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Sample records for lanceolata plantation wood

  1. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  2. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  3. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong; WANG Silong; OUYANG Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range.To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species,we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation in 22 years,as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation.Results indicated that M.macclurei plantation stored significantly more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C.lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2).Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M.macclurei plantation,55.2% in C.lanceolata plantation).Tree and soil component of M.macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of the C.lanceolata plantation (p<0.05).No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor.These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M.macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C.lanceolata) in southern China.

  4. Solid Wood Products from Eucalypts Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve and diversify the use of tropical plantation timbers in Southern China, with support from International Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO), a research project was started in 2002 focusing on development of processing and manufacturing technologies to promote production of value-added wood products from eucalypts plantations. This project will also facilitate the formulation of forest management strategy in China to supplement the diminishing supply of timber from the natural forests. The sp...

  5. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  6. Characteristics of carbon and nitrogen of soil microbial biomass and their relationships with soil nutrients in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Youjun; WANG Qingkui; WANG Silong; YU Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    The soil microbial biomass and nutrient status under the native broadleaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations at the Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem (in Hunan Province,midland of China) were examined in this study.The results showed that after the native broadleaved forest was replaced by mono-cultured C.lanceolata or C.lanceolata,soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool decreased significantly.In the 0-10cm soil layer,the concentrations of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen in the broadleaved forest were 800.5 and 84.5 mg/kg,respectively.These were 1.90 and 1.03 times as much as those in the first rotation of the C.lanceolata plantation,and 2.16 and 1.27 times as much as those in the second rotation of the plantation,respectively.While in the 10-20 cm soil layer,the microbial carbon and nitrogen in the broadleaved forest were 475.4 and 63.3 mg/kg,respectively.These were 1.86 and 1.60 times as much as those in the first rotation,and 2.11 and 1.76times as much as those in the second rotation,respectively.Soil nutrient pools,such as total nitrogen,total potassium,NH,+-N,and available potassium,also declined after the C.lanceolata plantation replaced the native broadleaved forest,or Chinese fir was planted continuously.Less litter and slower decay rate in pure Chinese fir plantation were the crucial factors leading to the decrease of soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool in this area.Human disturbance,especially slash-burning and site preparation,was another factor leading to the decrease.There were significant positive correlations between soil microbial carbon and nitrogen and soil nutrients.To improve soil quality and maintain sustainable productivity, some measures,including planting mixed conifer with hardwood,preserving residues after harvest,and adopting scientific site preparation,should be taken.

  7. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of forest

  8. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifang Zhao

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long

  9. Chemical composition of decomposing stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiqun; XU Zhihong; BOYD Sue; WILLIAMS David

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was studied using a chronosequence approach. The results showed that decomposition rate constant of Chinese fir stump was 0.02695 as calculated from Olson's model. The N content of stump increased during the first two-year decomposition. When the dead stump C/N ratio was 463.2 ± 27.3, the stumps started to release N. The pattern of P release was similar to that for N. However, K content of stumps showed a consistent declining trend over time during the whole decomposition. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (13C CPMAS-NMR) was used to analyse organic carbon (C) components in decomposing stumps. The 13C CPMAS-NMR spectra of stumps displayed that stump was dominated by cellulose and hemicellulose. The spectra also showed the accumulation of intensity in alkyl C, aromatic C, and carboxyl C spectral regions, which was expected as the labile cellulose and hemicellulose components in O-alkyl C spectral region were selectively decomposed first.

  10. Structure and characterization of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/MMT intercalation nanocomposite (WMNC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua Lü; Guangjie ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    With water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin as an intermediate,Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/montmorillonite nanocomposite (WMNC) was prepared through vacuum impregnation and character-ized with XRD, SEM, FTIR and TG-DTA analyses. The XRD analysis indicated that the wood crystallinity of WMNC decreased, the MMT exfoliated and some nano silicate layers entered into the non-crystallized micro-fibrillar region of the wood cell wall. Wood structure is anisotropic and its impregnation is anisotropic. Due to the nonuniformity of the MMT organic modification, PF intercalation and wood impregnation, the MMT config-uration and distribution in wood were diverse. The SEM graphs of WMNC showed that some silicate grains were blocked in the wood cell lumen,some silicate layers adhered to the inner surface of the wood cell wall, and some exfoliated MMT layers even penetrated the wood cell wall. The obtained hydroxyl of WMNC increased and its ether linking decreased. It was considered that MMT and wood interacted not only with hydroxyl bonds,but also involved some chemical linking.Compared with untreated wood and the PF-impreg, the pyrolysis process of WMNC changed; its starting decomposing temperature decreased and its pyrolysis weight loss at high temperatures greatly decreased. The WMNC indicated certain nanoeffects of the composition of the inorganic MMT nanolamellae.

  11. The Influence of S_2 Microfibril Angle on Longitudinal and Tangential Shrinkage in China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate the variation of microfibril angle (Mfa), tracheid morphology and shrinkage within China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation tree. The second objective was to discuss the relationship between Mfa and tracheid morphology, and the influence of Mfa on longitudinal and tangential shrinkage. The results showed that the mean value of Mfa decreased from the 2nd (30.8°) to 26th growth ring (7.7°); the radial variation of latewood tracheid length ranged f...

  12. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  13. Effects of site management treatments on growth of six-year-old, second-rotation Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zongming; FAN Shaohui; LU Jingming; YANG Xujing; WENG Xianquan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of five different site management treatments on the productivity of a six-year-old and secondrotation Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook.)plantations planted after harvesting a 29-year-old and first-rotation Chinese fir plantation in Xiayang State Forest Farm,Nanping,Fujian Province,were studied.Results showed that the Chinese fir grew best on plots treated with the double slash treatment(BL3),followed by the whole tree harvest(BL1)and the slash burning treatment(SB),and poorest on treatment BL2(normal slash retention)and BL0 (removal of all organic matter aboveground).The site index of the second rotation Chinese fir plantations in BL3 and BL0 treatments increased by 0.56 and 0.27,respectively,compared with the first rotation,and decreased in the rest of the three treatments.Compared with the first rotation,the site index of the second rotation treated with BL1,SB and BL2 treatments decreased by 0.39,0.45 and 0.63,respectively.Differences among the treatments were not statistically significant.

  14. Compatible Models of Carbon Content of Individual Trees on a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lin; Tao, Hong; Wei, Hong; Chengzhen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We tried to establish compatible carbon content models of individual trees for a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantation from Fujian province in southeast China. In general, compatibility requires that the sum of components equal the whole tree, meaning that the sum of percentages calculated from component equations should equal 100%. Thus, we used multiple approaches to simulate carbon content in boles, branches, foliage leaves, roots and the whole individual trees. The approaches included (i) single optimal fitting (SOF), (ii) nonlinear adjustment in proportion (NAP) and (iii) nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). These approaches were used in combination with variables relating diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H), such as D, D2H, DH and D&H (where D&H means two separate variables in bivariate model). Power, exponential and polynomial functions were tested as well as a new general function model was proposed by this study. Weighted least squares regression models were employed to eliminate heteroscedasticity. Model performances were evaluated by using mean residuals, residual variance, mean square error and the determination coefficient. The results indicated that models with two dimensional variables (DH, D2H and D&H) were always superior to those with a single variable (D). The D&H variable combination was found to be the most useful predictor. Of all the approaches, SOF could establish a single optimal model separately, but there were deviations in estimating results due to existing incompatibilities, while NAP and NSUR could ensure predictions compatibility. Simultaneously, we found that the new general model had better accuracy than others. In conclusion, we recommend that the new general model be used to estimate carbon content for Chinese fir and considered for other vegetation types as well.

  15. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; WANG Silong; FENG Zongwei; WANG Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LPI), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LPI maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  16. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow from Schima superba and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-fen; YANG Yu-sheng; CHEN Guang-shui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in forest nutrient cycling, their monthly concentration dynamics in forest ecosystems, especially in subtropical forests only were little known. The goal of this study is to measure the concentrations and monthly dynamics of DOC and DON in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow for two plantations of Schima superba (SS) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) in Jianou, Fujian, China. Samples of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected on a rain event base from January 2002 to December 2002. Upon collection, all water samples were analyzed for DOC, NO3--N, NH4+-N and total dissolved N (TDN). DON was calculated by subtracting NO3--N and NH4+-N from TDN. The results showed that the precipitation had a mean DOC concentration of 1.7 mg·L-1 and DON concentration of 0.13 mg·L-1. The mean DOC and DON concentrations in throughfall were 11.2 and 0.24 mg·L-1 in the SS and 10.3 and 0.19 mg·L-1 in the CF respectively. Stemflow DOC and DON concentrations in the CF (19.1 and 0.66 mg·L-1 respectively) were significantly higher than those in the SS (17.6 and 0.48 mg·L-1 respectively). No clear monthly variation in precipitation DOC concentration was found in our study, while DON concentration in precipitation tended to be higher in summer or autumn. The monthly variations of DON concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at both forests, showing an increase at the beginning of the rainy season in March. In contrast, monthly changes of the DOC concentrations in throughfall of the SS and CF were different to those in stemflow. Throughfall DOC concentrations were higher from February to April, while relatively higher DOC concentrations in stemflow were found during September-November period.

  17. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  18. 阔叶和杉木人工林对土壤碳氮库的影响比较%Effects of broadleaf plantation and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晓华; 黄志群; 何宗明; 胡振宏; 杨靖宇; 余再鹏; 王民煌

    2013-01-01

    通过比较我国亚热带地区19年生阔叶人工林和杉木人工林土壤碳氮储量,探讨树种对土壤碳氮库的影响.结果表明:阔叶人工林0 ~40 cm土层碳储量平均为99.41Mg·hm-2,比杉木人工林增加33.1%;土壤氮储量为6.18 Mg·hm-2,比杉木人工林增加22.6%.阔叶人工林林地枯枝落叶层现存量、碳和氮储量分别是杉木人工林的1.60、1.49和1.52倍,两个树种的枯落叶生物量、碳和氮储量均有显著差异.枯枝落叶层碳氮比值与土壤碳、氮储量之间呈显著负相关.阔叶人工林细根生物量(0~80 cm)是杉木林的1.28倍,其中0~10 cm土壤层细根生物量占48.2%;阔叶人工林细根碳、氮储量均高于杉木人工林.在0~10 cm土层,细根碳储量与土壤碳储量具有显著正相关关系.阔叶树种比杉木的土壤有机碳储存能力更大.%A comparative study was conducted on the soil C and N pools in a 19-year-old broadleaf plantation and a Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation in subtropical China, aimed to understand the effects of tree species on the soil C and N pools. In the broadleaf plantation, the C and N stocks in 0-40 cm soil layer were 99.41 Mg·hm-2 and 6.18 Mg·hm-2, being 33.1 % and 22.6 % larger than those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The standing biomass and the C and N stocks of forest floor in the broadleaf plantation were 1.60, 1.49, and 1.52 times of those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. There was a significant negative relationship between the forest floor C/N ratio and the soil C and N stocks. In the broadleaf plantation, the fine root biomass in 0-80 cm soil layer was 1. 28 times of that in the Chinese fir plantation, and the fine root biomass in 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 48. 2 % of the total fine root biomass. The C and N stocks in the fine roots in the broadleaf plantation were also higher than those in the Chinese fir

  19. A Study on the Analysis Method of Density Change During Self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation%杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承祯; 洪伟; 姜志林

    2001-01-01

    采用二次正交旋转组合设计方法,建立了影响杉木自疏的海拔、坡位及林分平均胸径与杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化关系的数学模型,结果表明林分平均胸径对杉木人工林自然稀疏存在极显著影响,坡位与林分平均胸径的交互作用对自疏存在显著影响.运用遗传算法优化了模型参数,在检验模型适应性的基础上应用计算机模拟技术,分析了杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化随坡位及林分平均胸径变化的内在规律,为杉木人工林密度定量管理提供了科学基础.%Using quadratic orthogonal rotation design, this paper established a mathematical model of density change during self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, which related to the altitude, situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height. The results showed that mean diameter at breast height effected on density change for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation far significantly, and the inter-effective between situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height had significant effect on density change for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation. Then the authors optimized model's parameters by genetic algorithms, and analyzed the inner law of density change during self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation following the change of situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height using computer simulating technique. This study would provide scientific base for density management of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

  20. Litterfall production and nutrient return in different-aged Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Zhou; Addo-Danso Daniel Shalom; Pengfei Wu; Shubin Li; Yayun Jia; Xiangqing Ma

    2015-01-01

    The amounts of litter produced and nutrients returned play a fundamental role in the productivity and biogeochemical and nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems. We monitored annual litterfall production, nutrient return, and monthly dynamics over a one-year period in Chinese fir plantations aged 10, 22, and 34 years. Our objective was to quantify litterfall and nutrient return over a complete harvest rotation of Chinese fir. Annual litterfall production increased with stand age and was recorded as (3,294.6 ± 360.4), (3,733.9 ± 211.2), and (4,876.1 ± 212.8) kg ha-1 a-1 in stands aged 10, 22 and 34 years, respectively. Total litter production was significantly greater in the stand aged 34 years than in the stand aged 10 years (pN (39.32–62.04 kg ha-1 a-1)>K (15.95–22.44 kg ha-1 a-1)>P (1.30–1.63 kg ha-1 a-1). C, N, K and P input to soil was significantly lower in the 10-year-old stand in comparison to the 22-and 34-year-old stands (p<0.05). Litterfall production and nutrient return (C, N and K) followed similar patterns, and C and N input to soil was significantly related to litterfall production (needle, branch and total litterfall). C, N, P and K input to soil and total litterfall production were mainly driven by needle litterfall.

  1. Wood ash effects on plant and soil in a willow bioenergy plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byungbae Park; Yanai, Ruth D.; Sahm, James M.; Abrahamson, Lawrence P. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Lee, Don K. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Forest Sciences, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    Intensive management for biomass production results in high rates of nutrient removal by harvesting. We tested whether wood ash generated when burning wood for energy could be used to ameliorate negative soil effects of short-rotation harvesting practices. We measured the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil nutrient properties after wood ash applications in a willow plantation in central New York State and determined the influence of wood ash application on willow growth. Wood ash was applied annually for 3 years at the rates of 10 and 20 Mg ha{sup -1} to coppiced willow, Salix purpurea, clone SP3. Wood ash application significantly increased soil pH in the 0-10 cm soil layer from 6.1 in the control to 6.9 and 7.1 in the 10 and 20 Mg ha{sup -1} treated plots. Wood ash application significantly increased soil extractable phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. Potassium was the element most affected by wood ash treatment at all soil depths. Wood ash had no significant effect on nutrient concentrations of foliar, litter, and stem tissue. Wood ash did not affect either individual plant growth or plot biomass production, which declined over the course of the study; it did increase the size of stems, but this effect was balanced by a decrease in the number of stems. Applying nitrogen as well as wood ash might be required to maintain the productivity of this SRIC system. (Author)

  2. 会同杉木人工林的潜热通量特征%Characteristics of latent heat flux over Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in Huitong county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维舟; 赵仲辉; 康文星; 田大伦; 项文化; 闫文德

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of latent heat flux were determined using the data gathered from an open path eddy covariance system and an automatic weather gradient system in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Huitong county, Hunan province. The relationship between the environmental factor and latent heat flux was studied. The results show that: the latent heat flux had distinct diurnal and annual variations. In one day, when the season was spring or summer the latent heat flux fluctuated in zero value at night, increasing from 7:00 and reaching at the peak value at 14:00. When the latent heat flux reached the peak value it reduced, 21:00 reaching the night value. In autumn or winter the latent heat flux increasing from 7-30 and reached at the peak value at 12:00 and 21:00 reached the night value. In one year, the latent heat flux annual variations presented single-peak type, the latent heat flux increased from January, August reached the maximum and began to decline month by month. The latent heat flux was linearly related to the photosynthesis active radiation, was quadratic curves related to temperature, and was power function related to the saturation vapor deficit.%利用开路式涡动相关系统与自动气象梯度观测系统的观测数据,对会同杉木人工林潜热通量特征及其与环境因子的关系进行了研究.结果表明:潜热通量具有明显的日变化和年变化特征,一天中,春夏季节潜热通量值夜间在0值左右波动,早上7:00开始递增,14:00左右达到最大后逐渐下降,21:00将为夜间值.秋冬季节潜热通量早上7:30开始递增,12:00达到最大值,19:00降为夜间值.一年中,潜热通量变化特征呈单峰型,从1月份开始递增,8月份达到最大值后逐月递减.潜热通量与光合有效辐射数据之间呈线性相关关系,与温度呈二次曲线关系,与饱和差呈幂函数关系.

  3. Effect of growth on wood traits in seed-raised plantations of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pramod Pande; Laxmi Rawat

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of growth on wood ana-tomical dimensions and specific gravity of seed-raised plan-tation wood of Dalbergia sissoo with twelve trees of different diameters and similar ages. Fiber length ranged from 925 to 1,287μm, fiber-diameter was 19–23μm, wall thickness was 4.2–5.4μm, vessel-element-length was 152–188μm, vessel-element-diameter was 152–200μm, and specific gravity was 0.59–0.72. Growth parameters including tree height, diameter at breast height, net primary productivity and net ecosystem productivity were significantly and positively correlated. Growth parameters showed non-significant positive relation-ships with fiber-length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, and vessel element diameter. The trend of wood traits increased with growth. Specific gravity showed non-significant negative relationships with growth parame-ters. Although the growth rate had varied relationships with wood properties, as reported by various workers, the wood element dimensions showed no significant relationship with growth parameters and there was little effect of growth rate on wood traits in seed-raised plantation of D. sissoo.

  4. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Nocetti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

  5. 电阻应变法测定杉木弹性常数的研究%Study on Determining the Elastic Constants of Wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata by Means of Electric Resistance-Strain Gauges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵卓平; 祝山

    2001-01-01

    The elastic constants of wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata was determined and the limits of orthotropic model adopted for wood was studied. The results showed that the elastic constants of wood could be determined by means of electric resistance-strain gauges,and the constants was satisfied to the limits of orthotropic.%测试杉木的弹性常数,研究木材采用正交各向异性体模型的限制条件。结果表明,可以采用电阻应变法以单轴压缩试件测定木材弹性常数;所测木材弹性常数满足正交各向异性材料的限制条件。

  6. Study on Ground Diameter Single Entry Volume Table of Cunninghamia lanceolataPlantation%杉木人工林地径材积表编制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏杰南; 黎良财

    2011-01-01

    Based on the determination of the DBH (D13), ground diameter (D0.1). Height (H) and volume (V) of Cunning-hamia lanceolcta (Lamb.) Hook, artifical forests, the single ground diameter volume table was prepared and compared using multiple model selection V-Da1 and double volume table. The test of the two equation showed that they reached the accuracy requirements in production, therefore could be applied in forest survey and management.%根据杉木[ Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.]人工林样木的胸径D1.3地径D0.1、树高H的测定值和立木材积的计算值V,分别采用材积V-地径D0.1多模型选优法和二元材积表导算法编制一元地径材积表,并进行比较.经检验,这两种方法编制的数表均能够满足生产上的精度要求,可以作为林业调查、经营管理的工具数表.

  7. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  8. 根系去除对米老排和杉木凋落物分解的影响%Effect of Root Removal on Litter Decomposition in Plantations of Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞强; 黄志群; 何宗明; 万晓华; 余再鹏; 郑璐嘉; 肖好燕

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究米老排和杉木凋落叶分解及其对根系去除的响应,探索根系对凋落物分解的影响,从而为森林经营管理提供科学依据。【方法】以福建南平峡阳林场米老排和杉木人工林为研究对象,在各个林分中分别设置3个20 m ×20 m的试验小区,在每个试验小区各设置对照和根系去除处理。利用网袋法研究凋落叶的分解。【结果】分解16个月后,根系去除处理下米老排和杉木凋落叶的质量损失率分别为32.3%和33.4%,与对照处理(38.1%和38.7%)相比,分别降低了15.3%和13.1%;树种、处理、时间、树种与时间的交互效应对凋落叶质量损失率均有显著影响,2种凋落叶的质量损失率在分解初期(0~8个月)差异显著,分解后期(8~16个月)差异不显著;根系去除处理可显著降低2个树种凋落叶的碳氮含量和碳氮比、显著降低土壤真菌、放线菌和总 PLFA 含量,但对革兰氏阴性细菌、革兰氏阳性细菌和真细菌生物量比均无显著影响;树种与处理的交互效应对凋落叶质量损失率、碳氮比和土壤微生物群落均无显著影响。【结论】根系去除处理对凋落叶分解速率具有显著影响,但树种与处理的交互效应不显著。%[Objective]We investigated the decomposition process of leaf litter and its responses to root removal in Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations. The aim was to determine the effect of fine root removal on leaf litter decomposition.[Method]Our experimental site is located at Xiayang Forest Farm,in Nanping,Fujian,China, where a M. laosensis plantation and a C. lanceolata plantation were selected. Three 20 m × 20 m plots were established in each plantation. A treatment with root trenched and a control were established in each plot. Decomposition of leaf litter was measured by litter-bag method.[Result]The mass loss rates of M. laosensis and C. lanceolata leaf

  9. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustin [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain); Pineiro, Veronica [Centro de Apoyo Tecnologico (CACTUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-08-01

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha{sup -} {sup 1} (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem - soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. (author)

  10. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Piñeiro, Verónica; Merino, Agustín

    2007-08-01

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha(-1) (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem--soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed.

  11. Wood dimensions and value in the Austrian pine plantations in Forest Estate "Sombor"-Forest Unit "Subotica"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship and interaction between quantitative (number and dimensions of trees and value indicators in Austrian pine plantations were researched in Forest Management Unit „Subotičke Šume” (Forest Estate „Sombor” - FA „Subotica”. As the measurement of quantitative elements is more simple, their effect on wood value can be used as a rather reliable support in the value estimation of standing trees. The analysis of the research results shows that there is a strong inter-relationship of the study elements, so they can be a good foundation for the estimation of standing timber value in artificial Austrian pine plantations at the given site.

  12. Study on Fiber Morphology of Four Acacia Wood from Plantation%4种相思树种人工林木材纤维形态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清芸; 卞丽萍; 林金国

    2014-01-01

    Fiber morphology of four Acacia species wood from plantation were determined and analysed com⁃parative.The results indicated that Acacia melanoxy and Acacia Implexa wood had short-sized fiber,Acacia crassicapa and Acacia mangiun wood had medium-sized fiber.Moreover,the ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter for four Acacia species wood were all less than 1.The order of Acacia wood from plantation as a raw material for papermaking merits was A.melanoxy,A.Mangiun,A.Implexa and A.crassicapa.There was ex⁃tremely significant difference or significant difference in fiber length between different Acacia species wood. In addition,there weren’t significant differences in ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter between A.mela⁃noxy and A.implexa wood from plantation while there were extremely significant difference between others different Acacia species wood.There were extremely significant differences in every feature of fiber morpholo⁃gy between A.crassicapa and A.melanoxy,A.mangiun and A.melanoxy wood from plantation.%对4个相思树种人工林木材纤维形态特征进行测定和比较分析,结果表明:黑木相思和灰木相思的木材纤维属于短纤维,厚荚相思和马占相思的木材纤维属于中等纤维,4种相思木材壁腔比均小于1。相思树种人工林木材作为造纸原料的优劣顺序为:厚荚相思、马占相思、黑木相思和灰木相思。4个相思树种人工林木材纤维长度差异均达显著或极显著水平;黑木相思与灰木相思人工林木材纤维壁腔比差异不显著,其余相思树种差异极显著;厚荚相思与灰木相思、马占相思与灰木相思木材人工林木材纤维各形态特征均差异极显著。

  13. Study on Chemical Components of Alkaline Nitrobenzene Oxidation from Plantation Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical components and the chemical structure of lignin of Chinese fir and Poplar I-214 from plantationforest. The results revealed that the contents ofchemical component in heart wood and sapwood were almost the same except ethanol-benzene extract both in Chinese fir and in Poplar I-214, The contents of ash, holocellulose, α -cellulose, pentosan, ethanol-benzene extract and cold-water extract in Poplar I-214 were higher than that in Chinesefir, The content of lignin in Poplar...

  14. Variation Within Trees of Wood Anatomical Properties in Chinese-Fir Plantation and Their Relationship Modeling Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the variation pattern of early- and latewood tracheid morphological parameters along tree (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) height, including length and width, wall thickness, tissue proportion, cell wall percentage, width of growth rings, and on the relationship among them are conducted. The results indicate an initially rapid and then gentle increase of tracheid length and width, thickness of the radial wall and tangential wall of tracheid, area percentage of tracheid from pi...

  15. High Risk Posture on Motor-Manual Short Wood Logging System in Acacia mangium Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual logging has been considered as the most dominant logging system in Java Island, Indonesia. The system-which consisted of felling, delimbing, bucking, hauling, and transporting activities- involves a combination of stress factors e.q. difficult work postures, generation of force, and lifting techniques. In the other hand, combination of the three is well associated with high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs, including musculoskeletal disorders. This research aimed to assess difficult work posture on felling, delimbing, bucking, and manually short wood hauling by employing rapid entire body assessment (REBA technique and muscular pain scoring based on the worker's perceive. It was revealed that felling and manual hauling were scored 4 in the REBA action level, indicated very high MSIs risk level, and categorized as “necessary now” for an injury risk preventive action. The workers' pain scoring indicated that low back (spine in general disorders resulting in low back pain has been considered to be the one of the leading safety issues in the felling and manual hauling. Regardless to complex mechanism of how the personal risk and environmental factors associated with manual material handling injuries, job-related factors approach should be underlined in the MSIs prevention initiative in motor-manual logging. Keywords: motor-manual logging, difficult work posture, REBA, MSIs, low back pain

  16. Study on High Temperature Heat Treatment of Plantation Eucalypt Wood%速生人工林桉树木材高温热处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫国富; 韦春义; 曾俊钦; 韦文榜

    2011-01-01

    广西速生人工林桉树资源丰富,但其木材极易端裂、尺寸稳定性和耐久性差.为了提高其使用范围和产品附加值,笔者采用单因素试验方法对其进行高温热处理研究.主要探讨了热处理工艺对速生桉木材尺寸稳定性和化学基团的影响.试验结果表明:热处理温度在165~210℃,热处理时间在1~4h范围内.随着处理温度和时间的延长,木材平衡含水率逐渐降低,从木材的FTIR图可知,羟基吸收峰的强度明显降低,羰基吸收峰的强度略呈降低趋势;经210℃处理的试件的平衡含水率比未处理的降低了43.12%,方差分析表明,热处理温度对平衡含水率影响更显著.高温热处理对速生人工林桉树木材的改性效果显著,能够大大提高其尺寸稳定性.%Cuangxi has abundant resources plantation eucalypt wood, but it has lots of disadvantages such as split, dimension stability and durability poor. To enhance its ranges of use and product added value, so the author made a study on high temperature heat treatment of it by the single factor method. The characteristics of FTIR and the effect of temperature and time of heat treated on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of heat-treated wood (plantation eucalypt) had been researched in this paper. The results indicated that with the heat treated temperature and time increased, the EMC of wood decreased and the intensity of absorption peak of hydroxyl decreased significantly in heat treated temperature 165-210t and time in 1-4 h range; treated wood in 210t! Compared with EMC of untreated wood, that was decreased by 43.12%. Party's analysis showed that heat temperature affected to EMC even more notable. The results showed that decrease significantly used high temperature heat treatment to improve characteristics of plantation eucalypt wood and could greatly enhance the dimension stability.

  17. Microclimate and Its Formation Mechanism in Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. Plantation Ecosystems in the Subtropical Zone of China%中国亚热带杉木人工林生态系统的小气候及其形成机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张合平; 田大伦; 康文星; 艾顺儒

    2001-01-01

    Microclimate characteristics and related environmental energy mechanisms were examined based on the long-term located observations in the mature, thinned and young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation ecosys tems in western Hunan Province, China. The results show that the mature plantation ecosystem can improve the microclimate significantly by regulating the amount and spatial distribution of environmental energy, which delin eates the pattern of the microclimate in forest ecosystems in the process of ecological restoration. Compared with the young plantation, the mature plantation ecosystem decreased annual mean air temperature by 0.4 °C. The max imum decrease in monthly mean air temperature was 2.3 ~C. The mature plantation ecosystem decreased annual mean ground temperature by 1.2 °C with a maximum decrease in monthly mean ground temperature of 2.3 °C. Ma inly due to the dense canopy, the mature forest ecosystem regulates the distribution of radiation energy, and ex penditure ratios of heat budget and principal energy components to decrease temperature or make it even.%该文通过位于湖南西部的森林生态系统研究站的长期定位观测,研究了杉木人工林成熟林、间伐林和幼林的小气候特征,在分析人工林生态系统环境能量的基础上,探讨其小气候的形成机制,揭示了人工林生态系统在生态恢复后的小气候变化规律.多年的小气候观测表明,与杉木幼林比较,杉木成熟林生态系统可将年平均降低0.4℃,月平均气温最大可降低2.3℃;可降低年平均地表温度1.2℃,月地表平均温度最大可降低2.3℃;可增加年蒸发散100mm以上.人工林生态系统环境能量数据分析表明,主要通过林冠层调节环境能量数值和分布来改善系统的小气候条件,即通过影响潜热、乱流交换热、位能、动能等能量要素,降低系统的温度及其变幅.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plantation to the Proceeded Wood Products via State Timber Corporation Depots for Selected Tree Species using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DKL Senadheera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA provides a methodological framework for evaluating environmental performance over the life cycle of a product, process, or an activity. In Sri Lanka, majority of timber for wood based industries comes from homegardens and Government owned forest plantations. State Timber Corporation (STC is the authoritative body for timber harvesting in state owned forest plantations. This LCA study was carried out to calculate Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions of the STC timber movements from the plantation to the finished product. The study concentrated on teak, eucalypt and mahogany species as they represented fast moving commercial timber of high significance. Assessment boundary was from the harvesting to the product. Updated emission factors were used to calculate the CO2 eq units. When considering the emissions during the process, the highest was recorded in the sawmilling process (48% from sawing, 9% from surfacing and 9% from drying. The transportation accounted for 31.25% of emissions while harvesting contributed to 6%. Other indirect emissions accounted for 2.75%.

  19. Natural thinning and structural patterns of intermediate cutting intensity in a Cunninghamia lanceolata stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuisong ZHANG; Changfa CHEN; Shouqing HE; Kexuan WU; Yousheng ZHAN

    2008-01-01

    In the intermediate cutting intensity experi-ment of a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation for 20 years, the changing pattern of natural thinning in these stands, with different intermediate cutting intensities, was studied. The relationship between the number of trees removed by natural thinning and stand density and site conditions was explained. The mathematical equation density management maps was tested and the relationship of diameter, height and canopy structure of stands with different intermediate cutting intensities are proposed. Our study of natural thinning in these stands indicates that the starting and peak periods of natural thinning in the check and slightly thinned plots were both early. The amount of thinned wood was large and the course of thin-ning proceeded continuously. The three levels of thinning: the slight thinning period, the intensive thinning period and the continued thinning period could be divided on the basis of the amount of thinned wood. Natural thinning would be a very long process without artificial interfer-ence. The starting and peak periods of thinning in the middle and strong intermediate felling are both late and present intermittence. Their thinning stages were not clearly evident. Through our studies, we also discovered that stand density and site conditions had important effects on the number of dead and dying trees, but that density was more important than site conditions. By way of tests, the relative error of the mathematical equation of natural thinning lines of C. lanceolata stand density man-agement maps was 3.91% and the precision was relatively high. The practical test results of the stands, given differ-ent intermediate cutting intensities and different site indi-ces, show that the relative error of the check plots was 5.23%, while the relative errors of the other tested items were all < 5%, well within the allowable experimental error. The mathematical equation was comparatively practical. The study demonstrated

  20. 黑碳添加对杉木人工林土壤微生物量碳氮的影响%Effects of Black Carbon Application on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in the Plantation of Cunninghamia Lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 高人; 尹云锋; 杨玉盛; 马红亮; 李淑香

    2011-01-01

    As a common soil component, black carbon (BC) plays an important role in forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, few studies on effects of BC application on soil microbial biomass car- bon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in forest soils have been conducted. BC produced from the pyrolysis of branch and leaf litters of Cunninghamia lanceolata at 350 ℃ in capped muffle furnace for 2 h was incorporated into test soil at rates of 0% (CO), 1% (C1) and 5% (C5) based on dried soil mass, and incubated for 28 days at 25 ℃. The results showed that the MBC decreased quickly under different treatments at the early stage of incubation, but increased steadily in later phase. The MBN increased gradually with incubation duration under the higher BC-amended treatments, but the pattern was signif- icantly different for the unamended soil, and tended to decrease throughout the experiment. Higher ap- plication levels provided further enhancement of MBC and MBN with the order as C5 〉 C1 〉 C0. In ad- dition, DOC and DON decreased with BC application and incubation duration.%向杉木人工林土壤中分别添加不同用量黑碳,以0%(C0)、1%(C1)和5%(C5)添加量(质量分数)作为不同处理,通过28d室内培养实验,研究了黑碳添加对土壤微生物量碳(ymc)和微生物量氮(MBN)的影响.结果表明,各处理土攘MBC含量变化趋势是前期急剧减少,后期增加,并趋于稳定;黑碳添加在一定程度上缓解了土壤MBN含量的减少,并随着黑碳添加量的增加,土壤MBN含量呈现增加的趋势.整个培养过程中,除第1d外,黑碳添加处理的土壤MBC和MBN含量始终高于对照处理,C5〉C1〉CO.同时,土壤可溶性碳(DOC)和可溶性氮(DON)含量也因黑碳的添加而呈现减少的趋势.

  1. Micropropagation of PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA (Oliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kher Mafatlal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata is an important medicinal plant of Asteraceae family known for its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity. A protocol was established for micropropagation of P. lanceolata using nodal explants. Nodal explants were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (1962 - MS medium supple–mented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetin (Kin, thidiazuron (TDZ and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg·dm-3. The highest multiplication rate was obtained for nodal explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg·dm-3 thidiazuron (TDZ. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salt concentration of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm-3 IBA.

  2. 杉木人工林林窗特征因子与闽楠幼林生长关系的研究%Research on the Relationship Between Gap Characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations and the Growth of Gap Regeneration Phoebe bournei Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧建德

    2014-01-01

    通过对福建明溪杉木人工林中16个林冠的林窗长轴和短轴及人工植苗3年生闽楠的保存率、地径和树高进行调查,分析林窗特征对闽楠植苗更新的影响。结果表明,影响闽楠幼林保存率和树高的林窗特征因子的主次排序为开阔度>短轴>长轴>面积;影响闽楠地径生长因子的主次顺序为开敝度>短轴>面积>长轴。林窗短轴、长轴、面积与开阔度等林窗特征因子与闽楠保存率、树高与地径生长均存在显著性的开口向下的二次抛物线方程的线性关系。综合闽楠幼林保存率、树高和地径生长表现,林窗短轴的理想的取值范围为5.10~6.26 m,合理取值范围为1.23~10.13 m;林窗长轴的理想的取值范围为7.37~7.88 m,合理取值范围为3.44~11.81 m;林窗面积的理想的取值范围为15.0~35.6 m2,合理取值范围为0~88.38 m2;林窗开阔度的理想的取值范围为0.429~0.507,合理取值范围为0.160~0.776。%16 canopy gaps in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations forest and preserving rate,ground diameter, and tree height of 3-year old Phoebe bournei.plantation in mingxi,Fujian Province was investigated,and analyzed the effects of gap characteristics on planting regeration.The results showed that,in the order of affect on preserva-tion rate and height growth of P.bournei.seedlings,the order of gap characteristics factors was canopy openness>gaps minor axis>gaps long axis >gap size.In order of affect on seedlings ground diameter,it was canopy open-ness>gaps minor axis>gap size >gaps long axis.There was a significant downward opening quadric parabolic relationship between canopy openness,gaps minor axis,gaps long axis,gap size and seedlings preservation rate, height,ground diameter.Comprehensive preservation rate,tree height and diameter growth performance,ideal gaps minor axis was range of 5.10 -6.26 m,reasonable ranges was of 1.23-10.13 m.Ideal gaps long axis was

  3. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    . This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  4. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

  5. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  6. Mechanical Properties Study on High Temperature Heat Treatment of Plantation Eucalypt Wood%速生人工林桉树木材高温热处理力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫国富; 黄圣霞

    2012-01-01

    Guangxi has abundant resources plantation eucalypt wood, high temperature heat treatment can improve its disadvantages such as split, dimension stability and durability poor; but reduce it mechanical properties. So the author made a study on mechanical properties of high temperature heat treatment wood by the single factor method. The effect of temperature of heat treated on the mechanical properties heat-treated wood (plantation eucalypt) had been researched. The results indicated that with the heat treated temperature increased, the MOR and MOE of wood decreased significantly in heat treated temperature 165-210X1 range; treated wood in 220t compared with MOR and MOE of untreated wood, that separate was decreased by 43.18% and 35.94%. The results showed that decrease significantly used high temperature heat treatment to improve characteristics of plantation eucalypt wood, but mechanical properties decreased.%广西速生人工林桉树资源丰富,对其进行高温热处理能够改善其极易端裂、尺寸稳定性和耐久性差等缺陷;同时,其力学性能受到一定影响.为此,采用单因素试验方法对高温热处理桉树木材的力学性能进行研究.主要探讨了热处理温度对速生桉树木材力学性能的影响.结果表明:热处理温度在180~230℃范围内,随着热处理温度的升高,木材的静曲强度、弹性模量随之降低,经220℃处理的桉木试件的静曲强度(MOR)、弹性模量(MOE)分别比未处理的降低了43.18%和35.94%.高温热处理对速生人工林桉树木材的改性效果显著,同时其力学性能有所降低.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOOD STRUCTURES AND ITS WOODDYEING EFFECTS OF POPULUS TOMENTOSA FROM PLANTATION%人工林毛白杨木材解剖构造与染色效果相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新芳; 鲍甫成

    2001-01-01

    To look for the relationship between wood structures a nd wood dyeing effects is a more important research field developed in recent ye ars. Eleven parameters of wood structure and their wood dyeing effects for 34 pi eces of sample panel from 5 trees of Chinese white poplar from plantation were e xamined based on the data to carry on the multiple regression analysis. The regr ession results show that each variable of wood dyeing effects has higher relatio nship with the wood structures, and the multiple correlation coefficients betwee n each variable of wood effects and wood structures are 0.4836~0.7998; the main factors of wood structures influencing wood dyeing of Chinese white poplar are proportion of wood ray, proportion of vessel and proportion of wood fiber accord ing to comparing the standardized regression coefficients of multiple regression equation.%为探讨木材构造和木材染色效果之间的相关性变 化规律,本研究测定了5株34块人工林毛白杨的解剖构造及其木材染色效果,对二者的相关 性进行了多元回归分析。结果表明,毛白杨木材的染色效果与解剖因子之间有一定的相关关 系,各染色效果指标与木材解剖因子间的复相关系数在0.4836~0.7998之间。采用比较多 元回归分析标准回归系数的方法,确定出影响毛白杨木材染色效果的主要解剖因子为导管比 量、木纤维比量和木射线比量等因子。

  8. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  9. 模拟氮沉降对杉木林土壤氮循环相关微生物的影响%Response of the N-Cycling Associated Soil Microorganism to Simulated N Deposition in a Plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞; 焦如珍; 董玉红; 孙启武; 周新华; 李峰卿

    2015-01-01

    层的固氮菌数量大于10~20 cm土层,0~60 kg·hm -2 a -1铵态氮和0~80 kg·hm -2 a -1硝态氮均可促进固氮菌的生长。亚硝酸细菌在2种氮形态处理时的变化趋势相反,低铵态氮处理可促进亚硝酸细菌的生长,低硝态氮处理抑制其生长。氮形态对硝酸细菌数量影响不显著,低氮处理促进硝酸细菌数量的增长,而中氮处理开始出现抑制作用。氮沉降量对反硝化细菌影响不显著。%Objective]The number of microorganism in soil is an important index in determining the change of the biochemical function of soil nitrogen cycle. While the current studies mostly focus on the microbial flora,the research on nitrogen cycling associated microorganisms is little. In this paper,the influence of deposition amount of short-term nitrogen deposition in different nitrogen forms on soil culturable azotobacter, nitric acid bacteria, nitrous acid bacteria and denitrifying bacteria is studied by a field simulation experiment. The change trend at early stage in response to the N-deposition is an important knowledge for forest nitrogen regulation and environmental management,and this study would provide reference for the further research on effects of nitrogen deposition on Chinese fir plantation ecosystem.[Method]In May 2013,30 plots of 1 m × 1 m were established in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation to simulate nitrogen loadings at 5 levels: N0,N1,N2,N3,and N4 with 0,20,40,60 and 80 kg·hm - 2 a - 1 ,respectively. Soil samples were collected in 0 -10 cm and 10 -20 cm soil layers in June,August and October 2013,respectively. The dilution plate counting method was used to determine the amount of nitrogen fixing bacteria,and the MPN-Griess colorimetry for measuring nitrate and nitrite bacteria,and the phenol two sulfonyl colorimetric method for denitrifying bacteria ( anaerobic) .[Result]The results showed: the amount of azotobacter in the 0-10 cm soil layer was more than in 10 -20 cm. Along with the

  10. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  11. Study on Fiber Morphology and Chemical Composition of Parakmeria lotungensis Wood from Plantation%乐东拟单性木兰人工林木材纤维形态和化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林同龙

    2012-01-01

    对福建南平26年生乐东拟单性木兰人工林木材纤维形态和化学成分进行测定和分析,揭示乐东拟单性木兰木材纤维形态和化学成分的特征及其纤维形态随轮龄的变化规律.研究结果表明,乐东拟单性木兰木材可作为林产工业制浆造纸、纤维板生产等的纤维材料使用.%Fiber morphology and chemical composition of Parakmeria lotungensis wood from 26-year-old plantations in Northern Fujian Province were determined and analyzed. The features, chemical composition and the law of change fiber morphology with age were proposed. The results showed Parakmeria lotungensis wood can be used as fiber material in forest products industry such as pulping, papermaking and fiber-board production.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-07-07

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the "basal" position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  13. 不同生境、初植密度及林龄木荷人工林生长、材性变异及林分分化%Variation in Growth and Wood Property and the Structure Differentiation of Schima superba Plantation with Different Sites,Stand Densities and Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚秀丽; 王艺; 金国庆; 范辉华; 周志春

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the growth,wood basic density,diameter distribution and structure stability of Schima superba plantation were investigated in 12 sample plots with different biotopes,operating measures and ages in Nanping and Sanming city of Fujian province. Results showed that,the average tree height,diameter at breast height ( DBH ) and individual volume of stand in shady slope were significantly larger than that of plantation in sunny slope; The tree growth, especially in DBH and individual volume of stand,in lowerslope was obviously greater than that in the middleslope and the upperslope; The average tree height of the stand increased with initial planting density; However,DBH and individual volume displayed converse trend with increase of planting density; Growth of the plantation gradually increased with stand age; Average individual volume of trees at 29 age was over 4 times greater than of trees at 13 age,and the 46-year-old stand still grew fast. There were no significant differences in wood basic density between different aspects of slope;However,the wood basic density in upperslope was significantly greater than that in middleslope and lowerslope;The wood basic density was relatively greater when the initial spacing was set at 1 667 plants per hectare; The greater or less stand density significantly reduced the wood basic density and hence wood properties; Wood basic density progressively reduced with the forest age and the varied pattern met with the variation type of Pashin Ⅲ. Differentiation in height and diameter growth and wood basic density of the plantations with the same age in the same direction and position of slope was relatively small. But the initial stand density obviously affected growth. The smaller the initial planting density the greater the variation in diameter was. The diameter distribution of S. superba plantation in different habitats ( slope,position of slope) ,with forest management measures ( initial stem-numbers) and ages was

  14. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Eduardo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  15. Effect of ACQ-D Treatment on the Surface Free Energy of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the contact angles of three different reference liquids (including distilled water, diiodomethane, and formamide) and PF resin on the surfaces of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) samples untreated or treated with different concentrations of ACQ-D (ammoniacal copper quat Type D) solutions were measured. Then, the surface free energy was calculated by two approaches: acid-base approach and geometric mean approach. ACQ-D treatment caused higher contact angles and lower surface free energies at a retention level corresponding to the commodity treated wood products. When wood was treated with much higher concentrations of ACQ-D, the total surface free energy of wood would be higher than the untreated control. Acid-base/polar components related with the hydrogen bonding state in wood were considered to be responsible for the observed changes according to the applied approaches. The hydrophobic properties and also higher contact angles of PF resin drop on wood surfaces after ACQ-D treatment at a reasonable retention level confirms the changes on surface free energy.

  16. 干燥处理对速生材单板表面特性的影响%Influences of drying process on surface properties of plantation wood veneers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐信武; 孙涛; 杨刚; 周坤

    2012-01-01

    采用气流和热板两种方法对杨木和桉木两种速生材单板进行干燥处理,温度设5水平(气流干燥:135、165、195、225和250℃;热板干燥:100、135、165、195和225℃),时间取3、7和10 min。分别采用CIE L*a*b*系统和滴液法分析了处理前后单板颜色及表面润湿角的变化,并测试了不同热处理条件下单板的胶合强度。试验结果表明:热处理改变了单板颜色在a*-b*二维色度空间的分布位置;随着干燥温度的提高和(或)时间的延长,单板表面明度L*和胶合强度减小、而总色差ΔE*和润湿角提高。因此,干燥热处理可显著调控木材的表面性能。%Air-circulation drying and hot-pressing drying were applied to heat poplar and eucalyptus veneers.The temperature of circulation air was 135,165,195,225 and 250 ℃,while hot-platen temperature was 100,135,165,195 and 225 ℃.Drying time was 3,7 and 10 min.Color change and wetting angles were analyzed by the CIE L*a*b* system and liquid droplet method,respectively.As well,the bond strength of heated wood veneers was tested.The results show that heating process changed the color distribution of two plantation wood veneers in the a*-b* plane;higher heating temperature and/or longer time led to lower L* value and bond strength,while higher ΔE* and wetting angles.Hence,heating process can significantly adjust the surface properties of wood.

  17. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Functional Diversities in a Chinese Fir Plantation%模拟氮沉降对杉木人工林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)土壤酶活性及微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁颖红; 樊后保; 刘文飞; 黄荣珍; 沈芳芳; 胡锋; 李辉信

    2013-01-01

    在杉木人工林中开展模拟氮沉降试验,设计N0(对照)、N1(N 60 kg/(hm2·a))、N2(N 120 kg/(hm2·a))和N3(N 240 kg/(hm2·a))等4个氮沉降水平.通过连续7年的处理后,研究了外加氮源对土壤酶活性及群落功能多样性的影响.相同氮沉降处理下,参与土壤碳循环的6种主要酶(蔗糖酶、纤维素酶、淀粉酶、β-葡糖苷酶、多酚氧化酶、过氧化物酶)活性、土壤微生物群落碳源利用能力和多样性指数与均匀度指数均随土层加深而降低.氮沉降对纤维素酶和多酚氧化酶具有促进作用,而对淀粉酶和过氧化物酶表现出一定的抑制作用;中-低氮沉降(N1、N2)对蔗糖酶无影响,而对β-葡糖苷酶具有促进作用,高氮沉降(N3)促进了蔗糖酶活性,但抑制了β-葡糖苷酶活性.各土层中,低氮处理(N1)促进了微生物群落碳源利用能力和多样性指数与均匀度指数的增加,而中-高氮处理(N2、N3)则呈抑制作用.主成分分析表明,土壤微生物群落利用的主要碳源为碳水化合物和羧酸,不同氮沉降处理碳源利用类型存在差异.因此,氮沉降促进了表层土壤纤维素酶、多酚氧化酶和蔗糖酶的活性,但在一定程度上抑制了淀粉酶、过氧化物酶和β-葡糖苷酶活性;氮沉降增加改变了杉木人工林土壤微生物群落的功能多样性.%This study evaluated the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities and microbial community functional diversities (sole-source carbon utilization, SCU) in a Chinese fir plantation subject to simulated nitrogen deposition for seven years at Shaxian State Forest Farm of Fujian Province, China. Nitrogen loadings were designed at 4 levels as NO (CK), N1, N2 and N3 at the doses of 0, 60, 120 and 240 kg/(hm2·a)N, respectively. Each treatment comprised 3 replicate plots of 20 m×20 m which were sprayed with CO(NH2)2 solutions on the forest floor at the beginning of each month, lasting from January 2004 to

  18. New CMS types in Plantago lanceolata and their relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Mateman, A.C.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mitochondrial variation in Plantago lanceolata was used to detect new CMS types. Directional reciprocal crosses were made between plants which differed in mtDNA restriction patterns. Differential segregation of male steriles in reciprocal crosses indicated that the parents differed in CMS type. MtDN

  19. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also......C/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest...

  20. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Guangyi

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H, diameter at breast height (DBH, and aboveground height (h to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  1. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  2. Effect of Clear Cutting Clearances on Soil Physicochemical Properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stand%杉木采伐迹地清理方式对土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秀珍

    2015-01-01

    Soil fertility of Cunninghamia lanceolata in clearing cutting and controlled burning land were studied. Result shows that the soil bulk density in controlled burning land is 13.5% higher than that in C.lanceolata planta-tion,non-controlled burning land is 5.9% higher than that in C.lanceolata plantation;differences of non-capillary porosity with different treatments are significant,non-capillary porosity of burning slash ,which is the most least,is 105.45% smaller than that of C.lanceolata;noncapillary porosity of non burning slash is 37.1% than that of C. lanceolata ;acid of soil was reduced after C.lanceolata being harvested;organic matter also decreased significantly, organic matter of non-controlled burning land is 29.1% lower than that in C.lanceolata plantation,organic matter in burning area is 1 1 9.22% lower than that in C.lanceolata;total N content in non-controlled burning land and controlled burning land is decreased by 23.07%,33.33%,respectively than that in C.lanceolata plantation;the total P content decreased by 64.1 6%,76.1 9%,the total K content decreased by 10.86%,32.74%;the content of N for non-controlled burning land was 22.69% lower than that in C.lanceolata plantation,the content of N for controlled burning land was 34.05% lower than that in C.lanceolata forest;after C.lanceolata being harvested, the content of available P & K in non-controlled burning land decreased by 1 5.43%,36.79% than that in C.lan-ceolata plantation;the content of available P & K decreased by 53.27%,71.32% than that in C.lanceolata planta-tion.%研究了杉木林采伐迹地及采伐后的炼山迹地的土壤肥力。结果表明:炼山迹地土壤容重最大,比杉木林地高13.5%,非炼山迹地比杉木林地高5.9%;不同处理非毛管孔隙差异显著,炼山迹地非毛管孔隙最小,比杉木林小105.45%,非炼山迹地非毛管孔隙比杉木林小37.1%;杉木采伐后,酸性降低;有机质也明显下降,

  3. Occurrence of a black mildew in Santalum album plantation at Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anakulam sub-unit of the Trivandrum Division of the Kerala Forest Development Corporation has planted 7.84 ha of sandal wood trees in Block V, including the plantation of 5200 plants in the year 2010 and 3000 plants during the year 2011 at a spacing of 3x3m. This area is located at an altitude of 300m. The entire sandal wood plantation is being affected with a black mildew fungus, identified as Asterina congesta.

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  5. Advances In the Application of NMR in the Modification of Plantation Wood%人工林木材改性中核磁共振波谱的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫国富

    2012-01-01

    阐述了核磁共振技术的基本原理;着重论述了核磁共振波谱在木材热处理、木材乙酰化、酯化、醚化及在木材纤维素、半纤维素和木素等木材改性方面的应用.%The paper described the basic principles of NMR technique, and then focused on its application in various aspects, including the heat treatment of woods, the acetylation, esterification and elherification of woods, and modification of wood fibrin, hemicellulose and lignin.

  6. Properties of Wood/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Wenhua; ZHAO Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic-MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and MMT, i.e. WMNC, were prepared via nano intercalation compounding, some properties of WMNC were analyzed. Results show that, compared with Chinese fir wood and its PF-impreg, WMNC has lower humidity and water absorption, better dimension stability, higher longitudinal compressive strength, abrasive resistance, fire-resistance, and water-leaching resistance with a very low mass ratio about 3% of MMT. The nano intercalation compounding of wood and exfoliated MMT nanolamellae is very promising. More studies should be carried out to fully reveal the nanosize effects and the special properties of WMNC.

  7. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; José Carlos de Deus Jr; Mario Tomazello Filho; Franciane Andrade de Pádua; Francine Neves Calil; Jean Paul Laclau

    2014-01-01

    The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing) fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month). Fifteen (15) 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment), cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m) were taken for ...

  8. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  9. Direct and correlated responses to selection on iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) produces two costly terpenoid secondary plant compounds, the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol. We performed an artificial selection experiment to investigate direct and correlated responses to selection on the constitutive level of iridoid glycosides

  10. Changes in Soil Carbon Pools Induced by Substitution of Plantation for Native Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QIUFANG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Changes in soil carbon pools under Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and bamboo (Phyllostachyspubescens) plantations substituted for a native forest ( Quereus acutissima, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Cas-tanopsis sclerophylla, Platycarya strobilacea, Lithocarpus glaber) were studied on the hills with acid parentrock and soils classified as red soils (Ferrisols) in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province of east China. It was foundthat total soil organic carbon (TSOC), easily oxidisable carbon (EOC) and water-soluble organic carbon(WSOC) under bamboo plantation were increased, but microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was decreased. Onthe contrary, Chinese fir induced declines of all fractions of C including TSOC, EOC, WSOC and MBC.The percentages of the active fractions of soil C (EOC and WSOC) were increased in the plantations ascompared to the native broad-leaved forest, but proportions of soil organic C as MBC were decreased. Itcould be concluded that bamboo plantation had a great ability of not only fixing C but also accelerating soilC pool cycle, improving nutrient and microorganism activity; therefore, it is a good ecosystem and could berecommended for wide development. Chinese fir would shrink the soil C pool and deteriorate soil biologicalfertility, so it did not benefit CO2 fixing and land sustainable utilization.

  11. Technology Aspect and Feasibility Analysis of Sugarcane Slash Management on dry land sugarcane Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sugar cane plantation have the potential to produce organic fertilizers such as compost from organic waste litter cane. Based on research conducted by Toharisman (1991), litter weight of harvested sugar cane reach 20-25 tons/ha. Litter is made up of the wood on the leaves, shoots, and sugarcane are not transported to the factory. Untapped potential by sugar cane plantations in an effort to increase sugar production. It is seen by still doing the burning litter after several d...

  12. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  13. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  14. Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Role of tropical industrial plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabas, M. [Ballarpur Industries Ltd., New Delhi (India); Bhatia, S. [Society for Environmental Education and Research, SEER, New Delhi (India)

    1996-08-01

    Compared to the temperate zone, carbon sequestration by trees is much faster in the tropical belt due to favorable climatic conditions. However net sequestration in tropics is much less than actual CO{sub 2} assimilation as bulk of wood produced is primarily consumed as fuel. On the other hand, the use of wood for making durable products like paper, pulp, veneer, etc. does not return the absorbed CO{sub 2} back to the atmosphere immediately. Due to abundant availability of wood as an industrial raw material in the temperate belt, wood-based manufacturing industry is largely concentrated in the temperate region, mainly western Europe, Scandinavia and North America. Despite excellent conditions for tree growth and presence of vast tracts of significantly underutilized land, Asia, Africa and Latin America are net importers of wood products. The demand for these products is projected to rise at a significantly higher rate in the immediate future and beyond, due to a variety of reasons. Industrial plantations in the tropics can not only make developing countries emerge as the new manufacturing base to meet the global demand for wood-based products, they can prove to be efficient and economically viable means to bring about a net reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. However, this will require a reorientation of land-use policies as well as policies governing production of wood as a raw material, in order to stimulate the required level of investment in this sector. 27 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  15. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  16. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Tamayama, Y; Nishibe, S

    1995-10-01

    The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

  17. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  18. Selection of Large-Sized Cunninghamia lanceolata Superior Trees and Variation Analysis on the Major Economic Traits%杉木大径材优树选择与主要经济性状变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会全; 梁瑞友; 胡德活; 韦如萍; 王润辉; 晏姝

    2012-01-01

    以胸径为选择指标,对杉木初级种子园23年生子代林大径材优树(胸径≥26 cm)进行选择,共有38个优良单株入选,结果表明:优树胸径现实增益值均超过56%;树高、胸径、单株材积、树皮比率、木材基本密度和木材吸水性等主要经济性状在优树间变异较为广泛,变异系数在10%以上;树高、胸径、单株材积、木材吸水性间呈正相关关系,且达显著或极显著水平,而树皮比率与胸径及单株材积间、木材基本密度与各生长性状及木材吸水性间则为负相关关系,达显著或极显著水平.对大径材优树有效材积(去皮后单株材积)-木材基本密度类型作初步划分发现,共17株优树有效材积值大于优树群体均值,其中优树S14、S18 、S22、S25木材基本密度大于优树群体均值.%Taking DBH as selection index, 38 superior Cunninghamia lanceolata individuals ( DBH ≥ 26cm) were selected from 23yr old progeny plantation inside the primary seed orchard. The realized-gain of DBH of all the superior individuals was all over 56%. Further analysis revealed that the tested economic traits including height, DBH, standing volume, bark ratio ( BR) , wood basic density ( DEN) and wood hygroscopicity ( WH) varied greatly among the superior trees, and the variation coefficient was over 10%. It was also found that the height, DBH, volume, and WH were positively correlated to each other significantly or extremely significantly ( significance <0. 05 or 0. 01) among the superior trees, while there were significant or extremely significant negative correlations between BR and DBH, standing volume, between DEN and WH and each growth index. According to the classification results of the superior trees in VB (volume without bark) and DEN, 17 individuals were identified to have a higher level of VB than that of the mean value of the superior trees population (PM ) , and the DEN value of superior S14 , S18, S22, S25 trees displayed

  19. Antibacterial compounds from the root of the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Carissa lanceolata R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Dhanushka S; Locher, Cornelia; Longmore, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    The conkerberry, Carissa lanceolata R.Br. (Apocynaceae), is commonly used by many indigenous Australian communities across Northern Australia for the treatment of a variety of conditions such as chest pain, toothache, colds and flu. Indigenous uses of this plant strongly argue for an antibacterial bioactivity. The aim is to identify antibacterial compounds from root material of C. lanceolata, therefore confirming the indigenous use of the plant. Antibacterial activity was examined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using a micro broth dilution technique. Three compounds demonstrating considerable activity were isolated. The volatile phenolic compound 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and the lignan carinol both were reported for the first time from C. lanceolata, whereas this is the second account of the occurrence of carissone. All three compounds showed activity, with 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and carinol having a minimum inhibitory concentration of plant.

  20. The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood ...

  1. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  2. Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important sou

  3. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

    2003-01-01

    The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

  4. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  5. 不同间伐强度对杉木人工林林分生长的影响%Effects of intermediate cutting intensities on growth of planted Cunninghamia lanceolata forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙忠于; 周开德; 王华东

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the effect of different thinning intensities on the growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata planta-tions ,four thinning intensities (20%,30%,40%,50%)in Liuyang district as the object,an investigation was conducted on the DBH and tree height.The results showed that the DBH of 40%thinning intensity was significantly higher than other groups.There was no difference in the tree height of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations among four thinning intensities and CK plots.For what it was worth,analysis suggested that adopting the thinning intensity of 40%has obrious growth and suitable to the local development.%为探明不同间伐强度对杉木林生长的影响,以浏阳地区4种间伐强度(20%,30%,40%和50%)下的杉木人工林为对象,样地内每木标尺,连续3年测量林木胸径和树高,对比分析不同间伐强度下平均胸径和树高变化。结果表明:不同间伐强度对杉木人工林胸径连年生长量的影响差异显著,当间伐强度为40%时,可促进胸径连续性增长,并合理控制树体高度;不同间伐强度之间树高的差异均不显著。从经济效益分析,间伐强度40%的整体增长趋势较明显,具有连续性,适合当地采用。

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in growth habit in Plantago lanceolata: how tight is a suite of correlated characters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Hinsberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The growth habit of the rosette plant Plantago lanceolata is highly variable, and many vegetative and reproductive traits co-vary. At one end of the range plants have relatively few but long and erect leaves, form few daughter rosettes, and produce a limited number of large spikes, with relatively h

  7. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  9. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  10. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  11. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  12. Dynamics of soil nutrients in larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Deren; Chen Jinglian

    1999-01-01

    The annual dynamic changes of soil nutrients were measured in pure larch plantation and in mixed larch plantation in the arboretum of Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science, Huhehaote. The results showed that soil nutrients in pure larch plantations changed rapidly in July and August. The variation of soil nutrients is more stable in mixed larch plantation. Compared with the pure larch plantation, the content of soil nutrients in mixed larch plantation obviously increased. The soil degradation occurred in the pure larch plantation, and related to the forest age.

  13. Development of a Compatible Taper Function and Stand-Level Merchantable Volume Model for Chinese Fir Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Tang

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on the total tree volume estimation from allometric models, these allometric models cannot predict tree- and stand-level merchantable volume at any merchantable height, and the stand-level merchantable volume model was not seen yet in Chinese fir plantations. This study aimed to develop (1 a compatible taper function for tree-level merchantable volume estimation, and (2 a stand-level merchantable volume model for Chinese fir plantations. This "taper function system" consisted in a taper function, a merchantable volume equation and a total tree volume equation. 46 Chinese fir trees were felled to develop the taper function in Shitai County, Anhui province, China. A second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. The taper function and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction. The compatible taper function fitted well to our data and had very good performances in diameter and total tree volume prediction. The stand-level merchantable volume equation based on the ratio approach was developed using basal area, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and top diameter (ranging from 0 to 30 cm as independent variables. At last, a total stand-level volume table using stand basal area and dominant height as variables was proposed for local forest managers to simplify the stand volume estimation.

  14. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  16. Overview of Rattan Plantation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattans are climbing spiny plants that are regarded as an important kind of commercial non-timber forest products. Rattan resources are dwindling rapidly due to over-exploitation in the wild and the loss of tropical forest cover. These threaten the sustainable utilization of rattan resources and long-term survival of the rattan industry. The development of rattan plantation and the improvement of management technique are hence important. The major issues on plantation management are reviewed in this pap...

  17. 杉木混农模式综合评价方法的研究%A STUDY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION IN THE DIFFERENT INTERPLANTING PATTERNS OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东进; 洪伟; 吴承祯

    2001-01-01

    The principles and steps of osculating value methods were introduced and the feasibleness and superiority weretestified by two examples in this paper. Furthermore, the benefits of economic, ecological, growth of Cunninghamia lanceola-ta and social of six different interplanting patterns: Cunninghamia lanceolata-Lit sea cubeba, Cunninghamia lanceolata-Litsea cuba - soybean, Cunninghamia lanceolata- Litsea cuba- tobacco, Cunninghamia lanceolata- Aleurites fordii ,Cunninghamia lanceolata-Aleurites fordii-Mesona chinensis and pure Cunninghamia lanceolata were comprehensivelyevaluated by the methods of osculating value. The results showed that the Cunninghamia lanceolata-Aleuritesfordii-Mes-ona chinensis had the best comprehensive benefits and the Cunninghamia lanceolata-Li tsea cubeba was the second in thesix different interplanting patterns. The osculating value methods was a good mult- objective comprehensive methods whichnot only simple and convenient, but also effective and practical, and it worthy being further popularized and applied in theresearch field of forestry.

  18. Threat to Cedar, Cedrela odorata, Plantations in Vietnam by the Weevil, Aclees sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enable...

  19. Acidity of selected industrial wood species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mlađan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acidity of wood has an important role in many areas of wood applications. Hence, this paper presents a study on the acidity of beech, fir and poplar, as the representatives of the most industrially utilized wood species in Serbia. The contents of both the soluble and insoluble acids were determined through the extraction methods with cold distilled water and sodium acetate solution, respectively, followed by the titration with sodium hydroxide solution. The acidity strongly differs among the three wood species used in this research. The amount of insoluble acids was the highest in fir, almost twice as much than in poplar, and about 68 % higher than in fir wood species. Such differences also showed a strong correlation with the gel times of UF adhesive mixes with hot water extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia

  20. Soil Biological Changes for a Natural Forest and Two Plantations in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Shui; YANG Yu-Sheng; XIE Jin-Sheng; LI Ling; GAO Ren

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of natural forests into pure plantation forests is a common management practice in subtropical China.To evaluate the effects of forest conversion on soil fertility, microbe numbers and enzyme activities in topsoils (0-10 cm)were quantified in two 33-year-old monoculture plantations of Castanopsis kawakamii Hayata (CK) and Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. (Chinese fir) (CF), and compared to a neighboring relict natural C. kawakamii forest (NF), in Sanming,Fujian. Five soil samples were collected once each in January, April, July, September and November in 2000 in each forest for laboratory analysis. Over the sampling year, there were significant differences for bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes between forests and between seasons (P < 0.05). The largest bacteria and fungi populations were in NF, while CF contained the greatest number of actinomycetes. There were also significant differences (P < 0.05) with microbial respiration for forests and seasons. Additionally, compared with NF, urease and acid phosphatase were significantly lower (P < 0.05)in CK and CF. Also, the correlations of soil hydrolysable N and available P to soil microbial and enzymatic activities were highly significant (P < 0.01). Thus, to alter the traditional Chinese fir monoculture so as to mimic the natural forest conditions, managing mixed stands of Chinese fir and broadleaf trees or conducting crop rotation of conifers and broadleaf trees as well as minimizing forest disturbances like clear-cutting, slash burning and soil preparing, could be utilized.

  1. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  2. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  3. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  4. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  5. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  6. Effects of Inorganic acid catalysts on liquefaction of wood In phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiuhui; Zhao Guangjie; Chen Jinpeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the effects of acid catalysts on wood liquefaction in phenol, we investigated the liquefaction of wood powder from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr) in the presence of phenol with the following weak inorganic acids as catalysts: phosphoric acid (85%),sulfuric acid (36%),hydrochloric acid (37%)and oxalic acid (99.5%).Results show that phosphoric acid (85%) and sulfuric acid (36%) are better than the other catalysts.It was found that lower residue ratios can be obtained under defined reaction conditions: phenol/wood ratio is 4,a 10% catalyst based on the weight of phenol,a temperature of 150℃ for 2 h and phosphoric or sulfuric acid.The residue ratios are 3.2% and 4.0%,respectively.

  7. Identification of pests and assessment of their damage on Carapa procera and Lophira lanceolata in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tindano, Baslayi; Gnankine, Olivier; Ouésdraogo, Amadé

    2016-01-01

    . The experiment was set up in western Burkina Faso and, for C. carapa, consisted of pests collected from seeds that had fallen to the ground and from stockpiled seeds. For L. lanceolata, pests were collected from fruits on the trees, and on the ground. The collected samples were sent to the laboratory to estimate....... lanceolata, whereas T. castaneum was only detected from seeds of L. lanceolata. For C. procera, the stocks were the most infested (29 %) by Ephestia spp. The infestation rate of fruits of L. lanceolata by Ephestia spp. on trees (31.42 ± 3.75 %) was less than the rate of fruits by T. castaneum on the ground......Nontimber forest products are a source of income for women in rural African communities. However, these products are frequently damaged by insect pests. The present study investigates the diversity and damage rates of insect pests that attack Carapa procera seeds and Lophira lanceolata fruits...

  8. Chemical Characterization and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Potential of Volatile Components of Aerial Parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern (Rasana is an important medicinal plant due to its usage in number of Ayurvedic formulations. First time, chemical composition of essential oil from the aerial part of P. lanceolata was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil was also evaluated using mouse brain homogenate. The major components were linalool (32.2%, β-caryophyllene (8.5%, α-terpineol (8.0%, spathulenol (7.4%, linalylacetate (5.6%, naphthalene, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl- (4.3%, α-copaene (3.6%, epi-cubebol (3.6% and trans-α-bergamontene (3.1%. The experimental results showed that hydrodistilate of P. lanceolata significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (IC 50 value 2.54 ± 0.03 µg/mL.

  9. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  10. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  11. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  12. Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Moya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

  13. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

    OpenAIRE

    David Josué Meza Juárez; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; Javier López Upton; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Amparo Borja de la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially a...

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Prevents Suppression of Actual Nitrification Rates in the (Myco-)Rhizosphere of Plantago lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D.VERESOGLOU

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of herbaceous plants engage into arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and consideration of their mycorrhizal status should be embodied in studies of plant-microbe interactions.To establish reliable AM contrasts,however,a sterilized re-inoculation procedure is commonly adopted.It was questioned whether the specific approach is sufficient for the studies targeting the bacterial domain,specifically nitrifiers,a group of autotrophic,slow growing microbes.In a controlled experiment mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Plantago lanceolata were grown up in compartmentalized pots to study the AM effect on nitrification rates in the plant rhizosphere.Nitrification rates were assayed following an extensive 3-week bacterial equilibration step of the re-inoculated soil and a 13-week plant growth period in a controlled environment.Under these specific conditions,the nitrification potential levels at harvest were exceptionally low,and actual nitrification rates of the root compartment of non-mycorrhizal P.lanceolata were significantly lower than those of any other compartment.It is then argued that the specific effects should be attributed to the alleged higher growth rates of non-mycorrhizal plants that are known to occur early in the AM experiment.It is concluded that the specific experimental approach is not suitable for the study of microbes with slow growth rates.

  15. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  16. Edge effect between Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and broadleaf trees forest, and age-related of Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉-阔林间边缘效应与杉木林龄的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文俊; 李际平; 李建军; 郑柳

    2011-01-01

    运用Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Simpson生态优势度指数和边缘效应强度指数,对桃源县的10组不同龄级杉木林与阔叶林间的边缘效应进行研究,并对杉木林生长情况和蓄积量变化情况进行了分析。结果表明:杉木幼龄林、中龄林及成熟林与阔叶林间的边缘效应均有增大物种多样性的趋势;随着杉木林龄的增大,灌木层、草本层边缘效应强度ED表现出不同的变化趋势;边缘效应对杉木幼龄林和中龄林的平均胸径、平均树高以及蓄积量均有增大的趋势,而杉木成熟林的变化却不明显。%The edge effects between 10 groups of different age-graded Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and broadleaf trees forest were studied by using Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson ecology dominance index and the index of edge effect At the same time, we analyzed the growth and the volume changes of the Cunninghamia lanceolata forest were analyzed. The results indicate that: no matter which stage Cunninghamia lanceolata forest stayed (young, half-mature or mature), the edge effect between Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaf trees had a tendency to increase species diversity; with the stand age of Cunninghamia lanceolata increasing, the edge effect intensity Ed about shrub and herb showed different changing trend. The edge effect can increase the average DBH of young Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and middle-aged forest, as well as the average height and volume, but had no significance effect on mature Cunninghamia lanceolata forest

  17. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  18. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  19. A possible role of sexuality in the population structure of Diaporthe adunca, a pathogen of Plantago lanceolata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.G.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the population structure of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca on its perennial wild host plant Plantago lanceolata was analysed, together with the occurrence of the sexual stage of the fungus. The fungus overwinters on scapes infected in the previous year. In spring, it sporulates

  20. The dynamics of gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. .1. Frequencies of male-steriles and their cytoplasmic male sterility types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Luyten, R.M.J.M.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of a gynodioecious breeding system (hermaphrodites and male-steriles) was studied in Plantago lanceolata. Cytoplasmic-nuclear inheritance is important in the maintenance of male-steriles. The male-sterile trait is cytoplasmically based (CMS), and male fertility can be restored by nuc

  1. Redescription and figures of the South American Mailed Catfish Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther, 1868) (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Rineloricaria lanceolata was originally described from a single specimen of unknown sex, with a faded colour pattern. The present paper contains a redescription with figures of the species, based on the holotype from Peru, and on additional specimens from Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, and Brazil, includ

  2. Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Cha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v, providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

  3. Effects of competition on root-shoot allocation in Plantago lanceolata L.: adaptive plasticity or ontogenetic drift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.; Möller, F.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how shoot and root allocation in plants responds to increasing levels of competitive stress at different levels of soil fertility. In addition, we analyzed whether different responses were due to adaptive plasticity or should be attributed to ontogenetic drift. Plantago lanceolata pl

  4. Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.

  5. NEW APPROACH TO OIL PALM WOOD UTILIZATION FOR WOODWORKING PRODUCTION Part 1: Basic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Balfas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An explosive development in oil palm plantations in the country has produced a consequence in the generation of  plantation wastes. The  disposal of these wastes  has created  an  enormous environmental problem that some practical solution to their economic utilization has to  be sought.  A series of experiments have been accomplished to observe the possibility of converting the oil palm stem into valuable woodworking products. The  first stage of  this effort was determining basic characteristics of oil palm wood.  Results in general showed that the wood has a great characteristic variation across and along the stem, which may develop problems in its utilization. Characteristics of this wood also vary according to species variety.  Quality degradations of oil palm wood were mostly happened during drying process; hence, modifications to upgrade quality should be undertaken before or within the drying process.

  6. Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

  7. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  8. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dan Ding,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA. Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S, water uptake capacity (D, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, and water repellent efficiency (WRE after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment increased the density of all poplar woods by 1.2 to 1.6 and decreased the inner water migration rate during soaking. S and D values of hardened woods were significantly lower than those of controls, depending on the clone type. ASE and WRE values suggested that incorporating MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of poplar wood at the early soaking stage, but was less effective in the long term.

  9. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    , few studies have examined these issues at the local level or analysed the interplay between plantation forest expansion, household vulnerability, and community resilience to climatic disturbances. The article documents the extent to which the introduction of acacia tree species has reinforced existing...... inequalities in landholding, which in turn increases household vulnerability to natural disturbances. This has resulted in the emergence of a social-ecological context characterized by decreasing resilience. The most vulnerable households are those of the landless and ethnic minorities, both of which depend...

  10. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  11. Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline, pollut

  12. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  13. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  14. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  15. Dielectric properties of copper-ethanolamine treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jin-zhen; Yu Li-li; You Xiao-di; Kamdem D. Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In order to clarify the interaction between copper and wood substances in wood treated with copper containing water-borne wood preservatives,the dielectric constant ε'and dielectric loss factorε" of untreated wood and wood treated with four concentration levels of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) solutions were determined within a temperature range from-100 to 40℃ and a frequency range from 100 to 1 MHz. Three dielectric relaxation processes were observed in the ε" spectrum;among them R-I is based on the reorientation of methylol groups in the amorphous region of wood cell walls and R-Ⅱis related to wood extractives. R-Ⅲ appeared in Cu-EA treated wood,and its magnitude decreases with the concentration of Cu-EA solutions used in this experiment. This relaxation process was considered to be based on the reorientation of copper-ethanolamine-wood complexes in wood cell walls. At low copper retention, the hydrogen in the complex Can form hydrogen bonding with adjacent hydroxyl groups,which results in a strong bonding state between copper and wood;at high copper retention, the numerous copper-ethanolamine complexes not only hinder them from forming hydrogen bonding with adjacent wood molecules due to steric hindrance,but also weaken the interaction between wood molecules themselves,which corresponds to reducing ε" values of both R-I and R-Ⅲ processes. The results explain the fact of increasing copper leaching in wood treated with high concentration copper-based water-borne preservatives.

  16. Effects of site conditions and methods of cultivation on growth of sawtooth oak plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luozhong TANG; Mukui YU; Dan ZHAO; Chunfeng YAN; Zhilong LIU; Shengzuo FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of site conditions and cultivation on the growth of sawtooth oak {Quercus acutissima Carr.) plantations were evaluated at the Hongyashan forest farm, in Chuzhou City, Anhui Province, China. The results indicate that the position on the slope, the amount of gravel and the thickness of the soil were important factors in the growth of the sawtooth oak. Lower slope positions with small amounts of gravel and a thick soil were better for the growth of this species than middle slope positions with more gravel and a thin soil. Given the site conditions of the hilly and mountainous areas in Chuzhou City, the mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and sawtooth oak forests did not improve forest productivity compared with pure sawtooth oak forests. Both urea and compound fertilizers promoted the growth of sawtooth oak, as did site preparation and intercropping. Two years after planting, the height growth of ordinary seedlings with a starting height of 0.6 m was higher than that of supper seedlings with a starting height of 1.0 m. Compared with planting, the early growth of the coppices was faster, but the later growth of the coppices was slower.

  17. Threat to cedar, Cedrela odorata, plantations in Vietnam by the weevil, Aclees sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread.

  18. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment.

  19. Relationship between Stock Growth of the 3rd Generation Seed Orchard of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Soil Properties in Different Cutting Blank%不同采伐迹地杉木第三代种子园砧木高生长与土壤关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晓丽

    2012-01-01

    以杉木第三代种子园为调查研究对象,在外业调查的基础上,对采集的土壤样品进行了性质测定,并依据种子园砧木定植当年的树高,通过方差显著性分析及LSD多重比较分析,探讨了不同采伐迹地间杉木第三代种子园砧木定植当年生长与土壤的差异性。结果表明:土壤pH在4.2-4.8之间、速效磷含量在6.3-6.7 mg/kg之间、有机质在39-43 g/kg之间、全氮含量在1.5-1.7 g/kg之间的林地较适宜杉木砧木的生长;除速效钾外,油茶套种马尾松幼林改造迹地的各土壤养分含量比其它类型高;各采伐迹地土壤表土层厚度差异不显著;马尾松采伐迹地的砧木高生长最好。综合分析,马尾松采伐迹地与油茶套种马尾松采伐迹地较适宜杉木第三代种子园的建立。%With the research object of stock growth of the 3rd generation seed orchard of Cunninghamia lanceolata and based on field investigation, the properties of soil samples were determined and the tree height for that year were investigated. With analysis of variance and LSD multiple comparison, the differences between soil nutrients and the growth of young C. lanceolata in different cutting blank were researched. The results showed that they were suitable to growth for C. lanceolata at pH between 4.2-4.8, available P between 6.3-6.7 mg/kg, organic matter between 39-43 g/kg, total N 1.5~1.7 g/kg, except for available K. Soil properties content of Camellia oleifera interplanted young Pinus massoniana plantations were higher than other kinds. The differences of soil topsoil thickness during cutting blank were not significant. The stock growth of young C. lanceolata in cutting blank of P. massoniana was best. The comprehensive analysis results showed that the cutting blank of P. massoniana plantations and C. oleifera interplanted young P. massoniana plantations were suitable to the building of the 3rd generation seed orchard of C. lanceolatca

  20. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE IN VIVO DE FLAVONOIDES ISOLADOS DE Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae

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    Rafaela O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Clusia lanceolata leaves yielded fourteen compounds including six flavones, vitexin, isovitexin, isovitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, vitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, orientin and isoorientin, two phaeophytins [132-hydroxy-(132-S--phaeophytin a and 132-hydroxy-(132-R-phaeophytin a], two triterpenes, α- and β-amyrin, and four steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterone and stigmasterone. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques and comparison with literature data. The antioxidant capacity in vivo of vitexin and mixing isovitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and vitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside was evaluated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the biological system model and hydrogen peroxide as a stressor agent. The results showed that the tested flavonoids were able to protect the yeast cell against the oxidative damage caused by H2O2.

  1. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  2. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

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    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  3. Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabozo, B; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2001-02-01

    English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition. The aim of this study was to identify plantain allergens, and to isolate and characterize a major allergen. Allergens were identified by immunoblotting with individual allergic patients' sera. Isolation of the major allergen was achieved by sequential reverse-phase and size-exclusion HPLC. Allergenic characterization was performed by ELISA and immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE with sera from plantain-allergic patients. N-terminal amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation. Allergograms showed that 13 out of the 14 sera assayed had IgE to a group of proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 16-20 kd, that turned out to be different isoforms or variants of the major allergen Pla l l. Eighteen amino acid residues from the N-terminal end of one of the isoforms, and 10 of three others, were sequenced, and a partial sequence identity with Ole e 1 was found. Prevalence of specific IgE to purified Pla l 1 in plantain allergic patients was 86%, and represents about 80% of the total IgE-binding capacity of the plantain extract. The most relevant allergen from P.lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1, has been purified and characterized. This contributes to a greater knowledge of the allergen composition of this important weed, and clears the way for the standardization of plantain allergen products in terms of major allergen content.

  4. Assemblages and species diversity of wood destroying termites in different land use systems in Western Ghat, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Ramesh Shanbhag; R.Sundararaj

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution,abundance and assemblage of termites depend mainly on the local conditions and habitats in which they thrive.Striking differences are observed in the species richness,number of clades and functional diversity of termite assemblage between different habitats.This study aim was to examine effect of human interference in the diversity of wood destroying termite in forest areas as well as managed and unmanaged plantations in South India.Termites attacking trees and wooden logs were collected from forest areas,managed plantations and unmanaged plantations.The termites collected were identified and compared for species abundance,richness and species diversity.Results show that the species composition and species diversity of the wood destroying termites vary according to the conditions.The species diversity measures revealed that there is a significance variation among the forest fauna and plantations.The forest areas have the highest species composition compared to plantations.Species richness is high forest areas.Even though the abundance of termites are more in unmanaged plantations,there is no significant difference related to species diversity among the managed and unmanaged plantations.

  5. INTERFERENCE IN THE EUCALYPTUS PULP QUALITY AND YIELD DUE TO WOOD MULTIPLE USE

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    Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid established in the vicinity of Mogi-Guaçu/SP was evaluated, according to a simulation of multiple use of the wood. Part of the raw material produced was sent to sawn wood industry. The quality and yield of the cellulose produced in laboratory of three wood portions of the plantation was compared. In Treatment 1, the cellulose produced from the whole wood of the trees was evaluated; in Treatment 2 only the first portion of the tree was used, from wood of the soil base up to 4m height, wood that would be destined to sawnwood in a multiple use situation; finally, Treatment 3 evaluated the portion of the wood above 4 m of height. The possible interferences of multiple use of the wood in the yield and quality of the cellulose were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the retreat of the most vigorous logs of the trees didn't harm the quality and yield of the cellulose.

  6. The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii

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    Šoškić Borislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

  7. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Global increase in demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia. Oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia, together with those in Kalimantan, are responsible for half of the world's palm oil production. Available studies point to plantations being large carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks due to the high photosynthetic rates of oil palm as a result of high fertilizer inputs, especially in large-scale plantations. However, methane (CH4) uptake in the soil of oil palm plantations is reduced and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions increased right after nitrogen (N) fertilization. Greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets at the ecosystem level are still missing, and the few available information was derived from mature plantations, pointing to a lack of knowledge on the changes of these GHG budgets with plantation age. With the aim of quantifying CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2-year old (non-productive) oil palm plantation and was subsequently moved to a 12-year old (productive) plantation. Both sites were on Acrisol soils and were located in Jambi province, Sumatra. Chamber-based measurements of soil GHG fluxes were also carried out along the EC footprint. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), based on EC measurement, showed that the non-productive plantation was a strong CO2 source (990 g C m-2 yr-1) whereas the productive plantation was a CO2 sink (-790 g C m-2 yr-1). For CH4 fluxes, both plantations showed similar soil CH4 uptake that led to a small carbon sink of (~1.3 g C m-2 yr-1). Soil N2O fluxes were high in the productive plantation (3.26 ± 1.73 kg N ha-1 yr-1), as measurements were carried out in a plantation with high fertilization rates. In the non-productive plantation, soil N2O fluxes were lower and were associated with fertilization events. Our results show that the global warming potential of a non-productive oil

  8. Construction Technology of Ecological Tea Plantation in Mindong Black-green Tea Area%闽东红绿茶产区生态茶园建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如兴; 张磊; 陈芝芝; 吴志丹

    2014-01-01

    阐述了闽东生态茶园建设措施和目标,总结出适合闽东红绿茶生产的新垦茶园、茶林嵌合型和纯茶种植老茶园生态建设技术。%In this paper, construction measures and objectives of ecological tea plantation in Mindong area were elaborated, and thus construction technology of ecological tea plantation was suggested for the newly-reclaimed young tea plantation, mosaic type plantation of tea and woods, and ageing single-tea plantation, to be proper for the production of black tea and green tea in Mindong area.

  9. Importance of crown architecture for leaf area index of different Populus genotypes in a high-density plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, L S; Verlinden, M S; Vangronsveld, J; Ceulemans, R

    2012-10-01

    Crown architecture is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of any bio-energy plantation since it determines leaf area display and hence light interception. Four Populus genotypes-of different species and hybrids and with contrasting productivity and leaf area-were examined in terms of their branch characteristics in relation to crown architecture during the first and second growing seasons after plantation establishment. The trees were planted at high density (8000 ha(-1)) on two different former land use types, cropland and pasture. We documented significant differences in branch architecture among the genotypes and for the first year among the former land use types. Land use effects only affected factors not related to canopy closure and wood production, and decreased after the first growing season. This suggested that both former land use types were equally suited for the establishment success of a poplar bio-energy plantation. Tree height and branch dimensions-branch diameter and branch length-were the most important determinants of wood production and maximum leaf area index. Despite the secondary importance of the number of sylleptic branches, these branches contributed significantly to the total leaf area in three out of the four studied genotypes. This indicated that enhanced syllepsis accelerates leaf area development and hence carbon assimilation, especially in the early stages of a high-density plantation with poplar.

  10. Obstacles for Plantation to Get FSC Certification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of plantation plays a very important role in forestry industry development in China because of its unique advantages. However, the ecological and environmental issues urgently require sustainable plantation development. FSC certification for sustainable forest management balances the economic, environmental and social benefits and contributes to sustainable development of plantation. FSC certification for plantation is significantly important to China with the most plantation area in the wor...

  11. Plus Tree Resource Survey and Genebank Construction for Cunninghamia lanceolata%乐昌油杉优树资源调查及收集区营建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会全; 胡德活; 王润辉; 韦如萍; 晏姝; 朱火生; 粱瑞友; 赖旭恩

    2013-01-01

    对广东省乐昌地区杉木林分进行调查,共筛选出104份乐昌油杉优树资源.对优树生长、形质、材质等性状进行测定分析,结果表明:优树群体生长性状(树高、胸径、单株材积)均值明显高于样地群体值(P<0.01),性状表现水平(PL)皆在77.0以上;入选优树树高、胸径、单株材积现实增益分别为0.4% ~ 97.1%、32.3% ~ 131.8%、82.6% ~ 712.5%;优树高径比、冠径比变幅分别为38.9 ~76.5、8.7 ~21.9;优树木材基本密度、红心材比率、木材干缩性、木材吸水性总体变幅则分别为0.251 1~0.393 1 g/cm3、29.2% ~72.3%、0.8% ~ 32.4%、189.0% ~ 332.9%;其中,木材干缩性变异程度最大,CV值达100%,而木材基本密度变异程度较低,CV值仅为11%.以平均木材质测定值为阈值对优树进行分类,不同优树群体均可分选出一定数量生长材质皆优单株.研究还对乐昌油杉优树资源进行了有效保存(就地保存与异地保存),收集区资源合计保存率为98.1%.%Based on a large-scale investigation into Cunninghamia lanceolata stands in Lechang area of Guangdong Province, a total of 104 plus trees of C. lanceolata were screened out, and the trait indexes including height, DBH, form index, standing volume, wood quality and growth properties of the plus trees were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the average values of tree height, DBH, and standing volume of the plus tree population were all significantly (P <0. 01) higher than those of the sample plot population, whose phenotype level was above 77. 0. Further analyses revealed that the real gain of tree height, DBH, and standing volume indexes of the plus trees could achieve to 0. 4% -97. 1% , 32. 3% - 131. 8% , and 82. 6% -712. 5% respectively. The height-DBH ratio and the crown-DBH diameter ratio ranged from 38. 9 to 76.5, and from 8. 7 to 21. 9 individually. The basic wood density (DEN) , red-heartwood ratio

  12. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

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    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  13. Sound absorption property of wood for five eucalypt species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZe-hui; ZHAORong-jun; FEIBen-hua

    2004-01-01

    The sound absorption coefficients of wood and wood boards for five eucalypt species (Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus urophylla×E. grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla×E. tereticornis, Eucalyptus urophylla×E. camaldulensis and Eucalyptus cloeziana) that were collected from plantation in Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province, China were tested with standing wave method and their sound absorption properties were also compared. The results showed that the sound absorption coefficients of the five eucalypt wood species did not change evidently below 1000 Hz, but above 1000 Hz their sound absorption coefficients increased with the increasing frequency. The difference in sound absorption coefficient among five species of eucalypt wood is not evident at the tested frequency range (200-2000 Hz), but the sound absorption property of Eucalyptus urophylla at low frequency is better than that of other four species. The sound absorption coefficient of the tangential-sawn board is higher than that of the radial-sawn board. The sound absorption property of eucalypt wood of 0.5 cm in thickness is much better than that of 1.0 cm in thickness. It is concluded that wood sound absorption properties of eucalypts are affected by their board thickness and the type of sawn timber within the testing frequency, but the variance of wood sound absorption property among the five tested species is not significant.

  14. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

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    Xiaojun Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1 the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflection recovery under cyclic loading; 2 the environmental conditions of high temperature and high humidity assisted in accelerating the creep by increasing the moisture content of the composite and reducing the compressive strength of wood, causing the composite specimen to fail via damage in the wood layer from compressive crushing; 3 the stress level governed the creep of the CFRP-reinforced wood composite; and 4 the Burger model was able to accurately simulate the short-term creep performance of the CFPR-reinforced wood composite. It was suggested the maximum bending stress level should be limited to 40% for the CFRP-reinforced wood composites fabricated in this study.

  15. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

  16. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Teak Plantations of Different Agro-Climatic Zones and Age-Gradations of Southern India

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    Milkuri Chiranjeeva Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India, viz. Northern Dry Zone, Northern Transition Zone, and Hilly Zone were studied. Teak plantations belonging to three age gradations viz. 10, 15 and 20 years were considered for the study. Above ground biomass was computed based on volume estimation and wood density after considering three 10 x 10 m plots. Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations on farmlands differed significantly with respect to agro-climatic zones and age. Teak plantations raised on the farmlands of Northern Transition Zone had significantly higher above ground biomass than that in Northern Dry Zone and Hilly Zone at all the three age-gradations. Consequently, total above ground carbon sequestered was also significantly higher among the teak plantations of the Northern Transition Zone (247.47 t/ha than that in Hilly Zone (157.60 t/ha and NDZ (103.73 t/ha. For obvious reasons total amount of carbon sequestered was significantly higher in 20-year plantations (330.00 t/ha than in 15-year (108.53 t/ha and 10-year plantations (70.27 t/ha. Perhaps optimal average annual rainfall of 749 mm and medium black soil in Northern Transition Zone have contributed to the higher biomass in teak. Poor rainfall in Northern Dry Zone (<585 mm and poor soil conditions (lateritic formations in Hilly Zone must have contributed to the poorer growth of teak in these zones.

  17. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

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    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (δ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and δ of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower δ when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  18. Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Maneekan, Pannamas; Pimnon, Suntorn

    2013-01-01

    Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

  19. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  20. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata.

  1. Species composition and correlation of understory woody plants in Chinese fir plantation in the lower subtropical area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bing; LIU Shirong; CAI Daoxiong; WEN Yuanguang

    2006-01-01

    There are 71 species in the shrub layer of the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation after natural succession.The species richness and diversity have increased with slight anthropogenic disturbance.The status and function of tmderstory woody species were judged by the analysis of the important value (IV).X2 statistics and r test were used for testing the significance of interspecific association and correlation among 25 main understory woody plants selected from the woody population.The results clearly showed their interspecific relationships and their differences in resource utilization.Species-pairs of positive association were in the majority.Most species were accommodated in the shady habitat.There was a positive correlation between the IV of the species and the interspecific association.The higher the IV of the species,the closer and more significant was the interspecific association.Based on analytical results of interspecitic association and correlation,25 woody plants in the shrub layer could be divided into four ecological species groups:I.Ficus hispida +Antidesma bunius+Mallotus barbatus+Ficus cunia+Saurauia tristyla+Mallotus philippinensis+Maesa japonica +Ficus hirta+Alchornea rugosa+Ficus fulva+Mallotus apelta;II.Cudrania tricuspidata+Schefflera octopylla;III.Cunninghamia lanceolata+Clerodendron cytophyllum +Millettia semicastrata+Randia spinosa+Litsea cubeba +Litsea pungens;IV.Ardisia japonica+Psychotria rubra +Vitex quinata+Cephalanthus occidentalis+ Pithecellobium lucidum+Mycetia sinensis.If species group III or II is the advantaged species in the shrub layer,the community would change from a coniferous forest to a sparse evergreen broad-leaved forest.For group IV,the community would be relatively stable.For group I,the coniferous forest would be mixed with coniferous-broad leaved forest.The classification of ecological species groups would provide a theoretical basis on judging its ecological function,adjusting the stand structure of the plantation and

  2. Molecular genetic tools to infer the origin of forest plants and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeldey, Reiner; Leinemann, Ludger; Gailing, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Most forest tree species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity that can be used to trace the origin of living plants or their products such as timber and processed wood. Recent progress to isolate DNA not only from living tissue but also from wood and wood products offers new opportunities to test the declared origin of material such as seedlings for plantation establishment or timber. However, since most forest tree populations are weakly differentiated, the identification of genetic markers to differentiate among spatially isolated populations is often difficult and time consuming. Two important fields of "forensic" applications are described: Molecular tools are applied to test the declared origin of forest reproductive material used for plantation establishment and of internationally traded timber and wood products. These applications are illustrated taking examples from Germany, where mechanisms have been developed to improve the control of the trade with forest seeds and seedlings, and from the trade with wood of the important Southeast Asian tree family Dipterocarpaceae. Prospects and limitations of the use of molecular genetic methods to conclude on the origin of forest plants, wood, and wood products are discussed.

  3. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Josué Meza Juárez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially and then increased gradually, slowing down after 12-14 years old. Tracheid length showed a steady radial trend, increasing gradually from the pith and stabilizing after 8-10 years old. A piecewise regression analysis, using mean annual values for tracheid length and wood density showed that age of transition from juvenile to mature wood occurred at age 10 in this plantation. The criterion based on tracheid length was more useful than that based on wood density, since its slope change was more evident. Using this criterion, a broad variation in transition age (from 6 to 16 years was found among trees, which might be related to genetic effects; however, a larger sample size is required to estimate genetic variation in this trait.

  4. Microwave vacuum drying characteristics of Pinus massoniana wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Li Wen-jun; Zhang Bi-guang

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-vacuum (MV) drying characteristics of plantation Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) were studied experimentally for various levels of microwave radiation time, initial moisture content (MC), vacuum level and wood thickness. The results show that the process of MV drying for wood can be significantly divided into a short accelerating rate drying period, a long constant rate drying period and falling rate drying period, and the second drying period can extend to levels of mean MC below the fiber saturation point. With the increase of initial MC and microwave radiation time, the drying rate of wood increases significantly. The vacuum level affects the drying rate in a slightly positive way. Within the range of 2 to 6 cm, the effects of sample thickness on the drying rate can be negligible.

  5. Limits to CO2-Neutrality of Burning Wood. (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of wood as a source of energy is discussed with respect to efficiency and restraints to ensure sustainability of the environment on the grounds of a simple analytical model describing dynamics of biomass accumulation in forest stands - a particular case of the well-known empirical Richards' equation. Amounts of wood harvested under conditions of maximum productivity of forest land are presented in units normalised with respect to the maximum of the mean annual increment and used to determine the limits of CO2-neutrality. The ecological "footprint" defined by the area of growing stands necessary to absorb the excess amount of CO2 annually released from burning biomass is shown to be equal to the land area of a plantation providing sustainable supply of fire-wood.

  6. Estimates of genetic parameters for growth and wood properties in Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. to support tree breeding in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Tran D.; Brawner, Jeremy T.; Meder, Roger; Lee, David J.; Southerton, Simon; Thinh, Ha H.; Dieters, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractKey messageEucalyptus pellitademonstrated good growth and wood quality traits in this study, with young plantation grown timber being suitable for both solid and pulp wood products. All traits examined were under moderate levels of genetic control with little genotype by environment interaction when grown on two contrasting sites in Vietnam.ContextEucalyptus pellita currently has a significant role in reforestation in the tropics. Research to support expanded o...

  7. Current Situation and Challenges of Plantation Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The area of plantation in China ranks the first in the world. But, many challenges are still faced in the development of China’s plantation. A review of plantation in China was presented and the challenges were analyzed. The plantation features juvenile and middle age class with low diameter at breast height. There are the risks of pests and diseases in plantation, the potential decline in land fertility and bio-diversity, all of which are unfavorable to a healthy development of plantations.

  8. Sap flow simulation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in degraded red soil region based on back propagation neural network%基于反向传播神经网络的退化红壤区杉木树干液流模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂洁; 刘琪璟; 危骏; 胡良

    2015-01-01

    以江西退化红壤区杉木人工林为研究对象,采用MATLAB工具箱中的log‐sigmoid型函数( tansig)为神经元作用函数,以空气温度、空气相对湿度、平均净辐射、水汽压亏缺为输入变量,液流速率为输出变量,运用贝叶斯正则化算法和Levenberg‐Marquardt算法对4000组气象数据和液流数据进行网络训练和检验,构建拓扑结构为4101的杉木树干液流反向传播( back propagation , BP)神经网络模型.结果表明:在2种算法下训练样本和检验样本模型输出值与实测值之间线性回归的拟合程度均较高,回归方程的相关系数在0.93以上;训练样本的拟合精度分别为83.57%和83.06%,检验样本的仿真精度分别为82.87%和82.15%.说明该网络模型能够很好地反映液流速率与气象因子之间的非线性函数关系,可为杉木人工林的可持续经营和林地水资源的科学管理提供有效手段.%Summary Cunninghamia lanceolata is commonly considered to be one of the most important tree species for forest restoration and reconstruction in subtropical area of China , owing to its advantages of rapid growth , good quality and high yield per unit area . However , they also consume certain amount of water during the course of growth and play roles of ecological benefits . Therefore , quantitative research on tree water consumption characteristics by transpiration has become a hot issue in the field of tree physiological ecology in recent years . Taking the C . lanceolata plantation in degraded red soil of Jiangxi Province as the research object , the log‐sigmoid type function ( tansig) of MATLAB toolbox was selected as the transmission function for the role of neurons . Four main factors including air temperature , relative air humidity , average net radiation and vapor pressure deficit were chosen as the input variables , and the sap flow velocity was selected as the output variable , to train and

  9. A model of supplying poplar wood for Iranian paper & wood factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Azizi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design a method for an appropriate alternative to supply poplar wood as raw material for wood and paper factories in Iran.Due to the destruction of the forests and lack of proper plantation,replacement of the forest wood by the fast growing wood is vital to satisfy all requirements of these factories.A hierarchy was used to prioritize benefits,opportunities,costs and risks (BOCR) using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) ratings approach.To evaluate the "control criteria" of the system,a control hierarchy was also created and prioritized by applying the Analytic Network Process (ANP).A total of four major control criteria in the system are prioritized where each one controls a network structure evaluated by using ANP.The final synthesis results of the system showed that internal poplar tree farming supplied by the forest product factories was the best choice among three potential alternatives (factory procurement,external procurement and mix procurement).

  10. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  11. Development of the photosynthetic apparatus of Cunninghamia lanceolata in light and darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian; Wang, Qi; Qu, Yanli; Wu, Hongyang; Dong, Fengqin; Cao, Haoyan; Wang, Hou-Ling; Xiao, Jianwei; Shen, Yingbai; Wan, Yinglang

    2017-01-01

    Here, we compared the development of dark- and light-grown Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) cotyledons, which synthesize chlorophyll in the dark, representing a different phenomenon from angiosperm model plants. We determined that the grana lamellar membranes were well developed in both chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. The accumulation of thylakoid membrane protein complexes was similar between chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that photosystem II (PSII) had low photosynthetic activities, whereas the photosystem I (PSI)-driven cyclic electron flow (CEF) rate exceeded the rate of PSII-mediated photon harvesting in etiochloroplasts. Analysis of the protein contents in etiochloroplasts indicated that the light-harvesting complex II remained mostly in its monomeric conformation. The ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase and NADH dehydrogenase-like complexes were relatively abundantly expressed in etiochloroplasts for Chinese fir. Our transcriptome analysis contributes a global expression database for Chinese fir cotyledons, providing background information on the regulatory mechanisms of different genes involved in the development of dark- and light-grown cotyledons. In conclusion, we provide a novel description of the early developmental status of the light-dependent and light-independent photosynthetic apparatuses in gymnosperms.

  12. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

  13. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

  14. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  15. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  16. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions (

  17. Do differences in carbon allocation strategy account for large difference in productivity among four tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, D.; Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Kinana, A.; Mazoumbou, J.; Almeida, J. D.; Deleporte, P.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for wood products is not satisfied by natural forests, and forest plantations are expected to provide a larger part of the global wood supply in the future. Eucalyptus is the dominant species planted in the tropics. Intensification of wood production will rely mainly on gain of productivity and on extension of afforested area on marginal zones. Wood production does not only depend on gross primary production (GPP) but also on carbon partitioning between growth (NPP) and respiration, and on NPP partitioning among the different plant organs (allocation). Less than one third of GPP is allocated to wood production in planted forest ecosystems and we hypothesized that this fraction varies among genotypes, or because of soil fertility, in relation to productivity. The partitioning of aboveground NPP between leaf, branch and stem growth was compared in four Eucalyptus plantations located in Congo and Brazil over an entire rotation (6 years). In addition, total below ground carbon allocation was estimated from soil respiration and litter fall measurements. Two clones differing in productivity were studies in Congo where productivity is known to be much less important than in Brazil. Two plots (fertilized or not with K) were studied in Brazil. In Congo, the wood production was twice higher in the most productive clone (UG) compared to the less productive one (PF1). This was due to a higher aboveground NPP, the surplus being allocated to wood production. In addition, an increase in leaf lifespan reduced the amount of carbon allocated to leaf production. Similar conclusions can be drawn when comparing K+ fertilised and control stand in Brazil where most of the surplus of aboveground NPP in fertilised plots was allocated to wood production and where leaf lifespan was also increased. Soil respiration increased in both sites with increasing NPP reflecting that more carbon is allocated below ground in these stands. A better understanding of genetic and

  18. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  19. Seasonality on the rainfall partitioning of a fast-growing tree plantation under Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    molina, antonio; llorens, pilar; biel, carme

    2014-05-01

    Studies on rainfall interception in fast-growing tree plantations are less numerous than those in natural forests. Trees in these plantations are regularly distributed, and the canopy cover is clumped but changes quickly, resulting on high variability in the volume and composition of water that reach the soil. In addition, irrigation supply is normally required in semiarid areas to get optimal wood production; consequently, knowing rainfall interception and its yearly evolution is crucial to manage the irrigation scheme properly. This work studies the rainfall partitioning seasonality in a cherry tree (Prunus avium) plantation orientated to timber production under Mediterranean conditions. The monitoring design started on March 2012 and consists of a set of 58 throughfall tipping buckets randomly distributed (based on a 1x1 m2 grid) in a plot of 128 m2 with 8 trees. Stemflow is measured in all the trees with 2 tipping buckets and 6 accumulative collectors. Canopy cover is regularly measured throughout the study period, in leaf and leafless periods, by mean of sky-orientated photographs taken 50 cm above the center of each tipping bucket. Others tree biometrics are also measured such as diameter and leaf area index. Meteorological conditions are measured at 2 m above the forest cover. This work presents the first analyses describing the rainfall partitioning and its dependency on canopy cover, distance to tree and meteorological conditions. The modified Gash' model for rainfall interception in dispersed vegetation is also preliminary evaluated.

  20. Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-García M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.

  1. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  2. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  3. Overexpression of two cambium-abundant Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) α-expansin genes ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 affect growth and development in transgenic tobacco and increase the amount of cellulose in stem cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Liwei; Song, Rentao; Li, Xiaorong; Shi, Jisen

    2011-05-01

    Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that possess the ability to induce immediately cell wall extension in vitro and cell expansion in vivo. To investigate the biological functions of expansins that are abundant in wood-forming tissues, we cloned two expansin genes from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that they belong to α-expansin (EXPA), named ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that they are preferentially expressed in the cambium region. Overexpression of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 in tobacco plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and seed pod. The height and diameter growth of the 35S(pro) :ClEXPA1 and 35S(pro) :ClEXPA2 transgenic plants were increased drastically, exhibiting an enlargement of pith parenchyma cell size. Isolated cell walls of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 overexpressors contained 30%-50% higher cellulose contents than the wild type, accompanied by a thickening of the cell walls in the xylem region. Both ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 are involved in plant growth and development, with a partially functional overlap. Expansins are not only able to induce cell expansion in different tissues/organs in vivo, but they also can act as a potential activator during secondary wall formation by directly or indirectly affecting cellulose metabolism, probably in a cell type-dependent manner.

  4. Contributions of Extractives and Lignin to the Fractal Geometry of Internal Wood Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhen Cao; Lü Ning; Zhao Guangjie

    2003-01-01

    Internal wood surfaces can be treated as fractals, which are between Euclidean geometry and complete randomness.The fractal dimension Dfs is very informative in investigating the roughness of the internal surfaces of wood. In this study, the watersorption isotherms, including adsorption and desorption isotherm, of untreated, benzene-alcohol extracted and delignified (after ben-zene-alcohol extracted) spruce (Cuninghamia lanceolata) were measured at 30℃. On the basis of these isotherms, the Dfs valueswere calculated by FHH equation, which is based on multimolecular sorption. The results showed that both groups of Dfs values (re-spectively calculated from adsorption and desorption isotherms) of untreated, benzene-alcohol extracted and delignified wood havesame order, that is, untreated > benzene-alcohol extracted ≈ delignified. Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the ben-zene-alcohol extractives have significant contribution to the fractal geometry of internal wood surfaces. Lignin also has influence onthe fractal geometry, but this influence is very small while compared with that of the extractives. Moreover, the Dfs values calculatedfrom adsorption isotherms are bigger than those from desorption isotherms.

  5. [Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes during wood formation in Chinese fir by SSH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Feng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Li-Wei; Shi, Ji-Sen

    2007-04-01

    Wood is an important raw material for the global industry with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the differentially expressed genes in xylogenesis of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook], a forward subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, which was performed using the cDNA from the mutant Dugansha clone as the tester and the cDNA from the normal Jurong 0 clone as the driver. Six hundred and eighteen clones were obtained. Recombinants were identified using PCR with universal T7 and SP6 primers and using EcoR digestion. To further eliminate false positive, dot hybridization was used with four DIG-labeled probes (FSP, RSP, UTP, and UDP). Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. A total of 260 unique ESTs were obtained, 60% of the ESTs exhibiting homologies with proteins of known function fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction and stress. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation, is important resources for forest research directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  6. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  7. Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

  8. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21

  9. Influence of Thinning on Soil CO2 Efflux in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Da-Lun; YAN Wen-De; FANG Xi; KANG Wen-Xing; DENG Xiang-Wen; WANG Guang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Forest management is expected to influence soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) as a result of changes in microenvironmental conditions,soil microclimate,and root dynamics.Soil FCO2 rate was measured during the growing season of 2006 in both thinning and non-thinning locations within stands ranging from 0 to 8 years after the most recent thinning in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations in Huitong Ecosystem Research Station,Hunan,China.Soil temperature and moisture were also measured to examine relationships between FCO2 and soil properties.Forest thinning resulted in huge changes in FCO2 that varied with time since cutting.Immediately following harvest (year 0) FCO2 in thinning area increased by about 30%,declined to 20%-27% below pre-cutting levels during years 4-6,and recovered to pro-cutting levels at 8 years post-cutting.A similar temporal pattern,but with smaller changes,was found in non-thinning locations.The initial increase in FCO2 could be attributed to a combination of root decay,soil disturbance,and increased soil temperature in gaps,while the subsequent decrease and recovery to the death and gradual regrowth of active roots.Strong effects of soil temperature and soil water content on FCO2 were found.Forest thinning mainly influenced FCO2 through changes in tree root respiration,and the net result was a decrease in integrated FCO2 flux through the entire felling cycle.

  10. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  11. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  12. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2003-11-01

    Fitness costs of defense are often invoked to explain the maintenance of genetic variation in levels of chemical defense compounds in natural plant populations. We investigated fitness costs of iridoid glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) using lines that had been artificially selected for high and low leaf IG concentrations for four generations. Twelve maternal half-sib families from each selection line were grown in four environments, consisting of two nutrient and two competition treatments. We tested whether: (1) in the absence of herbivores and pathogens, plants from lines selected for high IG levels have a lower fitness than plants selected for low IG levels; and (2) costs of chemical defense increase with environmental stress. Vegetative biomass did not differ between selection lines, but plants selected for high IG levels produced fewer inflorescences and had a significantly lower reproductive dry weight than plants selected for low IG levels, indicating a fitness cost of IG production. Line-by-nutrient and line-by-competition interactions were not significant for any of the fitness-related traits. Hence, there was no evidence that fitness costs increased with environmental stress. Two factors may have contributed to the absence of higher costs under environmental stress. First, IGs are carbon-based chemicals. Under nutrient limitation, the relative carbon excess may result in the production of IGs without imposing a further constraint on growth and reproduction. Second, correlated responses to selection on IG levels indicate the existence of a positive genetic association between IG level and cotyledon size. At low nutrient level, a path analysis based on family means revealed that in the presence of competitors, the negative direct effect of a high IG level on aboveground plant dry weight was partly offset by a positive direct effect of the associated larger

  13. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration an...

  14. Lignification and tension wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  15. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  16. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  17. 基于ANP的杉木风景游憩林评价指标体系%Study on evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests based on analytic network process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅光义; 孙玉军; 林方; 王轶夫

    2013-01-01

    So far, there is no evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests by analytic network process. Based on the data of scenic and recreational forests at home and abroad, by taking C. lanceolata forests as studying objects, an evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests was set up by analytic network process. The results show that in the first grade indexes, the weighting of forest aesthetics index was the biggest, that of other indexes followed by: forest measurement, stand spatial structure, Characteristics of surface cover, forest's health. In the second grade indexes, the weightings ordered by magnitude: slope, tree height, transparency distance, DBH, life form, canopy density, crown width, density of trees number, show degree of trunk, height of shrub, green quantity, proportion of coniferous trees and broadleaved trees, fallen dead wood, height of grass, coverage, distribution of grass and shrub, stem form, color diversity, forest tree distribution, litter distribution, mean height under first alive branch. This study provides basis data for city forest planning, management and further research.%网络分析法是使用很广的评价方法,该方法考虑了评价对象定量和定性指标之间相互影响,准确性更高.目前还没有学者利用网络分析方法(ANP)建立杉木风景游憩林林内景观质量评价指标体系的网络分析模型.在查阅国内外风景游憩林—致性结论的基础上,以杉木人工林为研究对象,运用网络分析法建立风景游憩林林内景观评价指标体系.结果表明:森林美学指标在主指标中权重是最大的,其余依次是林木测树、林分空间结构、地被物层特征、森林健康;二级指标中,权重从大到小依次是:坡度、平均树高、通视距离、林分平均直径、生活型组成、郁闭度、冠幅、乔木株数、树干显示度、灌木高度、针阔比、绿量、枯倒

  18. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  19. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  20. Preparation of liquefied wood-based resins and their application in molding material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie; Yu Li-li; Jie Shu-jun

    2007-01-01

    To investigate value in use of liquefied wood-based resin applications in molding material, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Populus tomentosa) wood meal were liquefied in phenol. The reactant was co-condensed with formaldehyde to obtain liquefied wood-based resin. For this paper, we investigated the characterization of the resin and its application in molding material. The result shows that the basic properties of liquefied wood-based resin were satisfactory; the bonding strength of plywood prepared with liquefied Chinese fir and liquefied poplar resin can reach 1.54 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The compression strengths of the molding material prepared with two kinds of liquefied wood resin were 73.01 and 73.58 MPa, almost the same as that of PF resin molding material. The limiting volume swelling of molding material made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.5% and 8.3%, thickness swelling rates of water absorption were 3.3% and 4.2%, and the maximum weight ratios of water absorption were 25.9% and 26.2%, respectively. The soil burial test result shows that the weight loss rate of the molding materials made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.3% and 9.1% and that of the PF resin molding material was 7.9%. After the soil internment test, the reduction ratio of compression strength of the two kinds of molding material achieved 16.9%and 17.7%, while that of the PF resin molding material was 15.4%. The test results of wood fungi inoculation on the three surfaces of the molding material indicate the breeding rate of molding material prepared with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were at level 4 and that of PF resin molding material was at level 1 of the ISO standard.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

  2. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  3. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  4. Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Potvin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    • Linking tree diversity to carbon storage can provide further motivation to conserve tropical forests and to design carbon-enriched plantations. Here, we examine the role of tree diversity and functional traits in determining carbon storage in a mixed-species plantation and in a natural tropical forest in Panama. • We used species richness, functional trait diversity, species dominance and functional trait dominance to predict tree carbon storage across these two forests. Then we compared the species ranking based on wood density, maximum diameter, maximum height, and leaf mass per area (LMA) between sites to reveal how these values changed between different forests. • Increased species richness, a higher proportion of nitrogen fixers and species with low LMA increased carbon storage in the mixed-species plantation, while a higher proportion of large trees and species with high LMA increased tree carbon storage in the natural forest. Furthermore, we found that tree species varied greatly in their absolute and relative values between study sites. • Different results in different forests mean that we cannot easily predict carbon storage capacity in natural forests using data from experimental plantations. Managers should be cautious when applying functional traits measured in natural populations in the design of carbon-enriched plantations.

  5. Epidemics of Diaporthe adunca in experimental and in natural populations of Plantago lanceolata and the effect of partial resistance on disease development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.G.A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; Zadoks, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Epidemics of the splash-dispersed pathogenic fungus Diaporthe adunca on its host, the perennial herb Plantago lanceolata, were followed during two consecutive years in transects at roadsides in the Netherlands. Epidemics of D. adunca were also studied on clones of a susceptible and a partially resis

  6. Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of male-sterile and hermaphrodite sex types of Plantago lanceolata grown under conditions of contrasting nitrogen and light availabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, P.; Pilon, J.; Pens, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata is it gynodioecious species: In natural populations male steriles (MS) coexist with hermaphrodites (H). Since male steriles have a reproductive disadvantage, without any compensation for their loss in male function by an increase in female function, they are expected to disappear

  7. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Urosomoida agilis, and new combinations: Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov., and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal

    2015-02-01

    For years, systematics of three species, Urosomoida agilis (Engelmann, 1862) Hemberger in Foissner, 1982, Urosomoida longa (Gelei and Szabados, 1950) Foissner et al., 1991 and Oxytricha lanceolata Shibuya, 1930, has remained unresolved due to lack of adequate molecular data. Though, it is known since several years that the three species are not very closely related. In the present paper, 18S rRNA gene sequences for two key species, U. agilis and U. longa, and their morphology and morphometry have been analyzed. Molecular phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony methods has adequately removed ambiguity over their systematics. In phylogenetic trees, U. agilis clustered consistently with non-stylonychine oxytrichids. Both Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata clustered consistently away from U. agilis and O. granulifera, the type species of the genera Urosomoida and Oxytricha, respectively. As a result of the current molecular phylogenetic investigation and based on previously inferred morphological and morphogenetic data it is proposed to remove Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata from Urosomoida and incertae sedis in Oxytricha, respectively, and establish two new generic combinations, Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov. and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. for them.

  9. Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the s

  10. Two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides reduce the in-vitro growth of a specialist but not of a generalist pathogenic fungus of Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Many secondary plant compounds are involved in defense against both insect herbivores and pathogens. Two secondary plant compounds of Plantago lanceolata, the iridoid glycosides catalpol and its precursor aucubin, are well known for their deterrent effects on generalist and non-adapted specialist in

  11. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  12. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  13. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  14. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  15. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  16. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  17. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  18. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  19. Available Nitrogen and Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Brazilian Eucalypt Plantations on Soils of Contrasting Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pulito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations have seldom responded to N fertilization in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil. This implies that rates of N mineralization have been adequate to supply tree needs. However, subsequent crop rotations with low N fertilization may result in declining concentrations of organic and potentially mineralizable N (N0, and consequent loss of wood productivity. This study investigated (a in situ N mineralization and N0 in soils of eucalypt plantations in São Paulo state, Brazil; (b tree growth responses to N fertilizer applied 6–18 months after planting; and (c the relationships between N0, other soil attributes and tree growth. We established eleven N fertilizer trials (maximum 240 kg ha−1 of N in E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla plantations. The soil types at most sites were Oxisols and Quartzipsamments, with a range of organic matter (18 to 55 g kg−1 and clay contents (8% to 67% in the 0–20 cm layer. Concentrations of N0 were measured using anaerobic incubation on soil samples collected every three months (different seasons. The samples collected in spring and summer had N0 140–400 kg ha−1 (10%–19% total soil N, which were best correlated with soil texture and organic matter content. Rates of in situ net N mineralization (0–20 cm ranged from 100 to 200 kg ha−1 year−1 and were not correlated with clay, total N, or N0. These high N mineralization rates resulted in a low response to N fertilizer application during the early ages of stand growth, which were highest on sandy soils. At the end of the crop rotation, the response to N fertilizer was negligible and non-significant at all sites.

  20. Applications of Photogrammetry for Analysis of Forest Plantations. Preliminary study: Analysis of individual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R.; Barahona, A.; Aguilar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method for using high detail volumetric information, captured with a land based photogrammetric survey, to obtain information from individual trees. Applying LIDAR analysis techniques it is possible to measure diameter at breast height, height at first branch (commercial height), basal area and volume of an individual tree. Given this information it is possible to calculate how much of that tree can be exploited as wood. The main objective is to develop a methodology for successfully surveying one individual tree, capturing every side of the stem a using high resolution digital camera and reference marks with GPS coordinates. The process is executed for several individuals of two species present in the metropolitan area in San Jose, Costa Rica, Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., each one with different height, stem shape and crown area. Using a photogrammetry suite all the pictures are aligned, geo-referenced and a dense point cloud is generated with enough detail to perform the required measurements, as well as a solid tridimensional model for volume measurement. This research will open the way to develop a capture methodology with an airborne camera using close range UAVs. An airborne platform will make possible to capture every individual in a forest plantation, furthermore if the analysis techniques applied in this research are automated it will be possible to calculate with high precision the exploit potential of a forest plantation and improve its management.

  1. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  2. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  3. Yield model for unthinned Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omiyale, O.; Joyce, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past few decades the construction of yield models, has progressed from the graphical through mathematical and biomathematic approach. The development of a biomathematical growth model for Sitka spruce plantations is described. It is suggested that this technique can serve as a basis for general yield model construction of plantation species in Ireland. (Refs. 15).

  4. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  5. Fertilization Response, Light Use, and Growth Efficiency in Eucalyptus Plantations across Soil and Climate Gradients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Meulman Leite da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization increases productivity in Eucalyptus plantations, but losses in productivity associated with soil fertility continue at operational scales. In this study, we evaluated the fertilization response (FR, light use efficiency (LUE and growth efficiency (GE, i.e., the amount of wood biomass accumulated per unit of light absorbed (LUE and per unit of leaf area index of Eucalyptus plantations. We used a “twin plot” approach, with 161 blocks representing 52,700 ha of planted forests that spanned a broad range of edaphoclimatic conditions in southeastern Brazil. The normal plots (NP were part of a permanent inventory network, whereas the twin plots (TP received extra high levels of fertilization and extra weed control after fertilization. The intensive management (twin plots led to a large increase of 5.3 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of wood increment. The region without dry periods and with soils with high clay content was most responsive to fertilization, with a 15% increment in the LUE and 10% increase in the GE of the TPs compared with those of the NPs. Our results suggested that water availability was the primary element affecting productivity and potential response to fertilization. With this information, decisions can be made on which regions should receive priority fertilization investments. However, more research is required to determine the most limiting nutrient in each type of environment.

  6. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  7. The coppice-with-standards silvicultural system as applied to Eucalyp-tus plantations-a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Carlos FERRAZ FILHO; José Roberto Soares; SCOLFORO; Blas MOLA-YUDEGO

    2014-01-01

    We review the management of Eucalyptus species under a coppice-with-standards (CWS) silvicultural system. CWS management results in product diversification, permitting production of small and large scale timber from the same stand. Eucalyptus species are suitable candidates for CWS management because: there are large worldwide plantation areas, sprouting capacity is high, and eucalypts are multipur-pose species. We discuss (1) short rotation Eucalyptus coppice manage-ment for energy and pulping and (2) Eucalyptus seedling management for solid wood products. We review the literature and discuss experi-ences with Eucalyptus managed under the CWS system. We also assess projects dealing with Eucalyptus coppice management, stand density regulation, pruning, and stand and wood quality. The growth environ-ment of the standard trees (heavy competition up to the first harvest, free growth afterwards) coupled with long rotations (>20 years) results in high quality logs for solid wood products. Early pruning should be ap-plied to enhance wood quality. We propose a system for the silvicultural management of Eucalyptus under the CWS system, elaborating on the consequences of initial planting density, site productivity, and standard tree densities as well as timing of basic silvicultural applications.

  8. Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2002-12-01

    Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the same compounds can be induced following infection by the fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca, the causal agent of a stalk disease in P. lanceolata. Significant induction of aucubin and catalpol was observed in two of the three plant genotypes used in this study following inoculation with the pathogen. In one of the genotypes, induction occurred within 6 hr after inoculation, and no decay was observed within 8 days. The highest level of induction was observed in reproductive tissues (spikes and stalks) where infection took place. In these tissues, iridoid glycoside levels in infected plants were, on average, 97% and 37% higher than the constitutive levels in the corresponding control plants, respectively. Significant induction was also observed in leaves (24%) and roots (17%). In addition to significant genotypic variation in the level of induction, we found genetic variation for the tissue-specific pattern of induction, further broadening the scope for evolutionary fine-tuning of induced responses. Recent studies have revealed a negative association between iridoid glycoside levels in P. lanceolata genotypes and the amount of growth and reproduction of D. adunca that these genotypes support. However, for the three genotypes used in the present study, differences in resistance were not related to their constitutive or induced levels of iridoid glycosides, suggesting that additional resistance mechanisms are important in this host-pathogen system. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can be induced both by arthropods and pathogenic micro-organisms. Pathogen infection could, therefore, potentially enhance resistance to generalist insect herbivores in this

  9. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  10. Effect of Different Tendering Measures onCunninghamia lanceolata%不同抚育措施对杉木大径材培育效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃钧; 马海泉; 陈天华; 冯博杰; 傅兵; 鄢振武

    2015-01-01

    于2011年在浙江省庆元县和龙泉市的杉木人工林设立了3个小班进行试验,每木调查,2012年3月前完成间伐,然后采取“间后施肥”、“间后不施”、“不间不施”3种不同抚育措施,研究其对杉木胸径生长量和经济收入的影响。结果表明:以“间后施肥”的效果最好,两年杉木大径材平均胸径生长量比间伐前增加了4 cm,蓄积增长量比间伐前增加了66.75 m3/hm2,平均胸径增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加1.03 cm和3.43 cm,平均蓄积增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加15.45 m3/hm2和42.90 m3/hm2。%Three subcompartments were established in 2011 for test of different tending measures inCunninghamia lanceolata plantation of Qingyuan and Longquan of Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in 2011 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before March 2012, followed by three different tendering measures, such as fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment, with 4cm and 66.75 m3/ha more two years later. Mean DBH and standing stock increment of treatment of fertilization after thinning was 1.03cm and 3.43cm, 15.45 m3/ha and 42.90 m3/ha more than that of no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning.

  11. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    considerably increased by using improved seed and deep soil cultivation in plantations. Research highlights: Results encourage managers for short rotation management in industrial plantations using closer spacing in terms of carbon sequestration as well as wood production. (Author)

  12. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  13. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

  14. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  15. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  16. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  17. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  18. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  19. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  20. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  1. [Preparation and properties of wood/modified UF prepolymer composite materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Fei; Song, Shu-Ping; Qu, Ping; Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-Wen

    2011-04-01

    In the present research, the urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and multilayer hot-press drying were used to modify poplar plantation. The prepolymer was impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine. Then the timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of poplar were changed in this investigation. The basic density of modified wood increased 1.06 times compared with the natural wood, and the bending strength increased 33% for modified wood, compressive strength parallel to grain increased 74%, the water absorption decreased to 97% from 104%. The crystallinity decreased slightly from 39.65 to 36.89 because of the modifier impregnated. TGA analysis showed that the heat resistance of modified wood increased, the three exothermic peaks in DTA curve of modified wood were 280, 360 and 485 degrees C which were higher than natural wood in the corresponding position FTIR analysis showed that the hydroxyl modified material has a good association phenomenon, and carbonyl content decreased. The SEM spectrum showed the distribution of the prepolymer in the modified timber.

  2. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSION WOOD IN Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Mull. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Alves Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tension wood is an important anatomical structure for its participation in the orientation of the trunk and the architecture of the branches as a function of structural reinforcement. However, its presence in large amounts significantly affects the technological properties of wood, just as in the rubber tree. Nevertheless, there is still demand for information about the origin, distribution and structural features in this species. Thus, this study aims to characterize the cellular structures in tension and opposite wood in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree, as well as its radial and longitudinal distribution. Discs at the base and the middle of the commercial logs were collected from three trees in a commercial plantation located in Tabapoã - SP. Tangential diameter of vessels, fiber length (gelatinous and non-gelatinous fibers, microfibril angle and proportionality of cellular elements (vessels, axial parenchyma, ray, gelatinous fibers and non-gelatinous fibers were measured, and influence of gelatinous fiber presence in vessel diameter was observed. Gelatinous fibers were observed in the two types of wood and in the two trunk heights. Both types of wood were distinguished by gelatinous fiber length and the proportion of axial parenchyma. The tension wood in mid-trunk was the most different, with long gelatinous fibers and less abundant, larger vessel diameter and vessel proportion. Moreover, smaller vessel diameter was observed in the regions with a high proportion of gelatinous fibers, suggesting that the plant invests more support than in liquid transport.

  3. [Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P biomass, with the highest for total biomass. By these equations, the aboveground biomass and its allocation were estimated, with the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana, P. elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively.

  4. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  5. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project ("BEAST - Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool"). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies.

  6. Fast growing plantations for wood production – integration of ecological effects and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBredemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRC with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyse, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyse the effects on the water budget a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modelling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems (AF on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a safety net to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication.

  7. Benefits in Mixed Forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera%杉木光皮桦混交林效益的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承标; 邓绍林; 农必昌

    2001-01-01

    对桂西北杉木光皮桦混交林和杉木纯林的对比研究表明,35年生杉桦混交林的立木蓄积量为441.087 m3*hm-2,比杉木纯林高3.6%。混交林枯枝落叶层现存量及其N,P,K,Ca,Mg等元素的质量浓度分别为13.18 t*hm-2,158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3和32.3 kg*hm-2,分别比杉木纯林高9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0%。混交林地(0~100 cm)土壤容重为0.81~1.22 g*hm-3,比杉木纯林低1.0%~8.0%,而土壤孔隙度,通气度和持水量分别比杉木纯林高2.0%~3.9%。土壤有机质、全氮、水解氮、有效磷和速效钾分别比杉木纯林高5.5%~49.8%。%Comparative studies were conducted on mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera and pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in westren of Guangxi.The result showed that the growing stocks in stands of 35-year-old mixed forest was 441.087 m3*hm-2,which was by 3.6% higher than those of the same years old forests of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata.The mean standing crop of litteron forest floor in mixed forest was 13.18 t*hm-2 and the mass concentration of N,P,K,Ca,Mg were 158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3,32.3 kg*hm-2,respectively.Being by 9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest,respectively.In mixed forest,the soil volume weight (0~100 cm) were 0.81~1.22 g*cm-3,were 1.0%~8.0% lower than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,but it total poresity aeration porosity and moisture capacty were 2.0%~3.9% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.The nutrientconcentration of organic matter,TN,hydrolazable N,available P and repidly available K in the soil,being by 5.5%~49.8% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.

  8. 大型运输容器减震用改性木材的研制%Preparation and Characterizationo f Special Shock Abos rp tion Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文华; 郑雅娴; 柴宇博; 刘君良

    2015-01-01

    为了筛选大型运输容器减震器用木材,对泡桐、柳杉、杨木、落叶松、杉木等多种人工林木材进行了大变形抗压测试及减震性能分析。结果表明:仅密度达0.4 g/cm3的杉木,能满足大型运输容器减震材料要求,其资源极其有限;通过对低密度人工林杉木进行树脂浸渍增强改性,提高其减震性能,使其能满足大型运输容器减震材料要求,从而可充分利用人工林杉木资源。%We studied the shock absorption performance of several plantation woods of Paulownia wood, Sugi wood, Poplar wood, Larch wood, Chinese-fir wood in China by the large deformation compression testing to find out the suitable wood to make the large shock absorber.Only Chinese-fir wood with a density up to 0.4 g/cm3 could meet the special needs with lim-ited natural resource.Through resin impregnation modification the shock absorption performance of low density Chinese-fir wood could be improved and also met the material requirements of the special large shock absorber for full use of the plan-tation wood.

  9. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  10. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  11. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  15. Genetic analysis of ecological relevant morphological variability in Plantago lanceolata L. : 2. Localisation and organisation of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, K

    1987-04-01

    Morphological variability was analysed in an F2-generation derived from crosses between two ecotypes of Plantago lanceolata L. Six allozyme loci, localised in five linkage groups, were used as markers. For two marker loci, Got-2 and Gpi-1, segregations did not fit monogenic ratios. In the linkage groups to which these two loci belonged, male sterility genes appeared to be present. In these crosses, male sterility (type 3, as described by Van Damme 1983) may be determined by two recessive loci located in the linkage groups of Got-2 and of Gpi-1. Many correlations of morphological and life history characters with allozyme markers were observed. The quantitative trait loci did not appear to be concentrated in major gene complexes. Often many loci were involved, sometimes with effects opposite to those expected from the population values. Main effects of the linkage groups appeared to be more important than interaction effects in determining variability. It also appeared that there is a positive correlation between the number of heterozygous allozyme loci and generative growth.

  16. Improving the assessment method of seed vigor in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana based on oxygen sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guang-wu; ZHONG Tai-lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen sensing technology was employed to study the rapid methods for seed vigor assessment of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana).Firstly,seeds of five lots were performed using accelerated aging (AA) into three vigor levels.Then,four oxygen sensing indices,including increased metabolism time (IMT),oxygen metabolism rate (OMR),critical oxygen pressure (COP),relative germination time (RGT) and the control indices such as laboratory germination indices,dehydrogenase activity (DA),and electrical conductivity (EC) were analyzed by the tests of 15 samples.The results of correlation analysis between these indices and field emergence performances based on two-year and two-spot data showed that RGT and OMR should be indicated as the optimal oxygen sensing indices to rapidly and automatically evaluate seed vigor of Chinese fir and Masson pine,respectively.On the basis,one-variable linear regression equations were built to forecast their field emergence performances by the two oxygen sensing indices.

  17. Organic acid exudation from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana seedlings under low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanchun YU; Jian YU; Qihua SHAN; Li FANG; Defeng JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) seedlings under low phosphorus stress was studied using the solution culture method. The results revealed that organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir and Masson pine seedlings under low phosphorus stress increased. Compared with P3 (KH2PO4, 0.5 mmol/L), the average organic acid exuda-tion from the root of Masson pine seedlings under P0 (KH2PO4, 0 mmol/L), P1 (KH2PO4, 0.03 mmol/L) and P2(KH2PO4, 0.09 mmol/L) increased by 328.6%, 267.9% and 126.4% respectively. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province in China had the highest organic acid exuda-tion. Under low phosphorus stress, the increase in organic acid exudation from the different provinces of Chinese fir and Masson pine varied. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid exudation, that from Guangxi Province mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation, and that from Guizhou Province, China mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid and malic acid exudation. Chinese fir mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation.

  18. Nutrient Management for Eucalypt Plantations in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Eucalypts are very popular for revegetation in many parts of south China because of their capacity to tolerate degraded sites and unfertile soils,and their fast growth potential to coppice. This paper reviews a decade of field trials in china, undertaken as part of several bilateral researchprograms in plantation forestry, concerning the use of fertilizers, harvest residue management and inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. One of the key questions addressed is whether the productivity of plantation ...

  19. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-10-30

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

  20. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  1. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  2. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  3. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  4. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  5. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  6. Utilization of Carbonized Wood from Tropical Fast-Growing Trees for Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sulistyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan hutan tanaman dari jenis-jenis cepat tumbuh di kawasan tropis menimbulkan limbah biomassa kayu yang sebagian saat ini digunakan untuk kayu bakar dan sebagian lain digunakan untuk produksi arang dengan tujuan penggunaan yang terbatas. Pengembangan material-material fungsional untuk berbagai aplikasi teknik dengan memanfaatkan arang kayu dari jenis pohon cepat tumbuh harus mempertimbangkan struktur mikro dan struktur pori dalam arang kayu yang berhubungan dengan kondisi karbonisasi. Ulasan ini meliputi kemajuan penelitian-penelitian saat ini pada karbonisasi kayu dari pohon cepat tumbuh tropis, mekanisme perkembangan struktur mikro dan struktur pori dalam arang kayu selama karbonisasi, pemanfaatan yang tepat dari struktur mikro dan porositas dalam arang kayu untuk pengembangan material-material fungsional serta usaha dan peningkatan pengembangan material-material fungsional menggunakan arang kayu dari pohon cepat tumbuh tropis. Katakunci: arang kayu, material fungsional, pohon cepat tumbuh, karbonisasi   Utilization of Carbonized Wood from Tropical Fast-Growing Trees for Functional Materials Abstract Establishment of fast-growing tree species plantations in tropical areas generate wood biomass residue in which some of them are currently utilized for heating fuel and some others are used for charcoal production with limited purposes. The development of functional materials for engineering applications utilizing carbonized wood from fast-growing trees species have to consider the microstructure and pore structure in carbonized wood which has a relationship to the carbonization conditions. This review covers the current researches on progress in the carbonization of wood from tropical fast-growing trees, mechanism of the microstructure and pore structure development in carbonized wood during carbonization, proper utilizations of the microstructure and porosity in carbonized wood for the development of functional materials and efforts

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tomazelo-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  8. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ​​higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  9. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BRANCH-WOOD OF Schizolobium amazonicum DUCKE SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Amin

    2013-10-01

    used for the establishment of industrial plantation forests (HTI, therefore S.amazonicum trees, as fast- growing species,are also promising for the establishment of pulp/paper-HTI for their branch-wood.

  10. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  11. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  12. Rejuvenated sycamore cuttings for energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, S.B. Jr.; Elam, W.W. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Khan, Mohammad [Pakistan Forest Inst., Peshawar (Pakistan). Forestry Research Div.

    1995-12-31

    Rejuvination of mature, progeny tested American sycamore trees is needed to increase rooting success of cuttings for energy plantations. Studies conducted in Mississippi (U.S.A.) indicated that hedging of stock plants and spraying the stock plants with benzyl adenine may rejuvinate the cuttings. Percentages of cuttings with early bud break in one study and with sprouts and roots after nine months in another study were increased. The rooted cuttings grew rapidly like juvenile material and showed no plagiotrophic effects during the first year after transplanting. At the end of that year the dry weight was 2.13 Mg ha{sup -1} (1.2 m x 3.6 m spacing) and was distributed in stems (31%), branches (14%), leaves (24%) and roots (31%). An IBA rooting powder decreased rooting success. Planting cuttings directly in the nursery, rather than first in the greenhouse, increased success when frost was absent. Use of cuttings of greater than 14 m diameter with a node within 2 cm of the base increased success. Clonal differences in frost susceptibility of sprouting cuttings were observed. (author)

  13. Studies on the Species of Endophytic Fungi from Cunninghamia lanceolata in Xinyang Area%信阳杉木内生真菌种类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东升; 张伟; 杜醒醒

    2015-01-01

    通过组织分离及物种鉴定,对信阳杉木内生真菌种类进行了研究.得到丝孢纲( Hyphomycetes)和腔孢纲(Coelomycetes)真菌4科12属15种.淡色孢科(Moniliaceae)3属5种,暗色孢科(Dematiaceae)2属2种,黑盘孢科(Melanconidaceae)2属3种,球科孢科(Sphaeropsidaceae)5属5种,这些真菌均为半知菌,是杉木内生真菌首次记载.其中,拟茎点霉Phomopsis sp.、球刺盘孢菌Colletotrichum coccodes分布于杉木各样地各器官,为杉木内生真菌广布种.%By tissue isolation and species identification, the species of endophytic fungi from Cunninghamia lan-ceolata were studied in Xinyang area.The results showed that total of 15 fungal species among 12 genera belonging to 4 families and 2 classes, Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes, were obtained.Five species belonging to 3 genera in Mo-niliaceae, two species belonging to 2 genera in Dematiaceae, two species belonging to 3 genera in Melanconidaceae and five species belonging to 5 genera in Sphaeropsidaceae were reported.All the fungal species described belonged to Deuteromycotina and they were recorded for the first time as endophytic fungi in Cunninghamia lanceolata tissues.It was also found that the Colletotrichum coccodes and Phomopsis sp.distributed in every organ and every sample plot, they were dispersed species of endophytic fungi in Cunninghamia lanceolata plants.

  14. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  15. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  16. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  17. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  18. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  19. Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

  20. Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Moreno, P.; Quero, J.L.; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F.J.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate

  1. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  2. Study on the Retention and Distributions of the Copper-Based Preservative in Standing Tree Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of some studies about the wood permeability and its improving measures, some progress has been made to study the diffusion and transmission of preservative solutions in standing trees. In the present study, copper- (Cu- based preservative with other reagents is injected into the standing tree Chinese fir using sap-flow method. The chemical compositions of the retreated woods are analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The samples from different height positions are analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS to obtain microstructures and preservative retention, respectively. The results indicate that the preservative solutions with lower concentrations are more conducive to diffusion and transmission in the wood. Moreover, the preservative retention at different height position has a greater concentration gradient for composite preservative solutions than those of the single preservative solutions. Solidified preservative particles are observed in xylem rays with SEM. The results of the present study provide some useful information for the functional design of the target wood products.

  3. Cost of Carbon Sequestration of Eucalypt Plantation in South Fujian%闽南地区桉树人工林固碳成本核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆全

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic changes of present value for carbon - sequestrated cost of eucalypt plantation were systematically analyzed and compared in a complete rotation from Guoqiang Forest Farm in South Fujian with ecologial economic principles. Without considering the benefits of wood, the results showed that the present values of carbon - sequestrated cost were decreased with increasing ages of euealypt plantations. 1 - 7 years old eucalypt plantations present value of carbon sequestration of carbon per ton was 1082.9 , 648.2,529.1, 393.1, 319.3, 273.4 and 244.0 RMB respectively .%运用生态经济学原理,对闽南地区国强林场桉树人工林在一个完整轮伐期内的固碳成本现值动态变化进行系统分析,在不考虑木材收益时的固碳成本进行比较,结果表明:桉树人工林固碳成本现值随林龄的增加而降低;各林龄(1~7a)桉树人工林固碳成本现值分别为每吨碳1082.9、648.2、529.1、393.1、319.3、273.4和244.0元。

  4. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  5. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  6. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  8. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  9. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  10. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  11. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

  12. Demarcation of Seabuckthorn Plantations in Three Northern Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones: the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the Loess Plateau; the arid desert steppe climate zone for ecological type of seabuckthorn plantations in the northern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid and semi-humid steppe climate zone again for ecological and economic types of plantations in northern Hebei and western Liaoning and the cold humid steppe climate zone for economic types of plantations in the northern part of northeast China. The aim of this demarcation is to avoid a random introduction of seabuckthorn. In each of the five zones,objectives should be set and suitable seabuckthorn species, subspecies and varieties should be planted according to site conditions,seed sources and methods of tree breeding. The cultivation centers, bases, stations, or units should be established and successful models of seedling and planting methods should be encouraged. The principle of matching trees with suitable site conditions and adjusting measures to local conditions should be practiced. From a strategic viewpoint of solving ecological and economic problems of seabuckthorn development in the three northern areas, every seabuckthorn center must have its own germplasm nursery, standard plantation for popularizing, excellent seed and seedling nurseries and sufficient afforestation areas for demonstration and propaganda purposes. These measures would improve the ecological environment and promote economic and social development in the three northern areas of China.

  13. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  14. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  15. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  16. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  17. Prediction of mechanical properties of Chinese fir wood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Rongjun ZHAO; Feng FU; Benhua FEI; Zehui JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties and the visible and near infrared (NIR) (350-2500nm) spectra obtained from longitudinal and transverse face of 155 small clear wood samples of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) were measured, and 103 of them were used to establish calibration models. Calibrations were tested on an independent set (52 samples). Differences between calibrations developed by using the longitudinal and transverse face were small. The calibrations developed by using NIR spectra (350-2500nm) collected from transverse face were slightly inferior to those developed by using NIR spectra collected from longitudinal face. When reducing the spectral range to between 780 and 1050 nm, the calibrations developed by using NIR spectra collected from longitudinal face were slightly inferior to those developed by using NIR spectra collected from transverse face, and reducing the spectral range causes no decrease in the quality of the models developed using NIR spectra collected from transverse face. Partial lease square (PLS) modeling and test showed that calibrations developed using the visible and NIR spectra from transverse and longitudinal faces and calibrations developed by using the reducing spectral range (780- 1050nm) from the transverse face were moderate, and have a RPD range from 1.51 to 1.90. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy can be used as an initial screening.

  18. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 μm, and 7.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  19. Nitrogen removal and its determinants in hybrid Populus clones for bioenergy plantations after two biennial rotations in two temperate sites in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of bioenergy coppice plantations is strongly affected by the Nitrogen (N balance, whose removal is very high due to the frequent harvest of large quantities of biomass composed of small-sized shoots. Poplar bioenergy coppice plantations could have a Nitrogen removal comparable to herbaceous crops. In this study, five hybrid poplar genotypes (“AF2”, “AF6”, “Monviso”, “83.148.041”, “I214” were compared for tree morphological traits related to yield, N removal in the harvested biomass and Nitrogen wood concentration (N% after two biennial coppice rotations in two experimental plantations located in northern Italy. N removal was primarily influenced by biomass production, and linear positive relationships between biomass yield and N removal were established. N removal also varied greatly among genotypes due to clonal differences in yield and in N%, in relation to significant differences among clones for their branching and sprouting habits. In the first rotation, branchiness was positively correlated to N% with a significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.813, while at the end of the second rotation it was also significantly correlated to the shoots per stool ratio (R2=0.804. “Monviso” and “83.148.041” were the clones showing the highest yield, but also a high N% associated to an high level of branchiness and shoots per stool ratio. Our results highlight that poplar genotype selection for sustainable N management should be aimed at genotypes with low wood N concentration, coupling high yield with low branching and sprouting habits as in the case of the clone “AF2”.

  20. Leaf size serves as a proxy for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in plantation trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Chamberland, Sabrina; Lowe, Christopher W; Kamelchuk, David; Bräutigam, Katharina; Campbell, Malcolm M; Thomas, Barb R

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid poplars are an important renewable forest resource known for their high productivity. At the same time, they are highly vulnerable to water stress. Identifying traits that can serve as indicators for growth performance remains an important task, particularly under field conditions. Understanding which trait combinations translate to improved productivity is key in order to satisfy the demand for poplar wood in an uncertain future climate. In this study, we compared hydraulic and leaf traits among five hybrid poplar clones at 10 plantations in central Alberta. We also assessed the variation of these traits between 2- to 3-year-old branches from the lower to mid-crown and current-year long shoots from the mid to upper crown. Our results showed that (1) hybrid poplars differed in key hydraulic parameters between branch type, (2) variation of hydraulic traits among clones was relatively large for some clones and less for others, and (3) strong relationships between measured hydraulic traits, such as vessel diameter, cavitation resistance, xylem-specific and leaf-specific conductivity and leaf area, were observed. Our results suggest that leaf size could serve as an additional screening tool when selecting for drought-tolerant genotypes in forest management and tree improvement programmes.

  1. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  2. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  3. In situ FT-IR microscopic study on enzymatic treatment of poplar wood cross-sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Goswami, Luna; Schmidt, Martin; Burgert, Ingo; Coutand, Catherine; Rogge, Tilmann; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2008-08-01

    The feasibility of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy to monitor in situ the enzymatic degradation of wood was investigated. Cross-sections of poplar wood were treated with cellulase Onozuka RS within a custom-built fluidic cell. Light-optical micrographs and FT-IR spectra were acquired in situ from normal and tension wood fibers. Light-optical micrographs showed almost complete removal of the gelatinous (G) layer in tension wood. No structural and spectral changes were observed in the lignified cell walls. The accessibility of cellulose within the lignified cell wall was found to be the main limiting factor, whereas the depletion of the enzyme due to lignin adsorption could be ruled out. The fast, selective hydrolysis of the crystalline cellulose in the G-layer, even at room temperature, might be explained by the gel-like structure and the highly porous surface. Young plantation grown hardwood trees with a high proportion of G-fibers thus represent an interesting resource for bioconversion to fermentable sugars in the process to bioethanol.

  4. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  5. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  6. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  7. Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations: Studies in Afro-American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    involving the plantation’s viability over the long run were conducted in a separate circuit from those involving daily pro- visioning . As the analysis...Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. 1976 La ceramica clasica del area de Huejotzingo, Puebla . Comunicaciones. 13:25-32. 1980 Architecture at Curriboo and Yaughan

  8. Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations. Studies in Afro-American Archaeology,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    the plantation’s viability over the long run were conducted in a separate circuit from those involving daily pro- visioning . As the analysis of the...York. Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. 1976 La ceramica clasica del area de Huejotzingo, Puebla . Comunicaciones. 13:25-32. 1980 Architecture at Curriboo and

  9. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting laissez-faire

  10. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...

  11. Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posse G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.

  12. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  13. Effect of hydrological process on the productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. plantation%杉木人工林水文学过程对林分生产力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文星; 田大伦; 赵仲辉; 朱凡; 王光军

    2008-01-01

    利用湖南省会同杉木林生态系统国家野外科学研究站2004-2005年2年连续定位测定数据,分析杉木人工林水文学过程对林分生产力的影响.结果表明:大气降水不仅提供了杉木生长所需要的水分,而且,降水过程中雨水对枝叶和树干的淋溶、冲洗作用,把林冠层截留的干尘降及其自身携带的养分带入林地,降水量的多少决定进入林地的水分并影响林地的养分量;林木生长的季节变化虽然受本身生物节律的影响,但降水的月分配格局,决定着林木生长季节的水肥供给状况,进而影响着林分生产力过程;土壤水分动态与林木生长关系密切,生长季节,当土壤含水量在30%~40%(相对含水量)范围时,林木生长迅速,25%~30%范围时,林木生长速率一般,25%以下时生长速率明显下降;林木蒸腾作用与光合作用有一定的关联,但不能用蒸腾量的大小简单地预示整个林分光合作用的强弱;系统内水分输出对林分生产力的影响体现在养分的保存和损失上,通过蒸腾蒸发作用以水汽形式逸散,失去的只有水分,可以保存营养物质和保持林地的土壤肥力,有利于林木生长,而通过径流以液态形式流走时,不仅失去水分,而且流走了大量营养物质和表土,造成土样瘠薄,进而影响林分的生产力.

  14. Competition and Neighborhood Interference Index of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation Mixed with Tsoongiodendron odrum%杉木-观光木人工混交林竞争及邻体干扰指数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封磊; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 宋萍

    2007-01-01

    将杉木和观光木人工混交林中林木竞争影响空间划分为内、外两圈,在此基础上将竞争指数分解为不同的邻体干扰指数,对象木生长量与3种干扰指数的回归分析表明,以杉木为对象木时,利用张大勇提出的干扰指数模型(Izdy)效果最好;以观光木为对象木时,利用Weiner提出的干扰指数模型(Iwg)效果最好.同时,竞争强度研究表明,杉木种内竞争>杉木观光种间竞争>观光木种内竞争.通过对几种竞争影响的划分比较,说明将竞争空间分为内、外两浇圈能较好地反应林木的竞争规律.表3参17

  15. 不同杉木人工林土壤线虫群落结构及多样性研究%Research on soil nematode community Structure an diversity of difference Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树战; 王圣洁; 刘君昂; 吴毅; 何苑皞; 李河

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨土壤线虫在人工林生态系统中的功能及其对环境变化的响应.该研究利用18SrDNA的宏基因组比较了湖南省攸县不同发育阶段(3年、13年、26年)以及不同栽培代数(1代、2代、3代)杉木人工林的土壤线虫的群落结构及多样性.结果表明:(1)测序共获得了2 111条隶属于线虫动物门的序列.经聚类后产生了27个OTUs.主要类群有Prismatolaimidae、Monhysteridae、Alaimidae、Qudsianematidae、Criconematidae、Plectidae它们分别占总序列数的31%、15%、11%、8%、6%、5%,其中Prismatolaimidae在所有样地中均占绝对优势,Aphelenchidae、Cephalobidae、Criconematidae、Rhabdolaimidae、Tylenchidae这5个类群的相对丰度在各样地间具有显著性差异(p<0.05);(2)冗余分析(RDA)发现所选的5块样地的线虫的群落结构有着明显的差异,FRC,SYC,TYC三块样地的群落结构较为相似.FYC与FRC之间差异性最大;(3)6种不同的多样性指数的单因素方差分析发现,各样地的多样性指数之间没有达到显著性差异.说明长期种植单一杉木人工林能够改变土壤线虫的群落组成,但并没有改变种群的多样性.土壤线虫中存在种的冗余现象.

  16. Response of Soil Microbe Flora to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition at a Plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木林土壤微生物区系对短期模拟氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞; 焦如珍; 董玉红; 孙启武; 李峰卿; 周新华

    2015-01-01

    通过模拟氮沉降试验(设置2种氮形态5种施氮水平(N0、N1、N2、N3、N4分别代表0、20、40、60、80 kg·hm-2·a-1,共10个处理)研究杉木林土壤微生物区系的变化.结果表明:沉降第1年,高氮处理对微生物数量的影响较显著,氮处理时微生物数量的变化波动较大;沉降1年后,各处理的变化规律稳定,波动较小.12月份各处理间微生物数量和细菌数量变化幅度较小、氮处理对其影响不显著,故不宜在12月采集土样.氮沉降量影响微生物总量,总体而言低氮处理促进微生物生长,最高氮处理抑制微生物生长,NH4+-N2或N3和NO3--N3处理微生物总量最多.不同微生物类群对氮沉降形态和沉降量的响应不同,土壤细菌的变化规律和微生物数量的变化规律一致,低氮处理时,硝态氮处理对细菌数量生长的影响大于铵态氮处理,2种形态氮的N2或N3处理细菌数量最大.铵态氮比硝态氮更易影响真菌的生长,且NH4+-N1和NO3--N3处理真菌数量最多.不同氮沉降形态对放线菌数量影响显著,沉降1年后高氮沉降量对放线菌生长略有促进作用.

  17. 施肥与间伐对杉木大径材培育的影响%Effect of Thinning and Fertilization on Increment in DBH and Volume ofCunninghamia lanceolata Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐隆校; 潘建华; 赖根伟

    2016-01-01

    2012年对浙江省遂昌县牛头山、白马山、桂洋、湖山林场4个小班的人工杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)林和针阔混交林(杉木:鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense)为7:3,株数比)进行“间伐后施肥”、“间伐后不施肥”、“不施肥不间伐”3种处理,2014年调查比较不同措施对杉木林胸径和材积生长量以及经济收入的影响。结果表明,“间伐后施肥”处理的效果最好,实施2 a后杉木林平均胸径生长量、蓄积增长量比间伐前都有明显增长;3种处理给杉木材积增长带来的经济效益以“间伐后施肥”为最明显,每年可增加经济效益27810元/hm2,比“不施肥不间伐”增加13560元/hm2。%Three permanent sample plots in each subcompartment (4 subcompartments) were established in 2012 for test of thinning and fertilization on growth ofCunninghamia lanceolataplantation and mixed forest in Suichang, Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in July-September of 2012 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before December of 2012, followed by fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment two years later. The treatment of fertilization after thinning could increase 27810 Yuan RMB/ha in increment of volume a year, 13560 Yuan RMB more than that of no fertilization and thinning.

  18. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  19. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  20. A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

  1. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  2. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  3. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  4. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the phy

  5. Biochemical modification of wood components

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose found in wood is one of the most important degradation processes for the carbon flux on earth. The degradation is performed by microorganisms that typically use enzymes. Since the cellulose in wood is crystalline and embedded in other polymers, making it inaccessible and durable, the enzymatic methods of cellulose degradation is also complex. In this thesis, the action of some of these enzymes, called cellulases, have been studied both fundamentally and for indust...

  6. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  7. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  8. 解剖构造对人工林樟子松单板染色效果的影响%Influence of Anatomical Characteristics on Dyeing Effects of Veneer from Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管雪梅; 郭明辉

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the main anatomical factors influencing wood dyeing effects using Pinus syhestris var. mongolica plantations as study objects. Related indexes of wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects were determined, and a multiple regression analysis was made to analyze the correlations between wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects. Results show that there is a high correlation between dyeing effects and wood anatomical factors, and the multiple correlation coefficients between wood anatomical factors and various dyeing effect indexes range from 0.573 to 0.786. The main anatomical factors influencing wood dyeing effects of P. syhestris var. mongolica are tracheid proportion, wood ray proportion, resin canal proportion, and late wood tracheid length, etc.%以人工林樟子松为研究对象,通过测定樟子松单板解剖构造与染色效果的相关指标,对其进行多元回归分析,确定了影响木材染色效果的主要解剖因子.结果表明,解剖因子与其各染色效果指标间的复相关系数在0.573~0.786.影响樟子松木材染色效果的主要解剖因子为管胞比量、木射线比量、树脂道比量和晚材管胞长度等.

  9. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  10. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  11. Effect of Wood Variables on the Properties of Wood Fiber-Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of wood species (Chinese fir and Poplar), wood fiber content (10%, 25%, 40%) and wood fiber sizes (16 to 32 mesh, 32-65 mesh, above 65 mesh) on the properties of the wood fiber-Polypropylene composites were studied in this paper. The results indicate that the effect of wood fiber content and size in composite were more important than that of chosen wood species. Compared with polypropylene without wood fiber, the flexural strength of the composites increased when adding wood fiber into polypr...

  12. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  13. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  14. A new density model of Cryptomeria fortunei plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xidian; Huang Langzeng; Chen Baohui

    2006-01-01

    According to the volume increase model of an average individual tree in a plant population and the theory of invariable final output,we put forward a new density model of plant population: V-β=ANβ+B.Here N means the stand density and V stands for average individual tree volume;A,B and β are parameters that change with growth stage.Using the density variation of standard plots of Cryptromeriafortunei plantation to verify the new model,it turns out that this model can well simulate the population density effect law of C.fortunei plantation,and it is markedly better and shows higher accuracy than the commonly used reciprocal model of density effect and secondary-effect model.Let β=1,we can obtain the reciprocal model of density effect,which means the reciprocal model of density effect is only a special case of this new model.

  15. Resinous plants as an economic alternative to bioenergy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The resin-producing xerophytic species Grindelia camporum is an economical alternative for bioenergy plantations in arid lands. A hypothetical bioenergy farm consists of the land and agricultural facilities needed to grow, harvest and transport 272,100 Mg of biomass to the central processing plant, where the plant material is extracted and the bagasse is converted into electricity. A farm of this type could produce plant extractives that are equivalent to crude oil, with a net positive energy balance. Economic analyses of a series of scenarios based on a plantation of this size indicate that bioenergy production in arid lands must be integrated with the generation of higher-priced chemica commodities, such as naval stores rosin.

  16. Growth and yield models for Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinlan

    1999-01-01

    Several equations were seiected using nonlinear regression analysis for setting up growth and yield models of Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) plantations. Data of 405 stem analysis trees were collected from 336 temporary plots throughout the Daxing'an Mountains. Results showed that the Richards equation was the best model for estimating tree height, stand mean height and stand dominant height by age; the Power equation was the fittest model for predicting tree volume by DBH and tree height, and the Logarithmic stand volume equation was good for predicting stand volume from age, mean height, basal area and other stand variables. These models can be used to construct volume tables, site index table and other forestry tables for Dahurian plantations.

  17. Interface Characteristics of Wood-hybrid Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEFenglian; ZHAOGuangjie

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the current interface characteristics of wood-hybrid composites, this paper starts off from the concept of composite interface and general theory of interface form, then the inner-surface and microstructure of wood and the interface characteristics of composites, such as wood- inorganic, wood-plastic and wood- metal made by electroless plating technique, are concluded and discussed in detail. Meanwhile,on the basis of that, some points of view about how to develop the wood-hybrid composites interface research in the future are also proposed.

  18. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  19. SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclus...

  20. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  1. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  2. THE WATER USE BY FOREST PLANTATIONS – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810562This review aims to present some of the main results and infer about the current state-of-the-art of the controversy related to the water use by forest plantations. Several studies have been carried out in this area in different regions, mainly in Australia, South Africa, Europe, India and Brazil. However, according to authors, the controversy persists and it is necessary that the scientific results are understood by the community in order to avoid the predominance of myths and half-truths. In this way, the current review intends to summarize some scientific results concerning the main hydrologic aspects of the plantations (interception, transpiration and catchment water balance, the relationship between the high productivity and the water use efficiency, and the importance of the establishment of forest management plan focused on the river watershed scale, in order to contribute to hydrological sustainability.  The results coincide that the relationship between the forest plantations and the water depends on the region, species, environmental conditions  and management practices on the watershed scale.

  3. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  4. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  5. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  6. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  7. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  8. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  9. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  10. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; LOREAU, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and...

  11. State and Trend Analysis of Industrial Plantation Development in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper firstly reviewed industrial plantation development in the main forestry countries worldwide, and then summarized the state and trend of the R & D of industrial plantation in foreign countries in terms of genetic improvement, breeding techniques, site evaluation techniques, density control techniques, long-term productivity maintenance techniques and diseases and pests control techniques. In the meantime, the three management models employed in industrial plantations abroad was introduced, i.e. int...

  12. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    , cultural heritage, and rich traditional ecological knowledge. We discuss the anthropogenic character of wood-pastures, requiring multifunctional land management, which is a major conservation challenge. Despite increasing societal appreciation of wood-pastures, their integration into effective agricultural......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity...... and conservation policies has proved to be complicated, because institutional structures are traditionally organized within mono-functional sectors. We offer suggestions as to how these shortcomings might be overcome in the Common Agricultural Policy, including Rural Development policy, and the Habitats Directive...

  13. Prospects of Applying Feed Processing Technologies Based on Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potency of plantation sectors (palm oil, sugar cane and cacao as alternative feed resources for ruminants has been acknowledged since 20 – 25 years ago. However, the level of utilization of these feeds in small ruminant production system has been very low and sporadic. The typical chemical and physical characteristics of most of those feedstuffs required some steps of processing in order to improve their nutritional quality and to ease their handling. Small ruminants, like sheep and goats have relatively higher metabolic energy requirement per kg BW and anatomically have lower gut capacity to process lignocelluose materials compared to large ruminants. It is, therefore, these animals nutritionally face more constraints in handling lignocellulose and bulky materials mostly found in industrial by products or crop-residues from plantations. Physical processes (chopping, phyiscal separation, hydrothermal, chemical processes (ammoniation, hydrolyses and oxidative treatments and bio-conversions (fermentation, ensiling have been recommended as alternative technologies in maximizing the utilization of those feedstuffs for small ruminant animals. The principal mechanisms of those treatments are: (i breaking the linkages between structural carbohydrate and lignin so that it could be easily digested by the animal enzyme systems and (ii preserving the material from being spoilage due to its high moisture content or for feed stocking purposes. Priorities for choosing the most effective processing technology for implementation or adoption is depent largely on the scale of feed production. Ammoniation, chopping, physical separation, ensiling or bio-conversion are several technologies mostly recommended for small scale operation in situ. These alternative technologies should be able to be adopted by small-holders living around the plantation area. The commercial or large scale feed production could be implemented by the plantation industry by giving high

  14. 杉木与楠木凋落叶混合分解及其P、K动态%Decomposition Characteristics and Dynamics of Phosphorus and Potassium of Leaf Litter Mixtures of Both Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江淼华; 程徐冰; 杨建忠; 郭剑芬

    2012-01-01

    将杉木、楠木凋落叶及以二者不同比例混合的凋落叶置于果园林内进行分解和P、K动态的研究,结果表明:杉木和楠木凋落叶混合处理的分解速率均大于单独分解的纯杉木和纯楠木凋落叶.各凋落叶分解过程中,P浓度略有增加,而K浓度基本呈下降趋势.纯杉木凋落叶分解过程中P、K残留率均比纯楠木叶的低.杉楠混合分解的P、K释放率基本上大于单独的纯楠木叶.杉木与楠木凋落叶混合分解对其P和K的释放有一定的促进作用.%Decomposition and the dynamics of P and K of single Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei leaf litter and their different mixtures were studied in an orchard.The results showed that the decomposition rates of litter mixtures between Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei were faster than those of single leaf litter.Concentrations of P in single and mixture of leaf litter appeared to increase and concentrations of K appeared to decrease during the decomposition.Percentages of P and K remaining were lower in single Cunninghamia lanceolata needle litter compared to single Phoeba bournei leaf litter.P and K release rates of leaf litter mixtures were faster than those of single Phoeba bournei leaf litter.Release rates of P and K were increased when leaf litter of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei were mixed together.

  15. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  16. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  17. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  18. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  19. Review on Wood Discoloration and its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zehui; LV Wenhua; FEI Benhua; REN Haiqing; WU Yuzhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms,types, compositions, affecting factors,prevention and remediable treatments of wood discoloration, and especially puts forward the biological control against wood stain and wood induced coloration.The authors think the followings are important:1)Developing the low poisonous or non-toxic, high-efficient and multi-functional anti-stain chemicals is still an important research direction to control wood discoloration.2)It is still very necessary to remove wood stain and restore wood original color and commercial value.3)The biological control has little environmental pollution and its cost is low.Researches on its theories and application should be strengthened.4)Wood color can be induced and turned to be the needed through heat treatment or ultraviolet irradiation without coloring materials,i.e.induced coloration,is a good idea to modulate wood,bamboo or rattan cane color.Itis becoming a new study field.

  20. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  1. Short-term and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of a Populus deltoides clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Estela Monteoliva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: The short- and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of 10-y-old Populus deltoides were investigated. Weed control and fertilization usually leads to an increase the growth rate of trees, and consequently, a possible modification in the quality of produced wood. Area of study: We analyzed trees from an experimental plantation in Buenos Aires, Argentina (34° 50’ S Lat; 60° 30’ W Long. Methods: 32 trees from three treatments: mechanical weed control (M, chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM and fertilized plus chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM-F were analyzed. Basal area, fibre morphology, cell wall area and vessel size were measured in the growth ring 1, 3 and 10. Results: differences on wood anatomy among treatments were mainly observed at the third year (short-term effect. Long-term negative effects were not observed. Fertilized trees had greater proportion and quality of wood closer to pith. Research highlights: fibre and vessel differences seen in CHM and CHM-F compared to controls in year 3 could be interpreted as evidence of maturation in cambial development (thicker, longer and wider fibres and greater vessels. The CHM-F treatment had a greater proportion of wood that showed characteristics of more mature wood.

  2. 杉木人工林胸径生长神经网络建模研究%Modelling tree diameter growth for Chinese Fir plantations with Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车少辉; 张建国; 段爱国; 童书振

    2012-01-01

    【目的】探索神经网络技术对杉木人工林胸径生长的模拟和预测能力,以寻求最优模型。【方法】以江西大岗山杉木人工林为研究对象,依据林木生长理论,用林龄(A)、立地指数(SI)和初植密度(N)3个因子构建平均胸径生长BP模型;通过定量和定性分析相结合的方法对模型选优,并将最佳模型与拓展的Richards模型比较;最后将优化模型应用于未参与建模的样地。【结果】最佳BP模型为Levenberg-Marquardt算法3:5:1结构模型(LM351),R2=0.984,MSE=0.196;拓展的Richards模型R2=0.964,MSE=0.433。LM351模型经校正后,适合预测福建邵武杉木人工林胸径生长规律(R2=0.995)。【结论】LM351神经网络模型在精度上优于传统Richards模型,适于林龄6-28年、立地指数12-17m、初植密度1667-9967株/hm2的杉木林分平均胸径的模拟和预测。%[Objective] The paper developed a growth model of mean diameter(DBH, 1. 3 m above ground) for Chinese Fir plantation with Back-Propagation network(BP). [Method] Data from even-aged Chinese Fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantation including conventional measurements of 15 permanent sample plots located at Dagangshan Mountain in Jiangxi province from 1981 to 2008 were collected. BP models employed were one hidden layer with tan-sigmoid function and linearity function as transfer function of hidden and output layer respectively. According to the theory of stand growth, three factors,age (A),site index (SI) and initial planting density (N),were used as predictors for DBH of Chi- nese Fir. Then BP models were trained by 14 algorithms combining with different structures. Subsequent- ly, the best was selected by comparison with performances of qualitative and quantitative index. On the oth- er hand,generalized Richards's model was introduced as a reference model. Ultimately,the optimal model was

  3. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  4. Comparative wood anatomy of Rhodothamnus species

    OpenAIRE

    SERDAR, Bedri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the comparative wood anatomy of the European [Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Reichb.] and Anatolian (Rhodothamnus sessilifolius P.H.Davis) species of Rhodothamnus were studied. The wood anatomy of the taxa shows evidence of adaptation to growing in alpine habitats. The woods of the species exhibit primitive wood anatomical characteristics and share similar qualitative anatomical features. However, some of the quantitative anatomical characteristics of the taxa show significant ...

  5. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  6. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Miklečić,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  8. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  9. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Xianjun Li; Yongfeng Luo; Hongbin Chen; Xia He; Jianxiong Lv; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased al...

  10. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  11. Wood Microstructure Effects on Chinese White Poplar Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXinfang; BAOFucheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the influence of wood microstructure on wood dyeing, eleven parameters of wood microstructure and 5 parameters of wood dyeing effects for 34 pieces of wood boards from 5 trees of Chinese white poplar (Populus tornentosa) were determined and the multiple regression analysis between the factors of wood microstructures and the parameters of wood dyeing effects were made. The regression results show that each variable of wood dyeing effects has higher relationship with wood microstructures,and multiple correlation coefficients between each variable of wood dyeing effects and wood microstructures are 0.483 6-0.799 8. The main factors of wood microstructures influencing wood dyeing of Chinese whitep oplar are proportion of wood ray, proportion of vessel and proportion of wood fiber according to comparing the standardized regression coefficients of multiple regression equation.

  12. Wood stoves: the trendy pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaby, M.; Lovelock, J.

    1980-11-13

    The wood-burning stove is being increasingly accepted as an alternative to costly and scarce heating fuels. These stoves, however, contribute significantly to air pollution. The more efficient the stove, the more pollutants it releases. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are the primary offenders. Increasing use of these stoves may also exhaust timber and forest resources. (3 drawings, 2 photos)

  13. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  14. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  15. The effects of mineral nitrogen limitation, competition, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and their respective interactions, on morphological and chemical plant traits of Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Höpfner, Ingo; Matuszak, Agnieszka; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Müller, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that suffer from a multitude of challenges such as abiotic stress or the interactions with competitors, antagonists and symbionts, which influence their performance as well as their eco-physiological and biochemical responses in complex ways. In particular, the combination of different stressors and their impact on plant biomass production and the plant's ability to metabolically adjust to these challenges are less well understood. To study the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) availability, interspecific competition and the association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass production, biomass allocation patterns (root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area) and metabolic responses, we chose the model organism Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Plants were grown in a full factorial experiment. Biomass production and its allocation patterns were assessed at harvest, and the influence of the different treatments and their interactions on the plant metabolome were analysed using a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Limited supply of mineral N caused the most pronounced changes with respect to plant biomass and biomass allocation patterns, and altered the concentrations of more than one third of the polar plant metabolome. Competition also impaired plant biomass production, yet affected the plant metabolome to a much lesser extent than limited mineral N supply. The interaction of competition and limited mineral N supply often caused additive changes on several traits. The association with AMF did not enhance biomass production, but altered biomass allocation patterns such as the root/shoot ratio and the specific leaf area. Interestingly, we did not find significant changes in the plant metabolome caused by AMF. A targeted analysis revealed that only limited mineral N supply reduced the concentrations of one of the main target defence

  16. 入侵植物剑叶金鸡菊克隆繁殖特性及群落特征%Clonal Reproductive Property and Community Characteristic of Invasive Species Coreopsis lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建军; 肖宜安; 周小军

    2012-01-01

    The clonal reproductive properly and community characteristic of invasive species Coreopsis lanceolata in different habitats in Lu Shan, Jiangxi province were studied. The results showed that there was no significant difference in clonal architecture under habitats with different resources. Whether in rock or deserted farmland, the clonal architecture was mainly phalanx which developed from the base of plant, it seemed that there was no correlation between the guerrilla clonal architecture and the level of environment resources. Those guerrilla clonal growth traits made C. Lanceolata had collectivize growth strategy, which improved its resistance to barren and drought environment. Thus, naturalized C. Lanceolata could dominate various indigenous plants in Lushan, the companion species of C. Lanceolata populations were weeds with wider adaptability.%以江西庐山剑叶金鸡菊(Coreopsis lanceolata)入侵群落为研究对象,调查了不同生境剑叶金鸡菊的克隆繁殖特性和群落特征.结果表明,生境资源水平高低对剑叶金鸡菊的克隆构型影响不显著,无论是资源贫乏的岩石还是资源丰富的弃耕地生境,剑叶金鸡菊依靠植株基部节处萌生的小芽体生长成密集丛生状,其游击型克隆构型变化与环境资源可利用水平高低无关.剑叶金鸡菊种群的伴生植物多为一些适应范围广的杂草,由于剑叶金鸡菊的密集型克隆生长的集团化生长策略,使其种群耐贫瘠和干旱能力非常强,因而适应不同生境的能力也非常强,这种生长策略使剑叶金鸡菊个体能快速扩增并排挤本土植物,形成大面积的单一优势种群影响当地的生物多样性.

  17. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  18. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  19. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha−1·year−1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ−1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  20. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  1. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  2. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  3. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Charlote Wink; Dalvan José Reinert; Ivanor Müller; José Miguel Reichert; Luciano Jacomet

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was ...

  4. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  5. Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, G.; Gurunathan, G; Jones, N; Woollen, B H

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) by mixer-loaders and spray operators on a Sri Lankan tea plantation was assessed over five consecutive days of spraying. Beginning on the day before spraying started and continuing for each of the five spraying days and for seven days after the last day of spraying, 24-hour urine samples were collected from each of the workers. Potential dermal exposure was assessed during further applications of paraquat on the day after ...

  6. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  7. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  8. Bird community comparisons of four plantations and conservation concerns in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Lin, Yongbiao; Xu, Guoliang; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of non-native, fast-growing trees are increasing in the tropics and subtropics, perhaps with negative consequences for the native avifauna. We studied bird diversity in 4 types of plantations in South China to determine which plantation types are especially detrimental, and compared our findings with studies in nearby natural forests to assess the magnitude of the negative impact. A total of 57 species was recorded. The mean capture rate of understory birds was 1.7 individuals 100-net-h(-1). Bird richness and capture rate were lower in plantations than in nearby natural forests. Babblers (Timaliidae), primarily forest-dependent species in South China, were particularly under-represented in plantations. Species richness, composition and bird density, particularly of understory birds, differed between plantation types. Plantations of Schima, which is native to South China, had the highest species richness according to point count data. Plantations of Acacia (non-native) supported the highest understory species richness and produced the highest capture rate of understory birds, probably because of their complex structure and high arthropod abundance. If bird diversity is to be considered, we strongly recommend that future re-afforestation projects in South China should, as far as possible, use mixed native tree species, and especially Schima, ahead of the other species.

  9. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  10. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  11. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  12. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  13. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  14. FROM UAS DATA ACQUISITION TO ACTIONABLE INFORMATION – HOW AN END-TO-END SOLUTION HELPS OIL PALM PLANTATION OPERATORS TO PERFORM A MORE SUSTAINABLE PLANTATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    The research results describe how operators can successfully make use of a UAS-based solution together with the developed software solution to improve their efficiency in oil palm plantation management.

  15. A new feller-buncher for harvesting energy wood: Results from a European test programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele [CNR-Ivalsa, Timber and Tree Institute, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuchet, Emmanuel [Afocel, Charrey sur Saone (France); Roux, Philippe [Cemagref, TEMO, Montpellier (France)

    2007-04-15

    In recent years, some manufacturers have developed new downsized feller-bunchers that are particularly suited to small-tree harvesting. One of these machines was tested in some of the most promising small tree resources of Europe, namely: Finnish young conifer forests, French hornbeam coppice and Italian sycamore plantations. The tests were conducted within the scope of a 3-year long European project, whose goal was to assess the suitability of this new technology to the production of wood biomass from silvicultural operations. Depending on site characteristics, the machine reached an average productivity between 4 and 8 green tonnes per net working hour, comparing favourably with other European shear-type felling heads and qualifying for deployment on a European scale. (author)

  16. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  17. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  18. Can mangrove plantation enhance the functional diversity of macrobenthic community in polluted mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Cheung, Napo K M

    2017-03-15

    Mangrove plantation is widely applied to re-establish the plant community in degraded mangroves, but its effectiveness to restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community remains poorly known, especially when pollution may overwhelm its potential positive effect. Here, we tested the effect of mangrove plantation on the ecological functions of macrobenthic community in a polluted mangrove by analyzing biological traits of macrobenthos and calculating functional diversity. Mangrove plantation was shown to enhance the functional diversity and restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, depending on seasonality. Given the polluted sediment, however, typical traits of opportunistic species (e.g. small and short-lived) prevailed in all habitats and sampling times. We conclude that mangrove plantation can help diversify the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, but its effectiveness is likely reduced by pollution. From the management perspective, therefore, pollution sources must be stringently regulated and mangrove plantation should be conducted to fully recover degraded mangroves.

  19. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  20. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Bao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  1. Effect of Different Altitude Afforestation to Cunninghamia lanceolata Cutting%不同海拔高度杉木扦插造林成效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭尧邦

    2012-01-01

    Choose different Cunninghamla lanceolata cuttings altitude for afforestation test, through investigation and analysis, the results showed that different Cunm'nghamia laneeolata cuttings altitude, the survival rate and afforestation in 3 years young forest survival, average ground diameter and height difference. With altitude Cunninghamia laneeolata 1000m height 700 - year survival rate of forestation cutting and 3-year surial was young forest taller, 3 years young forest average ground diameter and height criterion with low altitude as well.%选择不同海拔高度进行杉木扦插造林试验,通过调查对比分析,结果表明:不同海拔高度杉木扦插造林,其当年成活率和3年幼林的存活率、平均地径和高度存在差异。以海拔700~1 000m高度杉木扦插造林的当年成活率和3年幼林的存活率较高,3年幼林的平均地径和高度则以较低的海拔高度为好。

  2. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  3. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  4. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos;

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post-agricultural planta......The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post......, and woody species. The group of forest specialists may approach the richness of continuously forested sites after 60-80 years in non-fragmented plantations, but many forest species were sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Open-land species richness decreased during succession, while the richness of woody...... species and of generalists remained stable, and were not affected by fragmentation. Abundance of generalists gradually decreased in non-fragmented plantations, probably due to competition from colonizing forest specialists. Soil pH in post-arable stands remained consistently higher than in continuously...

  5. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Saili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. Ethnic conflict, fighting, gambling, alcohol abuses are only a few issues that call for immediate multi-action plan from all involved stakeholders. Those issues can be the causes as well as the effects. The contributing factors form a chain reaction to the whole social dynamics in the plantation’s climate.The main aim is hence to breach the gap between industries, practitioners, and academicians in order to develop the competencies of the next generation social workers. They can play their roles in tackling the social issues, taking into account the different contexts and environment.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  7. Water Absorbing Plantation Clay for Vertical Greenery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lih-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arises of environmental conscious, the usage of vertical garden system has become more popular in urban cities. Citizens can enjoys the benefits of energy and cost saving besides ornamental effect. More investigations have been conducted on green facades led to the cities ecological enhancement.However, limited plants species can be planted for green facades systems as this system does not provide sufficient soil and nutrients for common plants. Alternative plantation methods such as planted box and felt system required additional maintenance attention. The idea of using clay composite which consists of nutritious soil, water absorbing polymer and flexible cement clay potentially become alternative vertical greenery systems that offers economic and sustainable plantation platform for more variety of plants.The fabricating of clay composite involved three processes, they are: mixing, moulding and drying. Physical properties characterisation (density, pH, compression test, aging test and water immersion test were tested on the dried fabricated clay composite to ensure their sustainability in tropical climate. The results showed that clay composite with 1.5 wt% of cement and 0.3 wt% superabsorbent polymer shows optimum water absorbing properties. This system are expected to enable more agriculture activities in urban living.

  8. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  9. Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

  10. Combustion of furniture wood waste and solid wood: Kinetic study and evolution of pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the combustion processes of wood waste. Two kinds of waste have been studied: furniture wood waste (treated and used wood) and solid wood from factories (untreated wood). A kinetic study has been carried out for each material in air and an N2:O2 9:1 atmosphere with dynamic and dynamic + isothermal runs at different heating rates, considering the decomposition of the three main components of the wood and also the combustion of the char obtained. Satisfactory kinetic mod...

  11. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognouabi Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13 had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%. The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  12. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use...... focused on understanding the effects of cookstove use on the indoor air quality of 20 rural houses. In Europe, qualitative interviews were conducted to study the operation of WBSs in 24 dwellings. The energy and environmental performance of a fireplace, an ordinary wood stove and an automatic stove, were......, the advanced gasifiers and automatic stoves (Digital and Forced air) were identified to be among the best performing technologies. In spite of the fact that the thermal efficiency of the most advanced type of heating stoves (Gasifier) is around twice larger than that achieved for the most advanced type...

  13. International Transmission Under Bretton Woods

    OpenAIRE

    Alan C. Stockman

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the main channels of international transmission of economic disturbances under the Bretton Woods System and presents evidence on the short-run international transmission of inflation under that system. There appears to have been little short-run international transmission of inflation. Countries with one-percent higher money-growth rates subsequently had one-fourth to one-half percent higher inflation and a (predictably) lower real interest rate. This probably reflects eff...

  14. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  15. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs.

  16. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  17. Tension wood and opposite wood in 21 tropical rain forest species. 1. Occurence and efficiency of G-layer

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Bruno; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Fournier, Meriem

    2006-01-01

    Wood samples were taken from the upper and lower sides of 21 naturally tilted trees from 18 families of angiosperms in the tropical rainforest in French Guyana. The measurement of growth stresses ensured that the two samples were taken from wood tissues in a different mechanical state: highly tensile stressed wood on the upper side, called tension wood and lower tensile stressed wood on the lower side, called opposite wood. Eight species had tension wood fibres with a distinct gelatinous laye...

  18. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  19. Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; van der Linde, Sietse; Newton, Adrian C.; Suz, Laura M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Setting aside overmature planted forests is currently seen as an option for preserving species associated with old-growth forests, such as those with dispersal limitation. Few data exist, however, on the utility of set-aside plantations for this purpose, or the value of this habitat type for biodiversity relative to old-growth semi-natural ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the contribution of forest type relative to habitat characteristics in determining species richness and composition in seven forest blocks, each containing an ancient old-growth stand (> 1000 yrs) paired with a set-aside even-aged planted stand (ca. 180 yrs). We investigated the functionally important yet relatively neglected ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), a group for which the importance of forest age has not been assessed in broadleaved forests. We found that forest type was not an important determinant of EMF species richness or composition, demonstrating that set-aside can be an effective option for conserving ancient EMF communities. Species richness of above-ground EMF fruiting bodies was principally related to the basal area of the stand (a correlate of canopy cover) and tree species diversity, whilst richness of below-ground ectomycorrhizae was driven only by tree diversity. Our results suggest that overmature planted forest stands, particularly those that are mixed-woods with high basal area, are an effective means to connect and expand ecological networks of ancient old-growth forests in historically deforested and fragmented landscapes for ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:26917858

  20. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-03

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  1. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. 桉树人工林土壤种子库研究%The Study on the Soil Seed Bank of Eucalyptus Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐庆兰; 朱宇林; 张照远; 刘建

    2012-01-01

    为了了解桉树人工林土壤种子库的物种组成、密度、垂直分布等特征,以2年生桉树人工林为研究对象,相邻的大叶栎人工林作对照,取其土壤,通过室内种子萌发的方法,研究桉树人工林土壤种子库分布特征.结果表明:(1)各土壤层种子萌发的规律基本一致,大约从第7天开始进入种子萌发高峰期,第19天萌发高峰期基本结束,随后进入缓慢萌发期,至最后停止萌发;(2)桉树人工林土壤种子库储量较大,种子密度为9804粒/m2(对照为3614粒/m2),共计物种15种,分属于9科,其中禾本科的弓果黍为优势种,种子密度为8849粒/m2,占土壤种子库总量90.26%;(3)种子库垂直分布格局显示,80%以上的种子储存在枯枝落叶层和0~5 cm的土壤中.2年生桉树人工林土壤种子库的种子密度大于大叶栎人工林,其组成以草本为主,灌木次之,种子多集中在枯枝落叶层和浅层土壤中.%In order to investigate the species composition, density and vertical distribution characteristics of the soil seed bank of Eucalyptus plantation, the growth of 2-year-old Eucalyptus plantation was researched in comparison with the nearby miscellaneous wood. Through the method of the interior of seed germination and taking their forest soil, the distribution characteristics of Eucalyptus plantation soil seed bank were studied. The results showed that: (1) the rate of seed germination was about the same rule from 7 days beginning to enter seed germination peak, 19 days to an end, then germination peak into the slow development to finally stop germination; (2) Eucalyptus plantation' s soil seed banks and seed density largely reserved for 9804 grain/m2 (control for 3614 grain/m2), a total of 15 species, belonging to 9 families, of which the Gramineae cyrtococcum as the dominant species with an seed density of 8849 grain/m2, accounting for 90.26% of total soil seed bank; (3) Seed bank vertical distribution pattern showed

  3. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with nanom...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings.......Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...

  4. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  5. Three Perspectives on the Bretton Woods System

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The twenty years that have passed since the collapse of the Bretton Woods System provide sufficient distance to safely assess the operation of the post-World War II international monetary system. This paper considers the history and historiography of Bretton Woods from three perspectives. First, I ask how the questions posed today about the operation of Bretton Woods differ from those asked twenty years ago. Second, I explore how today's answers to familiar questions differ from the answers o...

  6. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  7. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  8. Movement of genotypes of Ceratocystis fimbriata within and among Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria A; Harrington, Thomas C; Alfenas, Acelino C; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G

    2011-08-01

    Ceratocystis wilt on eucalyptus, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, was first recognized in 1997 in the state of Bahia, Brazil, but is now known in five other states and in four other countries. C. fimbriata is a native, soilborne pathogen in some parts of Brazil but we hypothesized that genotypes of the pathogen have been moved among plantations in rooted cuttings collected from diseased trees and within plantations on cutting tools. We used six microsatellite markers to identify 78 genotypes of C. fimbriata among 177 isolates from individual trees in 20 eucalyptus plantations. The highest gene and genotypic diversity values were found in plantations on formerly wild Cerrado forest in Minas Gerais, suggesting that the fungus was in the soil prior to planting eucalyptus. In contrast, one or only a few genotypes were found in plantations on previous pastureland (with no woody hosts) in Bahia and São Paulo, and most of these genotypes were found in a Bahian nursery or in one of two Bahian plantations that were sources for rooted cuttings. Sources of cuttings tended to be dominated by one or a few genotypes that may have been spread within the plantation on cutting tools.

  9. ACCOUNTING PARADIGM OF LIVED EXPERIENCES IN ACTION RESEARCH: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN PLANTATION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susela DEVI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.

  10. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  11. Identifying Sugarcane Plantation using LANDSAT-8 Images with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, Sidik; Nadirah

    2016-11-01

    The use of remote sensing has been highly beneficial in the identification and also mapping and monitoring of plantations. The identification of plantations includes the physiology, disease, environmental conditions, and also the production and time of harvesting. It can be done by doing satellite imagery classification. However, to reach the final result of identification, it could be carried out by getting the solid ground truth information. This paper will discuss about detection of sugarcane plantation in Magetan district of East Java province area by using LANDSAT-8 image with specific approach of phenology profile using EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) value from satellite data, as an alternative vegetation index to address some of the limitation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Method of classification used for detecting sugarcane plantation is Support Vector machines (SVM), which is a promising machine learning methodology. It has the ability to generalize well even with limited training samples and complex data. A number of samples of phenology profile for training purpose using SVMs are obtained from the area that identified as sugarcane plantation during field campaign in 2015. The same manner is also done for the objects instead of sugarcane plantation with relatively the same number of samples. The result of the research shows that Remote Sensing is able to detect the sugarcane plantation cross the district with good accuracy.

  12. Simulating Harvest Schedule for Timber Management and Multipurpose Management in Teak Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Tiryana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of teak plantations in Java requires an improvement of the existing yield regulation method to optimize multiple benefits of the plantations at risk of stand destruction. This study was therefore aimed to formulate an alternative harvest scheduling model that integrates risk of stand destruction for supporting multipurpose management of teak plantations. The proposed model used a state-space planning model to simulate the dynamic of plantations due to timber harvesting and stand destruction, and then sought optimal solutions for 2 management scenarios, i.e. timber management that optimized total harvest volume and multipurpose management that optimized net present value (NPV while increasing carbon stocks. Using a case study on a typical teak plantation, this study confirmed that increasing destruction rates reduced harvest volumes, NPV, carbon stocks, and resulted in imbalanced ending age-class structures. Reducing cutting-age limit increased harvest volumes and NPV, but it also reduced carbon stocks of the plantations. Although the multipurpose management generated lower financial benefit, it maintained carbon stocks and produced better ending age-class structures compared to timber management. The proposed harvest scheduling model provides a useful planning tool for managing teak plantations.

  13. [Carbon storage and its allocation in mixed alder-cypress plantations at different age stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-year-old mixed alder (Alnus cremastogyne)-cypress (Cupressus funebris) plantations and the 30-year-old pure cypress plantation succeeded from mixed alder-cypress plantation in the hilly area of central Sichuan Basin were chosen as test objects to study the dynamic changes and allocation patterns of their carbon storage. The results showed that the vegetation carbon storage in mixed alder-cypress plantations increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, and reached 52.40 t x hm(-2) at the age stage of 30-year. The vegetation carbon storage of arbor layer at each age stage was more than 85.59% of the total, and the soil carbon storage within 0-40 cm layer increased significantly (P 0.05). The carbon storage of the mixed alder-cypress plantations increased significantly from the age stage of 10- to 15-year, with the maximum (118.13 t x hm(-2)) at the age stage of 15-year, but declined from the age stage of 15- to 25-year while increased slightly from the age stage of 25- to 30-year. The proportion of vegetation carbon storage increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, whereas that of soil carbon storage was in adverse. Comparing with other types of plantations in China, mixed alder-cypress plantation had a lower storage of carbon.

  14. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  15. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  16. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  17. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insu...

  18. Impregnation of Natural Rubber into Rubber Wood: A Green Wood Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Wassa Ruayruay; Sureurg Khongtong

    2014-01-01

    A green wood composite material was developed from the two environmentally friendly substrates natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). Natural rubber (NR) was introduced into rubber wood by pressurization of NR latex, followed by the removal of the aqueous phase to allow only dry NR to remain inside the wood structure. Scanning electron microscopy images and the weight increase of the dry impregnated samples revealed the retention of dry NR within the rubbe...

  19. Collapse-type shrinkage characteristics in plantation-grown eucalypts: I . Correlations of basic density and some structural indices with shrinkage and collapse properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYi-qiang; HAYASHIKazuo; LIUYuan; CAIYing-chun; SUGIMORIMasatoshi; LUOJian-ju

    2005-01-01

    Collapse-type shrinkage is one of highly refractory drying defects in low-medium density plantation-grown eucalypt wood used as solid wood products. Basic density (BD), microfibril angle (MFA), double fibre cell wall thickness (DWT), proportion of ray parenchyma (RP), unit cell wall shrinkage, total shrinkage and residual collapse, which are associated with collapse-type shrinkage characteristics, were investigated by using simple regression method for three species of collapse-susceptible Eucalyptus urophyll, E. grandis and E.urophyllaxE.grandis, planted at Dong-Men Forest Farm in Guangxi autonomous region, China. The results indicated that : unit cell wall shrinkage had a extremely strong positive correlation with BD, moderately strong positive correlation with DWT, and a weakly or moderately negative correlation with RP and MFA; total shrinkage was positively correlated with BD, DWT and RP and negatively related to MFA, but not able to be predicted ideally by any examined factors alone owing to lower R2 value (R2≤0.5712); residual collapse was negatively correlated with BD and DWT, linearly positively correlated with MFA, and had strongly positive linear correlation with RP. It is concluded that BD can be used as single factor (R2≥0.9412) to predicate unit cell wall shrinkage and RP is the relatively sound indicator for predicting residual collapse

  20. Responses of soil microbial respiration to plantations depend on soil properties in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-jie; YAN Yue; FU Xiang-ping; YANG Jie; ZHANG Su-yan; XU Shan; TANG Zheng; LI Zhong-fang; LU Shun-bao

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the impact of plantation on microbial respiration (MR) is vitaly important to understand the interactions between belowground metabolism and land use change. In this study, cumulative MR was determined by alkali absorption method in 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days from the soil in a representative plantations in the subtropical region of China. The treatment of plantations contained no plant (CK), orange trees (Citrus reticulata)+Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) (GB), orange trees (C. reticulata)+Bahia grass (P.notatum)+soybean (Giycine max(L.)Merril) (GBH). Results showed that plantation had signiifcant effects on microbial respiration and the responses of microbial respiration to plantation from different soil layers and topographies were different: in 0–20 cm in uphil: GB>GBH>CK; in 20–40 cm in uphil: GBH>CK>GB; in 0–20 cm in downhil: GBH>CK>GB; in 20–40 cm in downhil: GB>CK>GBH. Furthermore, plantation also altered the relationships between MR and soil properties. In CK, microbial respiration was positively correlated with NH4+ and soil total N, and negatively correlated with soil moisture, pH, NO3–, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In GB, microbial respira-tion under GB signiifcantly negatively correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In GBH, microbial respiration under GBH was positively correlated with NH4+, MBC, total soil carbon (TC), and total soil nitrogen (TN), and negatively correlated with soil moisture (SM), pH, NO3–, and DOC. The underlying mechanisms could be attributed to soil heterogeneity and the effects of plantation on soil properties. Our results also showed that plantation signiifcantly increased soil C storage, which suggested plantation is a key measure to enhance soil C sequestration and mitigate global CO2 emission, especialy for the soil with low initial soil carbon content or bared soil.

  1. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers...

  2. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  3. Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatrai Kashinath More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures.

  4. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

  5. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests.

  6. Effects of UV-B radiation on the decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter%UV-B辐射对杉木凋落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玲; 宋新章; 张智婷; 江洪; 王懿祥; 白尚斌

    2011-01-01

    A litterbag experiment was conducted to study the decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter under ambient and reduced UV-B radiation (22.1% below ambient) . Comparing with ambient treatment. the reduced treatment decreased the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter by 69. 6% ( P<0.001 ) . making the relative contents of nitrogen ( N) , phosphorus ( P) ,and lignin in the litter increased by 150% , 83. 3% , and 13. 8% , respectively, and the release of potassium ( K) and carbon ( C) slowed down. In the process of litter decomposition, photo-degradation of lignin didn't play crucial role. The results suggested that UV-B radiation could accelerate the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter, promote the release of N. P. K. and C from it.and increase the nutrients turnover rate in litter layer as well as the carbon flux on the ground, giving potential effects on the function of C. lanceolata forest as a carbon source or sink in humid subtropical China.%采用分解袋法对自然和UV-B辐射滤减环境下的杉木凋落叶进行分解试验.结果表明:与对照相比,UV-B辐射滤减处理使杉木凋落叶的分解速率降低了69.6%(P<0.001),凋落叶中氮、磷和木质素的相对含量分别增加150%、83.3%和13.8%,抑制了钾和碳的释放.木质素光降解在杉木凋落叶分解过程中的作用不明显.UV-B辐射可以加快杉木凋落叶的分解,促进氮、磷、钾和碳的释放,以及杉木林凋落物层的营养周转速度,增加地表的碳通量,对杉木林的碳源或碳汇功能具有潜在的影响.

  7. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  8. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  9. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical v

  10. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    /PMH versus 68 gt/PMH for a comparable conventional system. Machine rate costs for felling and skidding were $2.31/gt and $3.72/gt for the high tonnage, and conventional systems, respectively. However, the most significant result of the project is that the high tonnage system was shown to be relatively insensitive to tree size. This ability to maintain felling and skidding productivity and cost as tree size decreases is a breakthrough in harvesting systems for southern pine plantations. The concept of transpirational drying of woody biomass was tested at an industrial scale at multiple locations during this project. Felled trees were allowed to dry in two scenarios: 1) in bunches where they were felled, and 2) in roadside piles. Although the wood piled in large piles at roadside did experience drying, the wood left in bunches experienced a greater moisture reduction. Drying times of 72 days in the late summer resulted in mean wood moisture content of 26% for skidder bunches and 39% for the large pile at roadside as compared to moisture contents of 55% to 58% for freshly cut trees. An existing whole-tree chipper, Precision 2675, was modified to allow production of chips smaller than the traditional pulp size chip (i.e. “microchips”). Feed rates and knife placements were retained in the new design, while additional pockets were incorporated in the chipper disk to allow the attachment of either four knives for pulp chips or eight knives for microchips. This design facilitated switching between the energy and pulp chip product options at relatively low expense (about ½ day downtime). Chipping of whole-trees into pulp chips and microchips with the Precision 2675 disk chipper resulted in average productivities of 79.5 gt/PMH and 70.7 gt/PMH, respectively. Production rates of the chipper were lower when producing microchips by about 10% relative to producing pulp chips, but rates were similar to those achievable when making clean pulp chips. Particle size analysis for clean

  11. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  12. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  13. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  14. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pirraglia,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of “light roasted” wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

  15. Microwave Irradiation Treatment of Wood Flour and Its Application in PVC-Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shengfei; CHEN Wen; LIU Weihua; LI Huaxing

    2007-01-01

    The technique of microwave irradiation induced free radical bulk- polyaddition reactions in porous wood flour was used to modify wood flour. The behaviors of the modified wood flour under microwave irradiation, such as thermal stability and moisture sorption properties, were studied. A kind of semiinterpenetrating polymer network wood four (Semi-IPN-WF) can be formed through polymerization of MMA in the porous wood flour by microwave irradiation, and the thermal decomposition temperature of the semi-IPN-WF is considerably increased. PVC/Semi-IPN-WF composites were prepared by melt mixing in double rolls,which exhibit improved rheological properties, lower water sorption properties and outstanding mechanical performances.

  16. Effect of Wood Fillers on the Viscoelastic and Thermophysical Properties of HDPE-Wood Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood polymer composites (WPC have well proven their applicability in several fields of the plasturgy sector, due to their aesthetics and low maintenance costs. However, for plasturgy applications, the characterization of viscoelastic behavior and thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of WPC with the temperature and wood filler contents is essential. Therefore, the processability of polymer composites made up with different percentage of wood particles needs a better understanding of materials behaviors in accordance with temperature and wood particles contents. To this end, a numerical analysis of the viscoelastic, mechanical, and thermophysical properties of composite composed of high density polyethylene (HDPE reinforced with soft wood particles is evaluated.

  17. Climate protection and carbon in wood. Comparison of management strategies; Klimaschutz und Kohlenstoff in Holz. Vergleich verschiedener Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, J.

    2008-11-05

    Forests are important for climate protection: They sequester and store carbon, and provide timber for wood products and fossil fuel substitution. These functions interact in a complex way. From a climate protection point of view it is desirable to optimize these interactions, i.e. to maximize the amount of carbon stored in the whole system (called ''forest-timber-option'') and to analyse what impact a management decision at the local level has with regard to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Inventory methods to estimate the total amount of carbon in a forest are needed. Classical forest inventories assess above-ground tree volume. To estimate total carbon in accordance with the requirements of the Kyoto-Protocol, these inventories need to be expanded with regard to the assessment of disturbances, dead wood decomposition, soil carbon, and the estimation of carbon from volume. Methods invented here can also be used to assess local-level management activities, or to ''factor out'' non-human-induced changes in carbon pools. The optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' is restricted due to regulations of the Kyoto-Protocol, because forest-related measures are accounted for under other sectors than wood and timber use. Harvested timber is estimated as an ''emission'' from the forest, and forest owners have no benefit from the use of wood for industrial purposes. Here, an inclusion of forestry in emission trading schemes can be advantageous. Alternative ways to produce wood are short-rotation coppice plantations on agricultural soils. Information about growth and yield potentials are scarce for the regions where land availability is high. Aspen (P. tremula, P. tremuloides) was parameterized in an eco-physiological forest growth model (''4C'') to assess these potentials on sites in Eastern Germany under current and under changing climatic conditions. The results

  18. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  19. Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photographs as a basis for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalos, Jan; Engstová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a method for analysing long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a newly developed classification system and relevant landscape characteristics. Although these non-forest wood elements are biotopes that have positive effects for the ecological stability of the landscape little is known about their long-term dynamics. The newly developed knowledge of the historical impact of various landscape management practices on non-forest wood elements can be applied in landscape planning procedures (e.g. planning ecological networks) in order to ensure relevant landscape management in the future. The method was applied in two contrasting study sites, Honbice (244 ha) and Krida (268 ha), located in east Bohemia and north Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The study was based on old cadastral maps (from 1839 to 1843), black and white aerial photographs (from 1938, 1950, 1966, 1975 to 2006) and field control data from 2006. At the Honbice study site, the proportion of non-forest wood elements increased from 2.0 to 2.9% of the study site, due to large plantations of scattered vegetation in the open landscape. On the other hand, more than half of the wood vegetation in the village was cut down between 1966 and 2006. In addition, the relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.021 km ha(-1) to 0.018 km ha(-1) between 1950 and 1966. At the Krida study site, there was a significant increase in non-forest vegetation (from 2.4 to 8.2%), due to abandonment of the landscape (former military area). As the village disappeared, the total amount of scattered vegetation grew, due to the natural succession process. The relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.009 km ha(-1) to 0.005 km ha(-1). The method that was applied and based on the analysis of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a (newly developed) classification system and relevant landscape characteristics has proved to be a suitable

  20. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  1. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  2. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  3. Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Beckers, E.P.J.; Militz, H.; Veenendaal, van W.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%. Elect

  4. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  5. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other genera)

  6. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  7. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  8. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  9. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  10. Incidence of malaria is clustered and buffers around plantations: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Malaria incidence is clustered and buffers around plantations at <1000 m. Malaria hot spots are displayed as risk maps that are useful for monitoring and spatial targeting of prevention and control measures against the disease.

  11. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  12. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  13. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  14. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  15. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth.

  16. Generalized eczematous contact dermatitis from cocobolo wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche, Anna D; Prawer, Steven

    2003-06-01

    Occupational contact with cocobolo wood (Papilionaceae, Dalbergia retusa) has been reported to rarely cause delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report the case of a 53-year-old furniture and cabinetmaker who exhibited a generalized reaction mimicking erythroderma after exposure to sawdust from the wood. Patch testing to plants and woods standard (Chemotechnique, Dormer Laboratories, Ontario, Canada) was negative, and the specific allergen in cocobolo, obtusaquinone, was not available to us. The patient was tested instead to shavings of various woods as well as to sawdust of the suspected wood in petrolatum. He exhibited an exuberant response (+++) to both shavings and sawdust of cocobolo. After successful patch testing with shavings and sawdust in the absence of the purified chemical allergen, avoidance of the timber resulted in the resolution of his symptoms.

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. Wood Crosscutting Process Analysis for Circular Saws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Krilek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of some cutting parameters (geometry of cutting edge, wood species, and circular saw type and cutting conditions on the wood crosscutting process carried out with circular saws. The establishment of torque values and feeding power for the crosswise wood cutting process has significant implications for designers of crosscutting lines. The conditions of the experiments are similar to the working conditions of real machines, and the results of individual experiments can be compared with the results obtained via similar experimental workstations. Knowledge of the wood crosscutting process, as well as the choice of suitable cutting conditions and tools could decrease wood production costs and save energy. Changing circular saw type was found to have the biggest influence on cutting power of all factors tested.

  19. Dimensional stability of heat treated wood floorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Živković

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat treated wood (HTW is successfully applied for floorings due to its better moisture resistance, increased dimensional stability, and uniform colour change to darker, brownish colours. The aim of this work was to define the hygroscopic range and equilibrium moisture content at ambient conditions of heat treated wood of two wood species – ash and beech. Material was treated at two temperature levels, 190 and 210 °C, and the properties were compared with native wood. The reduction in dimensional changes is expressed by volumetric shrinking and Anti Shrink Efficiency (ASE. Additionally, parquet elements were made out of such HTW, oil-impregnated and waxed, and subsequently tested for water vapour and liquid water permeability. Shrinking gradients of HTW were not reduced in comparison with native beech wood, but the absolute reduction in water uptake resulted in cca 50 % lower EMC values and up to cca 60 % improved ASE values. Surface treatment further improved the hygroscopic properties of HTW.

  20. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  1. Perlakuan Akuntansi Aktiva Tetap Dan Penerapan Metode Depresiasi Pada PT. Bakrie Sumatera Plantations, TBK.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellisa, Shanti

    2011-01-01

    PT. Bakrie Sumatera Plantations Tbk. is a company engaged in oil palm and rubber plantations. In order to achieve company goals that have been defined, companies need a variety of factors of production. One of the factors of production necessary to facilitate and streamline operational activities whose value is sufficiently large fixed assets. In preparing this thesis, the author discusses research on the method of depreciation of fixed assets. The purpose of this study was to determine wheth...

  2. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes.

  3. Monitoring of oil palm plantations and growth variations with a dense vegetation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Khar Chun; Koay, Jun Yi; Tey, Seng Heng

    2014-01-01

    -PACT) and Fresnel Phase Corrections. The iterative solutions of the radiative transfer model are computed with input based on ground truth measurements of physical parameters of oil palm plantations in the state of Perak, Malaysia, and compared with the SAR images obtained from RADARSAT2. Preliminary results...... are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms as well as monitoring of growth variation of oil palm trees for further development of operation models for long term monitoring of oil palm plantations....

  4. A Study on the Effects of Insect Pests and Diseases on Intensively Managed Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Basedon the results of monitoring the environment of China National Afforestation Project (NAP) and the investigation on insect pests and diseases in 1.2 million ha of plantations, the author elaborates the areas, species and causes of insect pests and diseases occurring in the project's areas and provides fundamental theory for guiding environmental protection and plantation establishment in a sound way. Since the project's activities strictly follovved the guideline of environmental protection in past...

  5. The relationship between immigration and labour market performance in Sabah’s oil palm plantation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In...

  6. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  7. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  8. METAL CORROSION IN WATERBORNE PRESERVATIVE- TREATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Sugiyanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity and firmness of wooden construction and furniture those are joined by metal screws depend on corrosion rate of these metals. This paper examines the weight-loss percentage of metal screws used in wood samples that have been treated with water-borne preser vative (i.e.3% borax boric acid and 3% diffusol CB and concurrently investigates the effect of brake fluid on preventing metal corrosion. Wood samples tested included three acacia and one eucalypts wood species which were grouped into sapwood and heartwood containing samples. Wood samples fastened with metal screws were freely suspended in glass jars that contained 25 ml of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to keep the humidity rate above 90%. After 12 months, the metal screws lost their weight due to the corrosion brought about by the related factors either in separate individual or in combination, which comprised brake and fluid-dipping , wood species, wood portion (sapwood and heartwood, kinds of preser vatives used. Corrosion rates of metal screws fastened in eucalypts wood sample as indicated by the screw-weight loss (i.e. 5.8% was more severe than that fastened in acacia wood. Furthermore, corrosion rate of metal screws as fixed firmly in sapwood sample proceeded faster than that in heartwood. This might be caused by the higher moisture content in sapwood. On the other hand, corrosion rate of the screws as fastened in waterborne-preser vative-treated wood samples was greater than that in non-preser ved wood due to electrokinetic characteristics and ionic potential exhibited by the preser vative thereby intensif ying the screw-corrosion process. Meanwhile, less severe corrosion was obser ved and recorded on the screws pre-dipped in brake fluid compared to those on the non-dipped screws

  9. Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen

    2009-07-01

    Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations.

  10. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  11. The potential, variety, and nutrient content of natural vegetation as feedstuffs grown under cashewnut plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sutedi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant production is limited by the quality, the sufficiency and the continuation of feed supply, especially during the dry season. The objective of the study was to find out the potency, type and quality of natural vegetation grown under cashewnut plantation. The study was carried out by exploration of existing natural vegetation resources in cashewnut plantation area. Results showed that native pasture growing under cashewnut plantation area comprised of dry-tolerant grasses and legumes, such as Setaria sp., Themeda sp., Calopogonium mucunoides, and Desmodium sp. The fresh yield and the dry matter production of natural vegetation grown under less than eight years old of cashewnut plantation was lower compared to those grown under cashewnut plantation of more than eight years old. This may be due to shading by the tree crop, which is known to reduce the photosynthetically active radiation reaching the ground of vegetation. It seems that, light is the critical factor affecting the growth of vegetation underneath tree canopies. Carrying capacity of native forages grown under cashewnut plantation was only 0.5 animal unit of ruminant/ha/year.

  12. Mixed forest plantations can efficiently filter rainfall deposits of sulfur and chlorine in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hairong; Yang, Wanqin; Wu, Fuzhong; Tan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Forest filtering is a well-known and efficient method for diminishing atmospheric pollutant (such as SO42‑ and Cl‑) inputs to soil and water; however, the filtering efficiencies of forests vary depending on the regional vegetation and climate. The rainy area of West China has suffered from heavy rainfall and human activity, which has potentially resulted in large amounts of sulfur and chlorine deposition, but little information is available regarding the filtering effects of typical plantations. Therefore, the migration of SO42‑ and Cl‑ from rainfall to throughfall, stemflow and runoff were investigated in a camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) plantation, a cryptomeria (Cryptomeria fortunei) plantation and a mixed plantation in a 9-month forest hydrology experiment. The results indicated the following: (i) The total SO42‑ and Cl‑ deposition was 43.05 kg ha‑1 and 5.25 kg ha‑1, respectively. (ii) The cover layer had the highest interception rate (60.08%), followed by the soil layer (16.02%) and canopy layer (12.85%). (iii) The mixed plantation resulted in the highest SO42‑ (37.23%) and Cl‑ (51.91%) interception rates at the forest ecosystem scale, and the interception rate increased with increasing rainfall. These results indicate that mixed plantations can effectively filter SO42‑ and Cl‑ in this area and in similar areas.

  13. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.

  14. [Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yin, Hua-Jun; Yin, Chun-Ying; Wei, Yu-Hang; Liu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of in situ root exudates and soil microbial composition among three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages (9, 13 and 31 a) in Miyaluo, west Sichuan, China. The results showed that the secretion rates of root exudation per fine biomass, length, surface area and tip were significantly different among the three plantations with different stand ages. The secretion rate of root exudation was the highest in the 9-year-old plantation stand. The root activity of P. asperata was the weakest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. Besides, soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were significantly different among the three plantation stands. MBC and MBN contents of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with stand ages, while those of non-rhizosphere soil were the largest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and their summation in rhizosphere soil presented a trend of high-low-high with stand ages. The opposite pattern was found in the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, the summation of PLFA, and the ratio of fungi number to bacteria in non-rhizosphere soil. It is suggested that root exudates might have a positive rhizosphere effect on soil microbial biomass C, N and PLFAs of functional groups.

  15. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xingling; Lv, Jinhui; Jia, Huixia; Zhao, Shutang; Lu, Mengzhu

    2017-01-01

    To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar) and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0%) compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture) after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  16. Effects of indigenous woody plantations on total nutrients of mine spoil in Singrauli Coalfield, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. N. Singh; D. H. Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on high-density young plantations of three native trees (Albizia lebbeck, Albizia. procera and Tectona grandis) and one native woody grass species (Dendrocalamus strictus) to examine their influence on total nutrient concentrations of coal mine spoil during early phase of plantation establishment. Soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC), Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus (TP) at spoil depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm under 4- and 5-year-old plantations of all species. A significant effect on concentrations of total SOC, TKN and TP were observed due to plantation age, species and soil depth. However, corresponding concentrations (SOC, TKN and TP) were substantially lower at spoil profile of 10-20 cm. In comparison, plantation of A. lebbeck showed greater SOC and nutrient concentrations followed by D. strictus, A. procera and T. grandis, respectively. Therefore, present study clearly indicates attributing qualities of plantation towards improving redeveloping soil of mine spoil varied with species.

  17. Large carbon-sink potential by Kyoto forests in Sweden - a case study on willow plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grelle, Achim [Dept. of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Upp sala (Sweden)]. e-mail: Achim.Grelle@ekol.slu.se; Aronsson, Paer [Dept. of Crop Prod uction Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif [Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg Univ. ( SE); Lindroth, Anders [Geobiospheric Science Centre, Physical Geography and Eco systems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    Fluxes of CO{sub 2} were measured in a 75-ha short-rotation willow plantation at Enkoeping, central Sweden. The plantation was irrigated with wastewater for fertilization and water-filtering purposes. The harvested biomass was used locally for combined heat and power production. The plantation was a sink of ca. 8 tonnes C/ha during 2003, of which ca. 50% was estimated to be attributed to fertilization. Biomass increment by shoot growth was 5 tonnes C/ha during the same year. Below ground carbon allocation was estimated to 3 tonnes C/ha/yr by a model that relates carbon allocation to shoot growth. Thus, the ecosystem carbon balance was closed by these estimations. The carbon uptake by the willow plantation was 5.5 times as high compared to a normally managed spruce forest, but only half as high as from an experimental, well-managed willow plantation in the same region. This illustrates the vast potential of short-rotation willow plantations for CO{sub 2} uptake from the atmosphere.

  18. Phlebotomine sandflies and leishmaniasis risks in Colombian coffee plantations under two systems of cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexande; Agudelo, L A; Navarro, F; Ruiz, F; Molina, J; Aguilera, G; Quiñones, M L

    2001-12-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of traditional (shaded) and intensified (unshaded) coffee plantations in Colombia was sampled by a variety of methods and the species composition and density under the two systems compared. Twenty species of Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) were collected, of which eight were found only in the 'Coffee Axis' ('Eje Cafetero') of the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindio, six were exclusive to the department of Norte de Santander and six occurred in both regions. Four species were collected only in traditional plantations and two exclusively in intensified ones. At least 13 species occurred in both plantation types. Fifteen species are opportunistic man-biters and eight are suspected vectors of leishmaniasis caused by Le. braziliensis, Le. panamensis or Le. mexicana. Seven species were collected inside houses and may be involved in intradomiciliary transmission of Leishmania. The dominant species in Norte de Santander was Lu. spinicrassa, which made up 93.8% of all the sandflies collected in this department. This species was absent from the Eje Cafetero and a number of others among the 15 recorded there might be responsible for Leishmania transmission in this region, including Lu. trapidoi, Lu. yuilli, Lu. gomezi, L. hartmanni and Lu. ovallesi. Sandfly population densities were significantly higher in traditional plantations than in intensified ones. Residents of traditional plantations were able to describe sandflies in significantly more detail than those of intensified plantations, based on seven basic characteristics related to the appearance and biting behaviour of the insects.

  19. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Asgari F, Reif A, Abedi R. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 72-78. In this study, the effect of plantations on plant species diversity was investigated in Darabkola, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. To conduct the study, a natural mixed forest, a broad–leaved plantation (Alnus subcordata-Acer velutinum and a coniferous plantation (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis-Pinus brutia were selected. 35 sampling plots were taken in systematic random method in each area. Data analysis was carried out using Simpson, Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Mc Arthur's N1 diversity indices, Smith and Wilson evenness index and species richness. Results revealed that there were 32 plant species in natural forest and 30 plant species were found in each plantation. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the main families in the studied areas. Diversity and evenness indices of all vegetation layers had the most values in the natural forest. Richness of woody plants had the highest value in the natural forest, while herbaceous richness was the highest in coniferous plantation. Mc Arthur's N1 had the highest value among diversity indices and followed by Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, respectively. In addition, results showed that there were significant differences among diversity, evenness and richness indices in all vegetation layers in the three studied areas.

  20. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da mat