students’ intercultural competence and a decline in the ethnocentrism level.

  14. Content and Target Aspects of the Relativism Concept of National Stereotypes in the Higher School Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the innovative educational concept of teaching the foreign languages to the senior university students. The research methodology is based on M. Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivitydevelopment necessary for the gradual transformation of ethnocentrism into ethno-relativism. The development of students’ relativistic perception of national stereotypes is perceived by the author as an important factor of both the natural cognitive mechanism and intercultural communication. The author argues that relativistic perception of national stereotypes can be achieved by fostering the intercultural world outlook, and therefore recommends incorporating a relativistic world view component in educational content structure along with the traditional components of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, creative activity expertise, etc.The paper emphasizes three consequent educational modules of ethnodifferentiation, ethno-integration and ethno-relativity in the proposed methodological system. The gradual fulfillment of educational goals, relatedto the above modules, can ensure the transformation of students’ perception of national stereotypes at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. The proposed educational concept, approbated in the GermanLanguage Department of Zabaykalsky State University in 2010 – 2013, along with the research data prove the effectiveness of the given method, and demonstrate a substantial development of students’ intercultural competence and a decline in the ethnocentrism level.

  15. A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, K.; Lowie, W.M.; Verspoor, M.H.

    In this article it is argued that language can be seen as a dynamic system, i.e. a set of variables that interact over time, and that language development can be seen as a dynamic process. Language development shows some of the core characteristics of dynamic systems: sensitive dependence on initial

  16. A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, K.; Lowie, W.M.; Verspoor, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article it is argued that language can be seen as a dynamic system, i.e. a set of variables that interact over time, and that language development can be seen as a dynamic process. Language development shows some of the core characteristics of dynamic systems: sensitive dependence on initial

  17. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  18. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  19. That Child Is a Yellow: New Immigrant Children's Conceptions of English Language, Literacy, and Learners' Identities in the NCLB Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we utilize the concepts of conceptual metaphors, cultural models, and master myths to discuss the ways by which three new immigrant children, native speakers of Spanish, were developing conceptions of English language, literacy, and learner's identities. Our findings point to 3 main metaphors that were often implicit in the school…

  20. Domain-Specific Languages for Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Bahr, Patrick; Henglein, Fritz;

    2014-01-01

    The process-oriented event-driven transaction systems (POETS) architecture introduced by Henglein et al. is a novel software architecture for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. POETS employs a pragmatic separation between (i) transactional data, that is, what has happened; (ii) reports......, that is, what can be derived from the transactional data; and (iii) contracts, that is, which transactions are expected in the future. Moreover, POETS applies domain-specific languages (DSLs) for specifying reports and contracts, in order to enable succinct declarative specifications as well as rapid...

  1. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    OpenAIRE

    Siva kumar, M; E. Prakash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS).In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text proc...

  2. An overview of the Opus language and runtime system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Haines, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a new language, called Opus, which provides a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism. lt also provides shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communication and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper, we first provide a brief description of the language features and then focus on both the language-dependent and language-independent parts of the runtime system that support the language. The language-independent portion of the runtime system supports lightweight threads across multiple address spaces, and is built upon existing lightweight thread and communication systems. The language-dependent portion of the runtime system supports conditional invocation of SDA methods and distributed SDA argument handling.

  3. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  4. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siva Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS.In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text processing and speech generation are two main components of a text to speech system. To build a natural sounding speech synthesis system, it is essential that text processing component produce an appropriate sequence of phonemic units. Generation of sequence of phonetic units for a given standard word is referred to as letter to phoneme rule or text to phoneme rule. The complexity of these rules and their derivation depends upon the nature of the language. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its closeness to the natural human voice and understandability. In this paper we described an approach to build a Telugu TTS system using concatenative synthesis method with syllable as a basic unit of concatenation.

  5. Concepts and their Use for Modelling Objects and References in Programming Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Savinov, Alexandr

    2007-01-01

    In the paper a new programming construct, called concept, is introduced. Concept is pair of two classes: a reference class and an object class. Instances of the reference classes are passed-by-value and are intended to represent objects. Instances of the object class are passed-by-reference. An approach to programming where concepts are used instead of classes is called concept-oriented programming (CoP). In CoP objects are represented and accessed indirectly by means of references. The structure of concepts describes a hierarchical space with a virtual address system. The paper describes this new approach to programming including such mechanisms as reference resolution, complex references, method interception, dual methods, life-cycle management inheritance and polymorphism.

  6. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  7. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  8. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  9. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  10. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  11. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  12. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, L; Stowe, LA; de Haan, GJ

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (

  13. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  14. The Catalan Language in the Educational System of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siguan, Miquel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the history of Catalonia, its language policy, and strategies/methods by which the Catalan language was introduced into the educational system (e.g., by educating the teaching staff, using Catalan in instruction and educational administration, developing Catalan-language teaching materials, and developing immersion programs in Catalan for…

  15. CONCEPT OF «TRUTH» (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chongyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a linguistic-cultural study of the concept of TRUTH in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. The concept of TRUTH is an important part of Russian national consciousness and is especially fully disclosed in the proverbial fund of the Russian language. The study of paremiological content of the concept of TRUTH is based on the texts of the National corpus of Russian language. It is noted, that God's Truth is one thing, but the Truth of life is another thing. In the second case, a person has to choose between truth and untruth. This antonymy is present in many of the proverbs: «To live true – means to distance from people, to live untrue means to anger the God». But in many Russian Proverbs there is a duality of consciousness: «One can’t live without truth as well as with truth», «One doesn't want to live with untruth and can’t live with truth». Moreover, it is noted that truth can be used for selfish purposes: «Truth is like a chained dog: it will bite whom it is released for». Thus, proverbs and sayings reflect the existence of different types of attitude of Russian people to the truth. Analysis of the materials allows to mark the following conceptual features of the truth: 1. Truth of the divinity. 2. Truth is goodness, light, frankness, integrity, heroism. 3. Truth of the «earth»: a Truth is dangerous; b There is no Truth on earth; it is weak; it can be bought. 4. It is hard to live on the earth without truth; it is necessary to tell the truth. 

  16. Circular Languages Generated by Complete Splicing Systems and Pure Unitary Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonizzoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Circular splicing systems are a formal model of a generative mechanism of circular words, inspired by a recombinant behaviour of circular DNA. Some unanswered questions are related to the computational power of such systems, and finding a characterization of the class of circular languages generated by circular splicing systems is still an open problem. In this paper we solve this problem for complete systems, which are special finite circular splicing systems. We show that a circular language L is generated by a complete system if and only if the set Lin(L of all words corresponding to L is a pure unitary language generated by a set closed under the conjugacy relation. The class of pure unitary languages was introduced by A. Ehrenfeucht, D. Haussler, G. Rozenberg in 1983, as a subclass of the class of context-free languages, together with a characterization of regular pure unitary languages by means of a decidable property. As a direct consequence, we characterize (regular circular languages generated by complete systems. We can also decide whether the language generated by a complete system is regular. Finally, we point out that complete systems have the same computational power as finite simple systems, an easy type of circular splicing system defined in the literature from the very beginning, when only one rule is allowed. From our results on complete systems, it follows that finite simple systems generate a class of context-free languages containing non-regular languages, showing the incorrectness of a longstanding result on simple systems.

  17. Aesthetic concepts, perceptual learning, and linguistic enculturation: considerations from Wittgenstein, language, and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Aesthetic non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express genuinely aesthetic beliefs and instead hold that they work primarily to express something non-cognitive, such as attitudes of approval or disapproval, or desire. Non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express aesthetic beliefs because they deny that there are aesthetic features in the world for aesthetic beliefs to represent. Their assumption, shared by scientists and theorists of mind alike, was that language-users possess cognitive mechanisms with which to objectively grasp abstract rules fixed independently of human responses, and that cognizers are thereby capable of grasping rules for the correct application of aesthetic concepts without relying on evaluation or enculturation. However, in this article I use Wittgenstein's rule-following considerations to argue that psychological theories grounded upon this so-called objective model of rule-following fail to adequately account for concept acquisition and mastery. I argue that this is because linguistic enculturation, and the perceptual learning that's often involved, influences and enables the mastery of aesthetic concepts. I argue that part of what's involved in speaking aesthetically is to belong to a cultural practice of making sense of things aesthetically, and that it's within a socio-linguistic community, and that community's practices, that such aesthetic sense can be made intelligible.

  18. Effects of learning with gesture on children's understanding of a new language concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Elizabeth M; James, Karin H

    2015-08-01

    Asking children to gesture while being taught a concept facilitates their learning. Here, we investigated whether children benefitted equally from producing gestures that reflected speech (speech-gesture matches) versus gestures that complemented speech (speech-gesture mismatches), when learning the concept of palindromes. As in previous studies, we compared the utility of each gesture strategy to a speech alone strategy. Because our task was heavily based on language ability, we also considered children's phonological competency as a predictor of success at posttest. Across conditions, children who had low phonological competence were equally likely to perform well at posttest. However, gesture use was predictive of learning for children with high phonological competence: Those who produced either gesture strategy during training were more likely to learn than children who used a speech alone strategy. These results suggest that educators should be encouraged to use either speech-gesture match or mismatch strategies to aid learners, but that gesture may be especially beneficial to children who possess basic skills related to the new concept, in this case, phonological competency. Results also suggest that there are differences between the cognitive effects of naturally produced speech-gesture matches and mismatches, and those that are scripted and taught to children.

  19. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  20. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  2. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  3. Improving the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties by introducing an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicken, Ria; Ernes, Elise; Hoogenberg-Engbers, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    ’ practice has been transformed and improved. The children’s perspective on the topic comes through in the teachers’ opinions. Concept mapping turned out to enhance meaning negotiation, active inquiry and collaboration during teaching interactive learning language. Teachers reported that it had great impact......The paper reports on case studies in which an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit was incorporated as a didactic tool in the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties. The Kit was introduced to replace methods such as topic webs, or complement others such as conversation exchange....... Three pilots were carried out between 2012 and 2015, with escalating numbers in participation and duration. The paper focuses on the teachers, their training, implementation, and their motivations for incorporating concept mapping in interactive learning language. The outcomes report on how the teachers...

  4. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  5. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  6. Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...

  7. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  8. On the Origin of Hobbes’s Conception of Language: The Literary Culture of English Renaissance Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.

  9. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  10. Extending the Concepts of Normalization from Relational Databases to Extensible-Markup-Language Databases Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. F. El-Sofany

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have studied the problem of how to extend the concepts of Functional Dependency (FD and normalization in relational databases to include the eXtensible Markup Language (XML model. We shown that, like relational databases, XML documents may contain redundant information and this redundancy may cause update anomalies. Furthermore, such problems are caused by certain functional dependencies among paths in the document. Our goal is to find a way for converting an arbitrary XML Schema to a well-designed one, that avoids these problems. We introduced new definitions of FD and normal forms of XML Schema (X-1NF, X-2NF, X-3NF and X-BCNF. We shown that our normal forms are necessary and sufficient to ensure all conforming XML documents have no redundancies.

  11. A Bag of Concepts Approach for Biomedical Document Classification Using Wikipedia Knowledge*. Spanish-English Cross-language Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño-García, Marcos A; Pérez-Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido-Rifón, Luis E

    2017-08-16

    The ability to efficiently review the existing literature is essential for the rapid progress of research. This paper describes a classifier of text documents, represented as vectors in spaces of Wikipedia concepts, and analyses its suitability for classification of Spanish biomedical documents when only English documents are available for training. We propose the cross-language concept matching (CLCM) technique, which relies on Wikipedia interlanguage links to convert concept vectors from the Spanish to the English space. The performance of the classifier is compared to several baselines: a classifier based on machine translation, a classifier that represents documents after performing Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), and a classifier that uses a domain-specific semantic annotator (MetaMap). The corpus used for the experiments (Cross-Language UVigoMED) was purpose-built for this study, and it is composed of 12,832 English and 2,184 Spanish MEDLINE abstracts. The performance of our approach is superior to any other state-of-the art classifier in the benchmark, with performance increases up to: 124% over classical machine translation, 332% over MetaMap, and 60 times over the classifier based on ESA. The results have statistical significance, showing p-values < 0.0001. Using knowledge mined from Wikipedia to represent documents as vectors in a space of Wikipedia concepts and translating vectors between language-specific concept spaces, a cross-language classifier can be built, and it performs better than several state-of-the-art classifiers.

  12. Concept Representation in Natural and Artificial Languages: Axioms, Extensions and Applications for Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Paper reports research related to mathematics, philosophy, computer science and linguistics. It gives a system of axioms for a relatively simple form of fuzzy set theory, and uses these axioms to consider the accuracy of representing concepts in various ways by fuzzy sets. (Author)

  13. Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolinjska Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.

  14. Emergence of Algorithmic Languages in Genetic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, O; Waelbroeck, H

    1997-01-01

    In genetic systems there is a non-trivial interface between the sequence of symbols which constitutes the chromosome, or ``genotype'', and the products which this sequence encodes --- the ``phenotype''. This interface can be thought of as a ``computer''. In this case the chromosome is viewed as an algorithm and the phenotype as the result of the computation. In general only a small fraction of all possible sequences of symbols makes any sense for a given computer. The difficulty of finding meaningful algorithms by random mutation is known as the brittleness problem. In this paper we show that mutation and crossover favour the emergence of an algorithmic language which facilitates the production of meaningful sequences following random mutations of the genotype. We base our conclusions on an analysis of the population dynamics of a variant of Kitano's neurogenetic model wherein the chromosome encodes the rules for cellular division and the phenotype is a 16-cell organism interpreted as a connectivity matrix fo...

  15. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology

    2010-08-13

    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  16. Spatial Language and Geographic Information Systems: Cross-Linguistic Issues/ El Languaje Especial y Los Sistemas de Informacion Geograficos: Temas Interlinguisticos (90-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, David M.; Gould, Michael D.; Nunes, Joan

    1990-01-01

    The great majority of existing geographic information systems have been designed by English or German speakers. Since human natural languages impose structure on the cognition and perception of space, time, and other concepts, GIS data models, and especially GIS query languages and human interfaces, can be expected to contain artifacts of the language spoken by their designers, most commonly English. At a practical level, natural language studies, particularly those based on cognitive linguis...

  17. 15 – Document Management System Conceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dhwanil

    2010-01-01

    Document management system is a method of organizing and storing documents electronically on one computer system or various computer systems. This system keeps track of the history of the document thereby enabling users to cognise the creation date, modification date, deletion date and other operations performed on document. Document management systems help users to easily find and share information. These systems are generally used by organizations to maintain their official records.

  18. States of the Business Concepts Model: Structural Assertions' Impact on Natural Language Business Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Björn; van Biert, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Organizations constantly need to adapt to the rapidly changing macro environment. Information systems, that hinder and restrain flexibility, may jeopardize the ability for organizations to survive. A new method for developing information systems called the Business Rules Approach has emerged with promises of business agility. The Business Rules Approach focuses on business rules which are reliant on a Business Concepts Model for their structure and vocabulary. This paper examines the rela...

  19. Concept of ugly in Serbian language: ružno and grdno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Ivana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze lexical iconicity of basic aesthetic expression categories in Serbian language which expressed concept of ugly-ružno and grdno (“ugly“. Their iconicity is, first of all, associated with the imagination of earthly substance (grdan, but is formed in connection with divine-human-animal opposition (ružno. The lexeme ružno (<*ureng- “bend” which is also contained in režati „growl”, „snarl” which has taken over semantic components of the lexeme grdno is, on the other hand, determined by an opposition of human-inhuman and its iconicity contains images of animal like, deviant behaviour unsuitable to a human. Concept of grdno (<*gьrdь <*gher- “abrade”, or *ghreu- “sharp” is determined by an image of a substance which is uneven, rough and unsuitable for moulding. Esthetical and ethical categories in both former and later cognitive thinking are interconnected - evil and ugly oppose beautiful and good but they are also defined by them. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet-portala Pojmovnik srpske kulture

  20. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  1. Academic Language, English Language Learners, and Systemic Functional Linguistics: Connecting Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…

  2. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  3. Language of the doctorate: Doctorateness as a threshold concept in doctoral literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitzer, Eli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In academia, the definition of literacy has evolved from a focus on reading and writing to encompass more inclusive and expansive perspectives. Such perspectives have come from researchers involved in exploring literacy among diverse populations and across traditional divides such as cultural, political and socioeconomic boundaries. Changing definitions of literacy include usage in expressions such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘civic literacy’, ‘health literacy’, ‘cultural literacy’ and others. Recently, new directions in literacy research were foregrounded by critical questions that seek to discover how literacy functions in doctoral studies and within research communities. For instance, what does it mean to be ‘literate’ as a doctoral member of a research culture, within a field of research, within the academic profession and so on? In addition, doctoral candidates often grapple with what may be termed ‘threshold concepts’. Such concepts include the meaning of the doctorate as a qualification, its aims, its narrative and the level of literacy required to succeed with a doctorate. Against this background the article explores firstly how the concept of being literate has been broadened to include literacy for doctoral learning; secondly, it explains why doctorateness remains a threshold concept for many doctoral candidates and supervisors, and thirdly it provides some evidence from at least five years of working with doctoral education and doctoral supervisor development workshops to support an argument for doctoral literacy. Finally, the article provides some implications which emerged from a better understanding of the language and requirements of doctorateness as an essential literacy requirement for doctoral candidates and their supervisors.

  4. Assessment of Deafblind Access to Manual Language Systems (ADAMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Robbie; Carlson, Brad

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the Assessment of Deafblind Access to Manual Language Systems (ADAMLS), a resource for educational teams who are responsible for developing appropriate adaptations and strategies for children who are deafblind who are candidates for learning manual language systems. The assessment tool should be used for all children with a…

  5. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  6. REACTOR - a Concept for establishing a System-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Rainer; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    well suited to establish brokers, which mediate metadata and semantic information about the resources of all involved systems. This concept has been developed within the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) on the basis of semantic registries describing all facets of events and services utilisable for crisis management systems. The implementation utilises an operative infrastructure including an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), adapters to proprietary sensor systems, a workflow engine, and a broker-based MOM. It also applies current technologies like actor-based frameworks for highly concurrent, distributed, and fault tolerant event-driven applications. Therefore REACTOR implementations are well suited to be hosted in a cloud that provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). To provide low entry barriers for legacy and future systems, REACTOR adapts the principles of Design by Contract (DbC) as well as standardised and common information models like the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) or the JavaScript Object Notation for geographic features (GeoJSON). REACTOR has been applied exemplarily within two different scenarios, Natural Crisis Management and Industrial Subsurface Development.

  7. Modelling the behavior of systems : Basic concepts and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotroneo, T; Willems, JC; Powell, MJD; Scholtes, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the behavioral approach as a mathematical language for describing dynamical systems, in particular systems modeled by high order constant coefficient linear differential equations. We investigate what data have to be added in order to express the influence of the environme

  8. Modelling the behavior of systems : Basic concepts and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotroneo, T; Willems, JC; Powell, MJD; Scholtes, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the behavioral approach as a mathematical language for describing dynamical systems, in particular systems modeled by high order constant coefficient linear differential equations. We investigate what data have to be added in order to express the influence of the

  9. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  10. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  11. The Development of a Diagnostic Test for Determining Secondary Students' Knowledge and Understanding of Certain Basic Language Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Coleen Rawson

    Problems encountered in evaluating the effectiveness of an English elective program indicated the need for the development of a criterion-referenced diagnostic test for determining students' knowledge and understanding of certain basic language concepts in the field of English. A survey of 76 English elective programs throughout the United States…

  12. Concepts for a global resources information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Urena, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Global Resources Information System (GRIS) is to establish an effective and efficient information management system to meet the data access requirements of NASA and NASA-related scientists conducting large-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-mission scientific investigations. Using standard interfaces and operating guidelines, diverse data systems can be integrated to provide the capabilities to access and process multiple geographically dispersed data sets and to develop the necessary procedures and algorithms to derive global resource information.

  13. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  14. A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEERT, P

    In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework is sketched to define cognitive growth, including language growth, as a process of growth under limited resources. Important concepts are the process, level, and rate of growth; minimal structural growth level; carrying capacity and unutilized

  15. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  16. Language Management × 3: A Theory, a Sub-Concept, and a Business Strategy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    The term "language management" has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed into the Language Management Theory (LMT).…

  17. Language Management × 3: A Theory, a Sub-Concept, and a Business Strategy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    The term "language management" has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed into the Language Management Theory (LMT).…

  18. Interpretation of Key Concepts in Language Testing:Validity, Validation and Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Language testing is an important link in language teaching, in this paper, the two important criteria of language test the reliability and validity has carried on the detailed elaboration, in order to a language teacher proposition and evaluation test more scientific.

  19. Learners Programming Language a Helping System for Introductory Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL NAVEED

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Programming is the core of computer science and due to this momentousness a special care is taken in designing the curriculum of programming courses. A substantial work has been conducted on the definition of programming courses, yet the introductory programming courses are still facing high attrition, low retention and lack of motivation. This paper introduced a tiny pre-programming language called LPL (Learners Programming Language as a ZPL (Zeroth Programming Language to illuminate novice students about elementary concepts of introductory programming before introducing the first imperative programming course. The overall objective and design philosophy of LPL is based on a hypothesis that the soft introduction of a simple and paradigm specific textual programming can increase the motivation level of novice students and reduce the congenital complexities and hardness of the first programming course and eventually improve the retention rate and may be fruitful in reducing the dropout/failure level. LPL also generates the equivalent high level programs from user source program and eventually very fruitful in understanding the syntax of introductory programming languages. To overcome the inherent complexities of unusual and rigid syntax of introductory programming languages, the LPL provide elementary programming concepts in the form of algorithmic and plain natural language based computational statements. The initial results obtained after the introduction of LPL are very encouraging in motivating novice students and improving the retention rate.

  20. Using Movies to Teach Family Systems Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Anthony M., Jr.; Warden, Sherry A. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    This article reflects a review of research relevant to family systems training and the use of films in the teaching of family systems theory. Advantages and disadvantages of using movies in an introductory-level graduate family therapy course are discussed. An outline of family therapy training objectives, as well as examples of a movie-based…

  1. A Modeling Language Based on UML for Modeling Simulation Testing System of Avionic Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lize; LIU Bin; LU Minyan

    2011-01-01

    With direct expression of individual application domain patterns and ideas, domain-specific modeling language (DSML) is more and more frequently used to build models instead of using a combination of one or more general constructs. Based on the profile mechanism of unified modeling language (UML) 2.2, a kind of DSML is presented to model simulation testing systems of avionic software (STSAS). To define the syntax, semantics and notions of the DSML, the domain model of the STSAS from which we generalize the domain concepts and relationships among these concepts is given, and then, the domain model is mapped into a UML meta-model, named UML-STSAS profile. Assuming a flight control system (FCS) as system under test (SUT), we design the relevant STSAS. The results indicate that extending UML to the simulation testing domain can effectively and precisely model STSAS.

  2. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  3. The Brain's concepts: the role of the Sensory-motor system in conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Lakoff, George

    2005-05-01

    Concepts are the elementary units of reason and linguistic meaning. They are conventional and relatively stable. As such, they must somehow be the result of neural activity in the brain. The questions are: Where? and How? A common philosophical position is that all concepts-even concepts about action and perception-are symbolic and abstract, and therefore must be implemented outside the brain's sensory-motor system. We will argue against this position using (1) neuroscientific evidence; (2) results from neural computation; and (3) results about the nature of concepts from cognitive linguistics. We will propose that the sensory-motor system has the right kind of structure to characterise both sensory-motor and more abstract concepts. Central to this picture are the neural theory of language and the theory of cogs, according to which, brain structures in the sensory-motor regions are exploited to characterise the so-called "abstract" concepts that constitute the meanings of grammatical constructions and general inference patterns.

  4. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks.

  5. THE CONCEPT OF UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have revealed the main reasons for interruptions in power supply to consumers of electricity. To improve the reliability and the efficiency of power supply for responsible consumers, we have proposed to develop energy efficient combined energy-saving systems for uninterrupted power supply with use of renewable energy sources. The article lists major principles of the development of such systems; it shows the necessity of constructing a generalized schema that contains the possible types and the sources of electric power converters. It also reveals the modern requirements to systems of uninterrupted energy supply. To improve the operational and technical characteristics of the uninterruptible power supply, it has been proposed to use a new circuitry that includes a contactless power generators, the direct frequency converters used to stabilize the voltage and frequency of the current generators of wind turbines, static converters made with the use of single-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, universal static converters that can operate in the regimes of known types of converters. The article presents features of the modular construction of systems of uninterrupted energy supply and optimization of their structural decisions on key performance criteria. It shows the algorithm of synthesis of structural designs of combined systems of uninterrupted power supply. An important step for further research with the aim of improving operational and technical characteristics of the combination of uninterrupted power supply systems is the mathematical modeling of physical processes in power circuits of the system in both normal and emergency modes of operation

  6. Photovoltaic village power systems: the minigrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The photovoltaic power system of Schuchuli, a Papgo Indian village in Arizona, USA, is described and illustrated. 24 solar panels, each 1.22 x 2.44 m supply up to 3.5 kW at a supply voltage of 120 Vdc. Energy storage is provided by fifty-two 2380-Ah batteries connected in series. A load management system is utilized to disconnect, progressively, different loads as the battery capacity falls, and to reconnect the loads in the reverse sequence as the batteries become recharged. Such a system is considered eminently suitable for villages in the Third World. 5 references.

  7. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  8. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  9. CICERO: Control Information system Concepts based\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    RD38 : Modern High Energy Physics experiments and accelerators require sophisticated control systems to ensure their safe operation and to optimise their performance. Due to their complexity and to the large number of sensors needed for these purposes, they turn out to be difficult and costly to maintain with the present technology. The situation will seriously worsen with the LHC era. Various R\\&D departments of industrial companies are directly concerned with similar difficulties in power plants and complex automated systems. We propose to combine our efforts to study the various aspects of this problem. We intend to outline the main building blocks of generic control information system. As a result of this study we aim to provide technical solutions which could later be the major components of a basic turnkey system for medium to large scale HEP experiments and accelerators.

  10. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  11. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  12. Why language really is not a communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Colette Reboul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (see Millikan 2005 and the ostensive model of communication (see Scott-Phillips 2015 cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008 Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then expiated (externalized for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  13. Conception of Electro-Stimulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Salbi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to suggest a reliable solution of electro-stimulation making it possible to restore defective functions of the nervous systems among certain patients. This solution consists in creating a signal similar to that arriving of the central nervous system. Thus, work presented aims to design an electronic circuit of stimulation allowing the contraction of the muscle to restore its function by a biphasic train of electric impulse. This stimulator system is composed of a clock, an inverter and a logical sequencer which shifts the clock signal. The stage of power makes it possible to adapt the signals newcomers on a transformer booster coupled to a stage of order to regulate the amplitude of the impulse.

  14. The concept of self-organizing systems. Why bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverfeldt, Kirsten v.; Embleton-Hamann, Christine; Slaymaker, Olav

    2016-04-01

    Complexity theory and the concept of self-organizing systems provide a rather challenging conceptual framework for explaining earth systems change. Self-organization - understood as the aggregate processes internal to an environmental system that lead to a distinctive spatial or temporal organization - reduces the possibility of implicating a specific process as being causal, and it poses some restrictions on the idea that external drivers cause a system to change. The concept of self-organizing systems suggests that many phenomena result from an orchestration of different mechanisms, so that no causal role can be assigned to an individual factor or process. The idea that system change can be due to system-internal processes of self-organization thus proves a huge challenge to earth system research, especially in the context of global environmental change. In order to understand the concept's implications for the Earth Sciences, we need to know the characteristics of self-organizing systems and how to discern self-organizing systems. Within the talk, we aim firstly at characterizing self-organizing systems, and secondly at highlighting the advantages and difficulties of the concept within earth system sciences. The presentation concludes that: - The concept of self-organizing systems proves especially fruitful for small-scale earth surface systems. Beach cusps and patterned ground are only two of several other prime examples of self-organizing earth surface systems. They display characteristics of self-organization like (i) system-wide order from local interactions, (ii) symmetry breaking, (iii) distributed control, (iv) robustness and resilience, (v) nonlinearity and feedbacks, (vi) organizational closure, (vii) adaptation, and (viii) variation and selection. - It is comparatively easy to discern self-organization in small-scale systems, but to adapt the concept to larger scale systems relevant to global environmental change research is more difficult: Self

  15. Concept of an expert system for EQCreator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jiri; Telnarova, Zdenka; Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the design of an ideal, and to some extent general, expert system for evaluation of randomly generated algebra with the help of EQCreator program, which is able to generate EQ of algebra. It was created for the purpose of future expansion of the program for the possibility of generating any algebra specified by the user.

  16. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  17. Advanced design concepts for open distributed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.F.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experience with the engineering of large scale open distributed systems has shown that their design should be specified at several well defined levels of abstractions, where each level aims at satisfying specific user, architectural and implementation purposes. Therefore designers should dispose of

  18. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  19. Developing Deployable Spoken Language Translation Systems given Limited Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Approaches are presented that support the deployment of spoken language translation systems. Newly developed methods allow low cost portability to new language pairs. Proposed translation model pruning techniques achieve a high translation performance even in low memory situations. The named entity and specialty vocabulary coverage, particularly on small and mobile devices, is targeted to an individual user by translation model personalization.

  20. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting.

  1. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  2. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  3. Concept Of The Legal System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr E. Zhigockiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article an attempt to provide a theoretical analysis of the legal system, and to consider the law as one of the most complicated social phenomena was made. Author notes, that the contradictions prevailing in public practice are unpredictable. Doctrines of law are varied in their approaches, scores and results, but based on a common foundation: the law for people always acted as a certain order in a society, where the differences begin. Author draws attention to the fact, that the state and the law ensure the order in society by removing contradictions and achieving social compromises. The legal reality is divided into certain groups of legal systems, there is a classification. If we are relying on the identification of groups of the same order, there is the theoretical generality as the level of the theory of law on the legal systems basis. Analysis of the political and legal systems will draw attention to the democratic and totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by law as means of violence, the means of coercion and suppression. The majority of democratic regimes are characterized by the use of law as a means of social harmony and social compromise. In conclusion, author underlines, that the theory of law can be made not only at the level of each country. This level is a necessary basis for the theory, but not its completion. Based on the individual characteristics of each country's law, that is descended from the general and particular to an individual, the theory can and should continue to make the way back from the individual to the particular and the general.

  4. Advanced Operating Systems Concepts for BMD Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-03

    Results The key results of this work are reported in detail in the attached theses of Branimir Gajic and Debra Lane. In particular, Gajic’s thesis...below: Theses "A Distributed Operating System for BMD Applications," Branimir Gajic, TR-CS-82-4. "A Communications Subsystem Based on a CSMA/CD...Cohen Graduate Assistant Uuaim-’.v :52 ) Debra Lane Graduate Assistant J ’st-i-t: Branimir Gajic Graduate Assistant -w4 Robert Souza Graduate

  5. A Dynamical Systems Model for Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    11, Georgetown Universtiy, 1982. [6] A. S. Kroch. Function and gramar in the his- tory of english : Periphrastic "do.". In Ralph Fa- sold, editor...cally, posit 3 Boolean parameters, Speci er rst/ nal; Head rst/ nal; Verb second allowed or not, leading to 8 possible gram- mars/languages ( English ...Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time (e.g., English -type languages change to a more German type) contrary to historically

  6. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The concept of “network” in the system of basic concepts of regional economic geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “network” is traditionally used in sociological and economic sciences and serves as an in important object of research on the organisational forms of different phenomena and processes. This article examines the use of the “network” concept in socioeconomic geography through identifying the place of this concept in the system of traditional concepts of this branch of geography: spatial system, territorial production complex, and cluster. The interaction between networks on a certain territory at a certain stage of its development comprises the framework of a region as a complex socioeconomic territorial system. The author examines economic networks as organic systems characterised by resistance to external effects and comprised of interconnected economic agents from one or several related industries. A concentration of strong connections within such network constitutes its core or a cluster. Based on a retrospective analysis of studies into the spatial organisation of economy, it is concluded that there is a need to examine network forms from the perspective of regional socioeconomic geography in the context of managerial decision-making. The regional economic geographical approach to studying network forms of spatial organisation makes it possible to take into account not only the organisational features of the network itself, but also their connections to the related contextual conditions. It is an integrated approach, thus, it makes it possible to forecast the development of a certain network form in case of a change in the conditions or factors affecting it.

  8. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  9. A System of Study Materials for the Teaching of Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Ebbe

    1969-01-01

    Summarizes results of a German language teaching project in a Swedish comprehensive school aimed at producing appropriate instructional materials. General concepts of foreign language instruction outlined are supported by selective bibliographies. (DS)

  10. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Inter)cultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that co...

  11. Orbital express capture system: concept to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Shane; Motaghedi, Pejmun

    2004-08-01

    The development of autonomous servicing of on-orbit spacecraft has been a sought after objective for many years. A critical component of on-orbit servicing involves the ability to successfully capture, institute mate, and perform electrical and fluid transfers autonomously. As part of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Starsys Research Corporation (SRC) began developing such a system. Phase I of the grant started in 1999, with initial work focusing on simultaneously defining the parameters associated with successful docking while designing to those parameters. Despite the challenge of working without specific requirements, SRC completed development of a prototype design in 2000. Throughout the following year, testing was conducted on the prototype to characterize its performance. Having successfully completed work on the prototype, SRC began a Phase II SBIR effort in mid-2001. The focus of the second phase was a commercialization effort designed to augment the prototype model into a more flight-like design. The technical requirements, however, still needed clear definition for the design to progress. The advent of the Orbital Express (OE) program provided much of that definition. While still in the proposal stages of the OE program, SRC began tailoring prototype redesign efforts to the OE program requirements. A primary challenge involved striking a balance between addressing the technical requirements of OE while designing within the scope of the SBIR. Upon award of the OE contract, the Phase II SBIR design has been fully developed. This new design, designated the Mechanical Docking System (MDS), successfully incorporated many of the requirements of the OE program. SRC is now completing dynamic testing on the MDS hardware, with a parallel effort of developing a flight design for OE. As testing on the MDS progresses, the design path that was once common to both SBIR effort and the OE program begins to diverge. The MDS will complete the scope of the

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Indexing Concepts for Storage and Retrieval of Moving Images: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M.

    1996-01-01

    A French-language version of stock footage videotapes from previous research (using English-language data) was prepared, using the same images. The most popular terms identified in each of the two studies for each of the shots are compared, to determine the rate of correspondence between potential indexing terms in each language. (Author/AEF)

  13. What Work Do the Concepts of "Language" and "Literature" Do for Michael Rosenak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Michael Rosenak uses the twin metaphors of "language" and "literature," borrowed from Oakeshott and Peters, to argue that the goal of education is initiation into a language. This goal transcends the study of literature in that language. It includes, as well, the development of the capacity both to critique literature and to…

  14. Concept of an Effective Sentinel-1 Satellite SAR Interferometry System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This brief study introduces a partially working concept being developed at IT4Innovations supercomputer (HPC) facility. This concept consists of several modules that form a whole body of an efficient system for observation of terrain or objects displacements using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR). A metadata database helps to locate data stored in various storages and to perform basic analyzes. A special database has been designed to describe Sentinel-1 data, on its burst level. Custom Se...

  15. Organizational Systems Theory and Command and Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    World War the German Army, in an attempt to break the stalemate of the trenches, tactically implemented the concept from von Moltke of allowing...subordinates to use personal initiative. The Germans of the First World War took this concept even further, by pushing authority to the squads and platoons...Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous ( VUCA ) environment. 29 9 Charles B. Perrow is not, by any means, the only complex systems theorist. However, he

  16. Concepts and models of coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I will especially focus on the question of the position of human agency, social networks and complex co-evolutionary interactions in socio-hydrological models. The long term perspective of complex systems' modeling typically focuses on regional or global spatial scales and century/millennium time scales. It is still a challenge to relate correlations in outcomes defined at those longer and larger scales to the causalities at the shorter and smaller scales. How do we move today to the next 1000 years in the same way that our ancestors did move from their today to our present, in the small steps that produce reality? Please note, I am not arguing long term work is not interesting or the like. I just pose the question how to deal with the problem that we employ relations with hindsight that matter to us, but not necessarily to the agents that produced the relations we think we have observed. I would like to push the socio-hydrological community a little into rethinking how to deal with complexity, with the aim to bring together the timescales of humans and complexity. I will provide one or two examples of how larger-scale and longer-term observations on water flows and environmental loads can be broken down into smaller-scale and shorter-term production processes of these same loads.

  17. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung;

    2016-01-01

    environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment.......The objective of the proposed concept is to develop a methodology to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operation with a path planning and scheduling system in 3D environments. The proposed 3D path-planning and scheduling allows the system to schedule UAVs routing to perform tasks in 3D indoor...

  18. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced concept system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    DONLEE Technologies Inc. is developing with support of the US Department of Energy an advanced circulating fluidized bed technology known as the Vortex{trademark} Fluidized Bed Combustor (VFBC). The unique feature of the VFBC is the injection of a significant portion of the combustion air into the cyclone. Since as much as one-half of the total combustion air is injected into the cyclone, the cross-sectional area of the circulating fluidized bed is considerably smaller than typical circulating fluidized beds. The technology is being developed for two applications: Industrial-scale boilers ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steam generating capacity; and two-stage combustion in which a substoichiometric Vortex Fluidized Bed Combustor (2VFBC) or precombustor is used to generate a combustible gas for use primarily in boiler retrofit applications. This Level II analysis of these two applications indicates that both have merit. An industrial-scale VFBC boiler (60,000 lb/hr of steam) is projected to be economically attractive with coal prices as high as $40 per ton and gas prices between $4 and $5 per thousand cubic feet. The payback time is between 3 and 4 years. The 2VFBC system was evaluated at three capacities of application: 20,000; 60,000 and 100,000 lb/hr of steam. The payback times for these three capacities are 4.5, 2.1 and 1.55 years, respectively. The 2VFBC has potential applications for retrofit of existing pulverized coal-fired boilers or as a new large (utility) boiler. Pressurized operation of the 2VFBC has considerable potential for combined cycle power generation applications. Experimental development of both applications is presented here to demonstrate the potential of these two technologies.

  19. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  20. A development environment for operational concepts and systems engineering analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    The work reported in this document involves a development effort to provide combat commanders and systems engineers with a capability to explore and optimize system concepts that include operational concepts as part of the design effort. An infrastructure and analytic framework has been designed and partially developed that meets a gap in systems engineering design for combat related complex systems. The system consists of three major components: The first component consists of a design environment that permits the combat commander to perform 'what-if' types of analyses in which parts of a course of action (COA) can be automated by generic system constructs. The second component consists of suites of optimization tools designed to integrate into the analytical architecture to explore the massive design space of an integrated design and operational space. These optimization tools have been selected for their utility in requirements development and operational concept development. The third component involves the design of a modeling paradigm for the complex system that takes advantage of functional definitions and the coupled state space representations, generic measures of effectiveness and performance, and a number of modeling constructs to maximize the efficiency of computer simulations. The system architecture has been developed to allow for a future extension in which the operational concept development aspects can be performed in a co-evolutionary process to ensure the most robust designs may be gleaned from the design space(s).

  1. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  2. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  3. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the proposed concept is to develop a methodology to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operation with a path planning and scheduling system in 3D environments. The proposed 3D path-planning and scheduling allows the system to schedule UAVs routing to perform tasks in 3D indoor...

  4. Architectural design - Conception and specification of interactive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a design methodology that is practically applicable to the architectural design of a broad range of systems. It is based on fundamental design concepts to conceive and specify the required functional properties of a system, while abstracting from the specific implementation

  5. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

    2012-05-01

    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning.

  6. StudiesonSecondLanguageAcquisitionfromthePerspectiveof DynamicSystemTheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵哲

    2014-01-01

    As is known there are large numbers of studies on Second Language Acquisition. However, Dynamic System Theory is the new trend in Applied Linguistics. It is necessary to probe into this field and see if it has relationship with SLA.

  7. 211 English Language, the Nigerian Education System and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njoku: English Language, the Nigerian Education System. 212 education in Nigeria ... Human development focuses on improving the lives people lead, rather than assuming ..... for Women Empowerment and Breaking the Cycle of. Poverty”.

  8. SALTO : System for Assembly-Language Transformation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rohou, Erven; Bodin, François; Seznec, André; Le Fol, Gwendal; Charot, François; Raimbault, Frédéric

    1996-01-01

    On critical applications, particularly embedded systems, the performance tuning requires multiple passes. SALTO (System for Assembly Language Transformation and Optimization) is a retargetable framework for developing all the spectrum of tools that are needed for performance tuning on low-level codes (assembly-languages) on uniprocessors. SALTO enables the building of profiling, tracing and optimization tools. The user is responsible for giving a machine description of the target architecture...

  9. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  10. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  11. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias C.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  12. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  13. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  14. Action Relations. Basic Design Concepts for Behaviour Modelling and Refinement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick

    This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an

  15. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  16. Natural Language Interfaces to Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    of Toronto, Philip A. Bernstein , Harvard University, and Harry K.T. Wong, IBM Research Laboratory, "A Language Facility for Designing Database...Colin Blakemore and Susan Greenfield (editors), Mindwaves - Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity, and Consciousness, Basil Blackwell, Inc. 1987. 1110

  17. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  18. Problematic of languages within educative systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mutombo Huta-Mukana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our observation contains three parts: preamble, some key questions and a conclusion. It summarizes colonial period and postcolonial by taking Democratic Republic of Congo as starting point. In this country, the colonizer had recourse to local languages in elementary teaching and to French afterwarlds. This system continued somehow in the postcolonial period. Somehow because reality on the ground doesn’t correspond always to the verb.Among key questions which can be examined, we can cite the choice carried on the metropolitan language, recousing to local languages, form of language to be taught, the method to guide the drafting of books and useful tools for a good linguistic policy within educative sector. That is shown in conclusion by indicating the positive and the negative coming from recourse to such or such language as vehicle of teaching.

  19. Satellite systems for personal applications concepts and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richharia, Madhavendra

    2010-01-01

    Presents the concepts, technology, and role of satellite systems in support of personal applications, such as mobile and broadband communications, navigation, television, radio and multimedia broadcasting, safety of life services, etc. This book presents a novel perspective on satellite systems, reflecting the modern personal technology context, and hence a focus on the individual as end-user. The book begins by outlining key generic concepts before discussing techniques adopted in particular application areas; next, it exemplifies these techniques through discussion of state-of-art c

  20. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  1. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.

    2014-01-01

    , objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All....... Another consequence is the public way of generally thinking green which have led to a national decision of undergrounding not only all of the Danish distribution system but also the future transmission system. These issues initiate the infrastructure constructions of the transmission system i.e. a large...... the substation loses the telecommunications to the control center. RPCs will be integrated to the AVC system as normative regulators in the later stage. Distributed generation units can be organized as virtual power plants and participate in voltage control at transmission level. Energinet.dk as the Danish TSO...

  2. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.

  3. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  4. Concepts within reach: Action performance predicts action language processing in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik H; Herter, Troy; Riccardi, Nicholas; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between the brain's conceptual or semantic and sensory-motor systems remains controversial. Here, we tested manual and conceptual abilities of 41 chronic stroke patients in order to examine their relationship. Manual abilities were assed through a reaching task using an exoskeleton robot. Semantic abilities were assessed with implicit as well as explicit semantic tasks, for both verbs and nouns. The results show that that the degree of selective impairment for action word processing was predicted by the degree of impairment in reaching performance. Moreover, the implicit semantic measures showed a correlation with a global reaching parameter, while the explicit semantic similarity judgment task predicted performance in action initiation. These results suggest that action concepts are dynamically grounded through motoric simulations, and that more details are simulated for more explicit semantic tasks. This is evidence for a close and causal relationship between sensory-motor and conceptual systems of the brain.

  5. THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS (EB EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Charlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In our approach to engineering and business education system an engineer is a man working as creator and user of technical products. We stress that the process of understanding and gaining knowledge of technical reality and creativity of engineers are the essential for EB concept . Next, we describe briefly three perspectives for building the system of innovative product origination as a basis for EB system: 1 designer’s perspective; 2 business perspective. 3 consumer perspective.

  6. System integrational and migrational concepts and methods within healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endsleff, F; Loubjerg, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an overview and comparison of the basic concepts and methods behind different system integrational implementations is given, including the DHE, which is based on the coming Healthcare Information Systems Architecture pre-standard HISA, developed by CEN TC251. This standard and the DHE...... (Distributed Healthcare Environment) not only provides highly relevant standards, but also provides an efficient and well structured platform for Healthcare IT Systems....

  7. Longitudinal patterns of behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties and self-concepts in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the prevalence and stability of behavioral difficulties and self-concepts between the ages of 8 and 17 years in a sample of children with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). We investigated whether earlier behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties (BESD); self-concepts; and language and literacy abilities predicted behavioral difficulties and self-concepts at 16/17 years. In this prospective longitudinal study, 65 students were followed up with teacher behavior ratings and individual assessments of language, literacy, and self-concepts at 8, 10, 12, 16, and 17 years. The students had consistently higher levels than norms of 5 domains of BESD, which had different trajectories over time, and poorer scholastic competence, whose trajectory also varied over time. Earlier language ability did not predict later behavioral difficulties or self-concepts, but the prediction of academic self-concept at 16 by literacy at 10 years approached significance. The importance of distinguishing domains of behavioral difficulties and self-concept is demonstrated. Language, when measured at 8 or 10 years of age, was not a predictor of behavior or self-concepts at 16 years, or of self-concepts at 17 years. The study stresses the importance of practitioners addressing academic abilities and different social-behavioral domains in delivering support for adolescents with SLI.

  8. Anmerkungen zum Konzept einer Sprachengeographie = Annotations to a concept of language geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jordan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Language is without any doubt a societal phenomenon, which is in many more ways related to space. While francophone, anglophone and Spanish geography have developed a kind of language geography or geolinguistics as a subdiscipline of geography, geographers in German-speaking countries pay some attention to this fact only within ethnic geography. The paper highlights some more important spatial aspects of language and proposes to regard language geography as a subdiscipline of cultural geography which has to co-operate closely with linguistics and history.

  9. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and nonemotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e., focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e., focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources.

  10. The System Concept and Its Application to Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aslaksen, Erik W

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering is a mandatory approach in some industries, and is gaining wider acceptance for complex projects in general. However, under the imperative of delivering these projects on time and within budget, the focus has been mainly on the management aspects, with less attention to improving the core engineering activity – design. This book addresses the application of the system concept to design in several ways: by developing a deeper understanding of the system concept, by defining design and its characteristics within the process of engineering, and by applying the system concept to the early stage of design, where it has the greatest impact.   A central theme of the book is that the purpose of engineering is to be useful in meeting the needs of society, and that therefore the ultimate measure of the benefit of applying the system concept should be the extent to which it advances the achievement of that purpose. Consequently, any consistent, top-down development of the functionality required of...

  11. Language as information system: transfer and saving of the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The language is not the information itself. It contains information minimum and has information restrictions. Under the information should be understood texts and speech, created by using a language. Modern forms of existence of living natural language are distributed databases with multiple accesses, because bearers of language constantly and concurrently use it. Language and speech always exchange information, creating a unified information environment, where a human is. At any stage of information exchange the change of self-descriptiveness takes place one way or the other. When a human try to reflect world around him, some part of reflected information is lost due to conversion into language and saving into it in formalized form. These processes of storing information are related to the fact that in the production and perception of the statements optimization mechanisms of human thinking are made. When we perceive information its preservation can happen without information loss and with the loss of information.

  12. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  13. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  14. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  15. System-Oriented Runway Management Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a concept for runway management that maximizes the overall efficiency of arrival and departure operations at an airport or group of airports. Specifically, by planning airport runway configurations/usage, it focuses on the efficiency with which arrival flights reach their parking gates from their arrival fixes and departure flights exit the terminal airspace from their parking gates. In the future, the concept could be expanded to include the management of other limited airport resources. While most easily described in the context of a single airport, the concept applies equally well to a group of airports that comprise a metroplex (i.e., airports in close proximity that share resources such that operations at the airports are at least partially dependent) by including the coordination of runway usage decisions between the airports. In fact, the potential benefit of the concept is expected to be larger in future metroplex environments due to the increasing need to coordinate the operations at proximate airports to more efficiently share limited airspace resources. This concept, called System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM), is further broken down into a set of airport traffic management functions that share the principle that operational performance must be measured over the complete surface and airborne trajectories of the airport's arrivals and departures. The "system-oriented" term derives from the belief that the traffic management objective must consider the efficiency of operations over a wide range of aircraft movements and National Airspace System (NAS) dynamics. The SORM concept is comprised of three primary elements: strategic airport capacity planning, airport configuration management, and combined arrival/departure runway planning. Some aspects of the SORM concept, such as using airport configuration management1 as a mechanism for improving aircraft efficiency, are novel. Other elements (e.g., runway scheduling, which is a part

  16. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2010-01-01

    Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic ch...

  17. A Generic Language for Biological Systems based on Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Krivine, Jean

    Several efforts have shown that process calculi developed for reasoning about concurrent and mobile systems may be employed for modelling biological systems at the molecular level. In this paper, we initiate investigation of the meta-language framework bigraphical reactive systems, due to Milner et...

  18. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes industriels complexes. Principaux concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G

    2009-06-15

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  19. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintanar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  20. Translations of the "Evidence-Based Medicine" concept in different languages: is it time for international standardisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watine, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Although the concept of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is quite popular among English speaking physicians, it still needs to be adopted by an overwhelming majority of health care professionals in countries where English is not familiar. Thus, this concept can be translated in many different, and potentially misleading, ways. This is regrettable because the concept is, at least potentially, a very useful one. As an illustration, I have compiled some of the French translations of EBM that are currently in use in French speaking countries, and indicated briefly how most of these translations (except for one) are bound to be misleading. Many of these misleading translations currently in use strongly suggest that it is time for an international standardisation of the translations of EBM in different languages.

  1. Review and appraisal of concept of sustainable food production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brklacich, Michael; Bryant, Christopher R.; Smit, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Environmental degradation, competition for resources, increasing food demands, and the integration of agriculture into the international economy threaten the sustainability of many food production systems. Despite these concerns, the concept of sustainable food production systems remains unclear, and recent attempts to appraise sustainability have been hampered by conceptual inconsistencies and the absence of workable definitions. Six perspectives are shown to underpin the concept. Environmental accounting identifies biophysical limits for agriculture. Sustained yield refers to output levels that can be maintained continuously. Carrying capacity defines maximum population levels that can be supported in perpetuity. Production unit viability refers to the capacity of primary producers to remain in agriculture. Product supply and security focuses on the adequacy of food supplies. Equity is concerned with the spatial and temporal distribution of products dervied from resource use. Many studies into sustainable agriculture cover more than one of these perspectives, indicating the concept is complex and embraces issues relating to the biophysical, social, and economic environments. Clarification of the concept would facilitate the development of frameworks and analytical systems for appraising the sustainability of food production systems.

  2. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  3. Concept of Best Practices in English Language Teaching to Pakistani ELT Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Muhammad Arif; Memon, Natasha; Memon, Shumaila Aijaz

    2016-01-01

    Teaching industry of English as a second or foreign language has grown massively in recent times in Pakistan. There are many public sectors universities and English academies established all over Pakistan offering English language proficiency courses. Therefore, this wave led to conduct this research. The purpose of conducting this study was to…

  4. The "Language Barrier" in Private Online Tutoring: From an Innocuous Concept to a Neoliberal Marketing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The "language barrier" is a common buzzword in Russian-English teaching discourse that has not yet been critically investigated. This study contemplates a recently emerging phenomenon of private online language tutoring in Russia through investigation of this popular phrase. The paper draws on Critical Discourse Analysis to explore…

  5. Textual Concept Critical Analysis: Toward a Research Approach for Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Terry A.; Reagan, Timothy G.; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    When the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS) was founded in 2002 and the journal that is now "Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (CILS)" was in the planning stages, we recognized a need for an interdisciplinary, or perhaps even transdisciplinary (see Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003), venue for the publication of research on language…

  6. Co-Working: Parents' Conception of Roles in Supporting Their Children's Speech and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen E.; Marshall, Julie; Brown, Laura J. E.; Goldbart, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Speech and language therapists' (SLTs) roles include enabling parents to provide intervention. We know little about how parents understand their role during speech and language intervention or whether these change during involvement with SLTs. The theory of conceptual change, applied to parents as adult learners, is used as a framework for…

  7. The Concept of Inclusive Education: Teacher Training and Acquisition of English Language in the Hearing Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamae, Gertrude M.I.; Kang'ethe-Kamau, Rachael W.

    2004-01-01

    Three languages are widely used in schools in Kenya English, Kiswahili and Kenya Sign Language. Many pupils with hearing impairments are taught separately from the mainstream, in specialist settings. The fact that most of the formal teaching, assessment and examination processes in Kenyan schools rely upon spoken and written English compounds the…

  8. Textual Concept Critical Analysis: Toward a Research Approach for Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Terry A.; Reagan, Timothy G.; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    When the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS) was founded in 2002 and the journal that is now "Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (CILS)" was in the planning stages, we recognized a need for an interdisciplinary, or perhaps even transdisciplinary (see Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003), venue for the publication of research on language…

  9. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  10. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  11. The Concept of Competence in the French-Language Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte-Beaudet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The author reports on an exploratory study to establish a semantic base for the concept of competence in the French-speaking literature on education. Doing so will make it possible to identify neighbouring concepts or notions that researchers can use to determine definitions and applications for the concept. The research team found only one…

  12. New Concepts and methods for developing shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen; Bilberg, Arne; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry. The plans for the next generation industrial shop floor and cell controllers are to develop new concepts based on more distributed systems, which are more robust and agile......An industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implementation of computer based control and monitoring systems for production cells. This is primarily documented within automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. In order to support engineering of cell...... control systems by the use of enablers, a generic cell control data model and an architecture has been defined. Further an engineering methodology is defined. It is concluded that cell control technology provides for increased performance in production systems, and that the cell control engineering...

  13. New Concepts and methods for developing shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen; Bilberg, Arne; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    An industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implementation of computer based control and monitoring systems for production cells. This is primarily documented within automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. In order to support engineering of cell...... control systems by the use of enablers, a generic cell control data model and an architecture has been defined. Further an engineering methodology is defined. It is concluded that cell control technology provides for increased performance in production systems, and that the cell control engineering...... concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry. The plans for the next generation industrial shop floor and cell controllers are to develop new concepts based on more distributed systems, which are more robust and agile...

  14. A LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT APPROACH TO DEVELOP URDUIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahid Husain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the era of Information Technology. Today the most important thing is how one gets the right information at right time. More and more data repositories are now being made available online. Information retrieval systems or search engines are used to access electronic information available on the internet. These information retrieval systems depend on the available tools and techniques for efficient retrieval of information content in response to the user query needs. During last few years, a wide range of information in Indian regional languages like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil and Telugu has been made available on web in the form of e-data. But the access to these data repositories is very low because the efficient search engines/retrieval systems supporting these languages are very limited. We have developed a language independent system to facilitate efficient retrieval of information available in Urdu language which can be used for other languages as well. The system gives precision of 0.63 and the recall of the system is 0.8.

  15. The historiographical conceptsystem of philosophy’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    Jacob Brucker (1696-1770) established the history of philosophy as a philosophical discipline in the 1740s. In order to separate this new discipline from other historical disciplines, he introduced the historiographical conceptsystem of philosophy’. The historian of philosophy should use...... this concept as a criterion of inclusion of past philosophies, and as an ideal form of exposition. The present book describes the origin of this historiographical notion, its implicit Protestant assumptions, and it traces the concept’s impact upon the methods of history of philosophy and history of ideas......-555; P. R. Blum, in Intellectual history reivew, vol. 20.2 (2010), pp. 295-297....

  16. Health system guidance appraisal-concept evaluation and usability testing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Health system guidance (HSG) provides recommendations aimed to address health system challenges. However, there is a paucity of methods to direct, appraise, and report HSG. Earlier research identified 30 candidate criteria (concepts) that can be used to evaluate the quality of HSG and guide development and reporting requirements. The objective of this paper was to describe two studies aimed at evaluating the importance of these 30 criteria, design a draft HSG appraisal tool, and te...

  17. Serbian-Albanian language contacts and two types of phonological systems in the Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Vanja S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological systems of the Balkan languages do not correspond to the Balkan language union borders, which can be explained by the difference between "intensive" (morphosyntactic and "extensive" (phonological language unions. In this case, we are dealing with the entrance of the Balkan languages into a wide transitional zone, stretching along the borders of East and Central Europe, and with the coinciding of their phonological systems with the system of Slavic languages known as vowel and consonant types. The same classification into two phonological systems exists in the Balkans too, and between them there are also two transitional borderlines. As known, the mediopalatal order of the "Macedonian" type [k', g', n', ľ] (q, gj, nj, l has been generalized in both the standard Albanian language and most of the Albanian dialects. Albanian [k', g', n', ľ] are, just like their Macedonian counterparts, semi-emancipated palatal correlates of basic [k, g, n, l], as proved by examples of their positional dephonologization and dialectal hardening /n'/ > /n/ [n%], when followed by front vowels. Both semi-soft [n%] and typically Albanian lateral opposition [ł-ŀ] confirm a palatal correlation of these phonemes existing also in the neighboring Serbian dialects. Albanian has undoubtedly affected the rise of these features, be it through an unilateral influence or merely through supporting different phonological development in these old-shtokavian dialects. On the other hand, the same could be said for the affrication of palatovelars [k', g'] > [č, ʒ(], which except in south-west region between Ishmi and Shkumbin, Elbasan and Tirana is present in all other branches of the Ghegian dialect. Wide distribution of this phenomenon excludes the possibility of one-sided Serbian influence while its character – reduction of palatovelars [k', g'] (q, gj and affricates [č, ʒ(] (ç, xh to one semi-soft affricate pair – has a typological and structural parallel in

  18. Integrating technology education concepts into China's educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Faxian

    The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.

  19. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  20. Concept Mapping: Linking Spheres in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, K. P.; Hedley, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) distance learning courses focus teachers on linking spheres of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. The University of Toledo has offered the ESSEA middle school grade course using jigsaw pedagogy nine times since 2002. Traditionally, the ESSEA course has teachers link spheres in linear causal chains. This past year we used concept mapping as a way for the teachers and pre-service students in the class to organize their study of the events: melting of ice sheets, Mt. Pinatubo eruption, Hurricane Katrina and draining of the Great Black Swamp. Concept mapping is a good way to visualize linkages between events and spheres. The outcome was that teachers and pre-service students enjoyed concept mapping, it fostered teamwork and helped with grading the material.

  1. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  2. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran. K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  3. Information technology -- Computer graphics -- Graphical Kernel System (GKS) language bindings -- Part 4: C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1991). Specifies a language independent nucleus of a graphics system. For integration into a programming language, GKS is embedded in a language dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that language. Specifies such a language dependent layer for

  4. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  5. Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.H.

    1998-10-01

    The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

  6. A "Traditional" Linguistic Basis for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents an essentially Bloomfieldian approach to language and language teaching; sees the concept of language as interplay between stimuli and reactions as the basis of a wholly creditable system of teaching, a tremendous number of textbooks, and a large number of language courses." (FB)

  7. Systems design and comparative analysis of large antenna concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual designs are evaluated and comparative analyses conducted for several large antenna spacecraft for Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) communications missions. Structural configurations include trusses, hoop and column and radial rib. The study was conducted using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system. The current capabilities, development status, and near-term plans for the IDEAS system are reviewed. Overall capabilities are highlighted. IDEAS is an integrated system of computer-aided design and analysis software used to rapidly evaluate system concepts and technology needs for future advanced spacecraft such as large antennas, platforms, and space stations. The system was developed at Langley to meet a need for rapid, cost-effective, labor-saving approaches to the design and analysis of numerous missions and total spacecraft system options under consideration. IDEAS consists of about 40 technical modules efficient executive, data-base and file management software, and interactive graphics display capabilities.

  8. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  9. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  10. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  11. A European mobile satellite system concept exploiting CDMA and OBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernucci, A.; Craig, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) concept applicable to networks allowing access to a large number of gateway stations ('Hubs'), utilizing low-cost Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT's). Efficient operation of the Forward-Link (FL) repeater can be achieved by adopting a synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technique, whereby inter-code interference (self-noise) is virtually eliminated by synchronizing orthogonal codes. However, with a transparent FL repeater, the requirements imposed by the highly decentralized ground segment can lead to significant efficiency losses. The adoption of a FL On-Board Processing (OBP) repeater is proposed as a means of largely recovering this efficiency impairment. The paper describes the network architecture, the system design and performance, the OBP functions and impact on implementation. The proposed concept, applicable to a future generation of the European LMSS, was developed in the context of a European Space Agency (ESA) study contract.

  12. An Open-Control Concept for a Holonic Multiagent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emmanuel; Berger, Thierry; Sallez, Yves; Trentesaux, Damien

    MAS are particularly adapted to deal with distributed and dynamic environment. The management of business workflow, or data flow, flexible manufacturing systems is typically a good application field for them. This kind of application requires centralization of the data control and flexibility to face with changes on the network. In the context of FMS, where products and resources entities can be seen as active, this paper presents the open-control concept and gives an example of its instantiation with holonic scheme. The open-control concept proposed in this paper exhibits the classic explicit control, as well as an innovative type of control called implicit control that allows system entities to be influenced via an Optimization Mechanism (OM). We illustrate our proposition by an implementation on a flexible assembly cell in our university.

  13. A concept of a space hazard counteraction system: Astronomical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Kuleshov, Yu. P.; Dubov, Yu. N.; Elkin, K. S.; Veniaminov, S. S.; Borovin, G. K.; Molotov, I. E.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Medvedev, Yu. D.; Shor, V. A.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The basic science of astronomy and, primarily, its branch responsible for studying the Solar System, face the most important practical task posed by nature and the development of human civilization—to study space hazards and to seek methods of counteracting them. In pursuance of the joint Resolution of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) Space Council of June 23, 2010, the RAS Institute of Astronomy in collaboration with other scientific and industrial organizations prepared a draft concept of the federal-level program targeted at creating a system of space hazard detection and counteraction. The main ideas and astronomical content of the concept are considered in this article.

  14. CONCEPTS OF GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY APPLIED ON GOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Onete

    2007-01-01

    The General Systems Theory is one of the most important points of view nowadays. Now, its concepts could be applied in a various number of sciences including Consumer Sciences. The complexity of the product, the different way in which it can be seen and also the exponentially diversifying assortment requires another approach to the product, through models. This approach must take into account certain particularities which do not appear in a regular modelling

  15. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    A sound basis to guide the community in the conception and implementation of ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) capability in operational systems was provided. The concept of "ISHM Model of a System" and a related architecture defined as a unique Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIaK) architecture were described. The ISHM architecture is independent of the typical system architecture, which is based on grouping physical elements that are assembled to make up a subsystem, and subsystems combine to form systems, etc. It was emphasized that ISHM capability needs to be implemented first at a low functional capability level (FCL), or limited ability to detect anomalies, diagnose, determine consequences, etc. As algorithms and tools to augment or improve the FCL are identified, they should be incorporated into the system. This means that the architecture, DIaK management, and software, must be modular and standards-based, in order to enable systematic augmentation of FCL (no ad-hoc modifications). A set of technologies (and tools) needed to implement ISHM were described. One essential tool is a software environment to create the ISHM Model. The software environment encapsulates DIaK, and an infrastructure to focus DIaK on determining health (detect anomalies, determine causes, determine effects, and provide integrated awareness of the system to the operator). The environment includes gateways to communicate in accordance to standards, specially the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators.

  16. Culturally sensitive adaptation of the concept of relational communication therapy as a support to language development: An exploratory study in collaboration with a Tanzanian orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Ulrike

    2016-11-07

    Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT) as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training. A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT. The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher. The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.

  17. Classification and closure properties of languages for describing concurrent system behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szijarto, M.

    1981-01-01

    The correspondence between sequential program schemes and formal languages is well known. The situation is more complicated in the case of parallel program schemes, and trace languages have been introduced to describe them. The author introduces the concept of the closure of a language on a so called independence relation on the alphabet of the language, and formulate several theorems about them and the trace languages. He investigates the closedness properties of Chomsky classes under closure on independence relations, and as a special case we derive a new necessary and sufficient condition for the regularity of the commutative closure of a language. 12 references.

  18. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik; Scott W. Ducharme; Avelino C. Amado; Joseph Hamill

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short-and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  19. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  20. Proof of Concept for a Novel Curriculum: Learning a Second Language during Anesthesiology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kate Mitchell; Macias, Alvaro Andres; Lekowski, Robert; Concepcion, Mercedes; Zeballos, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a novel curriculum for anesthesiology residents matriculating through Brigham and Women's Department of Anesthesiology. It is offered electively and provides physician residents with time to acquire language skills through a medically-focused immersion program abroad. It is designed for them to learn or improve a second language and then to speak it while practicing perioperative medicine. Ultimately, the elective curriculum will equip future anesthesiologists with the communication tools to deliver professional and compassionate patient care both within the United States and internationally.

  1. Healthcare system information at language schools for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries’ healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Method: Immigrants attending...... a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received either a course or written information on the Danish healthcare system and subsequently evaluated this quantitatively. Results: The evaluation revealed a positive appraisal of the course/information provided. Conclusion: In times of austerity, incorporating...

  2. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Burkart, Florian; Goddard, Brennan; Kramer, Thomas; Lechner, Anton; Sanz Ull, Alejandro; Schmidt, Rudiger; Stoel, Linda; Ostojic, Ranko; Rodziewicz, Janusz Pawel; van Trappen, Pieter; Barna, Dani

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  3. The systems approach in developmental psychology: fundamental concepts and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tinajero

    Full Text Available Developmental Psychology seems to have come to an unifying theoretical framework which may make feasible to overcome the fragmentation so frequently referred to within the discipline. This is indicated by the widespread support being given to the systems approach, enriched by dialectic and contextual postulates. In this article, we briefly review the antecedents of this approach and explore its core concepts, indicating their roots and the precise way in which they are applied to developmental analyses today. We also examine the implications of the systems approach for developmental investigation, and its challenges.

  4. Data management software concept for WEST plasma measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, P.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasinski, P.; Cieszewski, R.; Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Juszczyk, B.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the concept of data management software for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector used in WEST Plasma experiment. The proposed system consists of three separate communication channels: fast data channel, diagnostics channel, slow data channel. Fast data channel is provided by the FPGA with integrated ARM cores providing direct readout data from Analog Front Ends through 10GbE with short, guaranteed intervals. Slow data channel is provided by multiple, fast CPUs after data processing with detailed readout data with use of GNU/Linux OS and appropriate software. Diagnostic channel provides detailed feedback for control purposes.

  5. SoOSiM: Operating System and Programming Language Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, Christiaan; Kuper, Jan; Schubert, Lutz; Lipari, G.; Cucinotta, T.

    2012-01-01

    SoOSiM is a simulator developed for the purpose of exploring operating system concepts and operating system modules. The simulator provides a highly abstracted view of a computing system, consisting of computing nodes, and components that are concurrently executed on these nodes. OS modules are subs

  6. SoOSiM: Operating System and Programming Language Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.P.R.; Kuper, Jan; Schubert, Lutz; Lipari, G.; Cucinotta, T.

    2012-01-01

    SoOSiM is a simulator developed for the purpose of exploring operating system concepts and operating system modules. The simulator provides a highly abstracted view of a computing system, consisting of computing nodes, and components that are concurrently executed on these nodes. OS modules are

  7. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, System Engineering Needs. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    support, executable specification, quality assessment), management support, and communications (especially for organizationally or geographically ...34* Technical Management Plan (equivalent to SEMP) "* New Program Startup Guide "* System Specification "* Segement Specifications "* Design Analysis

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  9. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  10. The historiographical conceptsystem of philosophy’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    this concept as a criterion of inclusion of past philosophies, and as an ideal form of exposition. The present book describes the origin of this historiographical notion, its implicit Protestant assumptions, and it traces the concept’s impact upon the methods of history of philosophy and history of ideas......Jacob Brucker (1696-1770) established the history of philosophy as a philosophical discipline in the 1740s. In order to separate this new discipline from other historical disciplines, he introduced the historiographical conceptsystem of philosophy’. The historian of philosophy should use......, as developed over the following centuries. Finally, it discusses the concept’s strenghts and weaknesses as a historiographical tool, arguing that it ought to be given up. Anmeldelser: M. Sgarbi, in Historia philosophica, vol. 7 (2009), pp. 158-160; D. v. W., in Bruniana & Campanelliana, XV, 2009/2, pp. 554...

  11. Educationally Critical Aspects of the Concept of an Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cope

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study is reported which identified and compared a deep understanding of the concept of an information system (IS with the various levels of understanding of a group of undergraduate IS students. The aim was to identify the educationally critical aspects of the deep understanding. The study was significant in that the educationally critical aspects are not known, yet have significant implications for IS education and practice. Without addressing the critical aspects in teaching and learning about IS the development of an appropriate deep understanding by students is unlikely. The production of entry-level IS practitioners without a deep understanding of the concept of an IS is logically likely to have adverse implications for IS development projects.

  12. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  13. A Constructive Teaching Model in Learning Research Concept for English Language Teaching Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2015-01-01

    This is a study to focus on analyzing the use of constructive teaching method toward the students' motivation in learning content subject of Introduction to Research of English Language Teaching. By using a mix-method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the data are collected by using questionnaire and classroom observation. The…

  14. A Historical Overview on the Concept of Validity in Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamavandy, Mehraban; Kiany, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview on language test validation theories, especially the Messickian view on construct validity and the way it's been translated into practice. First, a brief historical synopsis will be set forth, followed by recent views on test validity as advanced by Messick and Kane. The review goes on to lay out the similarities…

  15. Using a foundational ontology to investigate the semantics behind the concepts of the i* language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Franch, Xavier; Guizzardi, G.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Castro, J.; Horkhoff, J.; Maiden, N.; Yu, E.

    In the past few years, the community that develops i* has become aware of the problem of having so many variants, since it makes it difficult for newcomers to learn how to use the language and even to experts to efficiently exchange knowledge and disseminate their proposals. Moreover, this problem

  16. Using a foundational ontology to investigate the semantics behind the concepts of the i* language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, Renata; Franch, Xavier; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Wieringa, Roel; Castro, J.; Horkhoff, J.; Maiden, N.; Yu, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, the community that develops i* has become aware of the problem of having so many variants, since it makes it difficult for newcomers to learn how to use the language and even to experts to efficiently exchange knowledge and disseminate their proposals. Moreover, this problem a

  17. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  18. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  19. Measuring e-learning system success: language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Simone Verena

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to develop and validate a comprehensive instrument for assessing e-learning systems success in the context of language learning. Based on a systematic review of literature a questionnaire was generated, empirically validated and successively improved.

  20. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  1. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  2. Usable, Real-Time, Interactive Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    data coming from MIT. 1,289 utterances were truncated or contained word fragments due to stuttering . Many more contained various nonspeech sounds...performed well. Delphi has also been ported to a spuken language demonstrcation system in an Air Force Resource Management domain. We disc~ iss results of

  3. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  4. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  5. The Concept of Authenticity in Language Testing%语言测试中的真实性概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月

    2014-01-01

    语言测试的“真实性”一直以来是一个颇具争议的概念。本文将从命题的真实性以及评价的真实性两个方面对语言测试的真实性概念进行解析。本文提倡更多的测试研究者以及广大的外语教师能够从不同角度深入研究真实性概念,构建更全面系统的理论框架,进行更多的实证性研究。%Authenticity in language testing has always been a controversial concept. This paper will analyze it from two as-pects, namely the authenticity of proposition and evaluation. The paper advocates more testing researchers and foreign lan-guage teachers can dig into the concept of authenticity from different perspectives, construct overall and systematic theoreti-cal framework and conduct more empirical studies.

  6. Predicting Garden Path Sentences Based on Natural Language Understanding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jia-li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural language understanding (NLU focusing onmachine reading comprehension is a branch of natural language processing (NLP. The domain of the developing NLU system covers from sentence decoding to text understanding and the automatic decoding of GP sentence belongs to the domain of NLU system. GP sentence is a special linguistic phenomenon in which processing breakdown and backtracking are two key features. Ifthe syntax-based system can present the special features of GP sentence and decode GP sentence completely and perfectly, NLU system can improve the effectiveness and develop the understanding skill greatly. On the one hand, by means of showing Octav Popescu’s model of NLU system, we argue that the emphasis on the integration of syntactic, semantic and cognitive backgrounds in system is necessary. On the other hand, we focus on the programming skill of IF-THEN-ELSE statement used in N-S flowchart and highlight the function of context free grammar (CFG created to decode GP sentence. On the basis of example-based analysis, we reach the conclusion that syntaxbased machine comprehension is technically feasible and semantically acceptable, and that N-S flowchart and CFG can help NLU system present the decoding procedure of GP sentence successfully. In short, syntax-based NLU system can bring a deeper understanding of GP sentence and thus paves the way for further development of syntax-based natural language processing and artificial intelligence.

  7. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  8. Conception Innovation Design System Based on PDM Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANWu-zheng; MALi-zhuang; ZHAOMing-xi; XIAOShuang-jiu

    2004-01-01

    The system is based on the globally shared product model conforming to VRML Standard, and uses SmarTeam (PDM) system to integrate and encapsulate CAD, CAE and other application software for product development. The system takes sugarcane harvester, mobile telephone design analysis and evaluation as an example, and utilizes fuzzy evaluation principle to evaluate the design and simulation analysis results for decisions making. The platform provides a collaborative intelligent environment for the design of products, aiming at integrating people, process and data in the virtual product development. The multi-layered system architecture provides capability for KBM and conception innovation design process with a single unified data and process model so as to achieve true process streamlining and data integrity throughout the entire product development lifecycle, and hence improves enterprises efficiency.

  9. Defining pharmaceutical systems strengthening: concepts to enable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Tamara; Walkowiak, Helena; Lee, David; Aboagye-Nyame, Francis

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical products are indispensable for improving health outcomes. An extensive body of work on access to and use of medicines has resulted in an assortment of tools measuring various elements of pharmaceutical systems. Until now however, there has been little attempt to conceptualize a pharmaceutical system as an entity and define its strengthening in a way that allows for measuring systems strengthening. The narrow focus of available tools limits their value in ascertaining which interventions result in stronger, more resilient systems. We sought to address this shortcoming by revisiting the current definitions, frameworks and assessment tools related to pharmaceutical systems. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and consulted with select pharmaceutical experts. On the basis of our review, we propose that a pharmaceutical system consists of all structures, people, resources, processes, and their interactions within the broader health system that aim to ensure equitable and timely access to safe, effective, quality pharmaceutical products and related services that promote their appropriate and cost-effective use to improve health outcomes. We further propose that pharmaceutical systems strengthening is the process of identifying and implementing strategies and actions that achieve coordinated and sustainable improvements in the critical components of a pharmaceutical system to make it more responsive and resilient and to enhance its performance for achieving better health outcomes. Finally, we established that, in addition to system performance and resilience, seven components of the pharmaceutical system are critical for measuring pharmaceutical systems strengthening: pharmaceutical products and related services; policy, laws and governance; regulatory systems; innovation, research and development, manufacturing, and trade; financing; human resources; and information. This work adds clarity to the concept of pharmaceutical systems and their

  10. Control and Systems Concepts in the Innovation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The idea for this article and the associated feature articles in this special section come from two sources. The first is the opinion, shared by many control experts, that, while our subject has achieved much in its short history, it is now time to seek new directions and a new identity. The second source is my experience over the past 30 years with multidisciplinary R&D; I have seen that control systems methods can contribute to the development of new products and processes in a broader sense than the traditional design of feedback control loops.In some specific incidents, key innovative steps were made by taking a generalized control systems view. Interestingly, in most cases the control analyst, rather than making the key inventive steps, acted as a scientific facilitator by linking the skills of team members via the common languages of control systems, including modeling, simulation, and dynamic analysis. These experiences led me to reflect on searches for new directions in control and to question whether control systems analysts and educators should reposition control as a general systems science that can assist innovation in our industries, much in the same way that Wiener placed control at the heart of his cybernetic vision. This idea led to a further questioning of the sense in which innovation itself is a systematic process and therefore susceptible to control systems analysis.

  11. ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THEORY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS, METHODS AND RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lei

    2003-01-01

    The adaptive systems theory to be presented in this paper consists of two closely related parts: adaptive estimation (or filtering, prediction) and adaptive control of dynamical systems. Both adaptive estimation and control are nonlinear mappings of the on-line observed signals of dynamical systems, where the main features are the uncertainties in both the system's structure and external disturbances, and the non-stationarity and dependency of the system signals. Thus, a key difficulty in establishing a mathematical theory of adaptive systems lies in how to deal with complicated nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems which describe the adaptation processes. In this paper, we will illustrate some of the basic concepts, methods and results through some simple examples. The following fundamental questions will be discussed: How much information is needed for estimation? How to deal with uncertainty by adaptation? How to analyze an adaptive system? What are the convergence or tracking performances of adaptation? How to find the proper rate of adaptation in some sense? We will also explore the following more fundamental questions: How much uncertainty can be dealt with by adaptation ? What are the limitations of adaptation ? How does the performance of adaptation depend on the prior information ? We will partially answer these questions by finding some "critical values" and establishing some "Impossibility Theorems" for the capability of adaptation, for several basic classes of nonlinear dynamical control systems with either parametric or nonparametric uncertainties.

  12. A system dynamics approach to understanding the One Health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tai; Liu, Wenbao; Anderson, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaorong; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    There have been many terms used to describe the One Health concept, including movement, strategy, framework, agenda, approach, among others. However, the inter-relationships of the disciplines engaged in the One Health concept have not been well described. To identify and better elucidate the internal feedback mechanisms of One Health, we employed a system dynamics approach. First, a systematic literature review was conducted via searches in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest with the search terms: 'One Health' and (concept* or approach*). In addition, we used the HistCite® tool to add significant articles on One Health to the library. Then, of the 2368 articles identified, 19 were selected for evaluating the inter-relationships of disciplines engaged in One Health. Herein, we report a visually rich, theoretical model regarding interactions of various disciplines and complex problem descriptors engaged in One Health problem solving. This report provides a conceptual framework for future descriptions of the interdisciplinary engagements involved in One Health.

  13. The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Specification Language NUJSL Based on JSP and Its Supporting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永森; 何飚

    1992-01-01

    is paper presents the specification languange NUJSL and its supporting system.NUJSL is a modular specification language based on Jackson Program Design Method(JSP).With the module construction,it is convenient to use NUJSL to write larger specifications.The supporting system supports the incremental development of software specification in NUJSL,and implements the transformation both from specification to software procedural description in Jackson Schematic Logic(pseudo code)and from procedural description to PASCAL program.

  15. Space Telecommunications Radio System Software Architecture Concepts and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.; Briones, Janette C.; Blaser, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project investigated various Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures for Space. An STRS architecture has been selected that separates the STRS operating environment from its various waveforms and also abstracts any specialized hardware to limit its effect on the operating environment. The design supports software evolution where new functionality is incorporated into the radio. Radio hardware functionality has been moving from hardware based ASICs into firmware and software based processors such as FPGAs, DSPs and General Purpose Processors (GPPs). Use cases capture the requirements of a system by describing how the system should interact with the users or other systems (the actors) to achieve a specific goal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to illustrate the Use Cases in a variety of ways. The Top Level Use Case diagram shows groupings of the use cases and how the actors are involved. The state diagrams depict the various states that a system or object may be in and the transitions between those states. The sequence diagrams show the main flow of activity as described in the use cases.

  16. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  17. Integrating the Concept of Sustainable Development into English Language Curriculum of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Petkutė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to present and discuss practical implementation of the objectives of the project Sustainable Living Environment carried out at the Faculty of Environmental Engineering of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU. The project is a response to a commonly articulated and acknowledged need to infuse sustainable development principles into traditional curricula of all levels of education to pursue goals of sustainable development. Thus, the present study aims to take an account of the increasing role of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD in a globalized world and define how the implimentation of the ESD objectives changes teaching/learning patterns at a university of technology. Moreover, it offers an interdisciplinary curriculum scheme for teaching/learning English as a second language for Environmental Engineering as an efficient means to integrate principles of sustainable development into language classroom.

  18. ESTONIAN TRACES IN THE TREE OF LIFE CONCEPT AND IN THE LANGUAGE FAMILY TREE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Sutrop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the tree model – a well-formed tree is shortly described. After that the language family tree model by August Schleicher is treated and compared with the Charles Darwin’s tree of life diagram and metaphor. The development of the idea of the linguistic trees and the tree of life is considered historically. Earlier models – scala naturae – and tree models, both well-formed and not-well-formed are introduced. Special attention is paid to the scholars connected to Estonia who developed the idea of tree models: Georg Stiernhielm was the first who pictured a language tree already in 1671; Karl Eduard Eichwald published an early tree of animal life in 1829; and Karl Ernst von Baer influenced the tree of life models and diagrams of Charles Darwin.

  19. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  20. The Federated Satellite Systems paradigm: Concept and business case evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Alessandro; Lluch i Cruz, Ignasi

    2015-06-01

    This paper defines the paradigm of Federated Satellite Systems (FSS) as a novel distributed space systems architecture. FSS are networks of spacecraft trading previously inefficiently allocated and unused resources such as downlink bandwidth, storage, processing power, and instrument time. FSS holds the promise to enhance cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of existing and future space missions, by networking different missions and effectively creating a pool of resources to exchange between participants in the federation. This paper introduces and describes the FSS paradigm, and develops an approach integrating mission analysis and economic assessments to evaluate the feasibility of the business case of FSS. The approach is demonstrated on a case study on opportunities enabled by FSS to enhance space exploration programs, with particular reference to the International Space Station. The application of the proposed methodology shows that the FSS concept is potentially able to create large commercial markets of in-space resources, by providing the technical platform to offer the opportunity for spacecraft to share or make use of unused resources within their orbital neighborhood. It is shown how the concept is beneficial to satellite operators, space agencies, and other stakeholders of the space industry to more flexibly interoperate space systems as a portfolio of assets, allowing unprecedented collaboration among heterogeneous types of missions.

  1. Systems and software variability management concepts, tools and experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Capilla, Rafael; Kang, Kyo-Chul

    2013-01-01

    The success of product line engineering techniques in the last 15 years has popularized the use of software variability as a key modeling approach for describing the commonality and variability of systems at all stages of the software lifecycle. Software product lines enable a family of products to share a common core platform, while allowing for product specific functionality being built on top of the platform. Many companies have exploited the concept of software product lines to increase the resources that focus on highly differentiating functionality and thus improve their competitiveness

  2. Access Safety Systems – New Concepts from the LHC Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Ladzinski, T; di Luca, S; Hakulinen, T; Hammouti, L; Riesco, T; Nunes, R; Ninin, P; Juget, J-F; Havart, F; Valentini, F; Sanchez-Corral Mena, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC Access Safety System has introduced a number of new concepts into the domain of personnel protection at CERN. These can be grouped into several categories: organisational, architectural and concerning the end-user experience. By anchoring the project on the solid foundations of the IEC 61508/61511 methodology, the CERN team and its contractors managed to design, develop, test and commission on time a SIL3 safety system. The system uses a successful combination of the latest Siemens redundant safety programmable logic controllers with a traditional relay logic hardwired loop. The external envelope barriers used in the LHC include personnel and material access devices, which are interlocked door-booths introducing increased automation of individual access control, thus removing the strain from the operators. These devices ensure the inviolability of the controlled zones by users not holding the required credentials. To this end they are equipped with personnel presence detectors and th...

  3. An Intelligent Natural Language Conversational System for Academic Advising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Latorre-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic advisors assist students in academic, professional, social and personal matters. Successful advising increases student retention, improves graduation rates and helps students meet educational goals. This work presents an advising system that assists advisors in multiple tasks using natural language. This system features a conversational agent as the user interface, an academic advising knowledge base with a method to allow the users to contribute to it, an expert system for academic planning, and a web design structure for the implementation platform. The system is operational for several hundred students from a university department. The system performed well, obtaining close to 80%, on the traditional language processing measures of precision, recall, accuracy and F1 score. Assessment from the constituencies showed positive and assuring reviews. This work provides an assessment and technological solution to the academic advising field, i.e., the first-known advising multi-task conversational system with adaptive measures for improvement. The evaluation in a real-world scenario shows its viability, and initiated the development of a corpus for academic advising, valuable for the academic and language processing research communities.

  4. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  5. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  6. The FlexControl concept - a vision, a concept and a product for the future power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2011-01-01

    FlexControl is a vision, a concept and a product – a vision for the control of future power systems based on renewable energy and distributed control, a generic concept for smart control of many power units and ‘product’ implementations of the concept in different applications. The general...... development trends for power system towards more stochastic power generation from wind and solar, more distributed generation and control, and the introduction of demand responses from a huge number of small, flexible loads, require new architecture, design and means of controlling of the power system...... in order to maintain the power balances and the high security of supply and power quality in all parts of the grid. FlexControl is a flexible, modular, scalable and generic control concept designed for smart control of a huge number of distributed, controllable power units (DERs) in the power system. Flex...

  7. System design in an evolving system-of-systems architecture and concept of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovekamp, Roger N., Jr.

    Proposals for space exploration architectures have increased in complexity and scope. Constituent systems (e.g., rovers, habitats, in-situ resource utilization facilities, transfer vehicles, etc) must meet the needs of these architectures by performing in multiple operational environments and across multiple phases of the architecture's evolution. This thesis proposes an approach for using system-of-systems engineering principles in conjunction with system design methods (e.g., Multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, etc) to create system design options that perform effectively at both the system and system-of-systems levels, across multiple concepts of operations, and over multiple architectural phases. The framework is presented by way of an application problem that investigates the design of power systems within a power sharing architecture for use in a human Lunar Surface Exploration Campaign. A computer model has been developed that uses candidate power grid distribution solutions for a notional lunar base. The agent-based model utilizes virtual control agents to manage the interactions of various exploration and infrastructure agents. The philosophy behind the model is based both on lunar power supply strategies proposed in literature, as well as on the author's own approaches for power distribution strategies of future lunar bases. In addition to proposing a framework for system design, further implications of system-of-systems engineering principles are briefly explored, specifically as they relate to producing more robust cross-cultural system-of-systems architecture solutions.

  8. Domain-specific languages for enterprise systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Bahr, Patrick; Henglein, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The process-oriented event-driven transaction systems (POETS) architecture introduced by Henglein et al. is a novel software architecture for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. POETS employs a pragmatic separation between (i) transactional data, that is, what has happened; (ii) reports...... adaptability and customisation. In this paper we present an implementation of a generalised and extended variant of the POETS architecture. The extensions amount to a customisable data model based on nominal subtyping; support for run-time changes to the data model, reports and contracts, while retaining full...... auditability; and support for referable data that may evolve over time, also while retaining full auditability as well as referential integrity. Besides the revised architecture, we present the DSLs used to specify data definitions, reports, and contracts respectively. Finally, we illustrate a use case...

  9. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  10. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  11. Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations. Intercultural Studies and Foreign Language Learning. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Arnd, Ed.; Harden, Theo, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the idea of "intercultural competence", which, despite its current popularity across various discourses, has remained a vague and oscillating concept. Interculture lacks a universal definition and "competence" is not only a cognitive construct but also includes psychological traits such as attitudes, affective aspects and…

  12. A highly innovative global broadband mobile communication system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Manfred

    2010-04-01

    Global mobile communication systems deployed in the 1990s (Iridium and Globalstar) failed to achieve the expected market success. However, recently a second generation of these two LEO constellations have been or will be procured. This shows evidence that global mobile satellite communications are attractive for a certain class of users. Basic requirements for mobile satellite communication networks are global coverage at high elevation angles, continuous availability and most important attractive service offers. For the first two reasons LEO constellations were designed and deployed. The large number of required satellites (remember the original Teledesic concept was designed containing 860 satellites) increases the CAPEX and consequently the service cost. This is probably the major reason for the limited commercial success of Iridium and Globalstar. An ideal global mobile (broadband) communication system shall provide global coverage at high elevation angles (not below e.g. 30°) with the lowest number of satellites. This seems to be contradictory. However, a solution will be presented that achieves global coverage which requires only five satellites and achieves high elevation angles even at polar locations. This orbit constellation is to be complemented with innovative payloads to achieve cost efficient broadband mobile services all over the Globe. Innovative L/S-band payload concepts will be introduced as well as Ka-band payloads.

  13. Laboratory Information Management Systems--part I. Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, R D; Pearce, J C; Murkitt, G S

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical survey is to give a summary of some of the main design features that can be incorporated into a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS), in the context of the total automation of the laboratory. Additionally it will give potential purchasers of such systems some essential background knowledge and a summary of our experiences. The survey is presented in two parts: the first covers the features and the possible concepts that could be used in a LIMS system. This is followed in the second part by an outline of the stages of acquisition, validation and benefits of such a system. Together the two articles provide the information required to aid the design and installation of a LIMS. This first section deals with the possible features that a laboratory could include when contemplating the installation of such a system: the basic tools that are required for a LIMS, the database and the computer equipment are discussed. This is followed by the interfacing of analytical instruments and central versus distributed processor philosophy. The various screen formats available and the use of bar codes as a means of identifying samples and for rapid data entry into the computer system are discussed.

  14. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages.

  15. An ideal L2 self intervention: implications for self-concept, motivation annd engagement with the target language

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    [eng] Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009a) proposal of the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) reconceptualised L2 learning motivation within the framework of possible self theories (Markus & Nurius, 1986) in order to address growing concerns in the field with the construct of integrativeness (Gardner & Lambert, 1959), whose underlying principle (the wish to identify with the community of the language being learnt) was losing relevance in a globalized world, and to explain L2 motivation in contexts where ...

  16. Physics of the mind: Concepts, emotions, language, cognition, consciousness, beauty, music, and symbolic culture

    OpenAIRE

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical approaches to modeling the mind since the 1950s are reviewed. Difficulties faced by these approaches are related to the fundamental incompleteness of logic discovered by K. G\\"odel. A recent mathematical advancement, dynamic logic (DL) overcame these past difficulties. DL is described conceptually and related to neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy. DL models higher cognitive functions: concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination, intuition, c...

  17. Concept of an Accelerator-Driven Advanced Nuclear Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of clean energy is a matter of primary importance for sustainable development as well as a vital approach for solving worldwide energy-related issues. If the low utilization rate of nuclear fuel, nuclear proliferation, and insufficient nuclear safety can be solved, nuclear fission energy could be used as a sustainable and low-carbon clean energy form for thousands of years, providing steady and base-load electrical resources. To address these challenges, we propose an accelerator-driven advanced nuclear energy system (ADANES, consisting of a burner system and a fuel recycle system. In ADANES, the ideal utilization rate of nuclear fuel will be >95%, and the final disposal of nuclear waste will be minimized. The design of a high-temperature ceramic reactor makes the burner system safer. Part of fission products (FPs are removed during the simple reprocessing in the fuel recycle system, significantly reducing the risks of nuclear proliferation of nuclear technology and materials. The ADANES concept integrates nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear fuel breeding, and safety power production, with an ideal closed loop operation of nuclear fission energy, constituting a major innovation of great potential interest for future energy applications.

  18. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  19. An Avatar-Based Italian Sign Language Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletto, Andrea; Prinetto, Paolo; Tiotto, Gabriele

    In this paper, we present an experimental system that supports the translation from Italian to Italian Sign Language (ISL) of the deaf and its visualization through a virtual character. Our objective is to develop a complete platform useful for any application and reusable on several platforms including Web, Digital Television and offline text translation. The system relies on a database that stores both a corpus of Italian words and words coded in the ISL notation system. An interface for the insertion of data is implemented, that allows future extensions and integrations.

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  1. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  2. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  3. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  4. Satellite power system. Concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The Reference System description emphasizes technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies. Supporting information has been developed according to a guideline of implementing two 5 GW SPS systems per year for 30 years beginning with an initial operational data of 2000 and with SPS's being added at the rate of two per year (10 GW/year) until 2030. The Reference System concept, which features gallium--aluminum--arsenide (GaAlAs) and silicon solar cell options, is described in detail. The concept utilizes a planar solar array (about 55 km/sup 2/) built on a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic structure. The silicon array uses a concentration ratio of one (no concentration), whereas the GaAlAs array uses a concentration ratio of two. A one-kilometer diameter phased array microwave antenna is mounted on one end. The antenna uses klystrons as power amplifiers with slotted waveguides as radiating elements. The satellite is constructed in geosynchronous orbit in a six-month period. The ground receiving stations (rectenna) are completed during the same time period. The other two major components of an SPS program are (1) the construction bases in space and launch and mission control bases on earth and (2) fleets of various transportation vehicles that support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites. These transportation vehicles include Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV), Personnel Launch Vehicles (PLV), Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicles (COTV), and Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicles (POTV). The earth launch site chosen is the Kennedy Space Center, pending further study.

  5. The Fuzzy and Compartment System Concept for the Communication System Taking Account of the Handicapped Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Aruga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the previous papers the process of structuring the Life support system to consider the essential meaning of the ubiquitous system has been presented. There the Life support system is shown as it is synthesized from the Expanded EMR and on the basis of such an essential concept of the ubiquitous system as it is in the recovery of lost functions of ordinary persons. The Life support system has been described to be synthesized with embedding the communication system for the handicapped people as a module, and as such an example of the embedded comunication system as a module the "YUBITSUKIYI" system has been described. Considering the synthesis of the Life support system the transmission structure of information of this system has been needed to be studied, and there some concepts over the ordinary Shannon

  6. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  7. For a Comparative Systematics of Romance Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis BEGIONI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to renew the comparative approach of neighboring languages especiallyromance. Without denying the achievements of the comparative grammar of languages andadvanced scientific research in language typology, it wants to set new linguistic principles that puton the same level diachrony and synchrony within a linguistic system based largely on thepsychomechanics of language of Gustave Guillaume particularly notions of system and deflexivity.This approach allows to integrate sociolinguistic approaches with the concept of "microdiachrony"for describing a language system to a given state language as a system in perpetual instability.

  8. Spatial Modulation Concept for Massive Multiuser MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Humadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of spatial modulation (SM scheme for massive multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO system. We consider a MU-MIMO system where K users, each equipped with multiple antennas, are jointly serviced by a multiantenna base station transmitter (BSTx using appropriate precoding scheme at the BSTx. The main idea introduced here is the utilization of the user’s subchannel index corresponding to the precoding matrix used at the BSTx, to convey extra useful information. This idea has not been explored, and it provides significant throughput enhancements in a multiuser system with large number of users. We examine the performance of the proposed scheme by numerical simulations. The results show that as the number of users and the receiving antennas for each user increase, the overall system throughput gets better, albeit at the cost of some degradation in the BER performance due to interantenna interference (IAI experienced at the receiver. We then explore zero-padding approach that helps to remove these IAI, in order to alleviate the BER degradations.

  9. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  10. Culturally sensitive adaptation of the concept of relational communication therapy as a support to language development: An exploratory study in collaboration with a Tanzanian orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schütte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training.Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT.Results: The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher.Conclusion: The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.

  11. System Concept Design for the New Worlds Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Cash, W.

    2003-12-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a proposed space mission to provide high resolution spectroscopy from the far UV to the near IR of extra-solar terrestrial sized planets. The design of NWO is based on the concept of a large space-based pinhole camera made up of two spacecraft flying in formation. The first spacecraft is a large, thin occulting shield (perhaps 100's of meters in diameter) with a ``pinhole'' aperture about 10m in diameter. The second spacecraft is a conventional-quality space telescope (possibly with a 10m primary mirror) which "flies" in the focal plane of the camera to observe the image of the extra-solar planets. In this paper we describe the design of the two spacecraft system. In particular, the pinhole design utilizes the shaped pupil coronagraph pioneered for the Terrestrial Planet Finder. We describe the analysis and design of shaped ``pinholes'' to achieve the high contrast necessary for planet finding.

  12. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  13. Concepts and mechanisms of generalized central nervous system arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Donald; Ribeiro, Ana; Matthews, James; Kow, Lee-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in medicine and public health, including vegetative states, attentional disorders, depression, occupational hazards, and problems with sleep and anesthesia. Some of its known mechanisms are briefly reviewed, at the levels of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and functional genomics. Generalized arousal contributes to the excitement and the activation of behaviors during specific arousal states. Data are summarized for four genomic/neurochemical systems through which changes in generalized arousal could affect sexual arousal, two of which heighten, and the other two of which reduce arousal.

  14. Progress on Concepts for Next-Generation Drop Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM about 100 scientists, engineers, and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important research center for space sciences and technologies in Europe. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM's ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10-6 g (microgravity), which is one of the best achievable for ground-based flight opportunities. Scientists may choose up to three times a day between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and an experiment in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system with 9.3 s in weightlessness. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 7500 drops or catapult launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like fundamental physics, combustion, fluid dynamics, planetary formation / astrophysics, biology and materials sciences have been accomplished so far. In addition, more and more technology tests have been conducted under microgravity conditions at the Bremen Drop Tower in order to effectively prepare appropriate space missions in advance. In this paper we report on the progress on concepts for next-generation drop tower systems based on the GraviTower idea utilizing a guided electro-magnetic linear drive. Alternative concepts motivated by the scientific demand for higher

  15. “What language does global business speak?” – The concept and development of BELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kankaanranta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of the concept of BELF, which originally stood for “Business English as Lingua Franca”, but later we have used the abbreviation to refer to “English as Business Lingua Franca”. With this change we want to emphasize the domain of use rather than the type of English. The concept of BELF originates from two large research projects conducted at the Aalto University School of Business from 2000 to 2009. The projects were inspired by research into English as a Lingua Franca (ELF and, from that perspective, they set on exploring the language and communication practices of internationally operating business professionals. The findings of the projects showed how the domain of business, and particularly its goal-oriented nature, was significant for BELF discourse and for the perceptions of BELF communication of the practitioners themselves. Overall, it can be argued that for BELF speakers, grammatical correctness is not nearly as important as the genre knowledge of their own specific field of expertise, involving a shared understanding of what, why, how and when to communicate. Thus, we argue that professional competence in today’s global business environment involves communication knowhow as an integral element of business knowhow. Further, in an international context, competence in BELF is a necessity.

  16. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following

  17. Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstädter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Großschedl, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students' system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students' performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  18. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  19. Syllable Analysis to Build a Dictation System in Telugu language

    CERN Document Server

    Kalyani, N

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, Speech interactive systems gained increasing importance. To develop Dictation System like Dragon for Indian languages it is most important to adapt the system to a speaker with minimum training. In this paper we focus on the importance of creating speech database at syllable units and identifying minimum text to be considered while training any speech recognition system. There are systems developed for continuous speech recognition in English and in few Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil. This paper gives the statistical details of syllables in Telugu and its use in minimizing the search space during recognition of speech. The minimum words that cover maximum syllables are identified. This words list can be used for preparing a small text which can be used for collecting speech sample while training the dictation system. The results are plotted for frequency of syllables and the number of syllables in each word. This approach is applied on the CIIL Mysore text corpus which is of 3 millio...

  20. Syllable Analysis to Build a Dictation System in Telugu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalyani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Speech interactive systems gained increasing importance. To develop Dictation System like Dragon for Indian languages it is most important to adapt the system to a speaker with minimum training. In this paper we focus on the importance of creating speech database at syllable units and identifying minimum text to be considered while training any speech recognition system. There are systems developed for continuous speech recognition in English and in few Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil. This paper gives the statistical details of syllables in Telugu and its use in minimizing the search space during recognition of speech. The minimum words that cover maximum syllables are identified. This words list can be used for preparing a small text which can be used for collecting speech sample while training the dictation system. The results are plotted for frequency of syllables and the number of syllables in each word. This approach is applied on the CIIL Mysore text corpus which is of 3 million words.

  1. An Expressive Language and Efficient Execution System for Software Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Barish, G; 10.1613/jair.1548

    2011-01-01

    Software agents can be used to automate many of the tedious, time-consuming information processing tasks that humans currently have to complete manually. However, to do so, agent plans must be capable of representing the myriad of actions and control flows required to perform those tasks. In addition, since these tasks can require integrating multiple sources of remote information ? typically, a slow, I/O-bound process ? it is desirable to make execution as efficient as possible. To address both of these needs, we present a flexible software agent plan language and a highly parallel execution system that enable the efficient execution of expressive agent plans. The plan language allows complex tasks to be more easily expressed by providing a variety of operators for flexibly processing the data as well as supporting subplans (for modularity) and recursion (for indeterminate looping). The executor is based on a streaming dataflow model of execution to maximize the amount of operator and data parallelism possib...

  2. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future.

  3. Role of the motor system in language knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Zhao, Xu; Seligson, Erica; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Stern, Emily; Galaburda, Albert M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-17

    All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production? More generally, we ask whether linguistic knowledge is fully embodied or whether some linguistic principles could potentially be abstract. To address this question, here we gauge the sensitivity of English speakers to the putative universal syllable hierarchy (e.g., blif ≻ bnif ≻ bdif ≻ lbif) while undergoing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cortical motor representation of the left orbicularis oris muscle. If syllable preferences reflect motor simulation, then worse-formed syllables (e.g., lbif) should (i) elicit more errors; (ii) engage more strongly motor brain areas; and (iii) elicit stronger effects of TMS on these motor regions. In line with the motor account, we found that repetitive TMS pulses impaired participants' global sensitivity to the number of syllables, and functional MRI confirmed that the cortical stimulation site was sensitive to the syllable hierarchy. Contrary to the motor account, however, ill-formed syllables were least likely to engage the lip sensorimotor area and they were least impaired by TMS. Results suggest that speech perception automatically triggers motor action, but this effect is not causally linked to the computation of linguistic structure. We conclude that the language and motor systems are intimately linked, yet distinct. Language is designed to optimize motor action, but its knowledge includes principles that are disembodied and potentially abstract.

  4. Philosophical Ideas in Saussure's Theory of Language and Halliday' s Systemic Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑映雪

    2011-01-01

    How Halliday's systemic functional grammar was affected by Saussure's theory of language and what the great significance of their philosophical ideas is.The paper explains those two problems from the clue of the philosophical ideas of language.

  5. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  6. Conceptions of Teaching Held by the Instructors in English Language Teaching Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Beceren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the university instructors’ conceptions of teaching in ELT departments at two universities in Turkey. The data was collected through qualitative research techniques. The participants were four instructors working in two different institutions in Turkey with doctorate degree on the same major from the same university. The analyses of the data collected through interviews and self-report were conducted through discourse analysis and text analysis by the researchers. The results of the study reveal that the type of the institution where the teachers work is not a strict factor shaping the way how the teachers teach and how they define some of the components of teaching. The results also reveal that having the same background of education does not lead to the same approaches and definitions of teaching.

  7. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  8. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  9. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; hide

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  10. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, Dave

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  11. Changes in the vowel system and spatial representations from Latin to Romance languages: hypothesis of a spatial referent buccal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie SAFFI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I comment on the disappearance of the Latin vowel quantity which is accompanied by arecapture of the length for the prosody in the Romance languages, and in Italian, for thediphthongs, geminates and affricates management. I establish a parallel between, on one hand,spatial distribution and aperture distribution of vowels, on the other hand, conceptions of theperson and its space. I present an hypothesis about the role of language in establishing spatialreferentials, in which spatial geometry of the oral cavity serves as the fundamental referential forkinesthetic memory, and the phonological system of the mother language is a model of theoperating of body’s set of internal models and physical laws.

  12. The Concept of Extraordinary Crime in Indonesia Legal System: Is The Concept an Effective Criminal Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Prahassacitta

    2016-10-01

    crime parts of criminal policy does not have any standard for the categorization. Then, as consequences of the implementation of the concept of extraordinary crime in several penal efforts are formulating in legislations. The penalty effort is not limited to criminalization and sentencing aspects but wider and shall be in line with the strategy of crime eradication and welfare protection purposes. To reach the effectiveness of the criminal policy of the concept of extraordinary crime, the penalty effort shall be in line with criminal law principles and human right basic principles.

  13. Concept of magnet systems for LHD-type reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, S.; Takahata, K.; Tamura, H.; Yanagi, N.; Mito, T.; Obana, T.; Sagara, A.

    2009-07-01

    Heliotron reactors have attractive features for fusion power plants such as having no need for current drive and a wide space between the helical coils for the maintenance of in-vessel components. Their main disadvantage was considered to be the necessarily large size of their magnet systems. According to the recent reactor studies based on the experimental results in the Large Helical Device, a major radius of plasma of 14-17 m with a central toroidal field of 6-4 T is needed to attain the self-ignition condition with a blanket space thicker than 1.1 m. The stored magnetic energy is estimated at 120-140 GJ. Although both the major radius and the magnetic energy are about three times as large as ITER, the maximum magnetic field and mechanical stress are comparable. In the preliminary structural analysis, the maximum stress intensity including the peak stress is less than the 1000 MPa that is allowed for strengthened stainless steel. Although the length of the helical coil is more than 150 m, that is about five times as long as the ITER TF coil, cable-in-conduit conductors can be adopted with a parallel winding method of five-in-hand. The concept of the parallel winding is proposed. Consequently, the magnet systems for helical reactors can be realized with a small extension of the ITER technology.

  14. Green IT engineering concepts, models, complex systems architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive state of the art overview of a series of advanced trends and concepts that have recently been proposed in the area of green information technologies engineering as well as of design and development methodologies for models and complex systems architectures and their intelligent components. The contributions included in the volume have their roots in the authors’ presentations, and vivid discussions that have followed the presentations, at a series of workshop and seminars held within the international TEMPUS-project GreenCo project in United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the Ukraine, during 2013-2015 and at the 1st - 5th Workshops on Green and Safe Computing (GreenSCom) held in Russia, Slovakia and the Ukraine. The book presents a systematic exposition of research on principles, models, components and complex systems and a description of industry- and society-oriented aspects of the green IT engineering. A chapter-oriented structure has been adopted for this book ...

  15. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Barbara F.; Borghi, Anna M.; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system. PMID:28265247

  16. Reading Tutor, A Reading Support System for Japanese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko KAWAMURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the tools and materials included in the Japanese language reading tutorial system Reading Tutor and the multilingual lexicographical project Reading Tutor Web Dictionary, and discusses their possible uses both for Japanese language instruction and to support autonomous language learning. The paper further presents one particular use of these tools and resources for the development of learning materials for foreign candidates to the Japanese certified care worker national examination, and concludes with suggestions for effective guidance geared at fostering autonomous vocabulary learning.-----Članek predstavlja orodja in gradiva v sistemu za podporo branju v japonščini Reading Tutor in v večjezičnem slovarskem projektu Reading Tutor Web Dictionary ter njihovo možno uporabo tako za poučevanje japonščine kot tudi za podporo samostojnemu jezikovnemu učenju. Nadalje predstavlja konkreten primer uporabe teh orodij in virov za izdelavo učnega gradiva za tuje kandidate, ki se pripravljajo na japonski državni izpit za zdravstvene delavce. V zaključku predlaga nekaj pedagoških pristopov za učinkovito podporo samostojnemu učenju besedišča.

  17. Hierarchical functional connectivity between the core language system and the working memory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-10-01

    Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences.

  18. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  19. Connected digit speech recognition system for Malayalam language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cini Kurian; Kannan Balakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    A connected digit speech recognition is important in many applications such as automated banking system, catalogue-dialing, automatic data entry, automated banking system, etc. This paper presents an optimum speaker-independent connected digit recognizer for Malayalam language. The system employs Perceptual Linear Predictive (PLP) cepstral coefficient for speech parameterization and continuous density Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in the recognition process. Viterbi algorithm is used for decoding. The training data base has the utterance of 21 speakers from the age group of 20 to 40 years and the sound is recorded in the normal office environment where each speaker is asked to read 20 set of continuous digits. The system obtained an accuracy of 99.5 % with the unseen data.

  20. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Intercultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that cover a fairly long period of time – among them the textbooks by two Slovenian authors: Južnič (1938 and Grad (1954, as well as some generally-used French textbooks, such as Cours de langue et de civilisation françaises (1953, Le nouveau sans frontières (1988 and Nouveau rond point (2011. The article is based on the hypothesis that high culture is more likely to be present in the older textbooks, which are based on traditional methods, whereas in modern textbooks more popular, everyday topics can be found. It is also presumed that topics in modern textbooks are, compared to their more traditional counterparts, introduced in an intercultural manner which could encourage students to compare the culture of the foreign country with their own. Both hypotheses are partly confirmed. In Slovenian textbooks there are very few culture-based topics. On the other hand, they are present in all French textbooks, regardless of the methodology. It is true that Mauger introduces more high culture than the others and that the intercultural topics are presented only in the most recent textbook. In all the others, it is exclusively the culture of the target country that is introduced.

  1. A Concept for Zero-Alignment Micro Optical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DESCOUR, MICHAEL R.; KOLOLUOMA,TERHO; LEVEY,RAVIV; RANTALA,JUHA T.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WARREN,MIAL E.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE

    1999-09-16

    We are developing a method of constructing compact, three-dimensional photonics systems consisting of optical elements, e.g., lenses and mirrors, photo-detectors, and light sources, e.g., VCSELS or circular-grating lasers. These optical components, both active and passive, are mounted on a lithographically prepared silicon substrate. We refer to the substrate as a micro-optical table (MOT) in analogy with the macroscopic version routinely used in optics laboratories. The MOT is a zero-alignment, microscopic optical-system concept. The position of each optical element relative to other optical elements on the MOT is determined in the layout of the MOT photomask. Each optical element fits into a slot etched in the silicon MOT. The slots are etched using a high-aspect-ratio silicon etching (HARSE) process. Additional positioning features in each slot's cross-section and complementary features on each optical element permit accurate placement of that element's aperture relative to the MOT substrate. In this paper we present the results of the first fabrication and micro-assembly experiments of a silicon-wafer based MOT. Based on these experiments, estimates of position accuracy are reported. We also report on progress in fabrication of lens elements in a hybrid sol-gel material (HSGM). Diffractive optical elements have been patterned in a 13-micron thick HSGM layer on a 150-micron thick soda-lime glass substrate. The measured ms surface roughness was 20 nm. Finally, we describe modeling of MOT systems using non-sequential ray tracing (NSRT).

  2. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John; Gozani, Tsahi; Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig

    2011-10-01

    Bremsstrahlung spectrum above the photofission "threshold" of about 6 MeV, the X-ray beam induces numerous fissions if nuclear material is present. The PBAR system looks for the two most prolific fission signatures to confirm the presence of special nuclear materials (SNM). These are prompt neutrons and delayed gamma rays. The PBAR system uses arrays of two types of fast and highly efficient gamma ray detectors: plastic and fluorocarbon scintillators. The latter serves as a detector of fission prompt neutrons using the novel threshold activation detector (TAD) concept as well as a very efficient delayed gamma ray detector. The major advantage of TAD for detecting the prompt neutrons is its insensitivity to the intense source related backgrounds. The current status of the system and experimental results will be shown and discussed.

  3. An analysis of TA-Student Interaction and the Development of Concepts in 3-d Space Through Language, Objects, and Gesture in a College-level Geoscience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to describe how a teaching assistant (TA) in an undergraduate geology laboratory employs a multimodal system in order to mediate the students' understanding of scientific knowledge and develop a contextualization of a concept in three-dimensional space and 2) to describe how a linguistic awareness of gestural patterns can be used to inform TA training assessment of students' conceptual understanding in situ. During the study the TA aided students in developing the conceptual understanding and reconstruction of a meteoric impact, which produces shatter cone formations. The concurrent use of speech, gesture, and physical manipulation of objects is employed by the TA in order to aid the conceptual understanding of this particular phenomenon. Using the methods of gestural analysis in works by Goldin-Meadow, 2000 and McNeill, 1992, this study describes the gestures of the TA and the students as well as the purpose and motivation of the meditational strategies employed by TA in order to build the geological concept in the constructed 3-dimensional space. Through a series of increasingly complex gestures, the TA assists the students to construct the forensic concept of the imagined 3-D space, which can then be applied to a larger context. As the TA becomes more familiar with the students' meditational needs, the TA adapts teaching and gestural styles to meet their respective ZPDs (Vygotsky 1978). This study shows that in the laboratory setting language, gesture, and physical manipulation of the experimental object are all integral to the learning and demonstration of scientific concepts. Recognition of the gestural patterns of the students allows the TA the ability to dynamically assess the students understanding of a concept. Using the information from this example of student-TA interaction, a brief short course has been created to assist TAs in recognizing the mediational power as well as the assessment potential of gestural

  4. A Comment on Language Is a Complex Adaptive System:Position Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单妍

    2014-01-01

    Language not only functions as a communication tool, it has fundamental functions. People ’s social interaction and their past experience can affect people’s choice of language, as language is a complex, adaptive system. The paper tries to com-ment on“A comment on Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper”from several aspects to conclude that Lan-guage Is a Complex Adaptive System:Position Paper is a comprehensive, creative and influential academic paper which is charac-teristic of high originality, well-compact organization, detailed literature review.

  5. Models, Languages and Logics for Concurrent Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EEC Esprit Basic Research Action No 3011, Models, Languages and Logics for Con current Distributed Systems, CEDISYS, held its second workshop at Aarhus University in May, l991, following the successful workshop in San Miniato in 1990. The Aarhus Workshop was centered around CEDISYS research...... activities, and the selected themes of Applications and Automated Tools in the area of Distributed Systerns. The 24 participants were CEDISYS partners, and invited guests with expertise on the selected themes. This booklet contains the program of the workshop, short abstracts for the talks presented...

  6. Systemic Cognition: Human Artifice in Life and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    on both biological and cultural principles. On this systemic view, skills embody beliefs, roles and social practices. Since people rely on interactivity or sense-saturated coordination, action also re-enacts cultural history. Bidirectional dynamics connect embodiment to non-local regularities. Thinking...... and learning arise as dynamics in one time-scale are co-regulated by dynamics in other scales. For example, in ontogenesis, interactivity prompts a child to strategic use of second-order language. By linking cultural scales to inter-bodily dynamics, circumstances are coloured by resources that serve in using...

  7. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  8. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  9. Specifying Data Bases Management Systems by Using RM-ODP Engineering Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Laassiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed systems can be very large and complex. The various considerations that influence their design can result in a substantial specification, which requires a structured framework that has to be managed successfully. The purpose of the RM-ODP is to define such a framework. The Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP provides a framework within which support of distribution, inter-working and portability can be integrated. It defines: an object model, architectural concepts and architecture for the development of ODP systems in terms of five viewpoints. Which include an information viewpoint. Since the usage of Data bases management systems (DBMS in complex networks is increasing considerably, we are interested, in our work, in giving DBMS specifications through the use of the three schemas (static, dynamic, invariant. The present paper is organized as follows. After a literature review, we will describe then the subset of concepts considered in this work named the database management system (DBMS object model. In the third section, we will be interested in the engineering language and DMBS structure by describing essentially DBMS objects. Finally, we will present DBMS engineering specifications and makes the connection between models and their instances. This introduces the basic form of the semantic approach we have described here.

  10. Comparison of Two Conceptions of the Vibration Isolation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šklíba, Jan; Sivčák, M.; Čižmár, J.

    The sprung stretcher of a ground ambulance litter as the space conducting mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The first degree is determined to compensate the vertical translations of a carriage, the second and third to compensate both horizontal rotations (so called pitching and rolling). The first degree is realized with scissor or with parallelogram, on the upper base on which the double Cardane suspension is placed (as the second and third degree). The second Cardane frame is connected with an own stretcher. The vibration isolation is realized with controlled pneumatic springs. Their control has two sensing units: sensor of the relative position of the upper and lower base and sensor of the absolute angle deflection of the second Cardane frame from an horizontal plane (double electrolytic level). This level is modeled as a spherical pendulum (on the base of its identified characteristics). There was analyzed this dynamic system with five degrees of freedom. The analyze of two conceptions demonstrates that the scissor mechanism is for the complete space mechanism more useful than the parallelogram.

  11. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to guide the systemic description of biological processes and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Caritey, Nicolas; Gaubert, Laurent; Rosenthal-Sabroux, Camille

    2004-07-01

    One of the main issues in Systems Biology is to deal with semantic data integration. Previously, we examined the requirements for a reference conceptual model to guide semantic integration based on the systemic principles. In the present paper, we examine the usefulness of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to describe and specify biological systems and processes. This makes unambiguous representations of biological systems, which would be suitable for translation into mathematical and computational formalisms, enabling analysis, simulation and prediction of these systems behaviours.

  12. Study on core concept for commercial LMFBR plant toward self-consistent nuclear energy system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toukura, A. [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan); Yamazaki, M. [Toshiba Corp., Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan). Fuchu Works; Ohashi, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Ikeda, K. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Saito, M.; Fujiie, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1995-12-31

    Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is expected to be commercialized in Japan to overcome foreseeable problems such as reactor safety, increasing energy demand, final disposal of high level radioactive waste and fuel resource shortage. We have been studying three FBR core concepts enhancing its potential abilities; ultra-large type, simplified type and friendly to fuel cycle type core. This study is sponsored by Ministry of International Trade and Industry. (author).

  13. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1 computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used as input and videos are captured in the form of video files stored before being processed using image processing; (2 approach based on sensor data, which is done by using a series of sensors that are integrated with gloves to get the motion features finger grooves and hand movements. Different of sign languages exist around the world, each with its own vocabulary and gestures. Some examples are American Sign Language (ASL, Chinese Sign Language (CSL, British Sign Language (BSL, Indonesian Sign Language (ISL and so on. The structure of Indonesian Sign Language (ISL is different from the sign language of other countries, in that words can be formed from the prefix and or suffix. In order to improve recognition accuracy, researchers use methods, such as the hidden Markov model, artificial neural networks and dynamic time warping. Effective algorithms for segmentation, matching the classification and pattern recognition have evolved. The main objective of this study is to review the sign language recognition methods in order to choose the best method for developing the Indonesian sign language recognition system.

  14. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sutarman; Mazlina Abdul Majid; Jasni Mohamad Zain

    2013-01-01

    Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1) computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used ...

  15. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  16. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  17. Integrating Epistemological Perspectives on Chemistry in Chemical Education: The Cases of Concept Duality, Chemical Language, and Structural Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we trace the work of some philosophers of chemistry to draw some implications for the improvement of chemical education. We examine some key features of chemical knowledge, and how these features are relevant for school chemistry teaching and learning. In particular, we examine Laszlo's ( Foundations of Chemistry 1:225-238, 1999) notion of concept duality, Jacob's ( HYLE-International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 7:31-50, 2001) descriptions of chemical language and Goodwin's ( Foundations of Chemistry 10:117-127, 2008) explication of structural explanations in organic chemistry to highlight the particular ways in which chemical knowledge is structured. We use examples of textbooks and curricula to illustrate that even though the mentioned aspects of are relevant to and are covered in educational contexts, the philosophical dimensions of this coverage is absent in textbooks and curricula. The emphasis in the use of these features of chemical knowledge seems to be more on the conceptual definitions rather than on their "epistemological nature". We argue that chemical education will be improved through the inclusion of the philosophical perspectives in chemistry teaching and learning by highlighting the specific ways in which chemical knowledge functions.

  18. Language as a Twofaced Phenomenon: Wittgenstein's Doctrine of Showing in the light of Heraclitus' concept of Logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomy Mualem

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to illuminate Wittgenstein's 'showing doctrine', which is manifested in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, via the notion of 'logical space'. This doctrine presents a sharp dichotomy between what we can say or express (sagen and what we can only show or manifest (zeigen. The tension between showing and saying is salient already in the motto of the Tractatus, where Wittgenstein quotes Kürnberger's dictum: "...and whatever a man knows, whatever is not a mere rumbling and roaring that he has heard, can be said in three words". Here the tension is between the multiple content of knowledge and the severely limited amount of meaningful words that can express it, so that these three words must manifest much more than they can express; it comes out that singularity encloses generality. Such a tension between the particular and generality underlies Wittgenstein's 'showing doctrine', as will be demonstrated hereby via the concept of 'logical space' which is one of the key notions of the Tractatus. The investigation of the Tractatus will be preceded by an outline of Heraclitus' philosophy of language in which names manifest both a particular object and the cosmic principle, or the Logos.

  19. Laboratory information management systems: concepts, integration, and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowall, R.D. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This 26-chapter book is divided into five sections: concepts, essentials of computing, implementation and choices, validation, and the future. References include material from 1987. A 12-page glossary and a seven-page index are included.

  20. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  1. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL as Sociolinguistic and Sociological Conception: Possibilities and Limits of Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Rubtcova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining possibilities and limits of Systemic functional linguistics theoretical framework. Ideologically SFL concept was associated with the ideas of social justice and equality, the building of the society of equal opportunities through the educational system. The most interesting ideas arose when the SFL representatives thought about the development of English as a native language and were connected with the overcoming of class distinctions. The current version - genre-based approach – has serious limits. The desire of a genre-based approach to the systematization of genres carries a risk of cultural contradictions and conflict of cultures. However, the basic theoretical SFL principles are still in the stage of formation, as SFL researchers seek to avoid some rigidity of the classical institutional (genre approach, which is in contradiction with the principles of diversity. The founder M. Halliday offered ideas for the organization of a flexible approach based on International English that may become World Englishes, developing in order to adapt to the meanings of other cultures.  Therefore, an SFL approach still needs some alterations to spread outside the Western world and conform to the new culture for it. Besides, we can think about proposals of Halliday’s supporters to develop the own version of English for non-Western countries, considering its culture and mentality.

  2. A Novel Heliostat Field Concept for solar Thermal considerations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utamura, M.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-07-01

    A new heliostat field concept cross beam is proposed for an effective utilization of solar field with minimum number of heliostats. Assuming one dimensional heliostat field with given length, the amount of the solar energy collected by dual central towers has been calculated by continuum optical modeling. As a result 48% more energy is collected with 18% reduction of specific energy cost. It is also shown that with two kind of heliostats novel heliostat field cross beam concept may be effectively realized. (Author)

  3. Decoding depositional sequences in carbonate systems: Concepts vs experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, Luis; Haq, Bilal U.

    2016-11-01

    Efficacy of sequence stratigraphic concepts in siliciclastic systems has been proven by successful applications in both academia and the industry over the past four decades. However, experience has demonstrated repeatedly that the relatively simple advective transportational approach of these models is less than successful when applied to the more complex carbonate systems and can lead to erroneous interpretations. Instead, an approach that includes the use of the changes in the biotic components of carbonate deposits to infer the sea-level trajectory and thereby placing it in the proper sequence framework is deemed to be more meaningful. This is exemplified with several well-studied examples that illustrate the variety of ways in which the biotic components can build carbonate platforms, and how these have changed through the ages prompted by biological evolution. This extended review discusses carbonate production, source to sink transportation influenced by sea-level changes, surface waves, as well as the less understood and under-appreciated internal waves, and the resulting variety of platforms that can be built by the interaction of these factors, as well as the changing patterns of biotic components with time. Their effect on the carbonate reservoir is considerable, understanding of which is the ultimate objective of carbonate research for applications in the industry. Key elements in the carbonate environments that differ from the siliciclastic systems are: 1) intrabasinal conditions (nutrients, salinity, temperature, water energy, transparency) are important controls on carbonate production and therefore also control in-situ accommodation and how it may be filled; 2) depositional accommodation can be both physical (controlled by hydrodynamics) and ecological (in the building-up above the base level mode); 3) because carbonates are products of biological activity, their production modes have been changing with time as their biotic components have evolved; 4

  4. Concept of "One Window" Data Exchange System Fulfilling the Recommendation for e-Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, Damian; Wawruch, Ryszard

    The implementation in maritime radio-communication of so called "One window concept" for exchange of information between a ship and a port and coastal state authorities requires designation of one contact point on shore for these purposes, e.g. harbour master or ships' monitoring or traffic control centre. In Poland, as contact points regional and local centres of the Polish National Maritime Safety System will be designated. Paper describes the proposal for system of data exchange between a ship and a shore contact point, containing definition, functions and architecture of proposed system, possible directions of information flow and levels of access, fulfilling requirements of this concept and recommendation for e-navigation system developed on the basis of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) working papers.

  5. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1981-01-01

    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  6. The METIS 5G System Concept: Meeting the 5G Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tullberg, Hugo; Popovski, Petar; Li, Zexian;

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the most important system-level 5G features, enabled by the concept, necessary to meet the very diverse 5G requirements. System-level evaluation results of the METIS 5G system concept are presented, and they conclude that the 5G requirements can be met with the proposed syste...

  7. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  8. Metrics for Evaluating Dialogue Strategies in a Spoken Language System

    CERN Document Server

    Danieli, M; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a set of metrics for the evaluation of different dialogue management strategies in an implemented real-time spoken language system. The set of metrics we propose offers useful insights in evaluating how particular choices in the dialogue management can affect the overall quality of the man-machine dialogue. The evaluation makes use of established metrics: the transaction success, the contextual appropriateness of system answers, the calculation of normal and correction turns in a dialogue. We also define a new metric, the implicit recovery, which allows to measure the ability of a dialogue manager to deal with errors by different levels of analysis. We report evaluation data from several experiments, and we compare two different approaches to dialogue repair strategies using the set of metrics we argue for.

  9. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  10. The question answer system based on natural language understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-lin; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Question Answer System(QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information based on semantic network in QAS, the stochastic syntax-parse model named LSF of knowledge-information in QAS, the structure and constitution of QAS. And the LSF model's parameters were exercised, which proved that they were feasible. At the same time, through "the limited-domain QAS" which was exploited for banks by us, these technologies were proved effective and propagable.

  11. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  12. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  13. Right-Linear Languages Generated in Systems of Knowledge Representation based on LSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danciulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tudor (Preda (2010 a method for formal languages generation based on labeled stratified graph representations is sketched. The author proves that the considered method can generate regular languages and context-sensitive languages by considering an exemplification of the proposed method for a particular regular language and another one for a particular contextsensitive language. At the end of the study, the author highlights some open problems for future research among which we remind: (1 The study of the language families that can be generated by means of these structures; (2 The study of the infiniteness of the languages that can be represented in stratified graphs. In this paper, we extend the method presented in Tudor (Preda(2010, by considering the stratified graph formalism in a system of knowledge representation and reasoning. More precisely, we propose a method that can be applied for generating any Right Linear Language construction. Our method is proved and exemplified in several cases.

  14. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  15. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: Direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eEmmorey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the

  16. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H2 (15)O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of

  17. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications

  18. Minienvironment solutions: special concepts for mask-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, M.; Rüb, M.; Billen, T.

    2011-03-01

    Cleanroom technology is a principle pre-condition and the enabling technology for contamination free manufacturing. With the transition from large cleanroom facilities for semiconductor manufacturing to localized encapsulated cleanroom solutions which are called minienvironments the traditional cleanroom technology is extended into a new field of applications. With view to the highest requirements in semiconductor industries and especially in the mask area, extraordinary concepts and solutions has to be developed and applied. In this contribution the fundamental considerations about the different concepts for minienvironments are outlined and reviewed. A set of various parameters involved in a design process for a state of the art minienvironment are given and discussed in detail. The resulting different concepts are presented and the strength of each concept is discussed. The resulting minienvironment solutions are demonstrated on three characteristic examples and options, alternatives and the advantages of the individual concepts are mentioned. Based on the current status of minienvironment technology an out-look is given about future challenges and open questions to be solved.

  19. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  20. Combining OO and Functional Language Concepts%结合面向对象和函数式语言的概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of combining the object-oriented and functional programming paradigms. Compared with most of the approaches in this direction, the combination has the following two advantages. First, the authors combine several important concepts as they are well known in widespread mainstream languages. In other words, the authors do not introduce new language concepts but try to interpret well-known language concepts based on the new ones. Second, the combination has the property that individual language concepts do not influence the whole language to the extent as they do traditionally, so that usually one needs to pay for a language concept only when he uses it. Concretely, a core language for functional object-oriented programming together with a straightforward operational semantics is proposed, where the properties mentioned above hold. The core language combines the following key language concepts from the languages Eiffel, Java, ML and Haskell:objects, classes, multiple inheritance, method redefinition, dynamic binding, static type safety, binary methods, algebraic data types, higher-order functions, ML-polymorphism.%考虑了结合面向对象和函数式程序风范的问题.与这一方向的大多数方法相比,这种结合方法有下面两个优点:首先,结合了在广泛流行的几种主语言中非常有名的一些重要概念.换言之,没有引入新的语言概念并试图以新的概念为基础解释众所周知的语言概念.其次,这种结合具有下面的性质:如果整个语言以传统方式使用则不受个别的语言概念的影响,这样,只有在使用一个语言概念的时候才需要关注它.具体地说,提出了一个具有简明操作语言的用于函数式面向对象程序设计的核心语言,它具有如上所述的性质.这个核心语言结合了Eiffel, Java, ML和Haskell语言中的下列核心语言概念:对象,类,多重继承,方法重定义,动态绑定,静态类型安全性,二元方