Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.
The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…
Heilman, Arthur W.; Holmes, Elizabeth Ann
Techniques and procedures for teaching reading as a meaning-making, language-oriented process are the focus of this book. The underlying premise is that children are taught to read so that they have an important tool for developing and expanding concepts. In order to accomplish this aim, children must be exposed to the precision and ambiguities of…
Pilgrim, J. Michael; Pilgrim, Jodi
This article presents virtual reality as a tool for classroom literacy instruction. Building on the traditional use of images as a way to scaffold prior knowledge, we extend this idea to share ways virtual reality enables experiential learning through field trip-like experiences. The use of technology tools such Google Street view, Google…
Sanden, Guro Refsum
This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...
Arseny A Sokolov
Full Text Available Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric impairments in visual social cognition.
Arseny A Sokolov; Arseny A Sokolov; Samuel eKrüger; Paul eEnck; Ingeborg eKrägeloh-Mann; Marina A Pavlova; Marina A Pavlova
Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...
Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.
Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...
This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment
Gee, James Paul
Situates reading within a broad perspective that integrates work on cognition, language, social interaction, society, and culture. Argues that reading and writing cannot be separated from speaking, listening, and interacting, on the one hand, or using language to think about and act on the world, on the other. Introduces "social languages" as a…
Mol, Suzanne E.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.
This meta-analysis examines to what extent interactive storybook reading stimulates two pillars of learning to read: vocabulary and print knowledge. The authors quantitatively reviewed 31 (quasi) experiments (n = 2,049 children) in which educators were trained to encourage children to be actively involved before, during, and after joint book…
Holistic approaches to the teaching of reading and writing, most notably the Whole Language movement, reject the philosophy that language skills can be taught. Instead, holistic teachers emphasize process, and they structure the students' classroom activities to be rich in language experience. Computers can be used as tools for whole language…
High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…
Richardson, Judy S.
Describes the use of some read-alouds from Alexandre Dumas'"The Count of Monte Cristo" which helped to demonstrate some principles of learning foreign languages. Describes briefly the read aloud selection, discusses some specific activities that relate to foreign language learning, and discusses specific language arts activities. (SR)
Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.
Smit, Nienke; de Bot, Kees; van de Grift, Wim; Jansen, Ellen
The present study addresses the validation process of an observation tool for measuring the range of processes in which a teacher is involved when helping secondary school EFL learners comprehend reading input and when facilitating meaningful language output. The observation tool will be used in a
Schoelles, Michael; Hamburger, Henry
Discusses the integration of Fluent 2, a two-medium immersive conversational language learning environment, into the pedagogical environment. The article presents a strategy to provide teachers and other designers of language lessons with tools that will enable them to produce lessons they consider appropriate. (seven references) (Author/CK)
Full Text Available This article explores the role played by body language in recent examples of popular culture and political news coverage as a means of highlighting the poten-tially deceptive haracter of speech and promising to bypass it altogether. It situ-ates the promise of "visceral literacy" - the alleged ability to read inner emotions and dispositions - within emerging surveillance practices and the landscapes of risk they navigate. At the same time, it describes portrayals of body language analysis as characteristic of an emerging genre of "securitainment" that instructs viewers in monitoring techniques as it entertains and informs them. Body lan-guage ends up caught in the symbolic impasse it sought to avoid: as soon as it is portrayed as a language that can be learned and consciously "spoken" it falls prey to the potential for deceit. The article's conclusion considers the way in which emerging technologies attempt to address this impasse, bypassing the attempt to infer underlying signification altogether.
Wielinga, E.; Vrolijk, M.
The network society has a major impact on knowledge systems, and in agricultural and rural development. It has changed relationships between actors such as farmers, extension workers, researchers, policy-makers, businessmen and consumers. These changes require different language, concepts and tools
Zhongshe Lu; Meihua Liu
The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the stu...
Komakula, Sirisha. T.; Burr, Robert. B.; Lee, James N.; Anderson, Jeffrey
We present a case of right hemispheric dominance for sign language but left hemispheric dominance for reading, in a left-handed deaf patient with epilepsy and left mesial temporal sclerosis. Atypical language laterality for ASL was determined by preoperative fMRI, and congruent with ASL modified WADA testing. We conclude that reading and sign language can have crossed dominance and preoperative fMRI evaluation of deaf patients should include both reading and sign language evaluations.
Kaan, Edith; Ballantyne, Jocelyn C.; Wijnen, Frank
To test the effects of reading speed on second-language (L2) sentence processing and the potential influence of conflicting native language word order, we compared advanced L2 learners of English with native English speakers on a self-paced reading task. L2 learners read faster overall than native
Full Text Available Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. Forty-three Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A Principle Component Analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1 accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, twenty-two children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR. SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting.
To help your students learn a world language, don't forget the power of reading! In this practical book from Donna Spangler and John Alex Mazzante, you'll gain a variety of strategies and activities that you can use to teach students to read in a world language, boosting their comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency. Perfect for any age or proficiency level, these classroom-ready activities can easily be adapted to suit your needs! Special features: A discussion of the challenges to teaching reading in the world language classroom A variety of adaptable pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading strategies and activities for students across grade levels and languages Essential tips for cultivating vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension Reader's Theater - a special chapter of strategies for implementing this exciting technique A list of helpful websites and apps for world language teachers Useful appendices, including reproducible material for your classroom Busy world language teachers will love this book's...
This report describes ongoing research on reading in African languages. It draws mainly on contributions from two British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) "Language in Africa" (LiA) Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings: the LiA SIG strand at BAAL 2013 and the seminar on "Reading Methodologies in African Languages"…
Ritter, Michaela; Colson, Karen A.; Park, Jungjun
This exploratory study examined the effects of Interactive Metronome (IM) when integrated with a traditional language and reading intervention on reading achievement. Forty-nine school-age children with language and reading impairments were assigned randomly to either an experimental group who received the IM treatment or to a control group who…
Find out how to incorporate digital tools into your English language arts class to improve students' reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. Authors Jeremy Hyler and Troy Hicks show you that technology is not just about making a lesson engaging; it's about helping students become effective creators and consumers of information in today's fast-paced world. You'll learn how to use mobile technologies to teach narrative, informational, and argument writing as well as visual literacy and multimodal research. Each chapter is filled with exciting lesson plans and tech tool suggestions that you can take back to your own classroom immediately.
Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Yehia Ahmed Y. Al-Sohbani
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Foreign Language (FL reading anxiety level of Arabicspeaking Yemeni students learning English as a foreign language (n = 106. It utilized (a a background information questionnaire, (b the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS, and (c students' English school marks. Results of the study showed that learners of English experienced an above moderate level of FL reading anxiety. There was no significant difference between students' FL reading anxiety and their gender. However, a statistically reliable difference between the means of public and private schools regarding their FL reading anxiety in favor of the private school. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between students' FL reading anxiety and their type of school. Difficulties of uncertainty, pronunciation of English words, unfamiliar topic, unknown vocabulary, reading aloud, using word by word translation, unfamiliar English culture and history, unfamiliar grammar, English letters and symbols were identified as the major sources of FL reading anxiety.
Ben, Backwell; Brian, Cullen
This paper investigates EFL student reading speed and describes a quasi-experimental study that attempted to quantify the effects of repeated reading and the use of NLP language patterns in the instructions. An experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30) carried out the same timed reading activity three times each lesson for five lessons. The instructions for the experimental group included NLP language patterns designed to promote faster reading. It was shown that the repeated readi...
Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Kelly, Andrea S.
Purpose: The authors assessed comorbidity of auditory processing disorder (APD), language impairment (LI), and reading disorder (RD) in school-age children. Method: Children (N = 68) with suspected APD and nonverbal IQ standard scores of 80 or more were assessed using auditory, language, reading, attention, and memory measures. Auditory processing…
Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.
The effective use of reading strategies has been recognized as an important way to increase reading comprehension in hypermedia environments. The purpose of the study was to explore whether metacognitive strategy use and access to hypermedia annotations facilitated reading comprehension based on English as a foreign language students' proficiency…
Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra
Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…
Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne
This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…
Seidenberg, Mark S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
This article reviews the important role of statistical learning for language and reading development. Although statistical learning--the unconscious encoding of patterns in language input--has become widely known as a force in infants' early interpretation of speech, the role of this kind of learning for language and reading comprehension in…
El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele
Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…
Garcia, Nicole Marie
Research has identified a group of students who do not begin to exhibit reading difficulties until fourth or fifth grade, suggesting late-emerging reading difficulties. Considering that these students do not show signs of reading difficulties in early grades, attempting to identify these students early becomes problematic. Additionally, little is known regarding the characteristics of late-emerging reading deficits within English language learner (ELL) populations. The purpose of this study w...
Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans
Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.
This study investigated factors affecting second/foreign language (L2) reading comprehension in a hypermedia environment within the theoretical framework of dual coding and cognitive load theories, and interactive models of L2 reading. The independent variables were reading ability, topic interest, prior topical knowledge, and the number of times…
The language used to construct knowledge, beliefs, and worldviews in school science is distinct from the social language that students use in their everyday ordinary life. This difference is a major source of reading difficulty for many students, especially struggling readers and English-language learners. This article identifies some of the linguistic challenges involved in reading middle-school science texts and suggests several teaching strategies to help students cope with these challenges. It is argued that explicit attention to the unique language of school science should be an integral part of science literacy pedagogy.
Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J
The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.
Full Text Available Extensive reading of children’s literature can be seen as one of the most powerful means to acquiring a large working vocabulary for both first language learners and second language learners. However, for foreign language learners, children’s literature has a less positive image. For foreign language learners the most commonly recommended reading is of graded readers. Corpus research has shown that work for children has a wide range of rare words, comparable to adult literature, and this leads to the argument that children’s literature puts too great a comprehension and memory strain on foreign language learners, and is an inefficient learning tool compared to graded readers. This paper reviews existing research and examines the arguments for children’s literature in language learning in terms of some features of naturalistic child reading behaviour, and the stylistic choices of writers for children. Replication of child reading behaviours in conjunction with the aid to comprehension and memory inherent in stylistic choices, combined with motivational and practical considerations, are argued to make children’s literature an equal, if not superior choice as extended reading material for foreign language learners.
Full Text Available Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English and morpho-syllabic (Chinese writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.
Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David
Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi
Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda
The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…
Netten, A.R.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was
Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…
Park, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Deoksoon
This study investigates adult English language learners' reading-strategy use when they read online texts in hypermedia learning environments. The learners joined the online Independent English Study Group (IESG) and worked both individually and collaboratively. This qualitative case study aims (a) to assess college-level ESL learners' use of…
Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff
This research concentrates on Malaysian language policy and its impacts on the development of English language (regarded as a second language in Malaysia) specifically on reading culture. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the weaknesses and strengths of the policy and also to come out with recommendations to improve the…
Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve
The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid…
Full Text Available Branding normally concerns products or corporations. Coca-Cola is a strong product brand. Applecombines a strong product brand with a unique corporate brand. In the modern businessenvironment, however, the concept of branding now encompasses the branding of managementphilosophies and management activities as reflected in the branding of the popular managementphilosophy of Lean. Language, metaphors and special lexical choices play an important factor in thebranding of Lean management as unique and innovative.
Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto
This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…
A first-grade teacher used comic books as read-alouds during her implementation of a reading/writing workshop. The students, primarily English-language learners, were able to make use of this medium in order to learn new reading practices. The teacher used the comics to teach multiple aspects of various reading processes such as reading with an…
Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao
To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…
Kessman, William A.
The student manual has been designed primarily for beginning students in a high school level vocational program in building maintenance. A workbook for special needs students, the document does not cover all areas of custodial training but has been written for the purpose of refining the basic skills of reading comprehension, vocabulary building,…
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Neuroanatomical correlates of developmental dyslexia (DD, defined by isolated reading deficits, and specific language impairment (SLI, defined by poor receptive and expressive language skills, were examined using MR imaging in a heterogeneous sample of 14 boys and 8 girls (11-16 yers of age with learning disabilities, in a study at University of Florida; Georgetown University, Washington, DC; and other centers.
Silva, Janice; Delleman, Paul; Phesia, Andria
Although the Common Core state standards' goal of ensuring that every student leaves high school prepared to meet the demands of college and career is laudable, it's daunting for teachers who serve English language learners. The authors, educators at a private bilingual school in Mexico, describe how they used short excerpts of longer works giving…
Full Text Available The article reveals a scientifically substantiated process of teaching reading English language periodicals in all its components, which are consistently developed, and form of interconnection of the structural elements in the process of teaching reading. This process is presented as a few interconnected and interdetermined models: 1 the models of the process of acquiring standard and expressive lexical knowledge; 2 the models of the process of formation of skills to use such vocabulary; 3 the models of the development of skills to read texts of the different linguistic levels.
Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic
Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…
Elosua Oliden, Paula; Mujika Lizaso, Josu
When different languages co-exist in one area, or when one person speaks more than one language, the impact of language on psychological and educational assessment processes can be considerable. The aim of this work was to study the impact of testing language in a community with two official languages: Spanish and Basque. By taking the PISA 2009 Reading Comprehension Test as a basis for analysis, four linguistic groups were defined according to the language spoken at home and the test language. Psychometric equivalence between test forms and differences in results among the four language groups were analyzed. The comparison of competence means took into account the effects of the index of socioeconomic and cultural status (ISEC) and gender. One reading unit with differential item functioning was detected. The reading competence means were considerably higher in the monolingual Spanish-Spanish group. No differences were found between the language groups based on family language when the test was conducted in Basque. The study illustrates the importance of taking into account psychometric, linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in linguistically diverse assessment contexts.
Ehren, Barbara J.
Students with language impairment often experience serious and far-reaching effects of reading comprehension problems on their academic performance. The complexity of the problems and the characteristics of effective intervention necessitate a collaborative approach among general education teachers, special education teachers, and speech-language…
Schwartz, Ana Isabel; Mendoza, Laura; Meyer, Bonnie
The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of learning a text structure strategy (TSS) for improving reading comprehension and recall for second language (L2) learners, as well as to test for transfer of the strategy to the native language (L1). University L2 learners of English completed a five-session course on using the TSS to…
Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda
The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…
Vandeventer Faltin, Anne
Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.
Pohlmann, John T.
Full Text Available Data from a first-language reading test, a second-language reading comprehension test with questions from different cognitive levels, and from the TOEFL were submitted to partial correlation analysis to detennine whether there was a significant effect of second-language proficiency on second-language reading comprehension when the influence of first-language reading comprehension was held constant. The results indicated that for factual and inference questions second-language reading comprehension may be more closely related to second-language proficiency than to first-language reading comprehension. The lack of a similar relationship for the generalization questions may be due to a substantial variation in the second-language readers' fonnal and content background knowledge which is necessary for the processing and comprehension of generalization questions. Data van 'n eerste taal-leestoets, 'n tweede taal-leesbegripstoets met vrae op verskillende kognitiewe vlakke en van die TO EFL is aan gedeeltelike korrelasie-ontleding onderworpe om vas te stel of daar 'n beduidende bei"nvloeding van tweede taal-vaardigheid op tweede taalleesbegrip was terwyl die invloed van eerste taal-leesbegrip konstant gebly het. Die resultate het aangedui dat wat feitelike en gevolgtrekkingsvrae betref, tweede taal-leesbegrip moontlik nader verwant is aan tweede taal-vaardigheid as aan eerste taal-leesbegrip. Die afwesigheid van 'n soortgelyke verhouding betreffende die veralgemeningsvrae is moontlik te IVlte aan 'n aansienlike variasie in die tweede taal lesers se fonnele en inhoudelike agtergrondkennis wat nodig is vir die verwerking en begrip van veralgemeningsvrae.
Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul
The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.
Hill, J. K.
Describes experimental program at the Language Center of the University of Kent at Canterbury in which Belgian university students participated in a course designed to increase their English reading speed. Purpose of course was to decrease tendency to concentrate on every word. Results suggest the participating students made significant progress.…
Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren
This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…
Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques
Nancy Gómez Torres
Full Text Available A research study included the examination and implementation of a variety of strategies in order to improve students’ reading comprehension skills in a foreign language. Reading is the process of identification, interpretation and perception of written or printed material. Comprehension is the understanding of the meaning of written material and involves the conscious strategies that lead to understanding. The reading strategies are conscious techniques or unconscious processes employed by readers in their attempt to make sense of the written text (Barnett as cited by Gascoigne, 2005. Thus, the main goal of this piece of research was to implement some reading strategies in 2 elementary courses in EFL in order to obtain better results in the middle and long term in class and on ECAES, MICHIGAN, MELICET and PET tests.
Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow
Full Text Available This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73, while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63. Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.
Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.
Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather
The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…
Ebrahimi, Shirin Shafiei; Zainal, Zaidah
This study examines common strategies that English as a Foreign language (EFL) students employ when reading English poetry. To identify the strategies, a survey was designed for data collection from TESL students. The result shows that students significantly tend to use the strategies that require their creativity to construct new ideas in the…
Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk
Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Silverman, Rebecca D.
This study explored effects of Spanish oral language skills (vocabulary and syntax) on the development of English oral language skills (vocabulary, morphology, semantics, syntax) and reading comprehension among 156 bilingual Latino children in second through fifth grade whose first language was Spanish and whose second language was English. Using…
van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; Stoel, Reinoud D.; de Glopper, C.M.; Hulstijn, Jan
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension development of 389 adolescents in their dominant language (Language 1 [L 1], Dutch) and a foreign language (Language 2 [L2], English). In each consecutive year from Grades 8 through 10, a number of measurements were taken.
Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice
Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…
The Foundation Phase Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (2010) recommends Paired Reading for teaching reading literacy in both Home Language and Additional Language classrooms. This article describes research on the reading histories of teachers enrolled in an in-service Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.) ...
Ochoa Delarriva, Ornella; Basabe, Enrique Alejandro
Reading logs are regularly used in foreign language education since they are not only critical in the development of reading comprehension but may also be instrumental in taking readers beyond the referential into the representational realms of language. In this paper we offer the results of a qualitative analysis of a series of reading logs…
堀場, 裕紀江; ホリバ, ユキエ; YUKIE, HORIBA
During the past few decades the Japanese language has grown to be a popular second or foreign language (L2), and research on reading and learning of Japanese as L2 has started to appear in major academic journals and books in the fields of applied linguistics, second language acquisition, second/foreign language education, along with the more commonly researched languages such as English, Spanish and French. In this article. I will first describe theoretical assumptions used in L2 reading res...
Ahmad, Ismail Sheikh; Al-Shboul, Murad M.; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Rahman, Zainurin Abdul; Burhan, Mohd; Madarsha, Kamal Basha
The last decade has witnessed an increasing research trend on foreign language reading anxiety as a skill related to but distinct from foreign language anxiety. However, sources of foreign language reading anxiety have rarely been investigated. Thus, the current study responds to the study by (Saito, Horwitz, & Garza, 1999) and extends the…
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program
Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft
In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…
Grimm, Ryan Ponce
The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990) has a longstanding history as a model of reading comprehension, but it has mostly been applied to native English speakers. The SVR posits reading comprehension is a function of the interaction between word-level reading skills and oral language skills. It has been…
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh
Full Text Available Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians. Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation. In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading framework for national integration and such initiatives are viable through schools. The main objective of this conceptual paper is to introduce the English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP in secondary schools to promote intercultural understanding among secondary school students. The proposed framework will facilitate the acquisition of intercultural inputs without being constrained by ideological, political, or psychological demands. This article will focus on elucidating how ELIRP could affect cognitive (knowledge and behavioural transformations to intercultural perceptions harboured by selected Form 4 students of 20 national schools in Malaysia. Keywords: behavior, knowledge, intercultural reading framework, intercultural understanding, English Language Intercultural Reading Programme, secondary school students
Reading Urban Environment by Photo: A Critical Tool for Socio-Cultural Analyzing. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... In the last decades usage of photos in landscape and urban design grow noticeably; yet applying it in architectural research or education for discovering social determinations needs more ...
Biancarosa, Gina; Griffiths, Gina G
Advances in digital technologies are dramatically altering the texts and tools available to teachers and students. These technological advances have created excitement among many for their potential to be used as instructional tools for literacy education. Yet with the promise of these advances come issues that can exacerbate the literacy challenges identified in the other articles in this issue. In this article Gina Biancarosa and Gina Griffiths characterize how literacy demands have changed in the digital age and how challenges identified in other articles in the issue intersect with these new demands. Rather than seeing technology as something to be fit into an already crowded education agenda, Biancarosa and Griffiths argue that technology can be conceptualized as affording tools that teachers can deploy in their quest to create young readers who possess the higher levels of literacy skills and background knowledge demanded by today's information-based society. Biancarosa and Griffiths draw on research to highlight some of the ways technology has been used to build the skills and knowledge needed both by children who are learning to read and by those who have progressed to reading to learn. In their review of the research, Biancarosa and Griffiths focus on the hardware and software used to display and interface with digital text, or what they term e-reading technology. Drawing on studies of e-reading technology and computer technology more broadly, they also reflect on the very real, practical challenges to optimal use of e-reading technology. The authors conclude by presenting four recommendations to help schools and school systems meet some of the challenges that come with investing in e-reading technology: use only technologies that support Universal Design for Learning; choose evidence-based tools; provide technology users with systemic supports; and capitalize on the data capacities and volume of information that technology provides.
ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481. Formalisms Languages and ToolsViewpoints supported by implemented by based on Figure 1: Framework for Viewpoints...Description Languages Examples: VHDL , Verilog, and AMS extensions Reactive languages Examples: SCADE/Lustre and Giotto Model Checkers Examples: Spin, NuSMV...syntax and a formal semantics. Languages are con- crete implementations of formalisms. A language has a con- crete syntax, may deviate slightly from
Full Text Available Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries. We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes, usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data.
Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Pimperton, Hannah; Stevenson, Jim; Kennedy, Colin
Deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children and young people are known to show group-level deficits in spoken language and reading abilities relative to their hearing peers. However, there is little evidence on the longitudinal predictive relationships between language and reading in this population. To determine the extent to which differences in spoken language ability in childhood predict reading ability in D/HH adolescents. and procedures: Participants were drawn from a population-based cohort study and comprised 53 D/HH teenagers, who used spoken language, and a comparison group of 38 normally hearing teenagers. All had completed standardised measures of spoken language (expression and comprehension) and reading (accuracy and comprehension) at 6-10 and 13-19 years of age. and results: Forced entry stepwise regression showed that, after taking reading ability at age 8 years into account, language scores at age 8 years did not add significantly to the prediction of Reading Accuracy z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2 = 0.01, p = .459) but did make a significant contribution to the prediction of Reading Comprehension z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2 = 0.17, p skills in middle childhood predict reading comprehension ability in adolescence. Continued intervention to support language development beyond primary school has the potential to benefit reading comprehension and hence educational access for D/HH adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Techa-Angkoon, Prapaporn; Sun, Yanni; Lei, Jikai
Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly. The low sensitivity on short read homology search can lead to inaccurate domain composition and abundance computation. Our experimental results showed that half of the reads were missed by HMMER for a RNA-Seq dataset. Thus, there is a need for better methods to improve the homology search performance for short reads. We introduce a profile homology search tool named Short-Pair that is designed for short paired-end reads. By using an approximate Bayesian approach employing distribution of fragment lengths and alignment scores, Short-Pair can retrieve the missing end and determine true domains. In particular, Short-Pair increases the accuracy in aligning short reads that are part of remote homologs. We applied Short-Pair to a RNA-Seq dataset and a metagenomic dataset and quantified its sensitivity and accuracy on homology search. The experimental results show that Short-Pair can achieve better overall performance than the state-of-the-art methodology of profile homology search. Short-Pair is best used for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data that lack reference genomes. It provides a complementary paired-end read homology search tool to HMMER. The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/short-pair/ .
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle
Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…
Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Providing Formative Feedback: Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning CONSPECT tool. Presentation given at the Onderwijslunch, University of Maastricht. January, 18, 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.
Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Harris, Larry A., Ed.
Reflecting current themes that researchers, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of reading/language processing and instruction, this yearbook presents a collection of 51 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1983. Included are the following articles, listed with their authors: (1)…
Wood, Sarah G.; Moxley, Jerad H.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.
Text-to-speech and related read-aloud tools are being widely implemented in an attempt to assist students' reading comprehension skills. Read-aloud software, including text-to-speech, is used to translate written text into spoken text, enabling one to listen to written text while reading along. It is not clear how effective text-to-speech is at…
Abstract The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A teacher’s Perceptions. The problem of reading comprehension is not unique to only Malaysian graduates. In fact many students experience comprehension difficulties. This, some sudents need explicit comprehension strategy instruction. A rational starting point for this discussion is by defining what reading is. It is then followed by a brief review on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT which is adopted in the Malaysian Form 5 English Language Reading Curriculum. Involving the writer, the reader and the text, reading is actually a communication process where a reader is seen to perform an active role in a reading process. Based on the many previous researches, it is obvious that the teacher’s role in aiding students’ reading comprehension skills is vital. This also reflects the importance of the reading curriculum, as teachers will impkement their reading instruction based on the outlined curriculum. It is hoped that this study may benefit those involved in the curriulum development and examination syndicate, to enhance the teaching and learning processes of reading in the second language, not only among teachers in Malaysia but also world-wide. Keywords: English language Reading Curriculum, reading comprehension skill
While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified
Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Feng, Ching-Mei; Siok, Wai Ting; Perfetti, Charles A; Xiong, Jinhu; Fox, Peter T; Gao, Jia-Hong
Reading in a second language (L2) is a complex task that entails an interaction between L2 and the native language (L1). To study the underlying mechanisms, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize Chinese-English bilinguals' brain activity in phonological processing of logographic Chinese and alphabetic English, two written languages with a sharp contrast in phonology and orthography. In Experiment 1, we found that phonological processing of Chinese characters recruits a neural system involving left middle frontal and posterior parietal gyri, cortical regions that are known to contribute to spatial information representation, spatial working memory, and coordination of cognitive resources as a central executive system. We assume that the peak activation of this system is relevant to the unique feature of Chinese that a logographic character has a square configuration that maps onto a monosyllabic unit of speech. Equally important, when our bilingual subjects performed a phonological task on English words, this neural system was most active, whereas brain areas mediating English monolinguals' fine-grained phonemic analysis, as demonstrated by Experiment 2, were only weakly activated. This suggests that our bilingual subjects were applying their L1 system to L2 reading and that the lack of letter-to-sound conversion rules in Chinese led Chinese readers to being less capable of processing English by recourse to an analytic reading system on which English monolinguals rely. Our brain imaging findings lend strongest support to the idea that language experience tunes the cortex. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.
Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…
Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel
Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Lisa M D Archibald
Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus
In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…
Shepard, Courtney A.
Adolescents' motivation to read continues to decline. The purpose of this embedded single case study was to explore adolescent reading motivation to determine some ways in which adolescents are motivated to read. Through purposeful sampling, the participants included seven twelfth grade students and three English Language Arts teachers in grades…
Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying
This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…
Al Tiyb Al Khaiyali
Full Text Available Reading comprehension instruction is considered one of the major challenges that most English language teachers and students encounter. Therefore, providing a systematic, explicit, and flexible model to teaching reading comprehension strategies could help resolve some of these challenges and increase the possibility of teaching reading comprehension, particularly in language learners’ classrooms. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a model to teach reading comprehension strategies in language learning classrooms. The proposed instructional model is divided into three systematic phases through which strategies are taught before reading, during reading, and after reading. Each phase is explained and elaborated using recommended models for teachers. Finally, suggested considerations to consolidate this model are provided.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the initial clinical and classroom utility of the Inventory of Reading Occupations (IRO, a new tool to assess children’s reading participation. Method: The study used phenomenological qualitative and descriptive methods. The participants included 38 occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, classroom teachers, and parents who completed or reviewed responses of children on the IRO. To provide triangulation, 20 of the children who completed the IRO were interviewed. Data were thematically analyzed and then categorized using a central StrengthsWeaknesses-Opportunities-Threats premise. Results: The majority of the participants indicated favorable response to the clinical and classroom utility of the tool. Common themes were (a the IRO is a user-friendly and engaging assessment that allows students to reflect on their reading participation; (b the IRO is more suitable for children who engage in more structured reading; (c the IRO can be adapted for older children; and (d there is a need to identify whether the IRO is better as a screening or a full assessment tool. Conclusion: The study provided useful perspectives on how the tool can be further improved as a measure of the reading participation of school-aged children.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program. The participants of the study were 50 FL students who were in their second year at a state university in Turkey. All participants had already taken the first year reading course and were enrolled in the second year reading course. It was based on two qualitative research instruments. The first instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered to all participants. The second one was a semi-structured interview conducted with half of the participants to obtain more in depth information concerning the modifications that had been introduced. Both instruments revealed that students responded positively to the modifications introduced. The results of the study put forward that obtaining students’ opinions, giving them responsibility and involving them in decision making processes enhance their motivation, confidence and analytical skills while reading in a foreign language.
Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne
While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and
O'Neill, Sarah; Thornton, Veronica; Marks, David J; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Early inattention is associated with later reading problems in children, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We investigated whether the negative relation between preschoolers' ADHD symptoms and 8-year-old reading achievement is directly related to the severity of inattention or is mediated by early language skills. Children (n = 150; 76% boys) were evaluated at 3 time points: preschool (T1), mean (SD) age = 4.24 (.49) years; 1 year later (T2), mean (SD) age = 5.28 (.50) years; and during school age (T3), mean (SD) age = 8.61 (.31) years. At T1, parents' Kiddie-SADS responses were dimensionalized to reflect ADHD severity. Children completed the Language domain of the NEPSY (i.e., A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment) at T1 and again at T2. At T3, children completed the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition Word Reading, Pseudoword Decoding, Reading Comprehension, and Spelling subtests, and their teachers completed ratings of Reading and Written Expression performance in school. The mediating effect of T2 Language on the relation between preschool Inattention and age 8 Reading was examined using the nonparametric bootstrapping procedure, while controlling for T1 Language. Language ability at T2 mediated the path from preschool inattention (but not hyperactivity/impulsivity) to 8-year-old reading achievement (both test scores and ratings) after controlling for preschoolers' language ability. Early attentional deficits may negatively impact school-age reading outcomes by compromising the development of language skills, which in turn imperils later reading achievement. Screening children with attentional problems for language impairment, as well as implementing early intervention for both attentional and language problems may be critical to promote reading achievement during school years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R.
It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do…
Cannon, Joanna E.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.
Reading to children improves vocabulary acquisition through incidental exposure, and it is a best practice for parents and teachers of children who can hear. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are at risk for not learning vocabulary as such. This article describes a procedure for using books read on DVD in American Sign Language with…
Li, Ruiqiang; Yu, Chang; Li, Yingrui
SUMMARY: SOAP2 is a significantly improved version of the short oligonucleotide alignment program that both reduces computer memory usage and increases alignment speed at an unprecedented rate. We used a Burrows Wheeler Transformation (BWT) compression index to substitute the seed strategy...... for indexing the reference sequence in the main memory. We tested it on the whole human genome and found that this new algorithm reduced memory usage from 14.7 to 5.4 GB and improved alignment speed by 20-30 times. SOAP2 is compatible with both single- and paired-end reads. Additionally, this tool now supports...... multiple text and compressed file formats. A consensus builder has also been developed for consensus assembly and SNP detection from alignment of short reads on a reference genome. AVAILABILITY: http://soap.genomics.org.cn....
Zabala Palacio Freddy Oswaldo
Full Text Available Teachers are often concerned about the low reading level of their students in both English and Spanish. One way to solve this problem is by using reading strategies. Promoting the development of reading competences in English will offer the students tools that allow them to comprehend texts and will contribute to a closer relation with the second language culture. This article reports on a study carried out when doing my teaching practice in a public high school in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2002. The main objective of my research project was to support the development of eleventh graders’ reading comprehension competence in English. Hence, I refer to the group’s views on English reading comprehension, their handling of strategies to develop reading competence in English and their progress after having applied those strategies. Key words: Foreign Language-Teaching, Reading Strategies El bajo nivel de lectura en los estudiantes de inglés y español es una de las preocupaciones comunes de los docentes. Una forma de solucionar este problema es a través del uso de estrategias de lectura. De tal manera, promover el desarrollo de competencias lectoras en los estudiantes de inglés les ofrecerá herramientas que les permitirán comprender los textos y contribuirá a crear una relación más cercana entre ellos y la cultura de la segunda lengua. Este artículo reporta un estudio llevado a cabo durante mi práctica docente en una escuela pública de Bogotá, Colombia, en el año 2002. El objetivo principal de mi proyecto de investigación fue apoyar el desarrollo de la competencia en comprensión de lectura en el idioma inglés en estudiantes de undécimo grado. Por lo tanto, menciono los puntos de vista de los estudiantes sobre la comprensión de lectura, la forma como utilizan las estrategias para desarrollar esta competencia en inglés y su proceso después de su acercamiento a la comprensión lectora a través del uso de las mismas
Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Blok, Henk
Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of children with reading disabilities and whether results…
Full Text Available Iser is literary theoretician and co-founder of the Constance School of Reception Aesthetics, professor Emeritus of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Constance and the University of California, Irvine. When Iser died in 2007 in his eighty-first year, he was one of the most widely known literary theoreticians in the world. His “implied reading” theory claims that texts can themselves also awaken false expectations, alternately bringing about surprise, joy and frustration, which can be the enlargement of experience. The indeterminacy of the text might yield different responses from different readers. To prove that each implied reading is based on the schemata of the readers, this study aims at analysing the stories told by language learners of Turkish who come from 20 countries and whose ages vary between 18-32. The participants are 65 undergraduate and graduate university students, from African, Asian and Balkan countries, who upon watching “Cinderella” were asked to write about the unforgettable folk story or fairy tale. When their stories are item analysed, the results show that the schematas of the learners shape the way they choose and recount the stories. Leraners of Turkish fill in the gaps throughout the story, form a meaningful bond by pulling information from it, participating in a reciprocal relationship, creating and deriving meaning in an extravaganza of interpretation.
Full Text Available Reading is very important to access knowledge. Reading skills starts during preschool level no matter of the types of languages. At present, there are many preschool children who are still unable to recognize letters or even words. This leads to the difficulties in reading. Therefore, there is a need of intervention in reading to overcome such problems. Thus, technologies were adapted in enhancing learning skills, especially in learning to read among the preschool children. Phonological is one of the factors to be considered to ensure a smooth of transition into reading. Phonological concept enables the first learner to easily learn reading such to learn reading Malay language. The medium of learning to read Malay language can be assisted via the supportive of multimedia technology to enhance the preschool children learning. Thus, an interactive system is proposed via a development of interactive reading Malay language learning system, which is called as I-ReaMaLLS. As a part of the development of I-ReaMaLLS, this paper focus on the development of conceptual framework in developing interactive reading Malay language learning system (I-ReaMaLLS. I-ReaMaLLS is voice based system that facilitates the preschool learner in learning reading Malay language. The conceptual framework of developing I-ReaMaLLS is conceptualized based on the initial study conducted via methods of literature review and observation with the preschool children, aged 5 – 6 years. As the result of the initial study, research objectives have been affirmed that finally contributes to the design of conceptual framework for the development of I-ReaMaLLS.
Flax, Judy F; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April
The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities, phonological awareness, and reading abilities at ages 5 and 7 years. Participants included 99 children (40 FH+ and 59 FH-) who received a standardized neuropsychological battery at 2, 3, 5, and 7 years of age. As a group, the FH+ children had significantly lower scores on all language measures at 2 and 3 years, on selected language and phonological awareness measures at 5 years, and on phonological awareness and nonword reading at 7 years. Language comprehension at 3 years was the best predictor of later language and early reading for both groups. These results support past work suggesting that children with a positive family history of LLI are at greater risk for future language and reading problems through their preschool and early school-age years. Furthermore, language comprehension in the early years is a strong predictor of future language-learning status.
This study presents a review of the literature that examines WebQuests as tools for second-language acquisition and foreign language-learning processes to guide teachers in their teaching activities and researchers in further research on the issue. The study first introduces the theoretical background behind WebQuest use in the mentioned…
A three-year project carried out by the Microcomputers and Reading Committee of the New Jersey Reading Association involved the collection, improvement, and distribution of free microcomputer software (public domain programs) designed to deal with reading and writing skills. Acknowledging that this free software is not without limitations (poor…
Vanessa N Durand
Full Text Available This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N=241 in relation to single word reading (decoding, comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9 to 11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with the three reading outcomes. The predictor variables were all associated with cognitive abilities, the mediator. Cognitive abilities partially mediated the effects of language on reading. After mediation, decoding was associated with speech sound maturity; comprehension was associated with receptive vocabulary; and oral fluency was associated with speech sound maturity, receptive vocabulary, and syntax. In summary, all of the effects of language on reading could not be explained by cognition as a mediator. Specific components of language and speech skills in preschool made independent contributions to reading skills 6 to 8 years later. These early precursors to later reading skill represent potential targets for early intervention to improve reading.
Burt, Miriam, Comp.; Florez, MaryAnn, Comp.; Terrill, Lynda, Comp.; Van Duzer, Carol, Comp.
This annotated bibliography contains 27 references regarding research on reading and adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). None of the resources are more than 10 years old. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (KFT)
Full Text Available This paper is a peer commentary on Levorato, M. C., Nesi, B. & Cacciari, C. (2004. Reading comprehension and understanding idiomatic expressions: A developmental study. Brain and Language, 91(3, 303-314.
Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate
Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.
Stout, Dietrich; Chaminade, Thierry
Long-standing speculations and more recent hypotheses propose a variety of possible evolutionary connections between language, gesture and tool use. These arguments have received important new support from neuroscientific research on praxis, observational action understanding and vocal language demonstrating substantial functional/anatomical overlap between these behaviours. However, valid reasons for scepticism remain as well as substantial differences in detail between alternative evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we review the current status of alternative ‘gestural’ and ‘technological’ hypotheses of language origins, drawing on current evidence of the neural bases of speech and tool use generally, and on recent studies of the neural correlates of Palaeolithic technology specifically. PMID:22106428
Landon, Laura L.
This study examines the application of the Simple View of Reading (SVR), a reading comprehension theory focusing on word recognition and linguistic comprehension, to English Language Learners' (ELLs') English reading development. This study examines the concurrent and predictive validity of two components of the SVR, oral language and word-level…
Full Text Available The primary condition for successful in second or foreign language learning is providing an adequate environment. It is as a medium of increasing the students’ language exposure in order to be able to success in acquiring second or foreign language profciency. This study was designed to propose the adequate English language input that can decrease the students’ anxiety in reading comprehension performance. Of the four skills, somehow reading can be regarded as especially important because reading is assumed to be the central means for learning new information. Some students, however, still encounter many problems in reading. It is because of their anxiety when they are reading. Providing and creating an interesting-contextual reading material and gratifed teachers can make out this problem which occurs mostly in Indonesian’s classrooms. It revealed that the younger learners of English there do not received adequate amount of the target language input in their learning of English. Hence, it suggested the adoption of extensive reading programs as the most effective means in the creation of an input-rich environment in EFL learning contexts. Besides they also give suggestion to book writers and publisher to provide myriad books that appropriate and readable for their students.
Joel M. Magogwe
Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.
Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van
In the Simple View of Reading proposed by Hoover and Gough (1990), reading comprehension is conceived as the product of word decoding and listening comprehension. It is claimed that listening comprehension or the linguistic processes involved in the comprehension of oral language strongly constrain
Wood, Carla L.; Gabas, Clariebelle M.
Background: Reading attitudes are recognised as an influencing factor on the language and literacy achievement of school age monolingual English-speaking children. The relationship between reading attitudes and achievement in young Spanish-speaking English Learners (ELs) remains understudied. Purpose: The aim of the current study was to describe…
This particularistic qualitative case study design examined reading strategies, approaches, and resources teachers of ELL (English Language Learner) students in kindergarten through third grade use to support reading development and promote the home to school connection regarding literacy proficiency. The purpose of this study was to examine…
Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn
Past research shows positive correlations between oral narrative skill and reading comprehension in typically developing students. This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension and narrative language ability of 102 elementary students with mild levels of intellectual disability. Results describe the students' narrative…
Hussain, Irshad; Javed, Muhammad; Munshi, Parveen
This study investigated the reading strategies used by adult learners' to read materials in English language for their studies. The population of the study consisted of students of Universiti Sains Malaysia. A sample of 80 (40 Postgraduates and 40 Undergraduates) TESOL students enrolled in the University were selected randomly. The data were…
Park, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Deoksoon
This study investigated four elementary-level English language learners' (ELLs') use of strategies for reading computer-based texts at home and in school. The ELLs in this study were in the fourth and fifth grades in a public elementary school. We identify the ELLs' strategies for reading computer-based texts in home and school environments. We…
This study explores relationships among reading literature, creative writing, and language development in a university-level advanced French grammar course through the theoretical lens of the multiliteracies framework. The goal is to investigate reading-writing connections and whether these literacy practices facilitate students' understanding and…
Radzi, Amizura Hanadi Mohd.; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd.
This paper discusses a study on the aspects of content schemata in second language reading, focusing on two contemporary short stories, i.e. "A Quid of Sirih, A Bowl of Water" and "The Lottery." The study explores the cognitive processes of one UiTM Perlis degree level student, reflecting on his L2 reading processes. The…
Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold
This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…
Johnston, Lauren E.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Geres-Smith, Rhonda
The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether incorporating vocabulary instruction in individual reading fluency interventions for English Language Learners (ELLs) would improve reading comprehension. Two vocabulary instructional procedures were contrasted with a fluency-building only condition in an alternating-treatments design…
Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.
"Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction…
Accurate prediction of early childhood reading performance could help identify at-risk students, aid in the development of evidence-based intervention strategies, and further our theoretical understanding of reading development. This study assessed the validity of the Developmental Indicator for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL) language-based…
Geva, Esther; Wang, Min
Reviews recent research evidence for universal and orthography- or language-specific processes in the development of basic reading skills in school-age children. The review focuses on three different aspects of reading--phonological processing, rapid naming, and morphosyntactic complexity--targeted in recent research on development of word…
Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui
Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…
Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Dehghani, Asieh
The present study examined EFL teachers' theoretical orientations towards reading, their reading instructional practices and the correspondence between the theoretical orientations/practices. The study participants were 80 male and female Iranian EFL teachers teaching at a number of private English language institutes. Half of the teachers were…
This applied dissertation was developed to determine (a) the impact that Achieve3000, a web-based reading program, had on the reading-comprehension skills of English language learners (ELLs) and (b) the perceptions of students and their teacher on the technology program used at the study school as it relates to the remediation of the reading…
Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…
Subtitling can offer valuable support in multilingual countries by giving people access to materials in the language(s) of their choice. Within the South African context and its known problems with literacy, this article poses the following questions: How useful are second language (L2) English subtitles compared to first ...
Cataldo, Dana Michelle; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Vinicius, Lucio
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction. The results provide evidence that gesture was likely to be selected over speech as a teaching aid in the earliest hominin tool-makers; that speech could not have replaced gesturing as a tool-making teaching aid in later hominins, possibly explaining the functional retention of gesturing in the full language of modern humans; and that speech may have evolved for reasons unrelated to tool-making. We conclude that speech is unlikely to have evolved as tool-making teaching aid superior to gesture, as claimed by the technological hypothesis, and therefore alternative views should be considered. For example, gestural language may have evolved to enable tool-making in earlier hominins, while speech may have later emerged as a response to increased trade and more complex inter- and intra-group interactions in Middle Pleistocene ancestors of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens; or gesture and speech may have evolved in parallel rather than in sequence.
Muda, Rafal; Niszczota, Pawel; Bialek, Michal; Conway, Paul
Moral dilemmas entail deciding whether to cause harm to maximize overall outcomes, such as killing 1 person to save 5. Past work has demonstrated that people are more willing to accept causing such outcome-maximizing harm when they read dilemmas in a foreign language they speak rather than their native language. Presumably this effect is due to…
Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng
Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…
Reading, whether the reader's First language, L1 or Second language, L2, is a cognitive enterprise, and it can be treated as a result of the interaction among the reader, the text, and the context. Metacognitive strategies refer to the behaviours applied by learners to plan, arrange, and evaluate their learning. This study aimed to investigate…
Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Nanjo, Hiroaki; Isahara, Hitoshi
In order to develop effective teaching methods and computer-assisted language teaching systems for learners of English as a foreign language who need to study the basic linguistic competences for writing, pronunciation, reading, and listening, it is necessary to first investigate which vocabulary and grammar they have or have not yet learned.…
Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.
This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…
Clarke, Mark A.
Examines a sampling of current ESL reading instruction practices, addressing the concern that the lack of a generally accepted theory of L2 reading constitutes a major obstacle to teaching and testing ESL reading skills. Summarizes the results of two studies and discusses their implications for ESL teachers. (MES)
TOOL FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND NATION. BUILDING: THE ... orientation for primary school teachers who fail to attach importance to the teaching of ... right from primary level of education will have positive influence in the lives of.
Snow, Catherine E
A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.
Massaro, Dominic W
I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.
Alexander S. Komarov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to some of the teaching strategies based on the peculiarities of belles-lettres text. The author of the article analyses the peculiarities of the belles-lettres text which exert influence on the process of teaching reading skills and thus should be taken into account by foreign language teachers in their work with this type of text. The author argues that teaching belles-lettres reading skills should be centered on the five-level communication process between writer and reader. The teacher's aim is to create or adjust a system of reading instruction within the five levels so that he/she could improve students' reading skills. In the article, it is stated that the process of teaching reading skills should be congruent with the process of interpersonal communication between writer and reader. The author outlines the content of the teacher's approach to the work with this type of text within the process of foreign language instruction. The author describes two approaches to teaching belles-lettres reading skills as well as shows the prospects for the subjective approach. He also states high productivity and effectiveness of the subjective approach in teaching foreign languages. The article shows the importance of involving students who specialize in sciences into the process of belles-lettres reading while studying a foreign language for specific purposes.
Elizabeth Ann Hirshorn
Full Text Available While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Yet we do not know the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English’, in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as verbal short-term memory and long-term memory skills, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with long-term memory, as measured by free recall, being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers.
Moreira, Sylvia; Hamilton, Maryellen
Rhyming tests have historically been used in the education system to assess reading readiness. English language learners (ELLs) have consistently scored poorly on these assessment tools. The current article examines a possible reason for this poor performance by ELLs. Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between semantic…
Dirga, R. N.; Wijayati, P. H.
Generation Z is a digital native generation who has unique characteristics on the daily basis includes reading. In order to assess their reading skills correctly, teachers need to take these characteristics into consideration. This paper aims to describe the process in developing an instrument to assess reading skills of Generation Z learners in German language class. This study used developmental method. The developed instrument has not only good quality but also consists of texts that are suitable for German learners of Generation Z. This instrument can be used as an example in assessing German learners’ reading skills in the 21st century.
Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne
We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key findings were that, compared to first-language learners, second-language learners display a medium-sized deficit in reading comprehension (pooled effect size d = -0.62), a large deficit in language comprehension (pooled effect size d = -1.12), but only small differences in phonological awareness (pooled effect size d = -0.08) and decoding (pooled effect size d = -0.12). A moderator analysis showed that characteristics related to the type of reading comprehension test reliably explained the variation in the differences in reading comprehension between first- and second-language learners. For language comprehension, studies of samples from low socioeconomic backgrounds and samples where only the first language was used at home generated the largest group differences in favor of first-language learners. Test characteristics and study origin reliably contributed to the variations between the studies of language comprehension. For decoding, Canadian studies showed group differences in favor of second-language learners, whereas the opposite was the case for U.S. studies. Regarding implications, unless specific decoding problems are detected, interventions that aim to ameliorate reading comprehension problems among second-language learners should focus on language comprehension skills.
In 2006, the author returned to school after completing the Teaching Shakespeare Institute at the Folger Library inspired with new performance-based ideas for teaching the plays. The author began to wonder about using Shakespeare as a vehicle for investigating "rich and strange" language with English Language Learners (ELLs). The author began by…
Many enterprises use their own domain concepts in modeling business process and use technology in specialized ways when they implement them in a Business Process Management (BPM) system.In contrast, BPM tools used for modeling and implementing business processes often provide a standard modeling...... and automation to BPM tools through a tool experiment in Danske Bank, a large financial institute; We develop business process modeling languages, tools and transformations that capture Danske Banks specific modeling concepts and use of technology, and which automate the generation of code. An empirical...... language, a standard implementation technology and a fixed transformation that may generate the implementation from the model. This makes the tools inflexible and difficult to use.This paper presents another approach. It applies the basic model driven development principles of direct representation...
Full Text Available Purpose – this research is aimed to identify the metacognitive online reading strategies employed by MRU students and assess the interrelation between online reading strategies and metacognitive awareness.Design/methodology/approach – the authors present and evaluate the findings obtained by using Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS, the survey, which helped to identify MRU students’ metacognitive online reading strategies in a foreign language learning context. The methods applied in the research were the following ones: literature review and descriptive analysis of the obtained quantitative data. The quantitative research and descriptive analysis of the data received from the survey was applied. The target group of the study conducted at MRU consisted of 89 full-time students having different online reading experience. The sample was composed of students from five Bachelor study programmes studying in the academic year of 2012-2013. The instrument of the research (OSORS was composed of 38 items.Findings – the findings obtained through the survey revealed that readers work directly with the text to solve problems while reading online. However, a low score on any of the subscales of the inventory (i.e. Support strategies use indicates that there may be strategies in these parts that students might want to learn about and consider using them when reading online. By focusing students’ attention on the metacognitive reading strategies identified in the OSORS language, teachers could help students improve their online reading ability. Teachers should include strategy awareness as training component in their students’ online learning tasks.Research limitations/implications – the research sample is rather limited (89 participants.Practical implications – seeking to develop students’ online reading capacity, it is valuable for teachers to discover students’ preferences for online reading strategies and identify encountered
Eduardo Rodrigues Goes
Full Text Available The research, currently in development, proposes to analyze the platform Moodle-Unesp in an online course of Portuguese as a foreign language (PLE. The Moodle platform is a Virtual Learning Environment (AVA that allows, among many actions, the creation and management of courses, feasibility of didactic material and student evaluations. The interaction in the virtual environment can be created by activities proposed by the teacher (administrator using the tools available in the "Activities" and "Resources" fields, available in the platform. Likewise, the association of tools of the "Activities" and "Resources" fields with digital didactic materials and adequate procedures for the teaching of Portuguese as a foreign language (PLE are presented. The results show that the Moodle-Unesp modules allow the insertion of a wide variety of tasks and content in different formats for the development of speech, writing, listening, reading and culture skills, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the platform in teaching PLE.
Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea
On the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scale, the average reading comprehension level of the Dutch population is B1 and the average level of text provided by Dutch government organisations requires a considerably higher reading skills level (C1). This means that part of
Murdaugh, Donna L; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Kana, Rajesh K
Deficits in language comprehension have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with behavioral and neuroimaging studies finding increased reliance on visuospatial processing to aid in language comprehension. However, no study to date, has taken advantage of this strength in visuospatial processing to improve language comprehension difficulties in ASD. This study used a translational neuroimaging approach to test the role of a visual imagery-based reading intervention in improving the brain circuitry underlying language processing in children with ASD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a longitudinal study design, was used to investigate intervention-related change in sentence comprehension, brain activation, and functional connectivity in three groups of participants (age 8-13 years): an experimental group of ASD children (ASD-EXP), a wait-list control group of ASD children (ASD-WLC), and a group of typically developing control children. After intervention, the ASD-EXP group showed significant increase in activity in visual and language areas and right-hemisphere language area homologues, putamen, and thalamus, suggestive of compensatory routes to increase proficiency in reading comprehension. Additionally, ASD children who had the most improvement in reading comprehension after intervention showed greater functional connectivity between left-hemisphere language areas, the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus while reading high imagery sentences. Thus, the findings of this study, which support the principles of dual coding theory [Paivio 2007], suggest the potential of a strength-based reading intervention in changing brain responses and facilitating better reading comprehension in ASD children. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The present research aimed to check Share’s (2008 thesis about conventional reading acquisition models in a group of Argentinean children. This author proposes that reading models developed for English need to be reviewed when children are learning to read in a language with transparent orthography. Share questions the idea of learning proceeds in stages, the importance given to reading accuracy over speed and the relevance of phonological processing. A group of 52 children from low-income families were tested on letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid naming and reading of frequent words at the beginning and the middle of first grade. Additionally, children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills were tested at the end of first and second grade. Results showed that most children never resorted to non-phonological strategies as it is usually done by their equals in English. By the end of second grade the group had reached a high level of accuracy in reading, but important differences were found in reading speed. These results support Share’s (2008 proposal since reading acquisition did not develop in a series of stages but could be described as a continuous process in which children gradually increase their phonological recoding abilities and achieve accuracy early on. Therefore individual differences in reading speed become a critical aspect of reading.
Knutson, Elizabeth M.
In describing reading proficiency--the relative difficulty or ease that an individual reader experiences reading a particular text--researchers have recognized the importance of both text- and reader-based factors. This digest focuses on the factor of purpose, as determined by the reader or the instructional context. Having a purpose means having…
Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA
Full Text Available Reading is one of the bases of second language learning, and it can be most effective when the linguistic difficulty of the text matches the reader's level of language proficiency. The present paper reviews previous research on the readability and simplification of Japanese texts, and presents an analysis of a collection of simplified texts for learners of Japanese as a foreign language. The simplified texts are compared to their original versions to uncover different strategies used to make the texts more accessible to learners. The list of strategies thus obtained can serve as useful guidelines for assessing, selecting, and devising texts for learners of Japanese as a foreign language.
Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan
Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…
This article explores three models of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social) and identifies characteristics of a sustainable community necessary to sustain the Deaf community as a whole. It is argued that sign language legislation is a valuable tool for achieving sustainability for the generations to come.
Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon
When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Viholainen, Helena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Paula; Cantell, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki
Relationships between early motor development and language and reading skills were studied in 154 children, of whom 75 had familial risk of dyslexia (37 females, 38 males; at-risk group) and 79 constituted a control group (32 females, 47 males). Motor development was assessed by a structured parental questionnaire during the child's first year of life. Vocabulary and inflectional morphology skills were used as early indicators of language skills at 3 years 6 months and 5 years or 5 years 6 months of age, and reading speed was used as a later indicator of reading skills at 7 years of age. The same subgroups as in our earlier study (in which the cluster analysis was described) were used in this study. The three subgroups of the control group were 'fast motor development', 'slow fine motor development', and 'slow gross motor development', and the two subgroups of the at-risk group were 'slow motor development' and 'fast motor development'. A significant difference was found between the development of expressive language skills. Children with familial risk of dyslexia and slow motor development had a smaller vocabulary with poorer inflectional skills than the other children. They were also slower in their reading speed at the end of the first grade at the age of 7 years. Two different associations are discussed, namely the connection between early motor development and language development, and the connection between early motor development and reading speed.
Watier, L; Dellatolas, G; Chevrie-Muller, C
Early detection of specific language impairment and dyslexia in children is an important public health problem. Longitudinal studies are needed for the distinction of real impairments from simple transitory delays. Teachers filled a 29-item questionnaire on language and behavior for 695 children aged 3.5 years. Four years later (at second grade of primary school) the same children were evaluated for reading and writing. Statistical analysis focused on the relationships between teacher's early observations and reading delay 4 years later. Associated factors were age, sex, educational level and bilinguism of the parents, and area of the school. The delay in written language acquisition (8.5% of the children) was significantly associated with low educational level (but not bilinguism) of the parents and to the area of the school. In univariate analysis, most of the teacher's early negative assessments were significantly related to reading/writing delay, with the exception of some behavioral problems. However, when the effect of associated factors was taken into account only a few items, mainly concerning language expression, remained significantly associated with later reading/writing delay. These data show a major role of associated factors (educational level of the parents, area of the school) in reading delay, and help to select specific teacher's observations for an early prediction of this delay.
Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle
When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…
Travis, F; Olson, T; Egenes, T; Gupta, H K
This study tested the prediction that reading Vedic Sanskrit texts, without knowledge of their meaning, produces a distinct physiological state. We measured EEG, breath rate, heart rate, and skin conductance during: (1) 15-min Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice; (2) 15-min reading verses of the Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit; and (3) 15-min reading the same verses translated in German, Spanish, or French. The two reading conditions were randomly counterbalanced, and subjects filled out experience forms between each block to reduce carryover effects. Skin conductance levels significantly decreased during both reading Sanskrit and TM practice, and increased slightly during reading a modern language. Alpha power and coherence were significantly higher when reading Sanskrit and during TM practice, compared to reading modern languages. Similar physiological patterns when reading Sanskrit and during practice of the TM technique suggests that the state gained during TM practice may be integrated with active mental processes by reading Sanskrit.
Martin, H. R.
In recent decades, the vast amount of information originated in the production of knowledge and its applications, has highlighted the importance of being independent readers, critics, and able to interpret written material circulating referred to scientific and technological issues, that invade the people's daily life. Moreover, in the last stage of education system of all future citizens of the country, the results of many diagnoses have highlighted the difficulties of young students to understand the texts related to science and technology. However, simultaneously with these weaknesses, students permanently express the need to relate science and technology to everyday life, and are interested in the discussion of the news related to atomic energy spread by the mass media. This duality lack of interest in reading vs interest in knowledge in certain subjects, is what has been taken into account when proposing this pedagogical approach that simultaneously involves several aspects. From the need to find a trigger for the treatment of a particular issue, to familiarization of students with the vocabulary and methodology of science ill the debate on the characteristics of specific technological applications of nuclear technology. Considering particularly the last of these factors, since 2011 has been developed in Jose Maria Paz School of Cordoba, Reading Comprehension Experience, using texts with scientific and technological contents published by Institute for Energy and Development (IEDS) of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Knowledge Leaves Series, as a methodological tool, to bring students to the physics of the atom and matter. The reading strategy used is based on the hypothesis of the type of questions being asked about the contents, can help students to develop reading strategies for comprehension and thus contribute positively to his learning. With this proposal it has been observed an increased on student interest in learning natural science
Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles
BACKGROUND. Children may experience two very different forms of reading problem: decoding difficulties (dyslexia) and reading comprehension difficulties. Decoding difficulties appear to be caused by problems with phonological (speech sound) processing. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be caused by problems with 'higher level' language difficulties including problems with semantics (including deficient knowledge of word meanings) and grammar (knowledge of morphology and syntax). AIMS. We review evidence concerning the nature, causes of, and treatments for children's reading difficulties. We argue that any well-founded educational intervention must be based on a sound theory of the causes of a particular form of learning difficulty, which in turn must be based on an understanding of how a given skill is learned by typically developing children. Such theoretically motivated interventions should in turn be evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to establish whether they are effective, and for whom. RESULTS. There is now considerable evidence showing that phonologically based interventions are effective in ameliorating children's word level decoding difficulties, and a smaller evidence base showing that reading and oral language (OL) comprehension difficulties can be ameliorated by suitable interventions to boost vocabulary and broader OL skills. CONCLUSIONS. The process of developing theories about the origins of children's educational difficulties and evaluating theoretically motivated treatments in RCTs, produces a 'virtuous circle' whereby theory informs practice, and the evaluation of effective interventions in turn feeds back to inform and refine theories about the nature and causes of children's reading and language difficulties. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
This study explored how the construction of an argument graph promotes students' collaborative online reading compared to note-taking. Upper secondary school students ("n"?=?76) worked in pairs. The pairs were asked to search for and read source material on the Web for a joint essay and either construct an argument graph or take notes…
The goal of this article is to provide an account of language development in the brain using the new information about brain function gleaned from cognitive neuroscience. This account goes beyond describing the association between language and specific brain areas to advocate the possibility of predicting language outcomes using brain-imaging data. The goal is to address the current evidence about language development in the brain and prediction of language outcomes. Recent studies will be discussed in the light of the evidence generated for predicting language outcomes and using new methods of analysis of brain data. The present account of brain behavior will address: (1) the development of a hardwired brain circuit for spoken language; (2) the neural adaptation that follows reading instruction and fosters the "grafting" of visual processing areas of the brain onto the hardwired circuit of spoken language; and (3) the prediction of language development and the possibility of translational neuroscience. Brain imaging has allowed for the identification of neural indices (neuromarkers) that reflect typical and atypical language development; the possibility of predicting risk for language disorders has emerged. A mandate to develop a bridge between neuroscience and health and cognition-related outcomes may pave the way for translational neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kalee, Lilian; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; de Jong, Peter F.
A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the native language (NL), the level of foreign language (FL) literacy of gifted students with dyslexia is higher than the literacy level of averagely intelligent students with dyslexia and whether this di...
Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V
We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.
Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A
Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.
Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.
Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children. PMID:28559858
Gabrielle A. Strouse
Full Text Available Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures and three-dimensional (replica objects formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.
Yang, Ye; Liu, Juan
We developed a program JVM (Java Visual Mapping) for mapping next generation sequencing read to reference sequence. The program is implemented in Java and is designed to deal with millions of short read generated by sequence alignment using the Illumina sequencing technology. It employs seed index strategy and octal encoding operations for sequence alignments. JVM is useful for DNA-Seq, RNA-Seq when dealing with single-end resequencing. JVM is a desktop application, which supports reads capacity from 1 MB to 10 GB.
The empirical study of reading dates back more than 125 years. But despite this long tradition, the scientific understanding of reading has made rather heterogeneous progress: many factors that influence the process of text reading have been uncovered, but theoretical explanations remain fragmented; no general theory pulls together the diverse findings. A handful of scholars have noted that properties thought to be at the core of the reading process do not actually generalize across different languages or from situations single-word reading to connected text reading. Such observations cast doubt on many of the traditional conceptions about reading. In this article, I suggest that the observed heterogeneity in the research is due to misguided conceptions about the reading process. Particularly problematic are the unrefined notions about meaning which undergird many reading theories: most psychological theories of reading implicitly assume a kind of elemental token semantics, where words serve as stable units of meaning in a text. This conception of meaning creates major conceptual problems. As an alternative, I argue that reading shoud be rather understood as a form of language use, which circumvents many of the conceptual problems and connects reading to a wider range of linguistic communication. Finally, drawing from Wittgenstein, the concept of "language games" is outlined as an approach to language use that can be operationalized scientifically to provide a new foundation for reading research.
van Staden, Annalene
Full Text Available Globally, reading proficiency has been a major area of difficulty for English second-language (ESL learners. This research inter alia utilised a quantitative, quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test research design to address the paucity of evidence-based second-language reading research internationally, as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Lesotho in particular; and to determine if second-language learners (L2 in the experimental group can improve their L2 reading abilities after being exposed to reading intervention strategies, based on the “simple view of reading”. Drawing from both psycholinguistic and cognitive linguistic principles, the authors considered this as a working model to develop reading strategies to support ESL learners in Lesotho who experienced significant delays in L2 reading abilities and comprehension. In the present study, strategies based on the “simple view of reading”, , included, inter alia, effective language exposure, building a rich vocabulary, improving reading fluency and word recognition abilities, and creating socio-linguistic opportunities to develop vocabulary and enhance reading comprehension (for example, creating a “word wall”, interactive story-book reading and the application of the ReQuest reading method. Results from this quantitative study demonstrated that Grade 4 ESL learners in the experimental group (N=36 significantly outperformed those in the control group (N=36 with regard to sight word fluency, word recognition, syntactic awareness, vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. As we move forward in an attempt to understand the nuances of creating a responsive reading environment to support ESL learners’ reading development, assessing the effectiveness of strategies to improve their reading skills is essential.
A. N. Astanina
Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of standardization of foreign language training at the higher school is becoming currently topical. With regard to the processes of globalization, the international educational projects and students exchange programs gain greater international recognition. Such international programmes involve foreign language knowledge graded as not only high certified academic levels but also as basic language skills. The lack of foreign language competence becomes the obstacle for successful training, depriving a future graduate of a part of chances to become the competitive and popular expert in the chosen profession. The success of a foreign language course completion among students depends on many factors; the most important factor is motivation which can affect self-assessment of training results. The aim of the study is to describe possibilities of the CanDos tools implementation for the organization of students self-consciousness and self-assessment of own achievements in order to influence the motivation for mastering a foreign language.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on competencybased approach. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. The questionnaire developed for the experiment helped to collect the data concerning the effectiveness of the CanDos software implementation for self-assessment of students’ foreign language skills. The corresponding self-assessment helps students to carry out a self-reflection of own knowledge and abilities, and to find “weak points” in language proficiency which need additional practice and improvement. By regularly using CanDos software as self-assessment tools, students learn to identify the correspondence of their language competence to the external requirements and standards of education. Orientation to training results will help future experts to create self-motivation that positively
McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.
Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…
Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.
Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…
Derman, Serdar; Bardakçi, Mehmet; Öztürk, Mustafa Serkan
Suprasegmental features are essential in conveying meaning; however, they are one of the neglected topics in teaching Turkish as a foreign/second language. This paper aims to examine read speech by Arabic students learning Turkish as a second language and describe their read speech in terms of stress and pause. Within this framework, 34 Syrian…
Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie
This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…
van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie
The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.
Kieffer, Michael J.; Vukovic, Rose K.
This longitudinal study investigated growth in reading-related skills between Grade 1 and 4 for language minority (LM) learners and their native English-speaking classmates from similarly low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 166). Growth trajectories were compared by language background and by Grade 4 reading difficulties, with the goal of informing…
Hickey, Tina M.; Stenson, Nancy
Hickey's (1991) article ["Leisure reading in a second language: An experiment with audio tapes." "Language, Culture and Curriculum," 4(2), 119-131. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908319109525098] reported the benefits of audio-support for L2 reading of real books, showing gains in fluency and motivation among…
van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Simis, A.; Snellings, P.; Stevenson, M.
The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.
Anja K. Steinlen
Full Text Available Both for the first language (L1 and for all additional languages (L2 or L3, grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005. However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a minority language background. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined minority and majority language children’s English grammar and reading comprehension skills. The children attended a German-English partial immersion primary school and were tested at the end of Grades 3 and 4. As expected, we found grammar to affect reading comprehension but also reverse effects. Most importantly, the results did not reveal any differences between the two language groups, irrespective of the test. Therefore, immersion primary school programs seem to be suitable for minority language children, and these children do not automatically represent an at-risk group for foreign language learning.
Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…
Albus, Deb; Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin
This study was conducted to examine whether using a monolingual, simplified English dictionary as an accommodation on a reading test with limited-English-proficient (LEP) Hmong students improved test performance. Hmong students were chosen because they are often not literate in their first language. For these students, bilingual dictionaries are…
Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin; Bielinski, John
The authors examined the effects of a simplified English dictionary accommodation on the reading-test performance of Hmong English-language learners (ELLs). Participants included a control group of 69 non-ELL students and an experimental group of 133 Hmong ELLs from 3 urban middle schools in Minnesota. In a randomized counterbalanced design, all…
The aim of this paper is to describe a blended learning model to be used in Egyptian schools when teaching reading classes in English as a foreign language. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the Egyptian context and describes the target learners. The second part describes the suggested blended learning model, which is…
Mikami, Hitoshi; Leung, Chi Yui; Yoshikawa, Lisa
This study explores the internal structure of psychological attributes (i.e., motivation, belief and emotion) related to foreign language reading (FLR) (hereafter FLR attributes) and checks the utility of existing FLR attribute measurements for the specific learner group (i.e., Japanese university students studying English as their foreign…
DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; Schatschneider, Chris; Davison, Megan Dunn
Purpose: This study examined (a) the extent of genetic and environmental influences on children's articulation and language difficulties and (b) the phenotypic associations between such difficulties and direct assessments of reading-related skills during early school-age years. Method: Behavioral genetic analyses focused on parent-report data…
Mulumba, Mathias Bwanika
The emergence of the digital era is redefining education and the pedagogical processes in an unpredictable manner. In the midst of the increased availability of print and online resources, the twenty-first century language teacher educator expects her (or his) student teachers to be reading beings if they are to improve their knowledge-base in…
The goal of the present study was to examine how effective use of teaching strategies predict reading growth among a sample of English Language Learners. The study specifically examined whether the types of teaching strategies that predict growth in decoding skills also predict growth in comprehension skills. The sample consisted of students in…
Cisco, Brooke Kandel; Padron, Yolanda
Recent data indicate that many adolescent English language learners (ELLs) comprehend English texts at only a limited literal level. The purpose of this research synthesis was to systematically identify and describe the research related to the English reading comprehension of middle grades ELLs while also making practical connections to…
This essay is my reading of "English," a novel based on author Wang Gang's experiences in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Northwest China during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). As a language educator, I was particularly interested in the way that Wang describes learning English in the novel. The essay focuses on three…
Despite the growing number of studies highlighting the complex process of acquiring second language (L2) word recognition skills, comparatively little research has examined the relationship between word recognition and passage-level reading ability in L2 learners; further, the existing results are inconclusive. This study aims to help fill the…
van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kalee, Lilian; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; de Jong, Peter F.
A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the native language (NL), the level of foreign language…
Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira
Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…
DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.
Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…
de Burgh-Hirabe, Ryoko; Feryok, Ann
Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading (ER) has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that motivation for ER changes. This is in line with recent developments in second language (L2) motivation research that have highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of L2 motivation. This study presents a model of complex and…
Ercetin, Gulcan; Alptekin, Cem
Following an extensive overview of the subject, this study explores the relationships between second-language (L2) explicit/implicit knowledge sources, embedded in the declarative/procedural memory systems, and L2 working memory (WM) capacity. It further examines the relationships between L2 reading comprehension and L2 WM capacity as well as…
Fard-Kashani, Alireza; Jahromi, Abdol Hossein Zahedi; Javadi, Ali; Fallahi, Ali Mohammad
The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose) teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended…
Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.
This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…
Bernard, Robert M.; Bethel, Edward Clement; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne
This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-called "ubiquitous computing" program in a Quebec school district. CAT3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla
This study investigated whether significant differences exist between first and second language readers in their metacognitive awareness and perceived use of specific strategies when reading for academic purposes in English. Three hundred and fifty college students (141 US and 209 Moroccan) completed an instrument designed to measure their…
This study used an alternating treatment design to examine the use of a listening reading comprehension intervention package. This package was implemented in English as well as bilingually (on alternating days). This package was applied to four participants who were English Language Learners, were diagnosed with a severe intellectual delay, and…
Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid
Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…
Kost, Claudia R.; Foss, Pamelo; Lenzini, John J.
Investigates the effects of pictorial and textual glosses and a combination thereof on incidental vocabulary growth of foreign language learners. Subjects from second-semester German classes read a narrative text passage under one of three marginal gloss conditions: textual gloss (English translation); pictorial gloss; and text and pictures in the…
Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra
Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miccio, Adele W
Learning to read is a complex process and a number of factors affect a child's success in beginning reading. This complexity increases when a child's home language differs from that of the school and when the child comes from a home with limited economic resources. This article discusses factors that have been shown to contribute to children's success in early reading, namely-phonological awareness, letter-word identification, oral language, and the home literacy environment. Preliminary evidence suggests that bilingual children from low-income backgrounds initially perform poorly on phonological awareness and letter identification tasks, but appear to acquire these abilities quickly in kindergarten once these abilities are emphasized in early reading instruction. In addition, the findings show that bilingual preschoolers' receptive language abilities in English and Spanish positively impact their early letter-word identification abilities at the end of kindergarten. A positive relationship between bilingual preschoolers' home literacy environment and early reading outcomes has not been found to date. Educational implications for serving young, bilingual children from programs such as Head Start are discussed.
The present study focuses on the relationship between reading anxiety and ambiguity tolerance of 295 Turkish EFL learners of English (180 females, 115 males). Data were collected using the Turkish version of FLRAS and SLTAS in 2015-2016 academic year. The overall design of the study was based on the quantitative research method. Data were…
Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words.
Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T
This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.
Shane R. Jimerson
Full Text Available Students’ oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance - English language learners (ELLs with low socioeconomic status and low socioeconomic (SES status alone. Results revealed that both types of student status variables reliably predicted low performance on initial first grade oral reading fluency, which later predicted fourth grade performance on the SAT-9. However, the reading fluency trajectories of the ELLs and monolingual English students were not significantly different. In addition, when both student status variables and letter naming fluency were used to predict initial oral reading fluency, letter naming fluency dominated the prediction equation, suggesting that an initial pre-reading skill, letter naming fluency, better explained fourth grade performance on the SAT-9 than either ELL with low SES or low SES alone. The discussion focuses on how to better enable these readers and how oral reading fluency progress monitoring can be used to assist school personnel in determining which students need additional instructional assistance.
Varuzza, Michelle; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert; Blake, Brett Elizabeth
Conducted at 10 schools in four communities, this study investigated relationships of young adolescents' reading motivation, reading preference, and reading engagement as influenced by their English Language Arts teachers' use of instructional strategies. Students in eight sixth grade (N = 196) and nine seventh grade (N = 218) classes completed a…
Full Text Available Knowledge of the reading strategies used by English Second Language learners can help teachers to plan appropriate lessons and apply relevant methods of teaching reading in order to enhance learners’ reading comprehension. The main objective of this study was to investigate the reading strategies used by Grade 9 English Second Language (ESL learners and also to establish if there was any significant difference between perceived strategy use and gender. The respondents (192 were all ESL learners in Grade 9 in 2011 in a selected school. The study employed a quantitative research method. The study used convenience sampling on a group of 192 Grade 9 learners. The data collected through questionnaires was analysed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The findings revealed that the learners did not employ a wide range of reading strategies. The results further indicated that there was no significant difference between boys and girls in terms of strategy use. Based on the above findings several suggestions were made to help teachers improve their teaching and help learners improve their reading comprehension and also about possible areas for future research.
Alternative functions of the left-hemisphere dominant Broca's region have induced hypotheses regarding the evolutionary parallels between manual praxis and language in humans. Many recent studies on Broca's area reveal several assumptions about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie both functions, including: (1) an accurate, finely controlled body schema, (2) increasing syntactical abilities, particularly for goal-oriented actions, and (3) bilaterality and fronto-parietal connectivity. Although these characteristics are supported by experimental paradigms, many researchers have failed to acknowledge a major line of evidence for the evolutionary development of these traits: stone tools. The neuroscience of stone tool manufacture is a viable proxy for understanding evolutionary aspects of manual praxis and language, and may provide key information for evaluating competing hypotheses on the co-evolution of these cognitive domains in our species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gladys Molano Caro
Full Text Available This article disclosed the progress a technological mediation has built to the adquisition, use and development of reading and writing from Cognitive Affective Method for Learning -MACPA-. A development like the one being proposed, is an option for children and young people to, activate, promote, develop and / or enhance the learning of reading and writing. Likewise, it is an option to consider the results achieved in the PISA test and case reports, done by teachers by teachers, showing that that elementary students do not perform production of texts so spontaneous or directed; and they fail to make progress in reading comprehension levels. Given this context, the partial results achieved in the second phase of the research aims to implement a technology platform based mediation MACPA as an educational resource to enhance the processes of reading and writing among students from first to fourth grades of primary education. Accordingly, through Article basis be found in a software for reading and writing that takes into account the particularities of learning of students with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities in students who have not evidenced difficulties in academic learning processes, though they require a new method to accelerate learning.
Grant, Gloria W.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of text materials with relevant language, illustrations, and content upon the reading achievement and reading preference (attitude) of black primary and intermediate grade inner-city students. The subjects for the study were 330 black students enrolled in three schools in a large urban area. A…
Sparks, Richard L.; Luebbers, Julie
Conventional wisdom suggests that students classified as learning disabled will exhibit difficulties with foreign language (FL) learning, but evidence has not supported a relationship between FL learning problems and learning disabilities. The simple view of reading model posits that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and…
Proponents of the motor theory of language evolution have primarily focused on the visual domain and communication through observation of movements. In the present paper, it is hypothesized that the production and perception of sound, particularly of incidental sound of locomotion (ISOL) and tool-use sound (TUS), also contributed. Human bipedalism resulted in rhythmic and more predictable ISOL. It has been proposed that this stimulated the evolution of musical abilities, auditory working memory, and abilities to produce complex vocalizations and to mimic natural sounds. Since the human brain proficiently extracts information about objects and events from the sounds they produce, TUS, and mimicry of TUS, might have achieved an iconic function. The prevalence of sound symbolism in many extant languages supports this idea. Self-produced TUS activates multimodal brain processing (motor neurons, hearing, proprioception, touch, vision), and TUS stimulates primate audiovisual mirror neurons, which is likely to stimulate the development of association chains. Tool use and auditory gestures involve motor processing of the forelimbs, which is associated with the evolution of vertebrate vocal communication. The production, perception, and mimicry of TUS may have resulted in a limited number of vocalizations or protowords that were associated with tool use. A new way to communicate about tools, especially when out of sight, would have had selective advantage. A gradual change in acoustic properties and/or meaning could have resulted in arbitrariness and an expanded repertoire of words. Humans have been increasingly exposed to TUS over millions of years, coinciding with the period during which spoken language evolved. ISOL and tool-use-related sound are worth further exploration.
Steinlen, Anja K.
Both for the first language (L1) and for all additional languages (L2 or L3), grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005). However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a…
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of linguistic and psychological variables in the explanation of the variance associated with reading comprehension in English (L2. Two hundred and eighty Mexican university students participated in the study. The variables analyzed within the linguistic dimension were: reading strategies in Spanish, linguistic competence in English, and ability to perceive lexical transparency between L1 and L2. The psychological dimension evaluated the influence of the reader’s cognitive style, locus of control, and action control orientation on reading comprehension in L2. Subjects were administered a battery of seven evaluation instruments. Multiple regression analyses suggested a two-stage explanatory model of reading in L2. Firstly, psychological variables accounted for 10.0% of the variance in reading comprehension in the first language. Secondly, reading comprehension in Spanish, linguistic competence in L2, and perception of lexical transparency, accounted for 35.5% of the variance in reading comprehension in English.
Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty
Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.
Seftirina Evina Sinambela
Full Text Available The prosodic features in reading aloud assignment has been associated with the students’ decoding skill. The goal of the present study is to determine the reliability of prosody for assessing reading fluency of adult ESL students in Indonesia context. The participants were all Indonesian natives, undergraduate students, adult females and males who have learned English in school (at the very least twice a week for more than 12 years. Text reading prosody was assessed by reading aloud task and the students’ speaking manner was taped and measured by using the Multidimensional Fluency Scale, as for text comprehension was assessed with a standardized test. It was discovered by the current study that prosody is a reliable sign to determine reading fluency and also reading comprehension. The student who did not read the text prosodically (with appropriate expression actually showed that he/she failed to comprehend the text. This study also revealed that a struggling reader was also having low comprehension capacity in listening spoken texts. The ESL students’ common problems to acquire prosodic reading skill are low exposure to the target language and do not have a good model to imitate prosodic reading.
Kieffer, Michael J; Vukovic, Rose K
Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on standardized English language and reading measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relative contributions of code-related and linguistic comprehension skills in first and second grade to third grade reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension and the interaction between linguistic comprehension and code-related skills each explained substantial variation in reading comprehension. Among students with low reading comprehension, more than 80% demonstrated weaknesses in linguistic comprehension alone, whereas approximately 15% demonstrated weaknesses in both linguistic comprehension and code-related skills. Results were remarkably similar for the language minority learners and native English speakers, suggesting the importance of their shared socioeconomic backgrounds and schooling contexts.
Smit, Nienke; van de Grift, Wim; de Bot, Kees; Jansen, Ellen
An important goal of educational research is to find out which teaching practices are effective in promoting students' learning. In order to assess these practices, adequate observation instruments are needed. Existing observation schemes for language teaching are not suitable to gauge which
Seyed Hassan Talebi
Full Text Available This study attempted to find out the impact of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI in L2 (English in increasing the awareness and use of these reading strategies not only in L2 in which the CMRSI was given but also in L3 (Arabic in which no CMRSI was given as a result of transfer of reading strategies from L2 to L3. It also aimed to find out which strategy items were most and least improved both in L2 and L3 as a result of CMRSI in L2. Fifty five fourth-grade high school male students majoring in math-physics took part in this study. As the reading process is believed to be the same across languages (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2004, the participants were put into two groups of low and high awareness of reading strategies in L1 (Persian. Then, they were given reading comprehension tests in L2 and L3 as triggers for the main instrument (i.e., cognitive and metacognitive reading strategy questionnaire in English and Arabic. After this pretest stage, the two groups underwent the CMRSI. The same pretest instruments were also given to the students as posttest. It was found that there was a significant difference in the awareness and use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies from pretest to posttest in English and Arabic for students of low and high strategic reading competence level. However, this improvement was not necessarily the same for different strategy items. It is important to teach reading strategies in L2 as it will have effect on increasing awareness of strategies both in L2 and in L3 as a result of transfer of reading strategies from one language to another. However, as not all strategy items show the same improvement from pretest to posttest, more attention should be paid to the item by item analysis of strategies after CMRSI to maximize students’ awareness of all strategy items equally.
This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are similar to normal daily lifeÂ communication. The reasons for the proposed implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ in TEFLINÂ and the role of reading and its relation with other language skills are presented.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide a space for practice and communication free of the traditional pedagogic concerns of a typical classroom. The distinctive discursive behaviour of Facebook group pages helps one to achieve that attempt. In light of these views, the researcher, in this study, formed a group page to understand the dynamics of social media environment as a supporting tool for language classrooms. This paper addresses various features which make social media a unique place to contribute to the sense of class community and collaboration outside the classroom. The face-to face classroom is a controlled communication event, that is, teachers and students are required to be in the classroom at the same time but a teacher’s use of Facebook is an attempt to communicate with students outside of that controlled environment where teachers can meet students in their territory. When compared to its disadvantages, the advantages of setting a class group page on the social media outweigh. Students can feel motivated to contribute to an online community if they subsequently receive support or help. It also leads students to feel that they are being supported by a whole portion of their class community and promotes students’ desire to maintain a valued relationship with others. Students continue developing and strengthening relationships with others.
St Clair, Michelle C; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Pickles, Andrew
Individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) often have subsequent problems with reading skills, but there have been some discrepant findings as to the developmental time course of these skills. This study investigates the developmental trajectories of reading skills over a 9-year time-span (from 7 to 16 years of age) in a large sample of individuals with a history of SLI. Relationships among reading skills, autistic symptomatology, and language-related abilities were also investigated. The results indicate that both reading accuracy and comprehension are deficient but that the development of these skills progresses in a consistently parallel fashion to what would be expected from a normative sample of same age peers. Language-related abilities were strongly associated with reading skills. Unlike individuals with SLI only, those with SLI and additional autistic symptomatology had adequate reading accuracy but did not differ from the individuals with SLI only in reading comprehension. They exhibited a significant gap between what they could read and what they could understand when reading. These findings provide strong evidence that individuals with SLI experience continued, long-term deficits in reading skills from childhood to adolescence.
Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien
This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.
Full Text Available The present study explored the association among vocabulary breadth/size, depth/quality of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension in English as a foreign language. The main intention of this research was to explore the association of vocabulary knowledge depth/quality and reading comprehension performance. This study was also intended to find out which aspects of vocabulary knowledge, breadth/size or depth/quality, has more significant association with determining EFL learners’ reading comprehension performance. The Vocabulary Level Test (VLT, Word Associates Test (WAT, and Reading Comprehension test (IELTS have been administered among all the respondents. The participants were 220 adult male and female EFL learners who were learning English in advanced level in BAHAR institute, Shiraz, Iran. The findings revealed that 1 test scores on vocabulary size/ breadth, depth/ quality of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were positively correlated, 2 vocabulary size/ breadth was a stronger predictor of reading comprehension than depth/ Quality of vocabulary knowledge.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The importance of the role played by children's literature in the child's mental, social and linguistic development and in the development of his or her basic academic skills, such as reading andwriting, has been confirmed by numerous studies. A central issue in developmental psychology is what activities related to children's books exert an influence on the child's development and in what ways. Thisinterest in children's books and in child language development places our research into two scientific disciplines, viz. psychology and linguistics. The study explores the impact of systematic and regular readingof selected children's books in preschool institutions on the development of language competences in children aged four to six years, boys and girls. Other contributing factors whose relevance for languagedevelopment has been either postulated by theories or highlighted by empirical studies, are also observed - e.g. parents' education, number of books in the family, quality of education in the family (frequencyof conversations, visits to cultural events, reading books together, etc.. The children included in the study all attend a preschool institution with an educational program which is based on the national curriculumand which targets also the language area. The children in the experimental group are submitted to additional reading of selected children's literature. The development of children's linguistic competences isfollowed using two methods: analysis of answers on The Vane evaluation of language scale (The Vane-L and analysis of transcripts of story retelling after the child has been read H. Ch. Andersen's fairy taleThe Princess and the Pea. The results show, that the children who were systematically read selected children's books in their preschool groups, achieved significantly higher scores on the standardized Vanelanguage development scale and on the unstandardized test of retelling a story. Correlations between some of the
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…
Fisher, Tony; Sharples, Mike; Pemberton, Richard; Ogata, Hiroaki; Uosaki, Noriko; Edmonds, Phil; Hull, Anthony; Tschorn, Patrick
This paper reports on a study in which incidental English vocabulary learning from three mobile modes (book, e-book and e-book with user modelling and adaptive vocabulary learning support) was investigated. The study employed a crossover design to test for vocabulary gain from reading three simplified English novels among a group of Japanese high school students, learning English as a second language. Small vocabulary gains were noted; however there was no significant difference between the m...
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Særvold, Tone Kristin; Aukner, Ragnhild; Stock, Nicola Marie
Despite the use of multidisciplinary services, little research has addressed issues involved in the care of those with cleft lip and/or palate across disciplines. The aim was to investigate associations between speech, language, reading, and reports of teasing, subjective satisfaction with speech, and psychological adjustment. Cross-sectional data collected during routine, multidisciplinary assessments in a centralized treatment setting, including speech and language therapists and clinical psychologists. Children with cleft with palatal involvement aged 10 years from three birth cohorts (N = 170) and their parents. Speech: SVANTE-N. Language: Language 6-16 (sentence recall, serial recall, vocabulary, and phonological awareness). Reading: Word Chain Test and Reading Comprehension Test. Psychological measures: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and extracts from the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Child Experience Questionnaire. Reading skills were associated with self- and parent-reported psychological adjustment in the child. Subjective satisfaction with speech was associated with psychological adjustment, while not being consistently associated with speech therapists' assessments. Parent-reported teasing was found to be associated with lower levels of reading skills. Having a medical and/or psychological condition in addition to the cleft was found to affect speech, language, and reading significantly. Cleft teams need to be aware of speech, language, and/or reading problems as potential indicators of psychological risk in children with cleft. This study highlights the importance of multiple reports (self, parent, and specialist) and a multidisciplinary approach to cleft care and research.
cultural product” in time and space. However, as part of socio-scientific method, postcolonial theory encounters some crucial translation problems such as ethnocentrism and anachronism. Nevertheless, whatever hermeneutical tool the reader ...
Leticia Mercedes Cedeño Macías
Full Text Available Reading is one of communicative skills, so it is one of the topics all English learners have to study, it is a receptive skill and it is not using to be very popular among language students because they think it is passive, monotonous and even boring, and all these characteristics are against the extrovert and dynamic nature of youth who live in this century. But, is reading really a passive activity? The objective of this essay is to demonstrate that reading is a participative activity where students can interact in pairs or groups improving the communication through certain active and participative strategies like mind map, debates, drills and panels throughout an effective teacher’s planning. The methodology used for this study will be the bibliographic over the analysis of English teaching experts’ books and their experience.
Full Text Available Several studies have found evidence of motor deficits in poor readers. There is no obvious reason for motor and literacy skills to go together, and it has been suggested that both deficits could be indicative of an underlying problem with cerebellar function and/or procedural learning. However, the picture is complicated by the fact that reading problems often co-occur with oral language impairments, which have also been linked with motor deficits. This raises the question of whether motor deficits characterise poor readers when language impairment has been accounted for – and vice versa. We considered these questions by assessing motor deficits associated with reading disability (RD and language impairment (LI. A large community sample provided a subset of 9- to 10-year-olds, selected to oversample children with reading and/or language difficulties, to give 37 children with comorbid LI + RD, 67 children with RD only, 32 children with LI only, and 117 typically-developing (TD children with neither type of difficulty. These children were given four motor tasks that taxed speed, sequence, and imitation abilities to differing extents. Different patterns of results were found for the four motor tasks. There was no effect of RD or LI on two speeded fingertip tapping tasks, one of which involved sequencing of movements. LI, but not RD, was associated with problems in imitating hand positions and slowed performance on a speeded peg-moving task that required a precision grip. Fine motor deficits in poor readers may be more a function of language impairment than literacy problems.
Full Text Available In the present study we examined the relationship between parental educational level, joint storybook reading and children's language competence. Our sample included 123 5-year-old children attending one of the Slovenian preschools. Frequency of parent-child joint storybook reading was measured indirectly with the children's book title checklist, which was used in the Slovenian language environment for the first time, and which, in comparison with the parents' report about how often they read to their children, represents a more objective measure of storybook exposure. By using checklist we avoid socially desirable responses, which parents give because they think that reading is important for children's language development. We found out that parental education is positively related to the parental familiarity with the titles of books for children. Furthermore, the results show that storybook exposure is, regardless of parental educational level, a factor of home environment which makes an important contribution to the development of children's language competence.
Lu, Aitao; Yu, Yanping; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X
The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words, in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2, compound words with one sign (CW-1, and compound words with two signs (CW-2, but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1, with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.
The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…
Kieffer, Michael J.
Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…
Rueckl, Jay G; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Molfese, Peter J; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Ram
We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech-print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents.
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of reading Persian literary texts on the quality of literary translations. To this end, 52 students majoring in English translation were randomly assigned to two groups. A Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT was administered to check the homogeneity of the participants. The treatment for the experimental group consisted of reading 60 Persian short stories and poems. In the meantime, the control group went through their ordinary course curriculum. Both groups were asked to translate extracts of two short stories. The translations were then rated. Through statistical analysis, it was revealed that reading Persian literary works, indeed, improves the quality of literary translations. Therefore, to promote a more fruitful instruction on literary translation, it is suggested that translation teachers attempt to consider reading Persian literary works as part of the curriculum and ask students to read Persian texts to the extent possible, so that more qualified translations would be rendered in the area of literature.
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...
Soto Huerta, Mary Esther
To examine the second-language reading development of 45 fourth-grade Latino bilinguals, a sequential mixed methods study was conducted in two phases (Creswell, 2009). The quantitative data collected in the first phase generated an index of the group's reading performance based on two grade-level assessments, a state-mandated standardized reading…
Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel
Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Vukovic, Rose K.
Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on…
Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen
This study examines whether lexical features and textual properties along with individual differences on the part of readers influence word processing times during second language (L2) reading comprehension. Forty-eight Spanish-speaking adolescent and adult learners of English read nine English passages in a self-paced word-by-word reading…
Wesseling, Patricia B C; Christmann, Corinna A; Lachmann, Thomas
Effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness without letter instruction in German kindergarteners (longitudinal; N = 69, 3;0-4;8 years) were investigated. Expressive vocabulary was measured by using a standardized test; grapheme awareness was measured by asking children to identify one grapheme per trial presented amongst non-letter distractors. Two methods of shared book reading were investigated, literacy enrichment (additional books) and teacher training in shared book reading strategies, both without explicit letter instruction. Whereas positive effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary were evident in numerous previous studies, the impact of shared book reading on grapheme awareness has not yet been investigated. Both methods resulted in positive effects on children's expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness over a period of 6 months. Thus, early shared book reading may not only be considered to be a tool for promoting the development of expressive vocabulary, but also for implicit acquisition of grapheme awareness. The latter is considered an important precondition required for the explicit learning of grapheme-phoneme conversion rules (letter knowledge).
Shepherd, Debra Lynne
The regional and cultural closeness of Botswana and South Africa, as well as differences in their political histories and language policy stances, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the role of language in reading outcomes. This study aims to empirically test the effect of exposure to mother tongue and English instruction on the reading…
Intended for reading and language arts teachers at all educational levels, this guide presents information to be used by teachers in constructing their own computer assisted educational software using the BASIC programming language and Apple computers. Part 1 provides an overview of the components of traditional tutorial and drill-and-practice…
Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 existing studies to examine the nature of the comprehension problems for children who were second-language learners with poor reading comprehension despite adequate decoding. Results indicated that these children had deficits in oral language (d = -0.80), but these deficits were not as severe as their reading…
Whitford, Veronica; Joanisse, Marc F
An extensive body of research has examined reading acquisition and performance in monolingual children. Surprisingly, however, much less is known about reading in bilingual children, who outnumber monolingual children globally. Here, we address this important imbalance in the literature by employing eye movement recordings to examine both global (i.e., text-level) and local (i.e., word-level) aspects of monolingual and bilingual children's reading performance across their first-language (L1) and second-language (L2). We also had a specific focus on lexical accessibility, indexed by word frequency effects. We had three main findings. First, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L1 reading performance relative to monolingual children, including larger L1 word frequency effects. Second, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L2 versus L1 reading performance, including larger L2 word frequency effects. Third, both groups of children displayed reduced global and local reading performance relative to adult comparison groups (across their known languages), including larger word frequency effects. Notably, our first finding was not captured by traditional offline measures of reading, such as standardized tests, suggesting that these measures may lack the sensitivity to detect such nuanced between-group differences in reading performance. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that bilingual children's simultaneous exposure to two reading systems leads to eye movement reading behavior that differs from that of monolingual children and has important consequences for how lexical information is accessed and integrated in both languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duff, Fiona J; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Snowling, Margaret J
Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children identified by research criteria as being at risk of dyslexia (n = 56), and their school-identified peers (n = 89). An Experimental group received two 9-week blocks of daily intervention delivered by trained teaching assistants; the Control group received 9 weeks of typical classroom instruction, followed by 9 weeks of intervention. Following mixed effects regression models and path analyses, small-to-moderate effects were shown on letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and taught vocabulary. However, these were fragile and short lived, and there was no reliable effect on the primary outcome of word-level reading. This new intervention was theoretically motivated and based on previous successful interventions, yet failed to show reliable effects on language and literacy measures following a rigorous evaluation. We suggest that the intervention may have been too short to yield improvements in oral language; and that literacy instruction in and beyond the classroom may have weakened training effects. We argue that reporting of null results makes an important contribution in terms of raising standards both of trial reporting and educational practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Vindy Cahya Ekaningrum
Full Text Available The students’ perception on the teacher instruction shows whether the teaching techniques meet the students’ need or not. Because of this reason, the researcher wants to find out the varieties of pre-reading activities used by the teacher and the students’ perception on the implementation of the pre-reading activities. There were two problem formulations in this study: 1 What kinds of pre-reading activities that are used by Basic Reading II teacher in the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University? 2 How is the students’ perception on pre-reading activities used by the teacher? This research was a survey research. In gathering the data, there were two instruments used in this research. They were interview and questionnaire. The interview was done by interviewing the teacher of Basic Reading II Class. The interview was used to answer the first research question about the varieties of pre-reading activities in Basic Reading II class. Then, the researcher distributed the questionnaire to 56 students of Basic Reading II class. The questionnaire was used to answer the second research question about the students’ perception on pre-reading activities used by the teacher. The result of this research showed that brainstorming, pre-teaching vocabulary, pre-questioning, visual aids, and KWL strategy were the varieties of pre-reading activities used by the teacher. There were two different implementation of pre-teaching vocabulary. There were also two activities combined together, they were the use of visual aids and KWL strategy. The students had positive perception on the implementation of pre-reading activities in Basic Reading II Class. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180206
Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of podcasting as a tool for honing pronunciation skills in intermediate language learning. We examined the effects of using podcasts to improve pronunciation in second language learning and how students’ attitudes changed toward pronunciation over the semester. A total of 22 students in intermediate German and French courses made five scripted pronunciation recordings throughout the semester. After the pronunciation recordings, students produced three extemporaneous podcasts. Students also completed a pre- and post-survey based on Elliott’s (1995 Pronunciation Attitude Inventory to assess their perspectives regarding pronunciation. Students’ pronunciation, extemporaneous recordings, and surveys were analyzed to explore changes over the semester. Data analysis revealed that students’ pronunciation did not significantly improve in regard to accentedness or comprehensibility, perhaps because the16-week long treatment was too short to foster significant improvement and there was no in-class pronunciation practice. The podcast project, however, was perceived positively by students, and they appreciated the feedback given for each scripted recording and enjoyed opportunities for creativity during extemporaneous podcasts. Future studies might seek to delineate more specific guidelines or examine how teacher involvement might be adapted to the use of podcasts as a companion to classroom instruction.
An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.
Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary
Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish. We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading. C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures. These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present an evaluation proposal of the performance in reading and writing dissertative-argumentative texts, based on principles and concepts from the theory of Argumentation in Language – created by Jean-Claude Anscombre and Oswald Ducrot, especially the version of the Theory of the Semantic Blocks and the works inspired by it. The goal is to create criteria which are capable of being less intuitive in judging the performance in reading and wrinting dissertative-argumentative texts. The analysis of the corpora – the Enem 2011’s composition proposal and 50 (fifty texts written by the students – and the test of the criteria of reading and writing evaluation in this work revealed practice funcionality and efficiency of criteria. The results allow these criteria to be applied in any evaluation processes of dissertative-argumenative texts. Finally, this paper offers theoretical and methodological subisdies which can help teachers and professors to qualify their teaching of reading and writing and the evaluation of student’s texts.
de Boer, Bart; Gontier, N; VanBendegem, JP; Aerts, D
This paper describes the uses of computer models in studying the evolution of language. Language is a complex dynamic system that can be studied at the level of the individual and at the level of the population. Much of the dynamics of language evolution and language change occur because of the
Coll, Ana; And Others
This study investigates the application of Krashen's Input Hypothesis, studying the relationship between exposure to the target language and language acquisition within the context of the English-as-a-foreign-language secondary classroom in Spain. The project studied the effect of additional reading instruction with emphasis on reading for…
Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristi; Thurlow, Martha; Chamberlain, Steve
English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities struggle with reading and the reasons for their struggles are not well understood owing to little knowledge about the impact of disability on language development in either the first or second language (Klingner et al., 2006). Nevertheless, this difficulty in reading achievement historically has…
This research examined how four different animated pedagogical agent implementations, which focus on perceptual and inquiry arousal conditions of attention as defined in Keller's ARCS model of motivational design (Keller, 2009), impact English language learners' situational interest, cognitive load, and reading comprehension in online readings…
Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping
This study examined how students in a Hong Kong high school used Diigo, an online annotation tool, to support their argumentative reading activities. Two year 10 classes, a high-performance class (HPC) and an ordinary-performance class (OPC), highlighted passages of text and wrote and attached sticky notes to them to clarify argumentation…
Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping
This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool--Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they…
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Fatin Najwa Amelia binti Marsani; Paramaswari Jaganathan; Ahmad Sofwan Nathan Abdullah; Premalatha Karupiah
Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians. Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation. In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading frame...
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Aukner, Ragnhild; Særvold, Tone K; Hide, Øydis
This study examined speech (hypernasality and intelligibility), language, and reading skills in children with a cleft palate, specifically investigating additional conditions to the cleft, in order to differentiate challenges related to a cleft only, and challenges associated with an additional condition. Cross-sectional data collected during routine assessments of speech and language in a centralised treatment setting. Children born with cleft with palatal involvement from four birth cohorts (n=184), aged 10. Speech: SVANTE-N; Language: Language 6-16; Reading: Word Chain Test and Reading Comprehension Test. Descriptive analyses revealed that 123 of the children had a cleft only (66.8%), while 61 children (33.2%) had a cleft that was associated with an additional condition (syndrome, developmental difficulty, attentional difficulties). Due to close associations with the outcome variables, children with specific language impairments and dyslexia were excluded from the sample (n=14). In the total cleft sample, 33.1% had mild to severe hypernasality, and 27.9% had mild to severe intelligibility deviances. Most children with intelligibility and hypernasality scores within the normal range had a cleft without any other condition. A high number of children with developmental difficulties (63.2%) or AD/HD (45.5%) had problems with intelligibility. Hypernasality scores were also associated with developmental difficulties (58.8%), whereas most children with AD/HD had normal hypernasality scores (83.3%). As could be expected, results demonstrated that children with a cleft and an additional condition had language and reading scores below average. Children with a cleft only had language and reading scores within the normal range. Among the children with scores below average, 33.3-44.7% had no other conditions explaining difficulties with language and reading. The findings highlight the need for routine assessments of language and reading skills, in addition to assessments of
Akubuilo, Francis; Okorie, Eugene U.; Onwuka, Gloria; Uloh-Bethels, Annah Chinyeaka
Reading is one of the important skills of language. It is a basic tool of education whether formal or informal. Reading is a receptive skill, which involves the ability to meaningfully interpret or decode written or graphic symbols of language. Through reading, the hidden treasure of knowledge is unfolded; knowledge is gained thereby empowering…
Full Text Available The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended research study, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were taken. The quantitative approach included the use of self-assessment, and two questionnaires, and the qualitative approach included participant observation. The questionnaires were adapted from Atai and Shoja (2009, and were distributed among 500 undergraduate students of computer engineering and 30 ESAP teachers who were chosen randomly through cluster sampling method from thirteen universities. Mann-Whitney U-test results showed that there was a significant difference between perceptions of the students and their teachers about their Reading skill needs and ‘Reading’ was mentioned as one of the most difficult skills for the students. Moreover, it was found that the majority of students suffered from low level of General English Language Proficiency, and also ‘low motivation’ and the ‘character’ of teachers were found to be important factors affecting students’ learning. Keywords: Needs analysis, English for specific purposes, English for academic purposes, Present situation analysis, Target situation analysis
Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark implicated in several biological processes. Bisulfite treatment of DNA is acknowledged as the gold standard technique to study methylation. This technique introduces changes in the genomic DNA by converting cytosines to uracils while 5-methylcytosines remain nonreactive. During PCR amplification 5-methylcytosines are amplified as cytosine, whereas uracils and thymines as thymine. To detect the methylation levels, reads treated with the bisulfite must be aligned against a reference genome. Mapping these reads to a reference genome represents a significant computational challenge mainly due to the increased search space and the loss of information introduced by the treatment. To deal with this computational challenge we devised GPU-BSM, a tool based on modern Graphics Processing Units. Graphics Processing Units are hardware accelerators that are increasingly being used successfully to accelerate general-purpose scientific applications. GPU-BSM is a tool able to map bisulfite-treated reads from whole genome bisulfite sequencing and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and to estimate methylation levels, with the goal of detecting methylation. Due to the massive parallelization obtained by exploiting graphics cards, GPU-BSM aligns bisulfite-treated reads faster than other cutting-edge solutions, while outperforming most of them in terms of unique mapped reads.
Adriana Souza Batista Kida
Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: To study reading comprehension performance profiles of children with dyslexia as well as language-based learning disability by means of retelling tasks. Method: 105 children from second to fifth grades of elementary school were gathered into six groups: Dyslexia group (D; n=19, Language-based learning disability group (LBLD; n=16; their respective control groups paired according to different variables - age, gender, grade and school system (public or private (D-control and LBLD-control; and other control groups paired according to different reading accuracy (D-accuracy; LBLD-accuracy. All of the children read an expository text and orally retold the story as they understood it. The analysis quantified propositions (main ideas and details and retold links. A retelling reference standard (3-0 was also established from the best to the worst performance. We compared both clinical groups (D and LBLD with their respective control groups by means of Mann-Whitney tests.Results: D showed the same total of propositions, links and reference standards as D-control, but performed better than D-accuracy in macro structural (total of links and super structural (retelling reference standard measures. Results suggest that dyslexic children are able to use their linguistic competence and their own background knowledge to minimize the effects of their decoding deficit, especially at the highest text processing levels. LBLD performed worse than LBLD-control in all of the retelling measures and LBLD showed worse performance than LBLD-accuracy in the total retold links and retelling reference standard. Those results suggest that both decoding and linguistic difficulties affect reading comprehension. Moreover, the linguistic deficits presented by LBLD students do not allow these pupils to perform as competently in terms of text comprehension as the children with dyslexia do. Thus, failure in the macro and super-structural information processing of the
Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: email@example.com; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))
Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.
Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie; Antepohl, Wolfram
Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.
Young children who are at risk for language impairment should, therefore, be identified as early as possible. Multilingualism, which has become a universal phenomenon, may mask the presence of language impairment. In South African urban multilingual preschool contexts, the teacher or speech-language therapist is not ...
Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane
Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…
Full Text Available In Sociocultural Theory, mediations in second language learning include (1 mediation by others (2 mediation by self (3 and mediation by artifacts, which incorporates brilliant insights for EFL contexts (Lantolf, 2000. Putting these ideas in a task-based method, the present study aimed at examining the contribution of scaffolding and private speech in improving EFL learners’ skills and seeking how learners performance might link to social or interpersonal activities they engage in. Screened through an Oxford Placement Test, 54 EFL freshmen taking a reading comprehension course participated in this study and formed two randomly divided groups and pretested using a 30-item TOEFL test of reading comprehension. The control group benefited from a teacher, who paraphrased, summarized and provided the meaning of the new words and expressions. The experimental group was asked to do the same tasks through collaboration, private speech and artifacts. Students' performances were video-taped to be used for discourse analyses and provide measures of fluency, accuracy and complexity (Iwashita, Elder, & McNamara, 2001. Two types of measurements were used: 1 a final test of reading comprehension, 2 an oral presentation of a text whose readability matched that of the texts used during the experiment. The students' performances on presenting the text orally were rated based on the idea units recalled (Johnson, 1970. The data analysis revealed no difference between the two groups in the final test, but in oral presentation, the experimental group outperformed the control group.
Crossley, Scott A.
This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…
Yazicioglu, Iffet; Jones, Judith A; Cortés, Dharma; Rich, Sharron; Garcia, Raul
This study compared scores and psychometric properties from self-identified Hispanic parents who completed Pediatric Oral Health-related Quality of life (POQL) parent report-on-child questionnaires in Spanish or English. The study hypothesized that there were no differences in psychometric properties or POQL scores by parent reading language preference, controlling for dental needs, child's place of birth, age, insurance and use of care. POQL scores were computed, and the internal consistency, feasibility, factor structure and construct validity of the Spanish language version assessed. Hispanic parents (N = 387) of 8-14 year old children (mean age 10.2) completed the survey; 237 in Spanish and 150 in English. Internal consistency scores were higher (Cronbach α range = .86-.93) among Hispanic parents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish than in English (.66-.86). POQL scores from parents who completed questionnaires in Spanish were higher (worse) overall (6.03 vs. 3.82, P = 0.022), as were physical (11.61 vs. 6.54, P = 0.001) and role functioning domains (1.87 vs. 0.82, P = 0.029). Items for crying, pain, and eating were higher (P parent reports of dental visit in the last year (P = 0.05) and worse oral health than a year ago (P = 0.002), controlling for reading language (not significant) and visit in last year in the final multivariate linear regression. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K
This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.
Syed, Aijazuddin; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Trong, Stephan
It is a challenging job for genome analysts to accurately debug, troubleshoot, and validate genome assembly results. Genome analysts rely on visualization tools to help validate and troubleshoot assembly results, including such problems as mis-assemblies, low-quality regions, and repeats. Short read data adds further complexity and makes it extremely challenging for the visualization tools to scale and to view all needed assembly information. As a result, there is a need for a visualization tool that can scale to display assembly data from the new sequencing technologies. We present Genome Assembly Visualization Tool (GAViT), a highly scalable and interactive assembly visualization tool developed at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
Full Text Available The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis.
Schwarz, Amy Louise; van Kleeck, Anne; Beaton, Derek; Horne, Erin; MacKenzie, Heather; Abdi, Hervé
Purpose: Many well-accepted systems for determining difficulty level exist for books children read independently, but few are available for determining the wide range of difficulty levels of storybooks read aloud to preschoolers. Also, the available tools list book characteristics only on the basis of parents' or authors' opinions. We created an…
North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.
Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou
Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.
Maternal reading fluency is positively associated with greater functional connectivity between the child's future reading network and regions related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age children.
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Holland, Scott K
The role of the parent or educator in a child's learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent-child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children. Twenty-two 4-year-old girls and their mothers participated in the current study. Maternal reading fluency was applied as predictors of functional connectivity analyses of a stories-listening functional MRI task. Results indicate a positive association between maternal fluency scores and greater functional connectivity between regions in the future reading network and brain regions supporting language and cognitive control in the children. Maternal reading fluency is important in facilitating development of a child's reading network. Implications regarding shared reading are discussed, and an extended ecological model for child language and literacy development is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2011), held in Saarbrücken, Germany on March 26 & 27, 2011. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) and organized...... in cooperation with ACM SIGPLAN. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented workshop focused on grammarware---software based on grammars in some form. Grammarware applications are typically language processing applications and traditional examples include parsers, program analyzers, optimizers and translators......, as well as techniques and tools, to the test in a new way in the form of the LDTA Tool Challenge. Tool developers were invited to participate in the Challenge by developing solutions to a range of language processing tasks over a simple but evolving set of imperative programming languages. Tool challenge...
Wagner, Christopher J.
This study explores the interplay between early reading, identity and bilingualism. Reading identities, or understandings about what reading is and whom one is as a reader, have been linked to reading achievement and the development of reading skills. Only a small portion of the overall research on reading identities has included dual language…
Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.; Bossers, B.
This article gives the results of a study among 685 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 in the Netherlands to whom we administered grade-appropriate measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in their native language (NL), Dutch, as well as, in grades 8 and 10, in English as a foreign
Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed
This study investigated ESL teachers' perceptions regarding the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in teaching reading to children. A random sample of 145 teachers participated in the study by completing a survey developed by the researchers. To explore the situation in depth, 16 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated…
Pontier, Ryan; Gort, Mileidis
This study examined how a pair of Spanish/English dual language bilingual education (DLBE) preschool teachers enacted their bilingualism while working cohesively and simultaneously toward common instructional goals. We drew on classroom video data, field notes, and other relevant artifacts collected weekly during shared readings of English- and…
Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra
This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther
This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…
Full Text Available Poor levels of English first additional language (EFAL reading comprehension amongst school learners at most public schools in South Africa are a great concern. In fact, for learning to be successful and effective, learners need to be able to read well in EFAL. This is more so as EFAL serves as a language of learning and teaching (LOLT for most learning areas in South Africa’s public schools. Against this background, this study set out in 2012 to investigate the English reading comprehension of Grade 10 EFAL learners at a senior secondary school. Using purposive and voluntary sampling techniques, the study had 17 EFAL learners(M = 10, F–7 as its participants. It employed three reading measures, a recall task, a summary and a comprehension test, which were based on three English extracts, to assess participants’ reading comprehension. It then assessed and scored participants’ responses to the three tasks by using an oral reading rubric and two prepared marking memoranda. One of the findings of this study was that, of the three reading tasks administered, participants did slightly above average in the comprehension test, but performed below average in the two other tasks – the recall and summary tasks.
Into the Curriculum. Art: Pueblo Storyteller Figures [and] Physical Education: Games That Rely on Feet [and] Reading/Language Arts: Movie Reviews [and] Reading/Language Arts: Reader's Choice [and] Science: Float or Sink [and] Social Studies: Buildings and Designs.
Crane, Jean; Rains, Annette
Presents six curriculum guides for art, physical education, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide identifies library media skills objectives; curriculum objectives; grade levels; print and nonprint resources; instructional roles; the activity; and procedures for completion, evaluation, and follow-up activities. (AEF)
Full Text Available This paper explores the results of a Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS-based questionnaire administered to 28 university student participants. The study is carried out in a post-colonial multilingual context, Mozambique. The main aims of the paper are to assess the degree of purported use and awareness of participants own use of reading comprehension skills and strategies in a foreign language (English. The participants were tested for their reading text comprehension using an IELTS comprehension test (Cabinda, 2013. The results revealed low reading comprehension levels. Results contrast with results from the SORS-based questionnaire (Cabinda, 2013 which revealed claims of use of a wide range of cognitive, metacognitive and supply strategies – aspects of high level reading ability and text comprehension. Conclusions show that the participants used or claimed to chiefly use metacognitive and cognitive reading strategies equally, matching the behaviour of good readers, but they also reported a high degree of supply strate- gies to construe meaning from text, mainly code-switching, translation and cognates. The latter cofirms results from studies by Jimenez et al. (1995, 1996 and Zhang & Wu (2009, yet do not conclusively show a correlation between the participants’ degree of text comprehension and their effective use of reading skills and strategies to construe meaning. Further conclusions show that the reported high use of these L1 (Portuguese or other related supply strategies (not used by English L1 readers does not aid their reading comprehension. Key words : EFL, reading strategies, cognition, metacognition, awareness
This paper argues that Dev Virahsawmy, an author who manipulates literary translation for the purposes of linguistic prestige formation and re-negotiation, is a critical language-policy practitioner, as his work fills an important gap in language planning scholarship. A micro-analysis of the translation of a Shakespearean sonnet into Mauritian…
The development of language and communication skills in young children is directly related to future academic success. Young children who are at risk for language impairment should, therefore, be identified as early as possible. Multilingualism, which has become a universal phenomenon, may mask the presence of ...
Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Pérez-Castelló, Josep A; Rigo-Carratalà, Eduard; Adrover-Roig, Daniel
Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have severe language difficulties without showing hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, neurological damage or socio-emotional deprivation. However, previous studies have shown that children with SLI show some cognitive and literacy problems. Our study analyses the relationship between preschool cognitive and linguistic abilities and the later development of reading abilities in Spanish-Catalan bilingual children with SLI. The sample consisted of 17 bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI and 17 age-matched controls. We tested eight distinct processes related to phonological, attention, and language processing at the age of 6 years and reading at 8 years of age. Results show that bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI show significantly lower scores, as compared to typically developing peers, in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN), together with a lower outcome in tasks measuring sentence repetition and verbal fluency. Regarding attentional processes, bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI obtained lower scores in auditory attention, but not in visual attention. At the age of 8 years Spanish-Catalan children with SLI had lower scores than their age-matched controls in total reading score, letter identification (decoding), and in semantic task (comprehension). Regression analyses identified both phonological awareness and verbal fluency at the age of 6 years to be the best predictors of subsequent reading performance at the age of 8 years. Our data suggest that language acquisition problems and difficulties in reading acquisition in bilingual children with SLI might be related to the close interdependence between a limitation in cognitive processing and a deficit at the linguistic level. After reading this article, readers will be able to: identify their understanding of the relation between language difficulties and reading outcomes; explain how processing
Davidson, Meghan M.
Reading comprehension is a complex interactional process whereby the accumulated meaning of sounds, words, and sentences is integrated to form a meaningful representation of text. It is well established that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but less is understood about the underlying…
Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard
-home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...
Feldman, Heidi M.; Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Yeom, Kristen W.
Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks…
Helping students into, through, and beyond: reading strategies for english-as-a-foreign-language students Helping students into, through, and beyond: reading strategies for english-as-a-foreign-language students
Full Text Available Reading and writing research indicates that students do both activities more successfully if the process that readers and writers engage in is consciously activated to aid in the production of products. In writing instruction, this has led to a focus on facilitating the composing process through the introduction of pre-writing, composing, revising, and editing activities. Currently the same types of strategies are available to facilitate the reading process. Many of these, developed by individual teachers or projects such as the California Literature Project, aim to help students read challenging materials in their first language. Reading and writing research indicates that students do both activities more successfully if the process that readers and writers engage in is consciously activated to aid in the production of products. In writing instruction, this has led to a focus on facilitating the composing process through the introduction of pre-writing, composing, revising, and editing activities. Currently the same types of strategies are available to facilitate the reading process. Many of these, developed by individual teachers or projects such as the California Literature Project, aim to help students read challenging materials in their first language.
Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Anderson, Britta, Ed.
This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL") treating topics within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order by author, each with a complete reference as…
Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Bishop, Tracy Van, Ed.
This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order by author,…
Harris, Shenika, Ed.; Bernales, Carolina, Ed.; Romero-Ghiretti, Gabriela, Ed.; Dolosic, Haley, Ed.; Liu, Huan, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.
This feature offers an archive of articles published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a complete…
Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Davis, Stacy, Ed.
This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It deals with any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each…
Brantmeier, Cindy; Schultz, Lyndsie; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian; Van Bishop, Tracy
This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a…
Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Dolosic, Haley, Ed.; Schultz, Lyndsie, Ed.; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.
This feature offers an archive of articles published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a complete…
Full Text Available Studies showed that interest in anime motivates students to learn the Japanese language and culture (Manion, 2005; Fukunaga, 2006; William, 2006. However, little has been written about the practical use of anime in a Japanese language classroom. By employing the method of classroom research, this study will try to narrow the gap between theory and practice of using anime as a teaching tool in the Japanese language classroom. This qualitative study will focus on discussing what the participants think about the use of anime as a teaching tool. A course named “Learning Japanese language and Culture through Anime” was planned and conducted in a public university in Malaysia. During the administration of the course, the data were collected via the participants’ learning diaries at 7 intervals and a group interview at the end of the semester. The findings presented from the data analysis on the participants' perception of the use of anime as a teaching tool include motivation, language and cultural awareness, critical thinking, sense of prejudice, and stereotypes. The findings reveal that giving a place for anime in the Japanese language classroom is like opening a new door for educators to connect with the students and deepen understanding about the students’ learning experiences of using anime as a language and culture learning tool. This is important to provide insightful ideas to the Japanese language educators regarding the option of using anime as a teaching tool.
Full Text Available Psychoanalytic literary criticism has always had a particular fascination with texts dealing with the supernatural, the mysterious and the monstrous. Unfortunately such criticism, valuable and provocative though the insights it has provided have been, has all too often treated the text as a “symptom” by which to explain or analyse an essentially extratextual factor, such as the author's psychological disposition. Many interpretations of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein provide typical examples of this approach. Much psychoanalytic (and also feminist criticism and interpretation of the novel have focused on the female psyche “behind” the text, showing how the psychoanalytic dynamics structuring Shelley’s own life have found precipitation in her novel. This article offers an alternative to this type of psychoanalytic reading by interpreting the novel in terms of a framework derived from Lacanian psychoanalysis, focusing on the text itself. This interpretation focuses primarily on the interrelated aspects of language, gender, desire and power as manifested in the novel, with the aim of highlighting some hitherto largely unexplored aspects of the text which may be useful in situating the text within the larger current discourse concerning issues of language and power.
Ammons, Kerrie Allen
With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…
Wong, Yu Ka
In this paper, the role of radical awareness in Chinese character reading development among young Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) learners is evaluated in terms of a structural property of the writing system: the distribution of elementary, one-radical (i.e. one-element) simple characters as against majority, multi-radical compound characters.…
Breit-Smith, Allison; Olszewski, Arnold; Swoboda, Christopher; Guo, Ying; Prendeville, Jo-Anne
This study explores the outcomes of an interactive book reading intervention featuring expository picture books. This small-group intervention was delivered by four practitioners (two early childhood special education teachers and two speech-language pathologists) three times per week for 8 weeks to 6 preschool-age children (3 years 1 month to 4…
Iyitoglu, Orhan; Aydin, Hasan
This study relied on Sheorey and Mokhtari's (2001) metacognitive knowledge about reading strategies,which was influenced by a number of factors, including previous experiences, beliefs, culture-specific instructional practices and proficiency in a second language (L2). This study is thereby built on the premise that EFL readers' metacognitive…
Silvén, M.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Niemi, P.; Voeten, M.J.M.
The course of language acquisition from infancy to public primary school was followed in a sample of 56 Finnish children to examine precursors to reading at first grade. Structural equation modeling of continuity suggested effects from growth in early vocabulary to mastery of inflectional forms at
Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Yang, Lu; Liu, Siwei
This longitudinal study examined the role of narrative skills in English reading comprehension, after controlling for vocabulary and decoding, with a sample of 112 dual language learners (DLLs), including both Spanish-English and Cantonese-English children. Decoding, vocabulary, and narrative samples were collected in the winter of first grade and…
Maduabuchi, Chinyere Henrietta; Emechebe, Vivian I.
This study is aimed at identifying both prospects and problems of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching reading comprehension in English as Second Language. To achieve this aim, a total of 25 secondary school English teachers were interviewed through the use of questionnaire. The teachers were purposively and…
The study investigates immediate and delayed effects of different hypermedia glosses on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced foreign language learners. Sixty-nine freshman TEFL students studying at a Turkish university were randomly assigned to three types of annotations: (a) definitions of words, (b) definitions…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah
Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.
Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi
This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.
Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk
In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students’ reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722
Yee-Han Chan; Ngan-Ling Wong; Lee-Luan Ng
Studies showed that interest in anime motivates students to learn the Japanese language and culture (Manion, 2005; Fukunaga, 2006; William, 2006). However, little has been written about the practical use of anime in a Japanese language classroom. By employing the method of classroom research, this study will try to narrow the gap between theory and practice of using anime as a teaching tool in the Japanese language classroom. This qualitative study will focus on discussing what the participan...
Miniscalco, Carmela; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika
Reading skills at age 7-8 years were examined in a community-representative sample of 21 screened and clinically examined children with language delay (LD) followed prospectively from 2.5 years of age. The present study aimed to (1) determine whether these children with a history of LD had deficits in basic reading skills, i.e. decoding and comprehension, compared to the age norms of standardized tests, (2) analyze if there was a relationship between reading outcome and neuropsychiatric diagnosis by comparing three subgroups of children, LD pure, LD+ASD (autism spectrum disorder) and LD+ADHD, and, (3) determine what language measures at age 6 years were associated with the 7-8-year reading outcome. Both decoding and comprehension of single word reading were significantly below the norm for the whole LD group, where children with LD+ASD scored lowest, and children with LD highest. However, the differences between the three groups did not reach significance. Two reader groups were identified according to the results of word decoding and comprehension, respectively, resulting in the same 7 children. ANOVA revealed that the only differences on the 6-year language tests between the two groups were found on color naming and word memory. This study has shown that children with LD and subsequently identified neurodevelopmental problems such as ASD and ADHD experience continued deficits, demonstrated also in reading skills and that the picture of the reading problems seemed to resemble those of typically developing children. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... Two of the changes are related to the semantics of the language. A graphical user interface tool kit for creating, validating, archiving and compiling policies represented in PPL has been developed...
Pradhan, S.M.; Sneha, C.; Bhattacharya, M.; Sahai, M.K.; Pradeep, Ratna; Datta, D.; Bhatnagar, Amit
Personnel monitoring for external radiation using CaSO 4 :Dy based TLD badge is well established in Indian radiation protection program. TLD badge enables evaluation of occupational dose based on the pattern and values of the three disc readings. Different patterns of disc readings are obtained depending on the type and energy of radiation in the workplace. Pattern not conforming to the radiation in the workplace also called as improper pattern can be a useful tool for investigation of any deviation / abnormality in workplace or monitoring practices. The paper presents different examples of improper pattern observed in monitoring that has helped to find out the deviations in the workplace or monitoring practices. Results of the experiments conducted to simulate some of the observed pattern are also presented in the paper
Un projet de logiciels d'assistance a l'apprentissage de la lecture en FLE (An Interdisciplinary Research Project Oriented toward Computer Programs for Reading Instruction in French as a Second Language).
Challe, Odile; And Others
Describes a French project entitled "Lecticiel," jointly undertaken by specialists in reading, computer programing, and second language instruction to integrate these disciplines and provide assistance for students learning to read French as a foreign language. (MSE)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM or Binary SAM (BAM format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. Results We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. Conclusions With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.
Full Text Available The use of the first language (L1 in the foreign language classroom has been highly contested in the last decades. This paper discusses the use of L1 in online activities in hybrid lower-level Spanish as a foreign language (SFL courses, with a focus on threaded discussions about cultural topics. I first discuss the use of L1 in foreign language (FL teaching. Second, I present Vygotsky's (1978 postulates about learning, and Cole and Engeström's (2001 activity theory. Third, I conduct an activity analysis of the SFL class to further narrow it down to L1 use in the discussion boards. By looking at the discussion boards through the lens of sociocultural theories, I claim that the use of L1 is a necessary cognitive tool for fostering inter-cultural learning through online discussions in SFL classes.
Full Text Available This article used some postmodern literary theories of philosophers such as Jean-Fran�ois Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Julia Kristeva to scrutinise a selection of texts from the post-exilic period with regard to the exclusive language employed in these texts. Lyotard�s insights relate to and complement Foucault�s concept of �counter-memory�. Foucault also focuses on the network of discursive powers that operate behind texts and reproduce them, arguing that it is important to have a look from behind so as to see which voices were silenced by the specific powers behind texts. The author briefly looked at different post-exilic texts within identity-finding contexts, focusing especially on Chronicles and a few Qumran texts, to examine the way in which they used language to create identity and to empower the community in their different contexts. It is generally accepted that both the author(s of 1 & 2 Chronicles and the Qumran community used texts selectively, with their own nuances, omissions and additions. This study scrutinised the way the author(s of Chronicles and the Qumran community used documents selectively, focusing on the way in which they used exclusive language. It is clear that all communities used such language in certain circumstances to strengthen a certain group�s identity, to empower them and to legitimise this group�s conduct, behaviour and claims � and thereby exclude other groups.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Based on postmodern literary theories, this article compares the exclusive language used in Chronicles and in the texts of the Qumran community, pointing to the practice of creating identity and empowering through discourse. In conclusion, the article reflects on what is necessary in a South African context, post-1994, to be a truly democratic country.Keywords: Exclusive language; inclusive; Jean-Fran�ois Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu; Derrida
Full Text Available This study relied on Sheorey and Mokhtari's (2001 metacognitive knowledge about reading strategies,which was influenced by a number of factors, including previous experiences, beliefs, culture-specific instructional practices and proficiency in a second language (L2. This study is thereby built on the premise that EFL readers' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies was also influenced by their multiple intelligence profiles. The purpose of this study is to explore the integrated impact of multiple intelligences and reading strategies on EFL learners' reading performance. This was an explanatory sequential study, combining quantitative and qualitative research design. A convenience sample of 60 high school EFL learners from one of the Anatolian high schools in Istanbul, Turkey participated in this study. Two quantitative surveys and an achievement test, followed by a qualitative observation checklist, were used in this study to collect the data. The results of the study indicated that females were found to be more successful than males in EFL reading in addition to employing more support and problem solving reading strategies. In addition, this study also found that successful readers in EFL seemed to use more global strategies and tended to support reading strategies if they were dominant in musical, intrapersonal intelligences. Moreover, successful musically or verbally intelligent readers were found to use more problem-solving strategies. As a result, this study provides EFL teachers and curriculum designers with valuable information that will foster awareness of the role of these intelligence-strategy relations may play in triggering success in EFL reading, and thus, in their overall proficiency in the language.
Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.
This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…
Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…
Drigas, Athanasios; Vrettaros, John; Tagoulis, Alexandors; Kouremenos, Dimitris
This paper presents the design and development of an e-learning course in teaching deaf people in a foreign language, whose first language is the sign language. The course is based in e-material, vodcasting and web 2.0 tools such as social networking and blog The course has been designed especially for deaf people and it is exploring the possibilities that e-learning material vodcasting and web 2.0 tools can offer to enhance the learning process and achieve more effective learning results.
This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.
What this paper is meant to do is share illustrations and insights into how English learners and teachers alike can benefit from using corpora in their work. Arguments are made for their multifaceted possibilities as grammatical, lexical and discourse pools suitable for discovering ways of the language, be they regularities or idiosyncrasies. The…
Ssanyu, J.; Hemerik, C.
In this paper we outline how Software Language Engineering (SLE) could benefit from Component-based Software Development (CBSD) techniques and present an architecture aimed at developing a coherent set of lightweight SLE components, fitting into a general-purpose component framework. In order to
Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.
The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a
Jasińska, K K; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Petitto, L A
How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26). Spanish offers consistent sound-to-print correspondences ("phonologically transparent" or "shallow"); such correspondences are more opaque in French and even more opaque in English (which has both transparent and "phonologically opaque" or "deep" correspondences). Consistent with our hypothesis, both French- and Spanish-English bilinguals showed hyperactivation in left posterior temporal regions associated with direct sound-to-print phonological analyses and hypoactivation in left frontal regions associated with assembled phonology analyses. Spanish, but not French, bilinguals showed a similar effect when reading Irregular words. The findings inform theories of bilingual and cross-linguistic literacy acquisition by suggesting that structural characteristics of bilinguals' two languages and their orthographies have a significant impact on children's neuro-cognitive architecture for learning to read. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Home environmental influences on children's language and reading skills in a genetically sensitive design: Are socioeconomic status and home literacy environment environmental mediators and moderators?
Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson W L; Waye, Mary M Y; Zheng, Mo
This twin study examined how family socioeconomic status (SES) and home literacy environment (HLE) contributes to Chinese language and reading skills. It included 312 Chinese twin pairs aged 3 to 11. Children were individually administered tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary and reading-related cognitive skills, and nonverbal reasoning ability. Information on home environment was collected through parent-reported questionnaires. Results showed that SES and HLE mediated shared environmental influences but did not moderate genetic influences on general language and reading abilities. Also, SES and HLE mediated shared environmental contributions to receptive vocabulary and syllable and rhyme awareness, but not orthographic skills. The findings of this study add to past twin studies that focused on alphabetic languages, suggesting that these links could be universal across languages. They also extend existing findings on SES and HLE's contributions to reading-related cognitive skills. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wright, Aileen; Mitchell, Siobhán; O'Donoghue, Anne; Cowhey, Suzanne; Kearney, Mairead
Children with language impairment show academic outcomes that are consistently poorer than those of their typically developing peers. A contributor to this is difficulty with reading comprehension. Although these difficulties are reported to continue well into adolescence, this population is generally underserved with regard to therapy. The efficacy of interventions for reading comprehension is well established in the research literature, but whether the same effects are achievable within a reasonable time reflecting available resources in real-life circumstances is less clear. Efficacy trials may significantly overestimate how strong an effect will be when the treatment is used under more natural conditions and within local constraints. The aim was to discover whether a short classroom intervention would be effective in improving reading comprehension in adolescents with the heterogeneous profiles of general or specific learning disabilities, additional diagnoses and behavioural and socio-emotional problems found in mainstream schools today. Twenty-eight adolescents with heterogeneous language and reading profiles were recruited from a mainstream school. The intervention programme comprised eight sessions of instruction in multiple reading comprehension strategies, held over 4 weeks. Experiment 1 had 10 participants. Experiment 2 had 18 participants who underwent the same programme, plus the addition of a session dedicated to decoding skills. Efficacy was evaluated within a pre- and post-study design, with baseline and post-therapy measures taken using the York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension (YARC). Both experiments showed a significant group difference pre/post-intervention, with similar large effect sizes. Experiment 2 also showed a significant group difference in decoding ability pre and post the single intervention session. This short intervention programme proved effective in a population with heterogeneous profiles, and fitted well with delivery in
Full Text Available Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1 the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i.e., the left inferior frontal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (LIFG/LSMG, was stronger in adults compared with children; (2 the spontaneous functional patterns of connectivity between VWFA and language network were negatively correlated with reading ability in adults but not in children; (3 the causal influence from LIFG to VWFA was negatively correlated with reading ability only in adults but not in children; (4 the RSFCs between left posterior middle frontal gyrus (LpMFG and VWFA/LIFG were positively correlated with reading ability in both adults and children; and (5 the causal influence from LIFG to LSMG was positively correlated with reading ability in both groups. These findings provide insights into the relationship between VWFA and the language network for reading, and the role of the unique features of Chinese in the neural circuits of reading.
Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd L; Abbott, Robert D
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions. The second specific aim was to correlate the magnitude of that connectivity with standard scores on tests of Focused Attention (D-K EFS Color Word Form Inhibition) and Switching Attention (Wolf & Denckla Rapid Automatic Switching). Seven correlations were significant. Focused Attention was significantly correlated with the word level (word-specific spellings of real words) fMRI task in left cingulum from left inferior frontal seed. Switching Attention was significantly correlated with the (a) subword level (grapheme-phoneme correspondence) fMRI task in left and right Cerebellum V from left supramarginal seed; (b) the word level (word-specific spelling) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed; (c) the syntax level (with and without homonym foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed and from left supramarginal seed; and (d) syntax level (with and without affix foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological assessment of supervisory attention (focused and switching) for specific levels of language related to reading acquisition in students with and without language-related specific learning
Full Text Available Advertising as one of the phenomena of modern times is often an inseparable, though undesirable part of our everyday lives. Current trends indicate that there are still more and more anglicisms, internationalisms, and particles of different cultures penetrating billboard advertisements in many towns and cities around the world, and Slovakia is no exception. The crucial question of this article is: How is it possible to use advertisements in English language teaching and learning? To answer this question, the examination is focused on: (1 defining the role and characteristic traits of advertisements; (2 searching for the linkage between the psychological principles of advertising and psychology of learning foreign languages; (3 the frequency of anglicisms and internationalisms in billboard advertisements in particular areas of selected Slovak cities; (4 concrete suggestions for teaching practice based on the previous findings.
Glinert, E.P. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Frerking, C.J. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))
We identify and discuss three domains where we believe that innovative application of visual programming languages is likely to make a significant impact in the near term: concurrent computing, computer-based assistance for people with disabilities, and the multimedia/multimodal environments of tomorrow in which it will be possible to hear and physically interact with information as well as see it. 33 refs., 3 figs.
Glinert, E.P.; Frerking, C.J.
We identify and discuss three domains where we believe that innovative application of visual programming languages is likely to make a significant impact in the near term: concurrent computing, computer-based assistance for people with disabilities, and the multimedia/multimodal environments of tomorrow in which it will be possible to hear and physically interact with information as well as see it. 33 refs., 3 figs
David H. Wyatt
Full Text Available Computer-assisted methods of teaching and learning languages have been surrounded by controversy and debate for over a decade. In 1979, however, microcomputers began to appear in a form suitable for educational applications, offering for the first time an alternative to both the cost and the approach of large computer systems. The impact of the microcomputer has been limited by a number of factors, and microcomputerassisted learning is still in a relative state of infancy. The main implications for language teaching and learning are only now beginning to be understood, just as the limiting factors are starting to disappear. This paper will assess the present situation and outline some likely future developments in the use of microcomputers in language learning. Rekenaargesteunde metodes by die onderrig en aanleer van tale is reeds meer as 'n dekade lank omgewe deur meningsverskil. In 1979 egter het mikrorekenaars hulle verskyning begin maak in 'n toepaslike vorm vir opvoedkundige doeleindes. Vir die eerste keer was daar 'n alternatief vir die koste verbonde aan en die benaderingswyse van groot rekenaarstelsels. Die trefkrag van die mikrorekenaar is deur 'n aantal faktore gekortwiek en rekenaargesteunde onderrig is steeds in sy kinderskoene. Die belangrikste implikasies vir die aanleer en onderrig van tale begin nou eers deurdring soos die beperkende faktore begin verdwyn. Hierdie artikel takseer die huidige situasie en omlyn moontlike toekomstige ontwikkelings vir die gebruik van mikrorekenaars by taalaanleer.
Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…
García Laborda, Jesús; Litzler, Mary Frances
This action research based case study addresses the situation of a first year class of Business English students at Universidad de Alcalá and their attitudes towards using Web 2.0 tools and social media for language learning. During the semester, the students were asked to collaborate in the creation and use of some tools such as blogs, video…
Full Text Available The paper presents a meta-analysis of 37 scientific papers dealing with the use and adoption of ICT for learning and teaching Chinese as a foreign language. It has shown that systematic content reviews providing overall insight into the nature and level of development in the field are rare. The author tries to fill this content gap by answering three research questions: 1 What is the overall state of research in the field of ICT-assisted learning of CFL in terms of language teaching methods? 2 Which learning technologies are in use for the specific teaching and learning methods for Chinese as a foreign language? 3 Are some learning technologies used more often for practis ng specific language skills than others?
Full Text Available The present research is the implementation of the 2013 doctoral disertation report funded by DIKTI. The research is a part of IPTEKS scheme for community devotion that have strong relation to language education technology. It concern with the use of multimedia learning and vocabulary mastery on students’ Japanese language reading skills at SMK 1 Purwokerto. The method is implemented experimentally by giving multimedia learning treatment such as Rosetta Stone and Tell Me More Japanese. Through some presentation with the use of those multimedia learning material, the purpose of this research is to know the extent to which the level of their vocabulary mastery and to encourage students in order to have an approriate skill to read Japanese documents. With the implementation of this multimedia learning training, graduate students of SMK Negeri I Purwokerto will be increased and for the future they have a good job at Japanese companies in Indonesia
To elaborate and implement a brochure of reading strategies with a focus on andragogy “Reading is learning” in order to enhance Reading skills in ESL students of the B1+ level of the Language Centre at Universidad Técnica de Ambato, academic period 2015
Hidalgo Camacho, Cynthia Soledad
This research work: to elaborate and to implement a brochure with Reading strategies “Reading is learning”, aims to enhance Reading comprehension in students from the B1+ level of English, at the languages center in Universidad Técnica De Ambato. The students’ population groups found here are adults from 18 to 40 years of age. Although reading can definitely be affected by some personal factors such as formal educational background, frequency of reading, types of texts used, attitude of th...
Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; Hartl, David, Ed.
Designed by Washington curriculum specialists and secondary teachers to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to aid smaller districts lacking curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives Law, this handbook contains learning objectives in the areas of language arts,…
Peeters, David; Runnqvist, Elin; Bertrand, Daisy; Grainger, Jonathan
We examined language-switching effects in French-English bilinguals using a paradigm where pictures are always named in the same language (either French or English) within a block of trials, and on each trial, the picture is preceded by a printed word from the same language or from the other language. Participants had to either make a language…
Daniel Luis Notari
Full Text Available One of the main challenges to improve the quality of Brazilian education is to promote reading and an understanding of what is read. This situation is more complex in Youth and Adult Education, which has focused on students who exhibited academic failure in mainstream classes or had not engaged in reading and writing for many years. In addition to adolescents, adults and elderly individuals have the same interests when they are in school; however, the identification of a way to engage these different audiences is a challenge. Thus, we propose reading newspapers online to generate an interest in reading, as well as determining how to select updated texts that are able to draw the attention of students. The findings indicated 100% of the students were satisfied with the activity. Nevertheless, when the times of reading performed in the Educational Computer Laboratory and classroom were compared, the evaluation that employed computer tools was far superior to the classroom. We conclude that although online newspaper reading is quite simple and easy to perform, it is an important tool capable of stimulating and developing the taste and habit of reading and is effective for different audiences.
Waterman, David C., Ed.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Ed.
This pamphlet is a collection of the speeches given at the Third Annual Reading Conference at Indiana State University, Terre Haute. The theme of the conference was "Oral Language and Reading." The contents include: "Official Program"; opening remarks, "They Led and Followed," by William G. McCarthy; opening address, "Strategies for Reading…
Many children are being educated in a foreign or second language due to the migration of their families, happening for different reasons. The acquisition of a second language at an early stage and literacy in a second language are paths to bilingualism. In Slovenia, children of immigrants, who decide to stay in the country permanently, are being educated in Slovene, which is the language of the environment and represents a second language to them. Children of immigrants, who stay in Slovenia...
Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.
We examined the roles of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies, syntactic awareness in English, and English vocabulary knowledge in the English reading comprehension of Chinese-speaking university students (n = 278). Results suggested a two-factor model of a General Reading Knowledge factor (metacognitive awareness employed during the…
Hutzler, Florian; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Wimmer, Heinz; Zorzi, Marco
Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close…
All over the World most effective methods for teaching reading to beginning-level adults have been applied. My continuing challenge has been to determine how reading acquisition research can be applied to teaching reading to adults. In this article, I describe the techniques I have found most useful; I hope other teachers working with beginning…
Full Text Available The traveling salesman problem (TSP is one of the most famous problems. Many applications and programming tools have been developed to handle TSP. However, it seems to be essential to provide easy programming tools according to state-of-the-art algorithms. Therefore, we have collected and programmed new easy tools by the three object-oriented languages. In this paper, we present ADT (abstract data type of developed tools at first; then we analyze their performance by experiments. We also design a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA by developed tools. Experimental results show that the proposed HGA is comparable with the recent state-of-the-art applications.
Robert M. Bernard
Full Text Available This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-called ubiquitous computing program in a Quebec school district. CAT-3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer implementation. Overall gain was found in all three content areas, but was differential when compared with the norms of the CAT-3. Additionally, some evidence suggested a differential gain for lower and middle-level learners during the school year. Teachers were administered an instrument called the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ that assessed the purposes and extent of technology integration. Negative correlations were found in reading achievement gain for items associated with the higher use of communicative, evaluative, and creative uses of computers. Open-ended teacher responses indicated the need for more professional support for instructional implementations of computing. Résumé: Cette étude examine les performances accompagnant l’implantation d’un programme d’ordinateurs portables en 3 ième année du primaire, aussi appelé programme d’ubiquité computationnelle, dans une école d’un district scolaire du Québec. Des batteries de tests, CAT-3 en lecture, en langue et en mathématiques ont été administrées à la fin de la deuxième année du primaire et une autre fois à la fin de la troisième année du primaire, après un an d’implantation des ordinateurs. Un gain fut observé dans les trois matières, mais était différencié lorsque comparé aux normes du CAT-3. De plus, un gain différencié fut mis en évidence pour les apprenants de niveau inférieur et moyen durant l’année scolaire. Les enseignants ont rempli le Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ qui mesure le but et l’étendue de l’intégration technologique. Des corrélations négatives ont été trouvées en
Bush-Bacelis, Jean L.
The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), an accrediting agency, may be an overlooked tool for establishing rationale and credibility for globalization of business courses. The 245 member institutions are bound by the agency's accrediting requirements, and many others are influenced by the standards set in those…
Full Text Available An attempt of Russian universities to move forward to the leading positions in the world rankings has resulted in some initiatives to enhance their activities on the market of education services. Under these conditions, foreign language proficiency is no longer a luxury and it is becoming an important tool to implement goals of university development. In this regard, new methods and techniques of foreign language teaching are highly demanded, which would significantly improve the language competency of both students and faculty members. A search for effective methods to enhance foreign language teaching makes analyze Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs open educational platforms and consider an opportunity for these platforms to be integrated into the existing system of foreign language teaching in Russian higher education institutions. Based on the research findings, the author concludes that it is irrational to use the resources as embedded components without significant adjustment to the conditions existing in the current higher education system.
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K
This longitudinal study examined the process of English reading comprehension at age 11 for 173 low achieving Spanish-speaking children. The influence of growth rates, from early childhood (age 4.5) to pre-adolescence (age 11), in vocabulary and word reading skills on this complex process were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Standardized measures of word reading accuracy and productive vocabulary were administered annually, in English and Spanish, and English reading comprehension measures were administered at age 11. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that English skills accounted for all unique variance in English reading comprehension outcomes. Further, expected developmental shifts in the influence of word reading and vocabulary skills over time were not shown, likely on account of students' below grade level reading comprehension achievement. This work underscores the need for theoretical models of comprehension to account for students' skill profiles and abilities.
Adam, Marian Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
Spreadsheets are commonly used by non-programmers to store data in a structured form, this data can in some cases be considered to be a program in a domain-specific language (DSL). Unlike ordinary text-based domain-specific languages, there is however currently no formalism for expressing...... the syntax of such spreadsheet-based DSLs (SDSLs), and there is no tool support for automatically generating language infrastructure such as parsers and IDE support. In this paper we define a simple notion of two-dimensional grammars for SDSLs, and show how such grammars can be used for automatically...
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G
We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right
Beginning readers' motivation to read and the texts they choose to read impact on their literacy achievement and willingness to engage with reading activities in the primary years of schooling. This study investigated the eBook reading experiences of eight grade 1 students. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software…
Brown, James Dean
Five new strategies are proposed to help language teachers understand statistical studies. Each strategy is discussed with appropriate tables, figures, and examples drawn from recent articles of the "TESOL Quarterly." (18 references) (Author/LB)
Morfidi, Eleni; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Scheltinga, Femke; Bekebrede, Judith
The present study investigated the reading of secondary school students in their first and second language (L1, L2). Twenty-six average and twenty-six poor readers matched on age, gender, listening and reading comprehension participated. They were native Dutch speakers who started learning English at secondary school (grade 7). We examined whether…
Dr E.J. van Schooten; Dr. A.J.S. van Gelderen; M. Trapman; J. Hulstijn
In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency
Abu-Snoubar, Tamador Khalaf
This quantitative study aimed to investigate and compare the use of metacognitive reading Strategies among English as a foreign language students at Al-Balqa Applied University based on their academic field of study. The Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) (Mokhtari & Sheory, 2002) was the instrument employed. This survey divides the…
Dunn, Lloyd M.; Bruininks, Robert H.
The Cooperative Reading Project was a 2-year study designed to test the effectiveness of three initial reading approaches and an oral language stimulation program with inner-city Southern disadvantaged children. This followup study looked for differences among the treatment groups after pupils had completed their third school year. The 354…
Trapman, M.; van Gelderen, A.; van Schooten, E.; Hulstijn, J.
In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency
Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…
Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.
This is the teacher's guide accompanying a reader and a workbook that are part of an ungraded language arts and reading program that can be used in classes from upper elementary through high school. The program is designed around reading selections which present aspects of history, culture, and present-day experiences of special relevance to the…
Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.
Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…
Abe, D.; And Others
Up to the present, the Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues has approached the development of reading comprehension skills in English as a second language in terms of morpho-syntactic development. This article proposes to examine difficulties in reading comprehension based not on morpho-syntax but on the textual and…
Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Saenz, Laura; Resendez, Nora; Kwok, Oiman; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather
Research Findings: This study compared the effects of content-based shared book-reading instruction versus an explicit vocabulary-only condition on the vocabulary development of preschool dual language learners (DLLs). Using shared book reading as the mode of instruction, we randomly assigned 48 bilingual preschool teachers and 281…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe the need of development of 'Reading Comprehension' teaching materials to students and lecturers of Indonesian Language and Literature Education Department, Gorontalo. This research is included in the research and development to develop educational products in the form of teaching materials. Mixed research design was used in this study to explore the data needs of the development of reading materials learning. Quantitative data was obtained from the responses of 36 respondents and 2 lecturers of the Reading subjects on the questionnaire needs analysis and questionnaire of teaching material analysis that is being used today. Likert Scale was used in questionnaire of needs analysis seen from 7 aspects, namely: content of teaching material, reading strategy, text type, text genre, text topic, learning activity, and evaluation of learning (81 items and questionnaire of teaching material analysis that was being used that amounted to 5 aspects, namely: the content of teaching materials, organization of teaching materials, language, layout, and completeness of teaching material support (31 items. Qualitative data were obtained from open questions about the experiences of students and lecturers in reading learning in the same questionnaire, as well as content analysis of the material being used. The results showed that the requirement of development of teaching materials, students and lecturers assessed 63 items (77.78% in the required category, and 18 items (22.22% with the required categories. Then, the teaching materials currently in use still lack the aspects of the content, the text type, the text genre, the text topic, and the evaluation of each learning unit. Details of the results obtained 4 items (12.90% as low category, 22 items (70.97% as enough category, and 5 items (16.13% as high category.
Full Text Available Reading is one of the fundamental skills across all subjects. A student with low competency in reading will experience difficulties in teaching and learning. The purpose of this research is to improve reading skills among student with learning disability in one secondary school in Bangi, Selangor. This action research had employed Reading Assessment Approach and descriptive analysis in data collection. Seven students with reading problem participated in this research. However, these students were having potential to be included in either Inclusive Program or Job Transition Program. Therefore, one reading program known as KLISA Program (Language Clinic Program was created and it has been implemented in classroom for 30 minutes during the first period every day. This 9-month program had employed phonics method and used a set of ‘Bacalah Anakku’ books and ABM Velcro in three phases. The reading assessment was conducted at the end of each phase to evaluate the students’ achievement in reading. The findings of this research proved that KLISA Program was effective for students’ improvement in reading. Hence, it is recommended that this program can be consistently implemented to overcome illiterate and reading disorder among primary and secondary school students. Kemahiran membaca adalah merentas semua matapelajaran. Kelemahan dalam kemahiran membaca akan menyebabkan kesulitan mengikuti pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kemahiran membaca di kalangan murid-murid bermasalah pembelajaran di sebuah sekolah menengah di Bangi, Selangor. Penelitian tindakan ini menggunakan pendekatan penilaian penaksiran bacaan dan analisis deskriptif untuk mengumpul data, Seramai 7 orang murid dalam sebuah kelas terlibat dalam kajian ini. Mereka terdiri dari murid bermasalah pembelajaran yang berpotensi untuk diserapkan di dalam Program Inklusif atau Transisi pekerjaan tetapi masih tidak boleh membaca. Satu program pemulihan
Bouissou, M.; Villatte, N.; Bouhadana, H.; Bannelier, M.
EDF has been developing for several years an integrated set of knowledge-based and algorithmic tools for automation of reliability assessment of complex (especially sequential) systems. In this environment, the reliability expert has at his disposal all the powerful software tools for qualitative and quantitative processing, besides he gets various means to generate automatically the inputs for these tools, through the acquisition of graphical data. The development of these tools has been based on FIGARO, a specific language, which was built to get an homogeneous system modelling. Various compilers and interpreters get a FIGARO model into conventional models, such as fault-trees, Markov chains, Petri Networks. In this report, we introduce the main basics of FIGARO language, illustrating them with examples
Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William
Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…
Morgan, T J H; Uomini, N T; Rendell, L E; Chouinard-Thuly, L; Street, S E; Lewis, H M; Cross, C P; Evans, C; Kearney, R; de la Torre, I; Whiten, A; Laland, K N
Hominin reliance on Oldowan stone tools-which appear from 2.5 mya and are believed to have been socially transmitted-has been hypothesized to have led to the evolution of teaching and language. Here we present an experiment investigating the efficacy of transmission of Oldowan tool-making skills along chains of adult human participants (N=184) using five different transmission mechanisms. Across six measures, transmission improves with teaching, and particularly with language, but not with imitation or emulation. Our results support the hypothesis that hominin reliance on stone tool-making generated selection for teaching and language, and imply that (i) low-fidelity social transmission, such as imitation/emulation, may have contributed to the ~700,000 year stasis of the Oldowan technocomplex, and (ii) teaching or proto-language may have been pre-requisites for the appearance of Acheulean technology. This work supports a gradual evolution of language, with simple symbolic communication preceding behavioural modernity by hundreds of thousands of years.
Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Abbott, Robert D.
Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), students completed 18 sessions of computerized instruction over about 3 months. The 11 students taught letter formation with sequential, numbered, colored arrow cues with full contours who wrote letters on lines added to iPAD screen showed more and stronger treatment effects than the 21 students taught using only visual motion cues for letter formation who wrote on an unlined computer monitor. Teaching to all levels of language in multiple functional language systems (by ear, eye, mouth, and hand) close in time resulted in significant gains in reading and writing skills for the group and in diagnosed SLD hallmark impairments for individuals; also, performance on computerized learning activities correlated with treatment gains. Results are discussed in reference to need for both accommodations and explicit instruction for persisting SLDs and the potential for computers to teach handwriting, morphophonemic orthographies, comprehension, and composition. PMID:26858470
Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra
The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility
This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…
Joshi, R. Malatesha; Ji, Xuejun Ryan; Breznitz, Zvia; Amiel, Meirav; Yulia, Astri
The Simple View of Reading (SVR) in Hebrew was tested by administering decoding, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension measures to 1,002 students from Grades 2 to 10 in the northern part of Israel. Results from hierarchical regression analyses supported the SVR in Hebrew with decoding and listening comprehension measures explaining…
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This longitudinal study examined the process of English reading comprehension at age 11 years for 173 low-achieving Spanish-speaking children. The influence of growth rates, from early childhood (age 4.5 years) to pre-adolescence (age 11 years), in vocabulary and word reading skills on this complex process were evaluated with structural equation…
Kouri, Theresa A.; Selle, Carrie A.; Riley, Sarah A.
Purpose: Guided reading is a common practice recommended for children in the early stages of literacy development. While experts agree that oral reading facilitates literacy skills, controversy exists concerning which corrective feedback strategies are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare feedback procedures stemming from 2…
Read-across is a popular data gap filling technique used within analogue and category approaches for regulatory purposes. In recent years there have been many efforts focused on the challenges involved in read-across development, its scientific justification and documentation. To...
Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Kraaij, Wessel
With the recent enormous increase of information dissemination via the web as incentive there is a growing interest in supporting tools for cross-language retrieval. In this paper we describe a disclosure and retrieval approach that fulfils the needs of both information providers and users by
De Vries, NJ
Full Text Available collection strategies, highlighting some of the salient issues pertaining to collecting ASR data for under-resourced languages. We then describe the development of a smartphone-based data collection tool, Woefzela, which is designed to function in a...
Eroz-Tuga, Betil; Sadler, Randall
This article presents a critical comparison of the usefulness and practicality of six CMC video chat tools (CUworld, ICQ, MSN Messenger, Paltalk, Skype, and Yahoo Messenger) from the perspective of language teaching professionals. This comparison is based on the results of a semester-long project between graduate students at an American university…
Mills, Kathy A.; Chandra, Vinesh; Park, Ji Yong
This paper demonstrates, following Vygotsky, that language and tool use has a critical role in the collaborative problem-solving behaviour of school-age children. It reports original ethnographic classroom research examining the convergence of speech and practical activity in children's collaborative problem solving with robotics programming…
Howell, Kristine Nicole
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine teachers' perceptions of motivational literacy instructional strategies for use with English as a second language learners (ESLs). Self-determination theory's basic psychological needs theory and organismic integration theory acted as the lens through which this topic was explored. A Likert-type…
Full Text Available Recently, electronic books (e-books have become prevalent amongst the general population, as well as students, owing to their advantages over traditional books. In South Africa, a number of schools have integrated tablets into the classroom with the promise of replacing traditional books. In order to realise the potential of e-books and their associated devices within an academic context, where reading speed and comprehension are critical for academic performance and personal growth, the effectiveness of reading from a tablet screen should be evaluated. To achieve this objective, a quasi-experimental within-subjects design was employed in order to compare the reading speed and comprehension performance of 68 students. The results of this study indicate the majority of participants read faster on an iPad, which is in contrast to previous studies that have found reading from tablets to be slower. It was also found that comprehension scores did not differ significantly between the two media. For students, these results provide evidence that tablets and e-books are suitable tools for reading and learning, and therefore, can be used for academic work. For educators, e-books can be introduced without concern that reading performance and comprehension will be hindered.
Supporting the reading development of college students is the responsibility of all professors. As experts in the field, with experience navigating and interpreting readings in a particular discipline, professors are obligated to think of themselves as master artisans apprenticing their students to the craft of reading. Texts in all subject areas…
An, Licong; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Yadong
This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children’s receptive language abilities were, the less...
An, Licong; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Yadong
This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children's receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.
Full Text Available The articles specifies the methodology of linguosociocultural competence of the future English language teachers in the process of reading fiction. The stages and the aim of each stage of linguosociocultural competence development have been distinguished, the demands to the exercises and the typology of the exercises have been defined. The system of exercises for linguosociocultural competence development which consists of subsystem of sociocultural, sociolinguistic, social competences development and group of exercises for sociocultural, sociolinguistic, social knowledge and skills development has been suggested
Burgess, Melissa L.
The purpose of this research was to examine possible outcomes of developmental students' critical thinking and motivation to read when the online learning community, WebCT, was implemented. My role, in addition to instructor, was that of participant-observer. I implemented WebCT tools, such as discussion board and chat, over a four-month period…
Orlando Alberteris Galbán
Full Text Available Reading and writing in the university context need a coherent didactic direction that contributes to the students’ comprehensive education. The article offers some components for a didactics for reading and writing, based on the integration of the afore mentioned components of verbal activity, that share the base knowledge, taking into account the relations between comprehension and production stated as a constellation of interrelated processes. The methods used allowed the systematization of basic elements to structure the didactics. An operational model for reading and writing was also introduced. Its practical implementation evidenced higher levels in reading and writing performance of the students. Keywords: a, , , interrelated processes, foreign languages.
Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language
Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Language is the single best predictor of later success in school and beyond. Using new findings in the science of learning, this article outlines 6 basic principles that will help parents and caregivers interact with children in ways that grow important language skills. Creating environments that nurture these principles gives every child a chance…
Kasar, Sündüz; Tuna, Didem
Among the literary genres, poetry is the one that resists translation the most. Creating a new and innovative language that breaks the usual rules of the standard language with brand-new uses and meanings is probably one of the most important goals of the poet. Poetry challenges the translator to capture not only original images, exceptional…
Thomason, Betty; Brown, Clara Lee; Ward, Natalia
English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing student subgroup in the United States, and public schools have the challenging task of teaching ELLs both English language and academic content. In spite of the attention given to improving outcomes for ELLs, the achievement gap between ELLs and native English speakers persists, especially…
Fukkink, R.G.; Hulstijn, J.H.; Simis, A.
Two classroom-based experiments investigated automatization of lexical access in a second language (L2) with a computer-based training, involving a Grade 8 population in the Netherlands, with Dutch first language (L1) and intermediate knowledge of L2 English. Results of the first experiment showed
Raudszus, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual
Developing a universal reading comprehension intervention for mainstream primary schools within areas of social deprivation for children with and without language-learning impairment: a feasibility study.
McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Ellis, Sue
Some children in areas of social deprivation in Scotland have lower reading attainment than neighbouring children in less deprived areas, and some of these also have lower spoken language comprehension skills than expected by assessment norms. There is a need to develop effective reading comprehension interventions that fit easily into the school curriculum and can benefit all pupils. A feasibility study of reading comprehension strategies with existing evidence of efficacy was undertaken in three mainstream primary schools within an area of social deprivation in west central Scotland, to decide whether further investigation of this intervention was warranted. Aims were to measure comprehension of spoken language and reading via standardised assessments towards the beginning of the school year (T1) in mainstream primary school classrooms within an area of social deprivation; to have teachers introduce previously-validated text comprehension strategies, and to measure change in reading comprehension outcome measures towards the end of the year (T2). A pre- and post-intervention cohort design was used. Reading comprehension strategies were introduced to staff in participating schools and used throughout the school year as part of on-going reading instruction. Spoken language comprehension was measured by TROG-2 at T1, and reading progress by score changes from T1 to T2 on the WIAT-II(UK) -T reading comprehension scale. Forty-seven pupils in five classes in three primary schools took part: 38% had TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile. As a group, children made good reading comprehension progress, with a medium effect size of 0.46. Children with TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile had lower mean reading scores than others at T1 and T2, although with considerable overlap. However, TROG-2 did not make a unique contribution to reading progress: children below the 10(th) centile made as much progress as other children. The intervention was welcomed by schools, and the
Killick, Steve; Bowkett, Steve
This article describes a "Reading and Storytelling Group" that ran at an adolescent inpatient unit and outlines how fictional stories, both read and told, can develop psychological insights such as mentalization and emotional literacy. The structure of the group is described, and some of the activities and responses of the young people are illustrated. How activities such as this can have therapeutic benefits without being ostensibly "therapy" are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
O. Homa Keshav; B. Abdul Rahim
The use of wireless automation in almost all the fields of power, gas and water generation, distribution and billing has come of age. Here with the inclusion of wireless communication with the automation may lead to paradigm change in the current trend. The design presents a new methodology for avoiding the high construction and maintenance costs in the existing meter reading technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed...
Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E
Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.
Full Text Available This essay is an engagement with a series of propositions about literacy and reading in the United States: that large numbers of people struggle with what one might call narrative complexity; that they resolve such struggles by falling back onto narrative simplicities which, through a series of cultural preferences, congeal to produce much of the stuff of popular culture; that this condition and process is essentially what the varied critics—from left and right—of the culture of modernity were actually identifying, though from a largely normative, not empirical, standpoint; that what was being critiqued was essentially a condition formed by cognitive underdevelopment; and that we can actually explain this empirically by mining decades’ worth of research in reading and literacy studies, particularly in the context of childhood and social class. In short, this paper is an admittedly tentative step in an effort to build a bridge between two knowledge silos that have in part remained determinably apart—reading/literacy studies and cultural/critical theory. The essay also suggests that, in order to understand reading and literacy, it is important to begin to engage research in neuroscience, particularly that which suggests that the brain is actually not designed—in evolutionary terms—to read.
.... It describes how integrating existing and proven multimedia and artificial intelligence technology, and the World Wide Web may provide an innovative and effective approach to foreign language learning in DoD...
Full Text Available This study reports on a balanced reading programme (BRP designed for a multi-cultural, South African classroom at the Foundation Phase. The BRP uses the mother tongue as a valuable resource to access meaning within a supportive learning environment. The main focus of the study is on the achievements of six Zulu children with differing levels of literacy potential after exposure to a year-long balanced approach to literacy. The study also examines parents’ views on the BRP and their perceptions of the reading process. Data were drawn from the following sources: teacher observations and interactions with learners; semi-structured interviews with parents; analysis of learner assessments and parental questionnaires. It seems that the BRP enhances both the self-confidence and cognitive growth of EAL learners. It also seems that collaborative, interactive learning, extensive independent reading, a language experience approach, home and community support and high teacher expectations of learners, combined with high levels of intrinsic learner motivation can positively impact on EAL learners’ academic progress and social growth at school.
Barham, Kefah A.
E- Dictionaries have the potential to be a useful instrument in English Language classes, at the same time; it can be seen as a waste of time and a hindrance tool in the English Language classroom. This paper reports on students' use of e-dictionary in two of "Educational Readings in the English Language" course sections through in-depth…
Full Text Available The authors explore language developmental processes of university English language learners. The used Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA and In-depth Reading Interviews as heuristic tools to generate critical dialogues with students to reflect on their L1 and English language learning processes and perceptions. The studies show that RMA and In-Depth Reading Interviews lead the teachers researches-and english language learners to critical learnable and teachable moments.
Pascual Cantos Gomez
Full Text Available This paper ainis at presenting a survey of computational linguistic tools presently available but whose potential has been neither fully considered not exploited to its full in modern CALL. It starts with a discussion on the rationale of DDL to language learning, presenting typical DDL-activities. DDL-software and potential extensions of non-typical DDL-software (electronic dictionaries and electronic dictionary facilities to DDL . An extended section is devoted to describe NLP-technology and how it can be integrated into CALL, within already existing software or as stand alone resources. A range of NLP-tools is presentcd (MT programs, taggers, lemn~atizersp, arsers and speech technologies with special emphasis on tagged concordancing. The paper finishes with a number of reflections and ideas on how language technologies can be used efficiently within the language learning context and how extensive exploration and integration of these technologies might change and extend both modern CAI,I, and the present language learning paradigiii..
-Louis Giavitto ("A Domain Specific Language for Complex Natural & Artificial Systems Simulations") and the 11 contributed papers that were selected for presentation and the proceedings by the programme committee from 30 submissions (i.e., 37% acceptance rate). Every submission was reviewed by at least three......This volume contains the proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010), held in Paphos, Cyprus on March 28--29, 2010. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) organized in cooperation...... with ACM Sigplan. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented forum on meta programming in a broad sense. A meta program is a program that takes other programs as input or output. The focus of LDTA is on generated or otherwise efficiently implemented meta programs, possibly using high level descriptions...
Sündüz ÖZTÜRK KASAR
Full Text Available Among the literary genres, poetry is the one that resists translation the most. Creating a new and innovative language that breaks the usual rules of the standard language with brand-new uses and meanings is probably one of the most important goals of the poet. Poetry challenges the translator to capture not only original images, exceptional symbolism, and subjective connotations but also its musicality, rhythm, and measure. Faced with this revolutionary use of language, the translator needs a guide so as to not get lost in the labyrinths of the poetic universe. The universe of sound and meaning unique to each language and the incompatibility of these languages with each other makes the duty of the translator seem impossible. At this point, semiotics may function as a guide, opening up the mysteries of the universe built by the poet and giving clues as to how it can be conveyed in the target language. This allows us to suggest the cooperation of semiotics and translation. From this perspective, we aim to present a case study that exemplifies this cooperation. Our corpus comprises Shakespeare’s sonnet 130 and its Turkish and French translations. The study treats the translator as the receiver of the source text and the producer of the target text in the light of the Theory of Instances of Enunciation propounded by Jean-Claude Coquet. Further, through the Systematics of Designificative Tendencies propounded by Sündüz Öztürk Kasar, the study compares the translators’ creations to the original sonnet to see the extent to which the balance of the original text’s meaning and form is preserved in the translations and how skillfully and competently the signs that constitute the universe of meaning are transmitted in the target languages.
M. Onice Payer
Full Text Available Propomos discutir implicações que tem para a prática da leitura o "fato da língua" (sua materialidade histórico-discursiva. Partiremos da compreensão de que a relação do sujeito brasileiro imigrante com as formas linguísticas é marcada por tensões entre a língua portuguesa - predominante como língua nacional, escrita - e outras línguas, silenciadas no domínio público oficial, mas que permaneceram, de algum modo, em certos contextos de imigração, às vezes mescladas ao português. As formas de língua silenciadas na história guardam ainda, entretanto, um lugar no sujeito, como memória da língua materna. Já as formas da língua nacional interpelam o leitor em uma relação com a língua atravessada por valores jurídicos (correta, provada. Considerando que ambas as dimensões (nacional e materna produzem efeito nas práticas de linguagem, procuraremos descrever e compreender certos "processos de identificação sujeito/língua" que se dão através do modo como a memória da estrutura linguística intervém na produção de efeitos de sentido, interpondo-se à relação do leitor com o texto, participando, portanto, do processo de atribuição de sentidos na leitura. O trabalho faz-se no campo da teoria do discurso.It is our aim to discuss the implications of the "language fact" in reading practice (its historic-discursive materiality. We start with the premise that the relationship of Brazilian immigrant subjects with linguistic aspects is marked by tensions between the Portuguese language, predominantly the national written language, with other languages silenced in the official public domain but that somehow remained in certain immigration contexts, merged with Portuguese. The types of languages silenced in history still have a place in the subjects as a memory of their mother tongue. Yet, the modes of the national written language challenge the reader in a relationship with the language pierced by legal aspects (correct
An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…
The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…
Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years,…
Jalilehvand, Maryam; Samuel, Moses
Based on the schema theory, it has been found that the background knowledge of males and females differs. This difference in background knowledge can affect the students' reading comprehension. In Iran, although boys and girls study in different schools, they follow the same curricula and syllabuses in all the schools. The present article reports…
Lent, ReLeah Cossett
Written for the busy practitioner by an experienced professional development consultant, writer, and speaker, "Literacy for Real" is a hands-on guide to meaningful reading across the content areas of math, science, and social studies in grades 6-12. It presents key information that addresses all types of 21st century literacy--visual, digital, and…
This study compared how three different gloss modes affected college students' L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. The study also compared how results on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition may differ depending on the four assessment methods used. A between-subjects design was employed with three groups of Mandarin-speaking…
Alison, Caryn; Root, Jenny R.; Browder, Diane M.; Wood, Leah
Demonstrating comprehension of text is a complex skill that is an area of difficulty for many students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Shared story reading is an intervention that has a history of effectiveness in teaching literacy skills to students with extensive support needs. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to…
Van Viersen, Sietske; De Bree, Elise H.; Kalee, Lilian; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; De Jong, Peter F.
A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the
van Viersen, S.; de Bree, E.H.; Kalee, L.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; de Jong, P.F.
A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the
Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.
The Reading Span Test (RST) is a verbal working-memory test. The original RST (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), and derivatives of it, are being used increasingly as assessments of central executive functioning and for research on aging-associated cognitive decline (Whitney, Arnett, Driver, & Budd,
Gerde, Hope K.; Powell, Douglas R.
Research Findings: An observational study of 60 Head Start teachers and 341 children (177 boys, 164 girls) enrolled in their classrooms found teachers' book-reading practices to predict growth in children's receptive vocabulary. Multilevel growth analyses indicated that children in classrooms where teachers used more book-focused utterances made…
Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza
Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the
Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza
Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…
Full Text Available This paper offers a review of data which show that reading is a flexible and dynamic process and that readers can exert strategic control over it. Two main hypotheses on the control of reading processes have been suggested: the route de-emphasis hypothesis and the time-criterion hypothesis. According to the former, the presence of irregular words in the list might lead to an attenuation of the non-lexical process, while the presence of non-words could trigger a de-emphasis of the lexical route. An alternative account is proposed by the time-criterion hypothesis whereby the reader sets a flexible deadline to initiate the response. According to the latter view, it is the average pronunciation difficulty of the items in the block that modulates the time-criterion for response. However, it is worth noting that the list composition has been shown to exert different effects in transparent compared to opaque orthographies, as the consistency of spelling-sound correspondences can influence the processing costs of the non-lexical pathway. In transparent orthographies, the non-lexical route is not resource demanding and can successfully contribute to the pronunciation of regular words, thus its de-emphasis could not be as useful/necessary as in opaque orthographies. The complex patterns of results from the literature on list context effects are a challenge for computational models of reading which face the problem of simulating strategic control over reading processes. Different proposals suggest a modification of parameter setting in the non-lexical route or the implementation of a new module aimed at focusing attention on the output of the more convenient pathway. Simulation data and an assessment of the models’ fit to the behavioral results are presented and discussed to shed light on the role of the cognitive system when reading aloud.
Armando Freitas da Rocha
Full Text Available Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Grainger, Molly; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K
The Simple View theory suggests that reading comprehension relies on automatic recognition of words combined with language comprehension. The goal of the current study was to examine the structural and functional connectivity in networks supporting reading comprehension and their relationship with language comprehension within 7-9 year old children using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fMRI during a Sentence Picture Matching task. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in the left and right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF), known language-related tracts, were correlated from DTI data with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Passage Comprehension sub-test. Brodmann areas most proximal to white-matter regions with significant correlation to Passage Comprehension scores were chosen as Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) and used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis using the Sentence Picture Matching task. The correlation between percentile scores for the WJ-III Passage Comprehension subtest and the FA values in the right and left ILF and SLF indicated positive correlation in language-related ROIs, with greater distribution in the right hemisphere, which in turn showed strong connectivity in the fMRI data from the Sentence Picture Matching task. These results support the participation of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension and may provide physiologic support for a distinction between different types of reading comprehension deficits vs difficulties in technical reading.
A previous study (Stuart, 1999) showed that early phoneme awareness and phonics teaching improved reading and spelling ability in inner-city schoolchildren in Key Stage 1, most of whom were learning English as a second language. The present study, a follow-up of these children at the end of Key Stage 1, addresses four main questions: (1) Are these improvements maintained to the end of Key Stage 1? (2) Are different patterns of cognitive process evident in the word recognition skills of phonics trained versus untrained children? (3) Do the phonics trained children now also show a significant advantage in reading comprehension? (4) Are there differences in amount of reading, in self-concept as readers and in oral vocabulary development between phonics trained and untrained children? Relationships between reading and spelling ages and Key Stage 1 SATs levels are also explored. Data are reported from 101 seven-year-olds (85 of whom were second language learners) remaining from the original 112 children reported on previously. Children were tested on four standardized tests of reading, spelling and vocabulary, and on a further six experimental tests of phoneme segmentation, grapheme-phoneme correspondence knowledge, regular, exception and nonword reading, author recognition and reading self-concept. Lasting influences of early phoneme awareness and phonics teaching on phoneme awareness, grapheme-phoneme correspondence knowledge, word reading and spelling were found. Part of the previously untrained group had now received structured phonics teaching, and were therefore treated as a third (late trained) group. Early and late-trained groups showed similar levels of attainment and similar cognitive processing patterns, which were different from the untrained group. However, there were no influences of training on reading comprehension, self-concept or oral vocabulary. Early phoneme awareness and phonics training efficiently accelerates the word recognition and spelling
Hertlin, J.; Mackert, M.
In the present paper the functions are presented, which should be part of a test system for user programs in a higher treat time programming language, taking into account time sequences and competitive processes. As can be shown by the problem of testing, use of higher level real time programming languages renders the task of program development essentially easier, however performance of test procedures without appropriate test systems is very difficult. After the presentation of notions and methods for the testing of programs, general requirements on testing tools are described and the test system functions for a program test, beeing uncritical with respect to time, are placed together. Thereby, for every individual function, the interface between the test system, the program under test, and the residual program-generation system (compiler, binder, operating system, delay-time system, and loader) is given too. For the time-critical test, a series of desirable functions are described, which can be implemented with acceptable expense. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary increase reading comprehension of written words.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE READING APPROACHES AND AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN THE PRIMARY GRADES--AN INTERIM REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR OF THE COOPERATIVE READING PROJECT.
DUNN, LLOYD M.; AND OTHERS
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE APPROACHES TO TEACHING BEGINNING READING AND THE INFLUENCE OF AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS REPORTED IN THE FIRST-YEAR REPORT OF A 2-YEAR INTERVENTION STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE 608 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS FROM 12 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN AN INNER-CITY AREA. THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL…
Swartz, Jordan; Koziatek, Christian; Theobald, Jason; Smith, Silas; Iturrate, Eduardo
Testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with cost and risk to patients (e.g. radiation). To assess the appropriateness of imaging utilization at the provider level, it is important to know that provider's diagnostic yield (percentage of tests positive for the diagnostic entity of interest). However, determining diagnostic yield typically requires either time-consuming, manual review of radiology reports or the use of complex and/or proprietary natural language processing software. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to develop and implement a simple, user-configurable, and open-source natural language processing tool to classify radiology reports with high accuracy and 2) to use the results of the tool to design a provider-specific VTE imaging dashboard, consisting of both utilization rate and diagnostic yield. Two physicians reviewed a training set of 400 lower extremity ultrasound (UTZ) and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports to understand the language used in VTE-positive and VTE-negative reports. The insights from this review informed the arguments to the five modifiable parameters of the NLP tool. A validation set of 2,000 studies was then independently classified by the reviewers and by the tool; the classifications were compared and the performance of the tool was calculated. The tool was highly accurate in classifying the presence and absence of VTE for both the UTZ (sensitivity 95.7%; 95% CI 91.5-99.8, specificity 100%; 95% CI 100-100) and CTPA reports (sensitivity 97.1%; 95% CI 94.3-99.9, specificity 98.6%; 95% CI 97.8-99.4). The diagnostic yield was then calculated at the individual provider level and the imaging dashboard was created. We have created a novel NLP tool designed for users without a background in computer programming, which has been used to classify venous thromboembolism reports with a high degree of accuracy. The tool is open-source and available for download at http
Plakans, Lia; Bilki, Zeynep
This study of English as a second language (ESL) reading textbooks investigates cohesion in reading passages from 27 textbooks. The guiding research questions were whether and how cohesion differs across textbooks written for beginning, intermediate, and advanced second language readers. Using a computational tool called Coh-Metrix, textual…
Masny, Diana; Waterhouse, Monica
Immigration for Australia and Canada is critical to sustain economic growth. Each country's immigration policy stems from its vision of a nation that includes the role of language and literacy and a program of economic outcomes. While the authors acknowledge that economic integration through employment dominates immigration policies in Canada and…
Pierce, Margaret E.; Wechsler-Zimring, Adrianna; Noam, Gil; Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir, Tami
This study examined the potentially compounding effect of language minority (LM) status on problem behaviors among urban second and third grade-level poor readers. Univariate analyses showed that a disproportionate percentage of both LM and English monolingual (L1) poor readers already displayed clinically significant levels of anxiety, social…
Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Napoli, Amy R
A growing body of evidence indicates that the development of mathematics and literacy skills is highly related. The importance of literacy skills-specifically language-for mathematics development has been well rationalized. However, despite several prominent studies indicating that mathematics skills are highly predictive of literacy development, the reason for this relation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify how and why early mathematics is predictive of early literacy development. Participants included 125 preschool children 3-5 years old (M = 4 years 3 months). Participants were assessed on mathematics, literacy, and cognitive measures in both the fall and spring of their preschool year. Mediation analyses indicated that the relation between early mathematics and literacy skills is mediated by children's mathematical language skills. These findings suggest that, in prior research identifying mathematical performance as a significant predictor of later literacy skills, mathematical performance may have acted only as a proxy measure for more complex language skills such as those assessed on a mathematical language measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
The purpose of this book is to illustrate how the principles revealed by linguistic research can be translated into classroom practice. Emphasis is placed on: (1) a methodology which offers opportunities for children to create knowledge based on their observations of language tested against their intiutive speech, and (2) a content which is…
Writing in plain language aims to help users find what they need and ensures that the information is both useful and understandable. This is key for distance students whose primary library interaction may be with the library Website. A mix of user research and readability scores can be used to measure whether content is findable, useful, and…
Bromley, Karen; Modlo, Marcia
Deals with S. Kagan's (1990) structural approach to cooperative learning and its application to language arts. Offers detailed descriptions of several cooperative learning structures, including Numbered Heads Together, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Corners, and others. Provides examples from actual classroom settings, along with various teacher…
Over the past century, missionary educators, nation-state and academic planners, and literacy development workers have used alphabets for political ends for traditionally marginalized languages, and Native peoples have contested such planning with other alphabet proposals. Yet literacy work now often overlooks that there are multiple alphabets…
Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.
Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)
Tan, Li Hai; Xu, Min; Chang, Chun Qi; Siok, Wai Ting
Written Chinese as a logographic system was developed over 3,000 y ago. Historically, Chinese children have learned to read by learning to associate the visuo-graphic properties of Chinese characters with lexical meaning, typically through handwriting. In recent years, however, many Chinese children have learned to use electronic communication devices based on the pinyin input method, which associates phonemes and English letters with characters. When children use pinyin to key in letters, th...
Full Text Available The complexities of reading comprehension have received increasing recognition in recent years. In this realm, the power of vocabulary in predicting cognitive challenges in phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes is well documented. In this study, we present a web-based vocabulary development tool that has a series of interactive displays, including a list of the 50 most frequent words in a particular text, Google image and video results for any combination of those words, definitions, and synonyms for particular words from the text, and a list of sentences from the text in which particular words appear. Additionally, we report the results of an experiment that was performed working collaboratively with middle school science teachers from a large urban district in the United States. While this experiment did not show a significant positive effect of this tool on reading comprehension in science, we did find that girls seem to score worse on a reading comprehension assessment after using our web-based tool. This result could reflect prior research that suggests that some girls tend to have a negative attitude towards technology due to gender stereotypes that give girls the impression that they are not as good as boys in working with computers.
Jacobs, George M.
How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…
Recently, electronic books (e-books) have become prevalent amongst the general ... tablets into the classroom with the promise of replacing traditional books. ... to compare the reading speed and comprehension performance of 68 students.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children’s receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.
Zi, Zhike; Zheng, Yanan; Rundell, Ann E; Klipp, Edda
It has long been recognized that sensitivity analysis plays a key role in modeling and analyzing cellular and biochemical processes. Systems biology markup language (SBML) has become a well-known platform for coding and sharing mathematical models of such processes. However, current SBML compatible software tools are limited in their ability to perform global sensitivity analyses of these models. This work introduces a freely downloadable, software package, SBML-SAT, which implements algorithms for simulation, steady state analysis, robustness analysis and local and global sensitivity analysis for SBML models. This software tool extends current capabilities through its execution of global sensitivity analyses using multi-parametric sensitivity analysis, partial rank correlation coefficient, SOBOL's method, and weighted average of local sensitivity analyses in addition to its ability to handle systems with discontinuous events and intuitive graphical user interface. SBML-SAT provides the community of systems biologists a new tool for the analysis of their SBML models of biochemical and cellular processes.
Kitabayashi, Kristyn M; Huang, Gary Y; Linskey, Katy R; Pirga, Jason; Bane-Terakubo, Teresa; Lee, Meta T
The purpose of this study was to compare reading patterns between English-speaking and English as a Second Language (ESL) families in a health care setting in Hawai'i. A cross-sectional study was performed at an underserved pediatric primary care clinic in Hawai'i. Caregivers of patients between the ages of 6 months to 5 years were asked questions regarding demographics and parent-child reading interactions. Respondents were categorized into English-speaking or ESL groups based on primary language spoken at home. Pearson chi2 tests and Fisher exact tests were performed to compare demographic differences, reading frequency, and reading attitudes between groups. One-hundred three respondents completed the survey Fifty percent were ESL. All ESL respondents were of Asian-Pacific Islander (API) or mixed Asian ethnicity. All Caucasians in the study (n = 9) were in the English-speaking group. Between the English-speaking (n = 52) and ESL (n = 51) groups, there were no significant statistical differences in age or gender of the child, reading attitudes, or parent's educational status. Parents in the ESL group read to their children significantly fewer days per week than their English-speaking counterparts, had significantly fewer books in the home, and lived significantly fewer years in the United States. The findings suggest that API immigrant families share similar attitudes about reading as English-speaking families in Hawai'i but have significantly fewer books in their household and read significantly less frequently Physicians working with API populations should be aware that immigrant children may have fewer reading interactions and should counsel parents on the importance of reading daily.
Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul
Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…
Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi
Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of students’ reading comprehension skills about using cognitive strategies in foreign language teaching by means of awareness raising activities. To this end, the research was conducted for 11 weeks with 77 students studying in an English preparatory school program. The experimental group was exposed to a training which is based on awareness raising activities about using cognitive strategies. A pre-test and a post-test were designed for 2 experimental and 2 control groups with random sampling, and then the statistical differences were tested based on the scores of the both groups in terms of significance. Moreover, the study aims to determine the views of the participants about the strategy training. The results show that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group in terms of their achievement in reading skill, and the post-test scores of the both experimental group and control group were in favor of the experimental group. Also, it has also found that the experiment had a positive impact on the participants.
Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old, right-handed patient with intractable left temporal lobe epilepsy, who previously had a partial left temporal lobectomy. The patient could talk during seizures, suggesting that he might have language dominance in the right hemisphere. Presurgical fMRI localization of language processing including reading of exception and regular words, pseudohomophones, and dual meaning words confirmed the clinical hypothesis of right language dominance, with only small amounts of activation near the planned surgical resection and, thus, minimal eloquent cortex to avoid during surgery. Postoperatively, the patient was rendered seizure-free without speech deficits.
Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia; Brownell, Celia
Autism is commonly believed to impair the ability to perceive emotions, yet empirical evidence is mixed. Because face processing may be difficult for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed a novel test of recognizing emotion via static body postures (Body-Emotion test) and evaluated it with children aged 5 to 12 years in two studies. In Study 1, 34 children with ASD and 41 typically developing (TD) controls matched for age and verbal intelligence (VIQ [verbal IQ]) were tested on (a) our new Body-Emotion test, (b) a widely used test of emotion recognition using photos of eyes as stimuli (Baron-Cohen et al.'s "Reading Mind in the Eyes: Child" or RMEC [Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 2001, Vol. 5, pp. 47-78]), (c) a well-validated theory of mind (ToM) battery, and (d) a teacher-rated empathy scale. In Study 2 (33 children with ASD and 31 TD controls), the RMEC test was simplified to the six basic human emotions. Results of both studies showed that children with ASD performed as well as their TD peers on the Body-Emotion test. Yet TD children outperformed the ASD group on ToM and on both the standard RMEC test and the simplified version. VIQ was not related to perceiving emotions via either body posture or eyes for either group. However, recognizing emotions from body posture was correlated with ToM, especially for children with ASD. Finally, reading emotions from body posture was easier than reading emotions from eyes for both groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waterman, David C., Ed.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Ed.
These proceedings are published primarily for the purpose of helping teachers to improve their reading instruction. The contents include "Official Program"; "I Wish Children Literature" by Lee Bennett Hopkins, which discusses the importance of providing children with good reading materials; "Black English and Reading" by Ronald W. Bruton, which…
Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971, the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.
Full Text Available Digital storytelling constitutes a pedagogical tool for teachers to work on differentlinguistic skills while generating students’ interest and attention. This studyanalyses the usefulness of including digital storytelling within a didactic sequencein order to work on linguistic routines such as greetings and leave-takings inEnglish as a foreign language. To this aim, we have worked with first yearstudents in the Faculty of Education at the Universitat de València to improve theirability to adapt their language skills to specific situations within common dailyinteraction. We have designed a didactic sequence consisting of differentworkshops that have been put into practice in class. The sequence ends with afinal project in which students are expected to produce their own digital stories,showing thus what they have learnt. This final production has highlighted a clearimprovement in the use of linguistic routines, as well as in the use of morecomplex structures and of varied expressions used to open and close aconversation.
Full Text Available Speech is a complex process. The evaluation of speech in an individual with cleft palate is difficult, and the existing classification of phonemes is complicated. Sanskrit, an ancient language, has an arrangement of alphabets that is orderly and scientific and therefore provides a simple means to understand the production of phonemes and memorize them. This article demonstrates the inherent advantage of this arrangement of Sanskrit alphabets to effectively analyze defective cleft palate speech and provides a tool for surgeons to decide a course of action in their routine clinical practice. Improved insight into the speech defect by the surgeon also facilitates better coordination with the speech language pathologist in assessment and treatment of a child with cleft palate.
Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne
Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…
Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung
The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…
Enhancing young children's early literacy achievement is a top priority in many countries. There is a considerable body of research demonstrating young children's language development as a critical factor in reading and later academic success. Implementation of high quality literacy instruction has the potential to improve literacy…