Visualisation of heat transfer in laminar flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2009-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature field and heat-transfer coefficients at non-adiabatic walls. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the
Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid
Shang, De-Yi
2016-01-01
This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Weiguo; Ren, Depeng; Ye, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Huilin; Wang, Shuai
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: Predicted laminar Nusselt number using regression correlation of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid is in agreement with experiments in the rifled tube. - Highlights: • Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are measured and predicted in the rifled tube. • Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are proposed. • The roughness height of 0.425 mm in transition SST model is suggested as an input parameter. • k–kl–ω transition and transition SST models are recommended for laminar–turbulent transition. • Thermal enhancement factor and synergy angle are predicted in the rifled tube. - Abstract: Simulations and experiments of flow and heat transfer behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid have been conducted in a horizontal rifled tube with outer diameter and inner diameter 25.0 and 20.0 mm, pitch and rib height of 12.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional flow behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid are carried out using FLUENT code in the rifled tube. Experimental results show that the heat transfer and thermal performance of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid in the rifled tube are considerably improved compared to those of the smooth tube. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number, and is from 3.5 to 5.1 times over the smooth tube. Also, the pressure drop results reveal that the average friction factor of the ribbed tube is in a range of 2.2 and 4.2 times over the smooth tube. Predictive Nusselt number and friction factor correlations have been presented. The numerical results show that the laminar flow model is valid only at lower Reynolds number in the developed laminar flow of rifled tube. The k–kl–ω transition model and transition SST model with roughness of 0.425 mm are recommended for the predictions of transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in the rifled tube.
Heat transfer in laminar flow for a finned double - tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colle, S.
1977-01-01
An analitical study of the steady-state heat transfer in laminar flow in finned double-tube heat exchangers is presented. The fins are plane, straight and continous, equally spaced and are fixed over the external surface of the inner tube. A constant peripheral temperature distribution is assumed to apply over the inner tube surface and each fin, and a constant peripheral heat flux is assumed to apply over the outer tube surface, while the overall heat flux is suposed to be uniform in the longitudinal direction of the duct. The prediction of the thermal performance of the finned double-tube is made by means of the relationship between the Nusselt number, the boundary conditions and the geometric characteristcs of the duct. (author) [pt
Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin
2013-01-01
This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re 2 ∼1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree
Visualisation of heat transfer in unsteady laminar flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2011-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms of temperature fields and heat-transfer coefficients. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered as the transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductive heat flux in a way analogous to the transport of fluid by
Transient convective heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with constant heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1980-01-01
Most basic transient heat transfer problem is the transient response characteristics of forced convection heat transfer in the flow along a flat plate or in a tube. In case of the laminar flow along a flat plate, the profile method using steady temperature distribution has been mostly adopted, but its propriety has not been clarified yet. About the unsteady heat transfer in the laminar flow along a flat plate, the analysis or experiment evaluating the heat capacity of the flat plate exactly was never carried out. The purpose of this study is to determine by numerical calculation the unsteady characteristics of the boundary layer in laminar flow and to confirm them by experiment concerning the unsteady heat transfer when a flat plate with a certain heat capacity is placed in parallel in uniform flow and given a certain quantity of heat generation suddenly. The basic equation and the solution are given, and the method of numerical calculation and the result are explained. The experimental setup and method, and the experimental results are shown. Both results were in good agreement, and the response of wall temperature, the response of Nusselt number and the change of temperature distribution in course of time were able to be determined by applying Laplace transformation and numerical Laplace inverse transformation to the equation. (Kako, I.)
Numerical Heat Transfer Prediction for Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe with a 90° Bend
Patro, Pandaba; Rout, Ani; Barik, Ashok
2018-06-01
Laminar air flow in a 90° bend has been studied numerically to investigate convective heat transfer, which is of practical relevance to electronic systems and refrigeration piping layout. CFD simulations are performed for Reynolds number in the range 200 to 1000 at different bend radius ratios (5, 10 and 20). The heat transfer characteristics are found to be enhanced in the curved pipe compared to a straight pipe, which are subjected to the same flow rate. The curvature and buoyancy effectively increase heat transfer in viscous laminar flows. The correlation between the flow structure and the heat transfer is found to be strong.
Transient heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Juichi
1975-01-01
As the most basic problem in transient heat transfer, a plate with heat capacity was studied, which is placed in uniform laminar flow in parallel with it, is initially at the same temperature as that of the fluid, and then abruptly is given a specific heating value. The equation of transient heat transfer in this case was solved by numerical calculation. The following matters were revealed. (1) The equation was able to be solved by the application of Laplace transformation and numerical inverse transformation. (2) Wall temperature when the heat capacity of a plate was zero initially agreed well with heat conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the delay in wall temperature rise was increased. (3) Heat transfer rate in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. With increase of the heat capacity, the Nusselt number increased. (4) Temperature distribution in case of the heat capacity of zero initially agreed well with the heat-conduction solution. (Mori, K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeinali Heris Saeed
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalle Donne, M.; Meyer, L.
1978-01-01
Measurements of friction factor and heat transfer coefficients for two rods of 18.9 mm 0.D. with two-dimensional roughness, each in two different outer smooth tubes have been performed in turbulent and laminar flow. The turbulent flow results indicate that the flow was not thermally fully established, the isothermal data however agree reasonably well with our previously obtained general correlation. Laminar flow results can be correlated best when the Reynolds and Greatz numbers are evaluated at the temperature average between the temperature of the inner rod surface and of the outer smooth surface of the annulus, the average being weighted over the two surfaces. (orig.) [de
Laminar forced convective heat transfer to near-critical water in a tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Ho
2003-01-01
Numerical modeling is carried out to investigate forced convective heat transfer to near-critical water in developing laminar flow through a circular tube. Due to large variations of thermo-physical properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity near thermodynamic critical point, heat transfer characteristics show quite different behavior compared with pure forced convection. With flow acceleration along the tube unusual behavior of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor occurs when the fluid enthalpy passes through pseudocritical point of pressure in the tube. There is also a transition behavior from liquid-like phase to gas-like phase in the developing region. Numerical results with constant heat flux boundary conditions are obtained for reduced pressures from 1.09 to 1.99. Graphical results for velocity, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient with Stanton number are presented and analyzed
Conjugated heat transfer in laminar flow between parallel-plates channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guedes, R.O.C.; Cotta, R.M.; Brum, N.C.L.
1989-01-01
An analysis is made of conjugated convective-conductive heat transfer in laminar flow of a newtonian fluid between parallel-plates channel, taking into account the longitudinal conduction along the duct walls only, by neglecting the transversal temperature gradients in the solid. This extended Graetz-type problem is then analytically handled through the generalized integral transform technique, providing accurate numerical results for quantities of practical interest sucyh as bulk and wall temperatures, and Nusselt numbers. The effects of a conjugation parameter and Biot number on heat transfer behavior are then investigated. (author)
Analogy of convective heat transfer between developing laminar secondary flows in pipes
Ishigaki, Hiroshi; 石垣 博
1998-01-01
Analogy of convective heat transfer between developing laminar flows in curved pipes and orthogonally rotating pipes is described through similarity arguments and numerical computation. Governing parameters and a dimensionless axial distance are properly used for the respective flows. When the second parameter is large in each flow, it is shown that the temperature profiles and the Nusselt numbers of the two flows are approximately similar for the same values of the governing parameter, Prand...
Shang, De-Yi
2012-01-01
This book presents recent developments in our systematic studies of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, as well as accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids (FFNF). These new developments provided in this book are (i) novel system of analysis models based on the developed New Similarity Analysis Method; (ii) a system of advanced methods for treatment of gas temperature- dependent physical properties, and liquid temperature- dependent physical properties; (iii) the organically combined models of the governing mathematical models with those on treatment model of variable physical properties; (iv) rigorous approach of overcoming a challenge on accurate solution of three-point boundary value problem related to two-phase film boiling and condensation; and (v) A pseudo-similarity method of dealing with thermal boundary layer of FFNF for greatly simplifies the heat-transfer analysis and numerical calculati...
Heat-and-mass transfer during a laminar dissociating gas flow in eccentric annular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besedina, T.V.; Udot, A.V.; Yakushev, A.P.
1987-01-01
An algorithm to calculate heat-and-mass transfer processes during dissociating gas laminar flow in an eccentric annular channels is considered. Analytical solutions of the heat transfer equations for a rod clodding and gap with boundary conditions of conjugation of temperatures and heat fluxes have been used to determine temperature field. This has made it possible to proceed from slution of the conjugate problem to solution of the equation of energy only for the coolant. The results of calculation of temperature distribution along the cladding for different values of its eccentricity and thermal conductivity coefficient both for the case of frozen flow and in the presence of chemical reactions in the flow are given. When calculating temperatures with conjugation boundary conditions temperature gradients in azimuthal direction are far less and heat transfer in concentration diffusion is carried out mainly in radial direction
Heat transfer of pulsating laminar flow in pipes with wall thermal inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Hongsheng; Tan, Sichao; Wen, Jing; Zhuang, Nailiang
2016-01-01
The effects of wall thermal inertia on heat transfer of pulsating laminar flow with constant power density within the pipe wall are investigated theoretically. The energy equation of the fully developed flow and heat transfer is solved by separation of variables and Green's function. The effects of the pulsation amplitude and frequency, the Prandtl number and the wall heat capacity on heat transfer features characterized by temperature, heat flux and Nusselt number are analyzed. The results show that the oscillation of wall heat flux increases along with the wall thermal inertia, while the oscillation of temperature and Nusselt number is suppressed by the wall thermal inertia. The influence of pulsation on the average Nusselt number is also obtained. The pulsating laminar flow can reduce the average Nusselt number. The Nusselt number reduction of pipe flow are a little more remarkable than that of flow between parallel plates, which is mainly caused by differences in hydraulic and thermal performances of the channels. (authors)
Intriguingly high convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid coolants in laminar flows
Xie, Huaqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Wei
2010-05-01
We reported on investigation of the convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids as coolants in laminar flows inside a circular copper tube with constant wall temperature. Nanofluids containing Al 2O 3, ZnO, TiO 2, and MgO nanoparticles were prepared with a mixture of 55 vol.% distilled water and 45 vol.% ethylene glycol as base fluid. It was found that the heat transfer behaviors of the nanofluids were highly depended on the volume fraction, average size, species of the suspended nanoparticles and the flow conditions. MgO, Al 2O 3, and ZnO nanofluids exhibited superior enhancements of heat transfer coefficient, with the highest enhancement up to 252% at a Reynolds number of 1000 for MgO nanofluid. Our results demonstrated that these oxide nanofluids might be promising alternatives for conventional coolants.
Intriguingly high convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid coolants in laminar flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Huaqing; Li Yang; Yu Wei
2010-01-01
We reported on investigation of the convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids as coolants in laminar flows inside a circular copper tube with constant wall temperature. Nanofluids containing Al 2 O 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , and MgO nanoparticles were prepared with a mixture of 55 vol.% distilled water and 45 vol.% ethylene glycol as base fluid. It was found that the heat transfer behaviors of the nanofluids were highly depended on the volume fraction, average size, species of the suspended nanoparticles and the flow conditions. MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and ZnO nanofluids exhibited superior enhancements of heat transfer coefficient, with the highest enhancement up to 252% at a Reynolds number of 1000 for MgO nanofluid. Our results demonstrated that these oxide nanofluids might be promising alternatives for conventional coolants.
Intriguingly high convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid coolants in laminar flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie Huaqing, E-mail: hqxie@eed.sspu.c [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Li Yang; Yu Wei [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)
2010-05-31
We reported on investigation of the convective heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids as coolants in laminar flows inside a circular copper tube with constant wall temperature. Nanofluids containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, TiO{sub 2}, and MgO nanoparticles were prepared with a mixture of 55 vol.% distilled water and 45 vol.% ethylene glycol as base fluid. It was found that the heat transfer behaviors of the nanofluids were highly depended on the volume fraction, average size, species of the suspended nanoparticles and the flow conditions. MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO nanofluids exhibited superior enhancements of heat transfer coefficient, with the highest enhancement up to 252% at a Reynolds number of 1000 for MgO nanofluid. Our results demonstrated that these oxide nanofluids might be promising alternatives for conventional coolants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Liangbi; Zhang Qiang; Li Xiaoxia
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy conservation equation of convective heat transfer is used to explain convective heat transfer there are two points that are difficult for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand: thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of temperature; on the wall surface (the fluid side) the velocity is zero, a diffusion equation of temperature is gained from energy conservation equation, however, temperature cannot be transported. Consequently, the real physical meaning of thermal diffusivity is not clearly reflected in the energy conservation equation, and whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process on the wall surface is not clear. Through a simple convective heat transfer case: laminar convective heat transfer in a tube with a uniform wall heat flux on the tube wall, this paper explains these points more clearly. The results declare that it is easier for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand these points when a description of heat transfer in terms of the heat flux is used. In this description, thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux; the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer appears, on the wall surface, the fact whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process can be explained and understood easily. The results are not only essential for teachers to improve the efficiency of university-level physics education regarding heat transfer, but they also enrich the theories for understanding heat transfer
Effect of radiation on the laminar convective heat transfer through a layer of highly porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, K.; Howell, J.R.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation is reported of the coupled forced convective and radiative transfer through a highly porous medium. The porosity range investigated is high enough that the fluid inertia terms in the momentum equation cannot be neglected; i.e., the simple form of Darcy's law is invalid. The geometry studied is a plane layer of highly porous medium resting on one impermeable boundary and exposed to a two-dimensional laminar external flow field. The objective is to determine the effective overall heat transfer coefficients for such a geometry. The results are applicable to diverse situations, including insulation batts exposed to external flow, the heat loss and drying rates of grain fields and forest areas, and the drying of beds of porous material exposed to convective and radiative heating
Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanagihara, J.I.; Rodriques, R. Jr. [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-31
Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)
Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanagihara, J I; Rodriques, R Jr [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-12-31
Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)
Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuft, D.B.
1979-04-01
A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mital, Manu
2013-01-01
Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using micro and mini channels is an attractive alternative to large and bulky aluminum or copper heat sinks. These channels can be integrated directly into a chip or a heat spreader, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids (liquid solutions with dispersed nanometer-sized particles) due to their enhanced heat transfer effects reported in literature. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow forced convection, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The phrase heat transfer enhancement ratio (HTR) is used to denote the ratio of average heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid to water at the same pumping power. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate nanofluid thermophysical properties. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to identify important design variables (Reynolds number, volume fraction and particle size) related to thermal and flow characteristics of the microchannel heat sink with nanofluids. Statistical analysis of the model showed that the volume fraction is the most significant factor impacting the HTR, followed by the particle diameter. The impact of the Reynolds number and other interaction terms is relatively weak. The HTR is maximized at smallest possible particle diameter (since smaller particles improve heat transfer but do not impact pumping power). Then, for a given Reynolds number, an optimal value of volume fraction can be obtained to maximize HTR. The overall aim is to present results that would be useful for understanding and optimal design of microchannel heat sinks with nanofluid flow. - Highlights: ► Validated model is used to investigate heat transfer and pumping power in nanofluids. ► Particles improve heat transfer
Convective heat transfer in foams under laminar flow in pipes and tube bundles.
Attia, Joseph A; McKinley, Ian M; Moreno-Magana, David; Pilon, Laurent
2012-12-01
The present study reports experimental data and scaling analysis for forced convection of foams and microfoams in laminar flow in circular and rectangular tubes as well as in tube bundles. Foams and microfoams are pseudoplastic (shear thinning) two-phase fluids consisting of tightly packed bubbles with diameters ranging from tens of microns to a few millimeters. They have found applications in separation processes, soil remediation, oil recovery, water treatment, food processes, as well as in fire fighting and in heat exchangers. First, aqueous solutions of surfactant Tween 20 with different concentrations were used to generate microfoams with various porosity, bubble size distribution, and rheological behavior. These different microfoams were flowed in uniformly heated circular tubes of different diameter instrumented with thermocouples. A wide range of heat fluxes and flow rates were explored. Experimental data were compared with analytical and semi-empirical expressions derived and validated for single-phase power-law fluids. These correlations were extended to two-phase foams by defining the Reynolds number based on the effective viscosity and density of microfoams. However, the local Nusselt and Prandtl numbers were defined based on the specific heat and thermal conductivity of water. Indeed, the heated wall was continuously in contact with a film of water controlling convective heat transfer to the microfoams. Overall, good agreement between experimental results and model predictions was obtained for all experimental conditions considered. Finally, the same approach was shown to be also valid for experimental data reported in the literature for laminar forced convection of microfoams in rectangular minichannels and of macrofoams across aligned and staggered tube bundles with constant wall heat flux.
Conjugate heat transfer of laminar film condensation along a horizontal plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Euk Soo [Pusan National Univesity, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2006-03-15
This paper proposes appropriate conjugate parameters and dimensionless temperatures to analysis the conjugate problem of heat conduction in solid wall coupled with laminar film condensation flow adjacent to horizontal flat plate. An efficient methods for some fluids are proposed for its solution. The momentum and energy balance equations are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations with four parameters: the Prandtl number, Pr, Modified Jacob number, Ja{sup *}/Pr, defined by an overall temperature difference, a property ratio {radical}{rho}{sub {iota}}{mu}{sub {iota}} {radical}{rho}{sub {upsilon}}{mu}{sub {upsilon}} and the conjugate parameter {zeta}. The obtained similarity solution reveals the effect of the conjugate parameter, and the results are compared with the simplified solution. The variations of the heat transfer rates as well as the interface temperature and frictions along the plate are shown explicitly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com; Shaha, Poly Rani [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Roy, Titob [Department of Mathematics, Vikarunnesa Nun School and College, Boshundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Yanase, Shinichiro, E-mail: yanase@okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2016-07-12
Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a curved square duct rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of curvature is investigated numerically by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Taylor number −300≤Tr≤1000 for the Dean number Dn = 1000. A temperature difference is applied across the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number Gr = 100, where the outer wall is heated and the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being adiabatic. Flow characteristics are investigated with the effects of rotational parameter, Tr, and the pressure-driven parameter, Dn, for the constant curvature 0.001. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces show that the unsteady flow undergoes through various flow instabilities in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → chaotic → steady-state → periodic → multi-periodic → chaotic’, if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time evolution calculations show that the flow undergoes in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → periodic → steady-state’, if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Typical contours of secondary flow patterns and temperature profiles are obtained at several values of Tr, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of two- to six-vortex solutions if the duct rotation is involved. External heating is shown to generate a significant temperature gradient at the outer wall of the duct. This study also shows that there is a strong interaction between the heating-induced buoyancy force and the centrifugal-Coriolis instability in the curved channel that stimulates fluid mixing and consequently enhances heat transfer in the fluid.
Numerical investigation of heat transfer in annulus laminar flow of multi tubes-in-tube helical coil
Nada, S. A.; Elattar, H. F.; Fouda, A.; Refaey, H. A.
2018-03-01
In the present study, a CFD analysis using ANSYS-FLUENT 14.5 CFD package is used to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer of laminar flow in annulus formed by multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The numerical results are validated by comparison with previous experimental data and fair agreements were existed. The influences of the design and operation parameters such as heat flux, Reynolds numbers and annulus geometry on the heat transfer characteristics are investigated. Different annulus of different numbers of inner tubes, specifically 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, are tested. The Results showed that for all the studied annulus, the heat flux has no effect on the Nusselt number and compactness parameter. The annulus formed by using five inner tubes showed the best heat transfer performance and compactness parameter. Correlation of predicting Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes are presented.
Heat transfer in a laminar separation bubble affected by oscillating external flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wissink, J.G.; Michelassi, V.; Rodi, W.
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of passive heat transfer in a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) over a flat plate affected by oscillating external flow is presented. The oscillation imposes a periodicity which is employed for phase-averaging. The flat plate is kept at a uniform, low temperature. The local Nusselt number, Nu, is determined as a function of phase. In the dead-air region of the bubble Nu is found to be relatively small, while it peaks in the recirculation region where hot outer fluid gets entrained and is transported towards the flat plate. Each period a new separation bubble is formed, that merges with the old separation bubble. The reverse flow inside the separation bubble reaches values of up to 60% of the local free-stream velocity, which is sufficient to make the separation bubble absolutely unstable such that self-sustained turbulence can exist. For the phase-averaged flow, neither the turbulent viscosity hypothesis nor the temperature gradient-diffusion hypothesis is found to hold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M BENKHEDDA
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study reports numerical simulation for 3D laminar forced convection of a nanofluid flow in horizontal annulus with constant heat flux at the outer cylinder will the inner cylinder is considered adiabatic. The numerical model is carried out by solving the governing equation of continuity, momentum and energy using take account for thee finite volume method, with the assistance of SIMPLER algorithm. The results shows that for the Reynolds numbers and Prandtl fixed, the dimensionless velocity profile for the laminar forced convection of a nanofluid consisting of water does not vary with the volume concentration of nanoparticles while the effect of the concentration of nanoparticles on the temperature of the mass is significant nanofluid. These results are consistent with those found in the literature. In general the use of nanofluid with a volume concentration of nanoparticles causes a increase in the coefficient of heat transfer by convection.
Analytical solutions of heat transfer for laminar flow in rectangular channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rybiński Witold
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents two analytical solutions namely for Fanning friction factor and for Nusselt number of fully developed laminar fluid flow in straight mini channels with rectangular cross-section. This type of channels is common in mini- and microchannel heat exchangers. Analytical formulae, both for velocity and temperature profiles, were obtained in the explicit form of two terms. The first term is an asymptotic solution of laminar flow between parallel plates. The second one is a rapidly convergent series. This series becomes zero as the cross-section aspect ratio goes to infinity. This clear mathematical form is also inherited by the formulae for friction factor and Nusselt number. As the boundary conditions for velocity and temperature profiles no-slip and peripherally constant temperature with axially constant heat flux were assumed (H1 type. The velocity profile is assumed to be independent of the temperature profile. The assumption of constant temperature at the channel’s perimeter is related to the asymptotic case of channel’s wall thermal resistance: infinite in the axial direction and zero in the peripheral one. It represents typical conditions in a minichannel heat exchanger made of metal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq; Mujumdar, Arun S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Heat transfers of helical coiled tube with several cross section profiles are evaluated. • Helical tubes offer higher heat transfer and lower entropy generation. • Square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular. • Study could serve as a guideline in designing an efficient helical tube heat exchanger. - Abstract: This study evaluates heat transfer performance and entropy generation of laminar flow in coiled tubes with various cross-sections geometries i.e. circular, ellipse and square, relatives to the straight tubes of similar cross-sections. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed and validated against empirical correlations. Good agreement is obtained within range of Reynolds and Dean numbers considered. Effect of geometry, wall temperature, Reynolds number and heating/cooling mode were examined. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the coiled tube configurations, a parameter referred as Figure of Merit (FoM) is defined as the ratio heat transfer rate to the required pumping power. In addition, exergy analysis is carried out to examine the inefficiency of the coiled tube configurations. The results indicate that coiled tubes provide higher heat transfer rate. In addition, it was found to be more efficient as reflected by lower entropy generation as compared to straight tubes. Among the studied cross-section, square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular counterpart. Entropy production from heat transfer contribution is two order-of-magnitude higher than that of entropy contribution from viscous dissipation. Cooling case produces slightly higher entropy than heating counterpart. Finally, this study can provide practical guideline to design more efficient coiled heat exchanger.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, K.; Takeuchi, Y.
1999-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.193, p.105-18, 1999. Rigorous numerical solution of natural convection heat transfer, from a horizontal cylinder with uniform surface heat flux or with uniform surface temperature, to liquid sodium was derived by solving the fundamental equations for laminar natural convection heat transfer without the boundary layer approximation. It was made clear that the local and average Nusselt numbers experimentally obtained and reported in part 1 of this paper were described well by the numerical solutions for uniform surface heat fluxes, but that those for uniform surface temperatures could not describe the angular distribution of the local Nusselt numbers and about 10% underpredicted the average Nusselt numbers. Generalized correlation for natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder with a uniform surface heat flux in liquid metals was presented based on the rigorous theoretical values for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers. It was confirmed that the correlation can describe the authors' and other workers' experimental data on horizontal cylinders in various kinds of liquid metals for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers. Another correlation for a horizontal cylinder with a uniform surface temperature in liquid metals, which may be applicable for special cases such as natural convection heat transfer in a sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger etc. was also presented based on the rigorous theoretical values for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers. These correlations can also describe the rigorous numerical solutions for non-metallic liquids and gases for the Prandtl numbers up to 10. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Foroutani Saeed
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This research investigates the laminar steady-forced convection heat transfer of a Cu-water nanofluid in a 2-D horizontal channel with different block geometries attached to the bottom wall. The block geometries assumed in this research are triangular and curve blocks. The governing equations associated with the required boundary conditions are solved using finite volume method based on the SIMPLE technique and the effects of Reynolds number, nanofluid volume fraction, block geometry, and the numbers of blocks on the local and average Nusselt numbers are explored. The obtained results show that nanoparticles can effectively enhance the heat transfer in a channel. Furthermore, the local and average Nusselt number distribution is strongly dependent on the block geometry. As observed, the heat transfer augments with the increase in the Reynolds number and nanofluid volume fraction for both block geometries. It is also concluded that the average Nusselt number of the curve block is higher than that of the triangular block for different Reynolds numbers which declares the importance of the block geometry in the heat transfer enhancement.
Laminar natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal circular cylinder to liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiyama, K.; Ma, Y.; Ishiguro, R.
1991-01-01
The objective of the present study is to clarify the heat transfer characteristic of natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder immersed in liquid metals. Experimental work concerning liquid metals sometimes involves such a degree of error that is impossible to understand the observed characteristics in measurement. Numerical analysis is a powerful means to overcome this experimental disadvantage. In the present paper the authors first show that the Boussinesq approximation is more applicable heat transfer rates, even for a cylinder with a relatively large temperature difference (>100K) between the heat transfer surface and fluid. It is found from a comparison of the present results with previous work that the correlation equations that have already been proposed predict values lower than the present ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurganov, V.A.; Gladuntsov, A.I.
1977-01-01
Analysed are the experimental data obtained for heat transfer to gaseous dissociating ammonium (NH 3 ) under heating in round pipes (steel Kh18N10T) at developed eddying input flow and marginal condition of heat supply gsub(c) approximately equal to const in the ranges of the following parameters: p=3-10 atm; Tsub(input)=310-720 K; Tsub(c) ( 3 ; gsub(c)/-anti rho W 8.8 kJ/kg; gsub(c)/(anti rho WCsub(p) sub(input)Tsub(input)) (<=) 0.0104; 1/d (<=) 150 (where Tsub(c) is the wall temperature, gsub(c) the heat flow density on wall, and anti rho W velocity). The discussion involves phenomena of worsened heat transfer at high heat loads. The authors show the basic relationship between these phenomena and laminarization of the near-wall flow at the input site of the pipe. The regularities of heat transfer were noted to undergo substantial transformation under laminarized flow
Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…
Kumar, Prince; Pandey, K. M., Dr.
2017-08-01
Heat transfer is a most important phenomenon that influence the performance of working device. To date several attempts have been made by researchers to minimize the size of heat exchangers in order to reduce the cost. Earlier we use some conventional fluids (water, air, engine oil etc.) for cooling of automobile, refrigeration and some other industrial applications. But it is observed here that by using these fluids there is curb and hindrance in heat transfer rate because of very low thermal conductivity. From last ten-years new generation fluid introduced known as nanofluid. To increase the thermal conductivity of base fluid some amount of nanoparticles is added. Nanofluid have combined properties of nanoparticles as well as base fluid. Researcher found that heat transfer rate fully dependent of the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles as well as nanoparticle size diameter and volume concentration. This review paper summarised the recent research on enhancement of heat transfer and thermal performance of nanofluid as coolant for industrial applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thamir K. Jassem
2015-02-01
Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase. It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammed, Hussein A.
2008-01-01
Laminar mixed convection heat transfer for assisted and opposed air flows in the entrance region of a vertical circular tube with the using of a uniform wall heat flux boundary condition has been experimentally investigated. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of flow direction and the effect of tube inclination on the surface temperature, local and average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number ranged from 400 to 1600 and Grashof number from 2.0 x 10 5 to 6.2 x 10 6 . It was found that the circumferential surface temperature along the dimensionless tube length for opposed flow would be higher than that both of assisted flow and horizontal tube [Mohammed HA, Salman YK. Experimental investigation of combined convection heat transfer for thermally developing flow in a horizontal circular cylinder. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27(8-9):1522-33] due to the stronger free convective currents within the cross-section. The Nusselt number values would be lower for opposed flow than that for assisted flow. It was inferred that the behaviour of Nu x for opposed flow to be strongly dependent on the combination of Re and Gr numbers. Empirical equations expressing the average Nusselt numbers in terms of Grashof and Reynolds numbers were proposed for both assisted and opposed flow cases. The average heat transfer results were compared with previous literature and showed similar trend and satisfactory agreement
Laminar forced convective/conductive heat transfer by finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.
1982-01-01
The present study is directed at developing a finite element computer program for solution of decoupled convective/conductive heat transfer problems. Penalty function formulation has been used to solve momentum equations and subsequently transient energy equation is solved using modified Crank-Nicolson method. The optimal upwinding scheme has been employed in energy equation to remove oscillations at high Peclet number. (author)
Laminar flow heat transfer studies in a twisted square duct for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Bombay 400 ... boundary conditions using commercially available software. ... Chang et al (1988) used numerical method to study laminar flow in a twisted elliptic tube for.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouakkaz Rafik
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper- water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder with a constant nondimensional rotation rate α varying from 0 to 5 was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 5–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are carried out by using a finite-volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate for the fixed value of the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, rotation can be used as a drag reduction technique.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Siavashi Majid; Jamali Mohammad
2017-01-01
Heat transfer and entropy generation of developing laminar forced convection flow of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux on the walls is investigated numerically. In order to determine entropy generation of fully developed flow, two approaches are employed and it is shown that only one of these methods can provide appropriate results for flow inside annuli. The effects of concentration of nanoparticles, Reynolds number and thermal boundaries on heat transfer enhancement and entropy generation of developing laminar flow inside annuli with different radius ratios and same cross sectional areas are studied. The results show that radius ratio is a very important decision parameter of an annular heat exchanger such that in each Re, there is an optimum radius ratio to maximize Nu and minimize entropy generation. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles concentration on heat transfer enhancement and minimizing entropy generation is stronger at higher Reynolds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahola, M.P.; Karimi, A.
1996-01-01
In boundary layer analyses involving heat transfer, the Prandtl number (Pr) relates the diffusion of momentum to the diffusion of heat, and can be shown to directly correlate to the ratio of the thermal boundary layer thickness to the velocity boundary layer thickness. For large Prandtl number fluids (i.e., Pr > 1) the velocity boundary layer thickness is larger than the thermal boundary layer thickness, and vice versa. In some applications in the industry heating does not occur over the entire plate, such as in the case of an unheated starting region or spot heating along a finite segment of the plate. For such applications solutions only exist for the simpler case of large Prandtl number fluids where the thermal boundary layer is assumed to be smaller than the velocity boundary layer. The analyses presented in this paper extends the solution to the unheated starting region problem for small Prandtl number fluids, where the thermal boundary layer grows larger and crosses the velocity boundary layer. The solution is based on the integral method approach assuming laminar flow, and both cases of constant wall temperature as well as constant wall heat flux are analyzed
Heat transfer investigation of molten salts under laminar and turbulent flow regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, A.K.; Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.
2014-01-01
High temperature reactor and solar thermal power plants use Molten Salt as a coolant, as it has low melting point and high boiling point, enabling us to operate the system at low pressure. Molten fluoride salt (eutectic mixture of LiF-NaF-KF) and molten nitrate salt (mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratios by weight) are proposed as a candidate coolant for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar power plant respectively. BARC is developing a 600 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor, cooled by natural circulation of fluoride salt and capable of supplying process heat at 1000℃ to facilitate hydrogen production by splitting water. Beside this, BARC is also developing a 2MWe solar power tower system using molten nitrate salt as a primary coolant and storage medium. In order to design this, it is necessary to study the heat transfer characteristics of various molten salts. Most of the previous studies related to molten salts are based on the experimental works. These experiments essentially measured the physical properties of molten salts and their heat transfer characteristics. Ferri et al. introduced the property definitions for molten salts in the RELAP5 code to perform transient simulations at the ProvaCollettoriSolari (PCS) test facility. In this paper, a CFD analysis has been performed to study the heat transfer characteristics of molten fluoride salt and molten nitrate salt flowing in a circular pipe for various regimes of flow. Simulation is performed with the help of in-house developed CFD code, NAFA, acronym for Numerical Analysis of Flows in Axi-symmetric geometries. Uniform velocity and temperature distribution are set as the inlet boundary condition and pressure is employed at the outlet boundary condition. The inlet temperature for all simulation is set as 300℃ for nitrate salt and 500℃ for fluoride salt and the operating pressure is 1 atm in both the cases
Venkitaraj, K. P.; Suresh, S.; Alwin Mathew, T.; Bibin, B. S.; Abraham, Jisa
2018-03-01
Nanofluids are advanced heat transfer fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluids such as water, oil etc. This paper reports the experimental study on convective heat transfer characteristics of water based titanium dioxide nanofluids in fully developed flow through a uniformly heated pipe heat exchanger fitted with modified butterfly inserts. Nanofluids are prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles of average particle size 29 nm in deionized water. The heat transfer experiments are performed in laminar regime using nanofluids prepared with 0.1% and 0.3% volume fractions of TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal performance characteristics of conventional butterfly inserts and modified butterfly inserts are also compared using TiO2 nanofluid. The inserts with different pitches 6 cm, 9 cm and 12 cm are tested to determine the effect of pitch distance of inserts in the heat transfer and friction. The experimental results showed that the modification made in the butterfly inserts were able to produce higher heat transfer than conventional butterfly inserts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hajmohammadi, M.R.; Poozesh, S.; Rahmani, M.; Campo, A.
2013-01-01
This paper explores the bearing that a non-uniform distribution of heat flux used as a wall boundary condition exerts on the heat transfer improvement in a round pipe. Because the overall heat load is considered fixed, the heat transfer improvement is viewed through a reduction in the maximum temperature (‘hot spot’) by imposing optimal distribution of heat flux. Two cases are studied in detail 1) fully developed and 2) developing flow. Peak temperatures in the heated pipe wall are calculated via an analytical approach for the fully developed case, while a numerical simulation based on CFD is employed for the developing case. By relaxing the heat flux distribution on the pipe wall, the numerical results imply that the optimum distribution of heat flux, which minimizes the peak temperatures corresponds with the ‘descending’ distribution. Given that the foregoing approach is quite different from the ‘ascending’ heat flux distribution recommended in the literature by means of the entropy generation minimization (EGM) method, it is inferred that the optimization of heat transfer and fluid flow, in comparison with the thermodynamic optimization, may bring forth quite different guidelines for the designs of thermal systems under the same constraints and circumstances. -- Highlights: • Considered the bearing of non-uniform distribution of heat flux on the hot spots. • Determined the optimal distribution of heat flux that minimizes the hot spots. • Results are compared with those obtained by EGM method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oulaid, Othmane; Benhamou, Brahim; Galanis, Nicolas
2010-01-01
This paper, deals with a numerical study of the effects of buoyancy forces on an upward, steady state, laminar flow of humid air in a vertical parallel-plate channel. The plates are wetted by a thin liquid water film and maintained at a constant temperature which is lower than that of the air entering the channel. A 2D fully elliptical model, associated with the Boussinesq assumption, is used to take into account axial diffusion. The solution of this mathematical model is based on the finite volume method and the velocity-pressure coupling is handled by the SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results show that buoyancy forces have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic, thermal and mass fraction fields. Additionally, these forces induce flow reversal for high air temperatures and mass fractions at the channel entrance. It is established that heat transfer associated with phase change is, sometimes, more significant than sensible heat transfer. Furthermore, this importance depends on the mass fraction gradient. The conditions for the existence of flow reversal are presented in charts and analytical expressions specifying the critical thermal Grashof number as a function of the Reynolds number for different values of the solutal Grashof number and different aspect ratios of the channel.
Conjugate Heat Transfer Characteristics of Laminar Flows Through a Backward Facing Step Duct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bayram CELİK
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Present study investigates the effects of solid to fluid conductivity ratio, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers, and solid wall thickness on conjugate heat transfer for a backward facing step duct with a conductive solid bottom wall. Although Kanna and Das performed a case study in 2006 for the same problem, the benchmark studies conducted later including the present one revealed that their results are arguable. Ramsak states in a study “Professor Kanna has confirmed in personal communication that their results are probably wrong”. The temperature and Nusselt number variations along the solid-fluid interface presented here are in excellent agreement with those obtained by Ramsak. The analyses presented here reveal that even though the decrease in Pr and the increase in solid to fluid conductivity ratio have similar global influence with the thinning wall on the interface temperature, the influence of the former parameters are limited in recirculation zone.
Mittermaier, M.; Ziegler, F.
2018-04-01
In this article we present a model describing a laminar film flow over a vertical isothermal plate whilst heat and mass transfer is occurring. We focus on a formulation where most common assumptions, such as constant property data and constant film thickness, have been cancelled. The hydrodynamic model results in longitudinal and transversal velocity components and their evolution in the entrance region. Heat and mass transfer occurs simultaneously and is modelled with respect to release of differential heat of solution as well as heat flow due to interdiffusion. The numerical solution is obtained by utilising a Newton-Raphson method to solve the finite difference formulation of the governing equations. Mass transfer across the film affects the development of both longitudinal and transversal velocity components. The hydrodynamics are modelled using a boundary layer approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The significance of simplifications on the hydrodynamic model are illustrated and discussed using a fully developed velocity profile (Nusselt flow) and a plug flow at the inlet for comparison. Even if a Nusselt profile is assumed, it develops further since mass is absorbed or desorbed. It is found that the onset of absorption occurs at shorter flow length when applying a plug flow at the inlet. If the film is initially in equilibrium, this results in a 9.3% increase in absorbed mass over a length of 0.03 m as compared with the Nusselt flow. A fluid with a viscosity five times the one of lithium bromide solution but sharing comparable properties apart from that, leads to lower overall heat and mass transfer rates. If the respective fluids are saturated at the inlet, the accumulated mass flux absorbed by lithium bromide solution is 2.2 times higher than the one absorbed by a high viscous fluid. However, when a plug flow is applied and the fluid is sub-cooled, ab initio the absorbed mass flux is slightly higher for a high viscous fluid. Assuming a sub
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Rosen, Marc A.
2016-01-01
Nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids are prepared using a two-step method in an aqueous solution of 0.025. wt% Triton X-100 as a surfactant with various nanosheets at several concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06. wt%). The results are reported of experiments on the thermal conductivity......, viscosity and convective heat transfer behavior of NDG nanofluids undergoing laminar flowing in a circular tube. The results indicate that, compared to the base liquid, the thermal conductivity is enhanced for NDG nanofluids by between 22.15% and 36.78%, and the heat transfer coefficient of the NDG...
Brown, R. D.; Jakubowski, A. K.
1974-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured for laminar separated flows downstream of rearward-facing steps with and without mass suction. The flow conditions were such that the boundary-layer thickness was comparable to or larger than the step height. For both suction and no-suction cases, an increase in the step height resulted in a sharp decrease in the initial heat-transfer rates behind the step. Downstream, however, the heat transfer gradually recovered back to less than or near attached-flow values. Mass suction from the step base area increased the local heat-transfer rates; however, this effect was relatively weak for the laminar flows considered. Even removal of the entire approaching boundary layer raised the post-step heat-transfer rates only about 10 percent above the flatplate values. Post-step pressure distributions were found to depend on the entrainment conditions at separation. In the case of the solid-faced step, a sharp pressure drop behind the step was followed by a very short plateau and relatively fast recompression. For the slotted-step connected to a large plenum but without suction, the pressure drop at the base was much smaller and the downstream recompression more gradual than that for solid-faced step.
SUNDÉN, B
2012-01-01
Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.
Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.
2018-03-01
Heat transfer through forced convection from the inner surface of a circular tube to force the flow of liquid sodium in the laminar and transition regions were numerically analysed for two types of tube geometries (concentric annular and circular tubes) and two types of equivalent diameters (hydraulic and thermal equivalent diameters). The unsteady laminar three-dimensional basic equations for forced convection heat transfer caused by a step heat flux were numerically solved until a steady state is attained. The code of the parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical integration code series (PHOENICS) was used for calculations by considering relevant temperature dependent thermo-physical properties. The concentric annular tube has a test tube with inner and outer diameters of 7.6 and 14.3 mm, respectively, has a heated length of 52 mm, and an L/d of 6.84. The two circular tubes have inner diameters of 6.7 and 19.3 mm with L/d of 7.76 and 2.69, respectively, and a heated length of 52 mm. The inlet liquid temperature, inlet liquid velocity, and surface heat flux were equally set for each test tube as T in ≅573 to 585 K, u in = 0.0852 to 1 m/s, and q = 2×105 to 2.5×106 W/m2, respectively. The increase in temperature from the leading edge of the heated section to the outlet of the circular tubes (with a hydraulic diameter of d H = 6.7 mm and a thermal equivalent diameter d te = 19.3 mm) was approximately 2.70 and 1.21 times as large as the corresponding values of the concentric annular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm and an outer diameter of 14.3 mm, respectively. A quantity in the laminar and transition regions was suggested as the dominant variable involved in the forced convection heat transfer in the circular tube. The values of the local and average Nusselt numbers, Nu z and Nu av , respectively, for a concentric annular tube with d H = 6.7 mm and for a circular tube with d H = 6.7 mm were calculated to examine the effects of q, T in , and Pe on heat
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Hosseini, Reza, E-mail: hoseinir@aut.ac.ir; Saffar Avval, Majid
2017-02-15
In this study, steady state laminar ferroconvection through circular horizontal tube partially filled with porous media under constant heat flux is experimentally investigated. Transverse magnetic fields were applied on ferrofluid flow by two fixed parallel magnet bar positioned on a certain distance from beginning of the test section. The results show promising notable enhancement in heat transfer as a consequence of partially filled porous media and magnetic field, up to 2.2 and 1.4 fold enhancement were observed in heat transfer coefficient respectively. It was found that presence of both porous media and magnetic field simultaneously can highly improve heat transfer up to 2.4 fold. Porous media of course plays a major role in this configuration. Virtually, application of Magnetic field and porous media also insert higher pressure loss along the pipe which again porous media contribution is higher that magnetic field. - Highlights: • Porous media can improve the coefficient of heat transfer up to 2.2 fold. • Both porous media and Nano particles have undesired pressure drop effect. • Application of both porous media and magnetic field in ferrofluid flow will result in significant enhancement in heat transfer up to 2.4 fold. • Magnet bar effect is mainly restricted to approximately one fourth of the test section. • Diluted Ferrofluids 2%, results in over 1.4 fold enhancement in heat transfer coefficient.
Laminar turbulent transition in heated free jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krejci, L.; Marsik, F.; Nenicka, V.
1998-01-01
The evolution of heat and mass transfer in the initial region of a transitional plasma plume is investigated and discussed. The results show that these transport processes are controlled and limited by the plume shear layer instability. The process of laminar-turbulent transition is consecutively controlled by the plume core shear layer instability where interrelation of the effective thickness of the shear temperature and density layers play decisive role. When the absolute instability occurs the resonances in the jet and arc chamber must be taken into account. These processes are manifested in three events. Between the first and second phase, there is a maximum of arc heater exit average enthalpy. The other two thresholds occur at maximum and minimum stagnation heat flux from the plume core. It seems that these processes also influence the thermal energy production in the arc chamber cavity. (author)
Flow and heat and mass transfer in laminar and turbulent mist gas-droplets stream over a flat plate
Terekhov, Victor I
2014-01-01
In this book the author presents selected challenges of thermal-hydraulics modeling of two-phase flows in minichannels with change of phase. These encompass the common modeling of flow boiling and flow condensation using the same expression. Approaches to model these two respective cases show, however, that experimental data show different results to those obtained by methods of calculation of heat transfer coefficient for respective cases. Partially that can be devoted to the fact that there are non-adiabatic effects present in both types of phase change phenomena which modify the pressure drop due to friction, responsible for appropriate modelling. The modification of interface shear stresses between flow boiling and flow condensation in case of annular flow structure may be considered through incorporation of the so called blowing parameter, which differentiates between these two modes of heat transfer. On the other hand, in case of bubbly flows, the generation of bubbles also modifies the friction pressur...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, M.A.
1985-01-01
Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takase, K.; Hasan, M.Z.
1995-01-01
Convective heat transfer in MHD laminar flow through rectangular channels in the plasma-facing components of a fusion reactor has been analyzed numerically to investigate the effects of channel aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of the lengths of the plasma-facing side to the other side. The adverse effect of the nonuniformity of surface heat flus on Nusselt number (Nu) at the plasma-facing side can be alleviated by increasing the aspect ratio of a rectangular duct. At the center and corner of the plasma-facing side of a square duct, the Nu of non-MHD flow are 6.8 and 2.2, respectively, for uniform surface heat flux. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, Nu at the center and corner increases to 22 and 3.6, respectively. However, when the heat flux is highly nonuniform, as in the plasma-facing components, Nu decreases from 22 to 3.1 at the center and from 3.6 to 3.1 at the corner. When the aspect ratio is increased to 4, Nu at the center and corner increase to 5 and 4.7. Along the circumference of a rectangular channel, there are locations where the wall temperature is equal to or less than the bulk coolant temperature, thus making the Nu with conventional definition infinity or negative. The ratio between Nu of MHD flow and Nu of non-MHD flow for various aspect ratios is constant in the region of Hartmann number of more than 200 at least. On the other hand, its ratio increases monotonously with increasing the aspect ratio
Investigation of Hypersonic Laminar Heating Augmentation in the Stagnation Region
Marineau, Eric C.; Lewis, Daniel R.; Smith, Michael S.; Lafferty, John F.; White, Molly E.; Amar, Adam J.
2012-01-01
Laminar stagnation region heating augmentation is investigated in the AEDC Tunnel 9 at Mach 10 by performing high frequency surface pressure and heat transfer measurements on the Orion CEV capsule at zero degree angle-of-attack for unit Reynolds numbers between 0.5 and 15 million per foot. Heating augmentation increases with Reynolds number, but is also model size dependent as it is absent on a 1.25-inch diameter model at Reynolds numbers where it reaches up to 15% on a 7-inch model. Heat transfer space-time correlations on the 7-inch model show that disturbances convect at the boundary layer edge velocity and that the streamwise integral scale increases with distance. Therefore, vorticity amplification due to stretching and piling-up in the stagnation region appears to be responsible for the stagnation point heating augmentation on the larger model. This assumption is reinforced by the f(exp -11/3) dependence of the surface pressure spectrum compared to the f(exp -1) dependence in the free stream. Vorticity amplification does not occur on the 1.25- inch model because the disturbances are too large. Improved free stream fluctuation measurements will be required to determine if significant vorticity is present upstream or mostly generated behind the bow shock.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haider, Sajjad; Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders
2013-01-01
This paper presents the computational fluid dynamics modelling of a laminar premixed flame. A specific solver named ’rareLTSFoam’ is developed using OpenFOAM ® code. The solver is used to simulate experimental stoichiometric and rich laminar premixed flames. The modelling is carried out for thermal...
Haider, Sajjad; Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper
2013-01-01
This paper presents the computational fluid dynamics modelling of a laminar premixed flame. A specific solver named ’rareLTSFoam’ is developed using OpenFOAM ® code. The solver is used to simulate experimental stoichiometric and rich laminar premixed flames. The modelling is carried out for thermal flow and combusting flow cases. The results show that without including radiation modelling, the predicted flame temperature is higher than the measured values. P1 radiation Model is used with sub-...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Zhongyuan; Dong, Tao
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Entropy generation from heat transfer and flow friction are investigated synthetically. • The impact of correlated variables, dimensionless tip clearance, aspect ratio and Reynolds number, are discussed. • Physical interpretation of the result from multiobjective entropy generation minimization is presented. - Abstract: Entropy generation rate accounting for heat transfer and flow friction is presented for the flow in microchannel with staggered pin fin arrays, clearance existing between the pin fin tip and the shroud plate. Within the scope of the present work, entropy generation rate due to heat transfer is levels of magnitude higher than that from flow friction, which is nonetheless not negligible considering its scaling effect on the pumping power consumption, for all cases under investigation. For the pin fin structure with high aspect ratio (height-to-diameter), the effect of tip clearance was found more pronounced with a conductive nature competing with the convective. When this ratio is low, the convective effect dominates the variation of entropy generation by heat transfer and flow friction, the effect of the clearance gap favored by higher aspect ratio. The entropy minimization method is applied to seek for an optimal combination of all impact factors under investigation. The Pareto frontier along with its corresponding solution sets are obtained by Multiobjective Optimization Genetic Algorithm. The solution sets acquired for the scenario with high-aspect-ratio pin fin fall within the region of lower pin fin density where the trade off between the convective and the conductive effects is identified. On the other hand, dominated by the convective nature, the solution sets for cases with lower aspect ratio are in principle located at the upper bounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
2005-07-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyczkowski, R.W.
1987-01-01
This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers
Predictions of laminar natural convection in heated cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winters, K.H.
1982-06-01
Several examples of laminar, natural convection in heated cavities are discussed with illustrative calculations. These include convection in a square cavity at high Rayleigh number; in a narrow cavity at moderate aspect ratio; in a rectangular cavity heated from below; in a trapezoidal cavity, and in a rectangular cavity containing a conducting obstruction. The steady equations for the velocity, pressure and temperature are solved in the Boussinesq approximation, using a standard Galerkin formulation of the finite-element method. (author)
Barron, Randall F
2016-01-01
Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.
Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.
1976-01-01
The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-08-01
This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.
Free convection film flows and heat transfer
Shang, Deyi
2010-01-01
Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers
de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries
2014-01-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
Not Available
1980-03-07
A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori
1985-01-01
In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)
Bacon, D H
2013-01-01
Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc
Buoyancy effects laminar slot jet impinging on a surface with constant heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokouhmand, H.; Esfahanian, V.; Masoodi, R.
2004-01-01
The two-dimensional laminar air jet issuing from a nozzle of half which terminates at height above a flat plate normal to the jet is numerically on the flow and thermal structure of the region near impingement. The impinging surface is maintained at a constant heat flux condition. The full Navier-Stocks and energy equations are solved by a finite difference method to evaluate the velocity profiles and temperature distribution. The governing parameters and their ranges are: Reynolds number Re, 10-50, Grashof number Gr, 0-50, Richardson number Ri=Gr/ Re 2 , Non dimensional nozzle height H,2-3. Results of the free streamline, local friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are graphically presented. It is found that enhancement of the heat transfer rate is substantial for high Richardson number conditions. Although the laminar jet impingement for isothermal condition has been already studied, however the constant heat flux has not been studied enough. the present paper will analyze a low velocity air jet, Which can be used for cooling of a simulated electronics package
Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Chang Yong
1999-01-01
This paper presents a study of the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) for the laminar heat convection problem in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. DRBEM is one of the most successful technique used to transform the domain integrals arising from the nonhomogeneous term of the poisson equation into equivalent boundary only integrals. This recently developed and highly efficient numerical method is tested for the solution accuracy of the fluid flow and heat transfer study in a concentric annulus. Since their exact solutions are available, DRBEM solutions are verified with different number of boundary element discretization and internal points. The results obtained in this study are discussed with the relative error percentage of velocity and temperature solutions, and potential applicability of the method for the more complicated heat convection problems with arbitrary duct geometries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Amanifard
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, the effects of electrical double layer (EDL near the solid/ liquid interface, on three dimensional heat transfer characteristic and pressure drop of water flow through a rectangular microchannel numerically are investigated. An additional body force originating from the existence of EDL is considered to modify the conventional Navier-stokes and energy equations. These modified equations are solved numerically for steady laminar flow on the basis of control volume approaches. Fluid velocity distribution and temperature with presence and absence of EDL effects are presented for various geometric cases and different boundary conditions. The results illustrate that, the liquid flow in rectangular microchannels is influenced significantly by the EDL, particularly in the high electric potentials, and hence deviates from flow characteristics described by classical fluid mechanics.
Containment condensing heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.
1983-01-01
This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
REA, The Editors of
1988-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.
Hartnett, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A
2001-01-01
Heat transfer is the exchange of heat energy between a system and its surrounding environment, which results from a temperature difference and takes place by means of a process of thermal conduction, mechanical convection, or electromagnetic radiation. Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university-level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than is allowable in either journals or texts.
Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers by longitudinal vortex generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guntermann, T.; Fiebig, M.; Mitra, N.K.
1990-01-01
In this paper heat transfer enhancement and flow losses are computed for the interaction of a laminar channel flow with a pair of counterrotating longitudinal vortices generated by a pair of delta-winglets punched out of the channel wall. The geometry simulates an element of a fin-plate or fin-tube heat exchanger. The structure of the vortex flow and temperature distribution, the local heat transfer coefficients and the local flow losses are discussed for a sample case. For a Reynolds number of Re d = 1000 and a vortex generator angle of attack of β = 25 degrees heat transfer is enhanced locally by more than 300% and in the mean by 50%. These values increase further with Re and β
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Han, Je-Chin
2012-01-01
… it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden
Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane/hydrogen mixtures in heated coflow air
Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho
2012-01-01
Autoignited lifted flame behavior in laminar jets of methane/hydrogen mixture fuels has been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. Three regimes of autoignited lifted flames were identified depending on initial temperature and hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisman, J.
1983-01-01
Heat may be defined as that form of energy which spontaneously flows between two bodies, or two regions of a body, by virtue of a temperature difference. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that we cannot have heat flow from a low temperature to high temperature without doing work. Heat flows spontaneously from a high temperature to a low temperature region. Thermodynamics, which is concerned with equilibrium states, cannot tell us anything about the rate of heat flow in the presence of a finite temperature difference. It is to the discipline of heat transfer to which we must turn for this answer
Lienhard, John H
2011-01-01
This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins
Elementary heat transfer analysis
Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P
1976-01-01
Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra
Karwa, Rajendra
2017-01-01
This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar
2011-01-01
Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...
Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles
Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.
2016-05-17
A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Zhongyuan; Dong, Tao
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Variation of total entropy generation is investigated parametrically. • Pareto solution sets for heat transfer and flow friction components are obtained. • Dominant irreversibility component and impact of key variables are discussed. - Abstract: Based on the second law of thermodynamics, an entropy generation investigation is carried out under given dimensionless parameters, i.e. heat exchanger duty, heat flux, with respect to heat transfer and frictional pressure drop in a rotating helical tube heat exchanger with laminar convective flow. The entropy generation from heat transfer across a finite temperature difference – Ψ h decreases with increasing Dean number which represents the impact of centrifugal force induced secondary flow in enhancing heat transfer. Another aspect of increasing Dean number is that intensified momentum transfer in the radial direction also raises the entropy generation from frictional pressure drop – Ψ f , the superposed effect of which yields a decreasing–increasing trend of the total entropy generation-Ψ, a local minimum located in between. The rotation of the helical tube in streamwise (co-rotation) or counter streamwise (counter-rotation) direction leads to a decrease in Ψ h and a increase in Ψ f which complicates the situation that whether or where the minimum of total entropy generation exists is dependent on whether Ψ is dominated by Ψ h or Ψ f or somewhere in between. No difference is discerned between pairs of cases with constant wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux but the same set of variables and parameters. A multi-objective optimization targeting Ψ h and Ψ f simultaneously is implemented using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II). Five solution sets are selected and compared with the conventional optimization in regard of Ψ distinguishing the Ψ h -dominated region from the Ψ f -dominated region, the dimensionless variable η 1 is found to be the most suitable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welty, J.R.
1974-01-01
The basic concepts of heat transfer are covered with special emphasis on up-to-date techniques for formulating and solving problems in the field. The discussion progresses logically from phenomenology to problem solving, and treats numerical, integral, and graphical methods as well as traditional analytical ones. The book is unique in its thorough coverage of the fundamentals of numerical analysis appropriate to solving heat transfer problems. This coverage includes several complete and readable examples of numerical solutions, with discussions and interpretations of results. The book also contains an appendix that provides students with physical data for often-encountered materials. An index is included. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)
Heat transfer to accelerating gas flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, T.D.A.
1978-01-01
The development of fuels for gas-cooled reactors has resulted in a number of 'gas loop' experiments in materials-testing research reactors. In these experiments, efforts are made to reproduce the conditions expected in gas-cooled power reactors. Constant surface temperatures are sought over a short (300 mm) fuelled length, and because of entrance effects, an accelerating flow is required to increase the heat transfer down-stream from the entrance. Strong acceleration of a gas stream will laminarise the flow even at Reynolds Numbers up to 50000, far above values normally associated with laminar flow. A method of predicting heat transfer in this situation is presented here. An integral method is used to find the velocity profile; this profile is then used in an explicit finite-difference solution of the energy equation to give a temperature profile and resultant heat-transfer coefficient values. The Kline criterion, which compares viscous and disruptive forces, is used to predict whether the flow will be laminar. Experimental results are compared with predictions, and good agreement is found to exist. (author)
Second Law Analysis in Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ben Brahim
2006-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical determination of the entropy generation due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state for laminar double diffusive convection, in an inclined enclosure with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving numerically the mass, momentum, species conservation and energy balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite-Element Method. The influences of the inclination angle, the thermal Grashof number and the buoyancy ratio on total entropy generation were investigated. The irreversibilities localization due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction is discussed for three inclination angles at a fixed thermal Grashof number.
Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer
Rose, John Winston
The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.
A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers.
de Jong, J A; Wijnant, Y H; de Boer, A
2014-03-01
A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic systems. The model is implementable in existing (quasi-)1D thermoacoustic codes, such as DeltaEC. Examples of generated results show good agreement with literature results. The model allows for arbitrary wave phasing; however, it is shown that the wave phasing does not significantly influence the heat transfer.
Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The effect of melting and solute dispersion on heat and mass transfer in non-Darcy fluid flow over a vertical surface has been studied numerically in the present article. The flow is assumed to be laminar and steady state. Using similarity transformations, the governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ...
Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.
1960-08-30
A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.
Heat transfer characteristics of the two-phase closed thermosyphon (wickless heat pipe)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andros, F.E.; Florschuetz, L.W.
1982-01-01
Steady-state heat transfer characteristics and heat transfer limits (dry-out) for a vertical stainless steel tubular two-phase closed thermosyphon with Freon-113 working fluid are reported as a function of certain geometric parameters and liquid fill quantity. Condenser section heat transfer characteristics agreed reasonably well with existing laminar film condensation correlations and were found to be independent of the evaporator section, except for larger liquid fills. Evaporator characteristics were quite complex and appeared, under some conditions, to be coupled to condenser characteristics through effects of system pressure and/or surface wave as present on the descending condensate film. A laminar thin film evaporation model was found to give reasonable agreement with local evaporator temperature measurements in those regions of the evaporator where a continuous film apparently persisted. The measured heat transfer characteristics are interpreted relative to an earlier investigation by the authors in which flow characteristics in a similar device were visually and photographically observed. 10 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, A
1965-11-15
This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, A.
1965-11-01
This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table
Nucleate boiling heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es
2009-07-01
Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)
Nucleate boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saiz Jabardo, J.M.
2009-01-01
Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 μm and 10.5 μm ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 μm). (author)
An ecofriendly graphene-based nanofluid for heat transfer applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Akhiani, Amir Reza
2016-01-01
including chemical stability, viscosity, wettability, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were investigated in a comprehensive manner. A significant thermal conductivity enhancement amounting to 45.1% was obtained for a volume fraction of 4%. In addition, the convective heat transfer...... that the generated nanofluid will open a new avenue in the pursuit of ecofriendly thermal conductors for heat transfer applications....... coefficient of the nanofluid in a laminar flow regime with uniform wall heat flux was investigated to estimate its cooling capabilities. These results, firmly confirm that the generated graphene-based nanofluid is a formidable transporter of heat and yet ecofriendly. Therefore, it's anticipate...
Heat transfer bibliography: russian works
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luikov, A V
1965-02-01
This bibliography of recent Russian publications in heat transfer is divided into the following categories: (1) books; (2) general; (3) experimental methods; (4) analytical calculation methods; (5) thermodynamics; (6) transfer processes involving phase conversions; ((7) transfer processes involving chemical conversions; (8) transfer processes involving very high velocities; (9) drying processes; (10) thermal properties of various materials, heat transfer agents and their determination methods; (11) high temperature physics and magneto- hydrodynamics; and (12) transfer processes in technological apparatuses. (357 refs.)
Measuring of heat transfer coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria
Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...
Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff
2006-10-10
Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.
Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T.; Murase, M.
2011-01-01
Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35 o C ~ 65 o C. Cold air was approximately 25 o C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)
Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Nagano (Japan); Murase, M. [INSS, Mihama-cho, Fukui (Japan)
2011-07-01
Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35{sup o}C ~ 65{sup o}C. Cold air was approximately 25{sup o}C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)
Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho
2012-01-01
and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzo, Enrico; Heller, Reinhard; Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.rizzo@kit.edu [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heller, Reinhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2013-11-15
Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters.
An immersed-boundary method for conjugate heat transfer analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Jeong Chul; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
An immersed-boundary method is proposed for the analysis of conjugate problems of convective heat transfer in conducting solids. In- side the solid body, momentum forcing is applied to set the velocity to zero. A thermal conductivity ratio and a heat capacity ratio, between the solid body and the fluid, are introduced so that the energy equation is reduced to the heat diffusion equation. At the solid fluid interface, an effective conductivity is introduced to satisfy the heat flux continuity. The effective thermal conductivity is obtained by considering the heat balance at the interface or by using a harmonic mean formulation. The method is first validated against the analytic solution to the heat transfer problem in a fully developed laminar channel flow with conducting solid walls. Then it is applied to a laminar channel flow with a heated, block-shaped obstacle to show its validity for geometry with sharp edges. Finally the validation for a curvilinear solid body is accomplished with a laminar flow through arrayed cylinders.
aerodynamics and heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. N. Rajadas
1998-01-01
Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.
Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.
1980-01-01
Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere
Hal E. Anderson
1969-01-01
Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...
Kaviany, Massoud
2014-01-01
This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...
Investigation of heat transfer inside a PCM-air heat exchanger: a numerical parametric study
Herbinger, Florent; Bhouri, Maha; Groulx, Dominic
2017-07-01
In this paper, the use of PCMs for thermal storage of energy in HVAC applications was investigated by studying numerically the thermal performance of a PCM-air heat exchanger. The PCM used in this study was dodecanoic acid. A symmetric 3D model, incorporating conductive and convective heat transfer (air only) as well as laminar flow, was created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. Simulations examined the dependence of the heat transfer rate on the temperature and velocity of the incoming air as well as the size of the channels in the heat exchanger. Results indicated that small channels size lead to a higher heat transfer rates. A similar trend was also obtained for high incoming air temperature, whereas the heat transfer rate was less sensitive to the incoming air velocity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graber, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-04-01
By introducing an additional parameter F{sub 0}, the processes known hitherto for calculating heat transfer are extended to the heat flux distributions following an exponential law q{sub w} = exp(mx) which give a heat transfer coefficient, independent of position for laminar and turbulent flow with a linear pressure drop. For laminar flow along a semi-infinite plate, the heat flux distribution in accordance with the law qw = x{sup m} leads to the Nusselt number, regardless of the position. Nu is then determined by the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. For the annular space, the equations for explicit calculation of the temperature field will be given, as well as the Nusselt number in laminar flow and constant heat flux. In turbulent flow, the laws of distribution of eddy diffusivity for momentum in a tube, established by H. Reichardt, adapted for the annular space and the tube bundle, give the velocity field and the coefficient of friction and thus permit solution of the heat transfer equations. The results of the numerical calculation are given in the tables and diagrams for an extended range of the various parameters and compared with the experimental results. A simple process to determine the lower limit of the thermal entry length will be described. (author) [French] Par l'introduction d'un parametre supplementaire F{sub 0}, les procedes connus jusqu'a present pour le calcul du transfert de chaleur sont etendus aux repartitions exponentielles q{sub w} = exp(mx) du flux de chaleur qui indiquent un coefficient de transfert de chaleur independant de l'endroit pour l'ecoulement laminaire ou turbulent avec chute de pression lineaire. Pour l'ecoulement laminaire le long d'une plaque plane, la repartition du flux de chaleur selon la loi q{sub w} = x{sup m} conduit au nombre de Nusselt independant de l'endroit. Nu est alors determine par l'epaisseur de la couche limite thermique. Pour l'espace annulaire, seront indiquees les equations pour le calcul explicite du
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graber, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-04-01
By introducing an additional parameter F{sub 0}, the processes known hitherto for calculating heat transfer are extended to the heat flux distributions following an exponential law q{sub w} = exp(mx) which give a heat transfer coefficient, independent of position for laminar and turbulent flow with a linear pressure drop. For laminar flow along a semi-infinite plate, the heat flux distribution in accordance with the law qw = x{sup m} leads to the Nusselt number, regardless of the position. Nu is then determined by the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. For the annular space, the equations for explicit calculation of the temperature field will be given, as well as the Nusselt number in laminar flow and constant heat flux. In turbulent flow, the laws of distribution of eddy diffusivity for momentum in a tube, established by H. Reichardt, adapted for the annular space and the tube bundle, give the velocity field and the coefficient of friction and thus permit solution of the heat transfer equations. The results of the numerical calculation are given in the tables and diagrams for an extended range of the various parameters and compared with the experimental results. A simple process to determine the lower limit of the thermal entry length will be described. (author) [French] Par l'introduction d'un parametre supplementaire F{sub 0}, les procedes connus jusqu'a present pour le calcul du transfert de chaleur sont etendus aux repartitions exponentielles q{sub w} = exp(mx) du flux de chaleur qui indiquent un coefficient de transfert de chaleur independant de l'endroit pour l'ecoulement laminaire ou turbulent avec chute de pression lineaire. Pour l'ecoulement laminaire le long d'une plaque plane, la repartition du flux de chaleur selon la loi q{sub w} = x{sup m} conduit au nombre de Nusselt independant de l'endroit. Nu est alors determine par l'epaisseur de la couche limite thermique. Pour l'espace annulaire, seront
The effect of buoyancy on flow and heat transfer in curved pipes
Mochizuki, Munekazu; Ishigaki, Hiroshi; 望月 宗和; 石垣 博
1994-01-01
Fully developed laminar flow in a heated horizontal curved pipe is studied numerically. The thermal boundary conditions at the wall are uniform wall heat flux axially and uniform wall temperature peripherally. Flow and heat transfer are governed by Dean number, Prandtl number and buoyancy number. Detailed prediction of the friction factor, average heat transfer rate, velocity profile, temperature profile and secondary-flow streamlines are given.
Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a high-temperature printed circuit heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Minghui; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Skavdahl, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a high-temperature printed circuit heat exchanger have been obtained. • Comparisons of experimental data and available correlations have been performed. • New Fanning friction factor and heat transfer correlations for the test PCHE are developed. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is one of the leading intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) candidates to be employed in the very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) due to its capability for high-temperature, high-pressure applications. In the current study, a reduced-scale zigzag-channel PCHE was fabricated using Alloy 617 plates for the heat exchanger core and Alloy 800H pipes for the headers. The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the PCHE were investigated experimentally in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF) at The Ohio State University. The PCHE helium inlet temperatures and pressures were varied up to 464 °C/2.7 MPa for the cold side and 802 °C/2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the maximum helium mass flow rates on both sides of the PCHE reached 39 kg/h. The corresponding maximum channel Reynolds number was approximately 3558, covering the laminar flow and laminar-to-turbulent flow transition regimes. New pressure drop and heat transfer correlations for the current zigzag channels with rounded bends were developed based on the experimental data. Comparisons between the experimental data and the results obtained from the available PCHE and straight circular pipe correlations were conducted. Compared to the heat transfer performance in straight circular pipes, the zigzag channels provided little advantage in the laminar flow regime but significant advantage near the transition flow regime.
Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Sang Kyu; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
The stabilization characteristics of laminar non-premixed jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane, one of the primary reference fuels for octane rating, have been studied experimentally in heated coflow air. Non-autoignited and autoignited lifted
CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
Heat Transfer Basics and Practice
Böckh, Peter
2012-01-01
The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...
Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane/hydrogen mixtures in heated coflow air
Choi, Byungchul
2012-04-01
Autoignited lifted flame behavior in laminar jets of methane/hydrogen mixture fuels has been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. Three regimes of autoignited lifted flames were identified depending on initial temperature and hydrogen to methane ratio. At relatively high initial temperature, addition of a small amount of hydrogen to methane improved ignition appreciably such that the liftoff height decreased significantly. In this hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime, the liftoff height increased with jet velocity, and the characteristic flow time - defined as the ratio of liftoff height to jet velocity - correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. At lower temperature, the autoignited lifted flame demonstrated a unique feature in that the liftoff height decreased with increasing jet velocity. Such behavior has never been observed in lifted laminar and turbulent jet flames. A transition regime existed between these two regimes at intermediate temperature. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.
Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli
Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.
2018-04-01
In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.
Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panchal, C.B.
1985-01-01
An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers
Forced convection heat transfer correlation for finned plates in a duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin
2014-01-01
Forced convection heat transfer experiments were conducted for plate-fin in a duct using various fin spacing, fin height, duct width, Reynolds number for Prandtl numbers 2,014. Based upon analogy concept, mass transfer rate were measured instead of heat transfer rates. The heat transfer rates were enhanced with the increase of fin height and decrease of fin spacing as they increase the heat transfer area. Meanwhile, heat transfer rates were impaired with the increase of the duct width as the bypass flows increased to tip clearance region. Forced convection heat transfer correlations were developed for laminar and turbulent flow conditions and for narrow and wide ducts. The work draws attention to the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergles, A.E.; Junkhan, G.H.; Webb, R.L.
1979-06-01
This report for the first quarter of 1979 summarizes visits and contacts relative to the theory and practice of heat transfer enhancement. The Technical Literature File and Manufacturers' File were expanded, and the initial Patent Technology Information File was completed. Application studies on enhancement of waste heat recuperators and laminar internal flow heat transfer are described. A comprehensive bibliography on laminar flow enhancement is included. The Technology study on performance of internally finned tubes is complete. New data for the heat transfer and friction characteristics of internally finned tubes will be analyzed to develop rationally based correlations. An assessment of natural convection from rough surfaces was performed. Major effort was directed toward planning of the Research Workshop on Energy Conservation Through Enhanced Heat Transfer. The Workshop, scheduled for May 24 and May 25, 1979 in Chicago, will be co-sponsored by NSF.
Radiation and combined heat transfer in channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamonis, M.
1986-01-01
This book presents numerical methods of calculation of radiative and combined heat transfer in channel flows of radiating as well as nonradiating media. Results obtained in calculations for flow conditions of combustion products from organic fuel products are given and methods used in determining the spectral optical properties of molecular gases are analyzed. The book presents applications of heat transfer in solving problems. Topic covered are as follows: optical properties of molecular gases; transfer equations for combined heat transfer; experimental technique; convective heat transfer in heated gas flows; radiative heat transfer in gaseous media; combined heat transfer; and radiative and combined heat transfer in applied problems
Advances in heat transfer enhancement
Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan
2016-01-01
This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.
Fundamental principles of heat transfer
Whitaker, Stephen
1977-01-01
Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int
Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids
Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz
2015-01-01
Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za
Heat transfer in a counterflow heat exchanger at low flow rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, A.; Hattori, N.; Naruke, K.
1995-01-01
A study was made of heat transfer in a double-tube heat exchanger at low flow rates of water. The temperatures of fluid and tube walls in the axial direction of tube were measured precisely at flow rate ratios of annulus to inner tube (or flow rate ratios of inner tube to annulus W i /W a , Re i approx. = 80 - 4000), W a /W i =0.1 - 1.1. In parallel with experiment, numerical calculation for forced-convection heat transfer was also carried out for laminar flows in the same tube configuration as experiment. Average over-all coefficients of heat transfer, obtained by experiments, indicate the same characteristics as numerical calculation in the examined range of flow rate ratio. Their experimental values, however, are somewhat larger than those of calculation at small values of flow rate ratio. (author)
HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT USING ALUMINA NANOFLUID IN CIRCULAR MICRO CHANNEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. ARJUN
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, thermal and flow behavior models for circular microchannel using water and its nanofluids with alumina as a coolant fluid in single phase flow have been developed. A finite volume-based CFD technique is used and models are solved by using Fluent Solver. The 2D axis symmetric geometry with structured mesh and 100 x 18 nodes are used for single phase flow with Al2O3 nanoparticles of 23 nm average diameter. Viscous laminar and standard k-ε models are used to predict the steady temperature in laminar and turbulent zone. The heat transfer enhancement upto 83% in laminar and turbulent zones are obtained with the Re ranging from 5 to 11980 and particle volume concentration from 0 to 5%. Even though the pressure drop increases with increase in Re, it is comparatively less compared to the corresponding decrease in temperature. The increase in temperature depends on Re and Pe; but the temperature distribution is found to be independent of radial position even for very low Pe. Comparison with analytical results both in laminar and turbulent zone is provided to justify the assumptions introduced in the models and very close agreement is observed statistically. Nusselt number can well predict the analytical data.
Flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues using a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu Shuangning; Yi Weiming; Li Baoming
2005-01-01
In order to study the volatilization characteristics of biomass particles at flash heating rates, a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor (PHLEFR) was designed and built in our lab. Two agricultural residues, wheat straw and corn stalk, were chosen as feedstock for pyrolysis which were conducted on the PHLEFR with the aim of determining the extent of thermal decomposition at high heating rate (more than 10 4o Cs -1 ). Based on the experimental data, a first order kinetic model was introduced and the relevant kinetic parameters (apparent active energy and apparent frequency factor) were determined for the two straws: E=31.51kJmol -1 , A=1028s -1 (wheat straw) and E=33.74kJmol -1 , A=1013s -1 (corn stalk). The predicted conversion of the fitted model to the experimental data provided general agreements when one considered the experimental errors
Conjugate heat transfer for turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe
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Canli Eyub
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Laminar and turbulent flow have their own characteristics in respect of heat transfer in pipes. While conjugate heat transfer is a major concern for a thick walled pipe with laminar flow inside it, there are limited studies about a turbulent flow in a thick walled plain pipe considering the conjugate heat transfer. In order to conduct such a work by means of in-house developed code, it was desired to make a preliminary investigation with commercially available CFD codes. ANSYS CFD was selected as the tool since it has a positive reputation in the literature for reliability. Defined heat transfer problem was solved with SIMPLE and Coupled Schemes for pressure velocity coupling and results are presented accordingly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Fang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity，the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method，the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object，using numerical simulation methods，porous media，k一￡model，second order upwind mode，and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm，the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.
Annaratone, Donatello
2010-01-01
This book is a generalist textbook; it is designed for anybody interested in heat transmission, including scholars, designers and students. Two criteria constitute the foundation of Annaratone's books, including the present one. The first one consists of indispensable scientific rigor without theoretical exasperation. The inclusion in the book of some theoretical studies, even if admirable for their scientific rigor, would have strengthened the scientific foundation of this publication, yet without providing the reader with further applicable know-how. The second criterion is to deliver practi
Heat transfer from rough surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalle Donne, M.
1977-01-01
Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de
Essentials of radiation heat transfer
Balaji
2014-01-01
Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...
Choi, Byungchul
2012-06-01
The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Zhongyuan; Dong, Tao
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A constructal thermohydraulic optimization was carried out. • The effect of manufacturing limit on the Pareto solution set was discussed. • The suitable constraints may differ from those on a quasi-continuous basis. - Abstract: A synthetic optimization is presented for the Pareto layouts of discrete heat sources (with uniform heat flux) flush mounted on a flat plate over which laminar flow serves for cooling purpose. The peak temperatures and the flow drag loss are minimizing simultaneously provided that the total heat dissipation rate and the plate length are held constant. The impact of the manufacturing limit, i.e. the minimum length of the heated or the adiabatic patch, on the optimum layout is discussed. The results in general comply with analytical deduction based on the constructal theory. However in a finite length scenario, geometric constraints on the adiabatic spacing differ from that fits the situation in which maximum heat transfer performance alone is to be achieved.
Mills, A F
1999-01-01
The Second Edition offers complete coverage of heat transfer with broad up-to-date coverage that includes an emphasis on engineering relevance and on problem solving. Integrates software to assist the reader in efficiently calculations. Carefully orders material to make book more reader-friendly and accessible. Offers an extensive introduction to heat exchange design to enhance the engineering and design content of course to satisfy ABET requirements. For professionals in engineering fields.
Advanced k-epsilon modeling of heat transfer
Kwon, Okey; Ames, Forrest E.
1995-01-01
This report describes two approaches to low Reynolds-number k-epsilon turbulence modeling which formulate the eddy viscosity on the wall-normal component of turbulence and a length scale. The wall-normal component of turbulence is computed via integration of the energy spectrum based on the local dissipation rate and is bounded by the isotropic condition. The models account for the anisotropy of the dissipation and the reduced mixing length due to the high strain rates present in the near-wall region. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were computed from the k and epsilon transport equations of Durbin. The models were tested for a wide range of turbulent flows and proved to be superior to other k-epsilon models, especially for nonequilibrium anisotropic flows. For the prediction of airfoil heat transfer, the models included a set of empirical correlations for predicting laminar-turbulent transition and laminar heat transfer augmentation due to the presence of freestream turbulence. The predictions of surface heat transfer were generally satisfactory.
UNCOUPLING LAMINAR CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANTONIO J. BULA
2010-01-01
verificados con la solución obtenida por medio de software CFD comercial, FIDAP ®. La solución ncluyo el cálculo del coeficiente de transferencia de calor, el número de Nusselt, el número de Biot, todos tanto local como promedio. La distribución de temperatura en la interface también fue obtenida.
Experimental and theoretical study on forced convection film boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng
2001-01-01
Theoretical solutions of forced convection film boiling heat transfer from horizontal cylinders in saturated liquids were obtained based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model. It was clarified that author's experimental data for the cylinders with the nondimensional diameters, D, of around 1.3 in water and in Freon-113 agreed with the values of theoretical numerical solutions based on the two-phase laminar boundary layer model with the smooth vapor-liquid interface except those for low flow velocities. A forced convection film boiling heat transfer correlation including the radiation contribution from the cylinders with various diameters in saturated and subcooled liquids was developed based on the two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model and the experimental data for water and Freon-113 at wide ranges of flow velocities, surface superheats, system pressures and cylinder diameters. (author)
Introduction of image analysis for the quantification of the boiling flow heat transfer
Ferret, C.; Falk, L.; d'Ortona, U.; Chenu, A.; Veenstra, T.T.
2004-01-01
Heat transfer performances for non-boiling and boiling flow of a micro-vaporizer have been measured by standard methods (temperatures, flow rates, effective power input). The study was carried out for laminar flow (Re<25) in silicon micro-channels (5 mm×3 cm×200 μm) filled with ordered obstacles to
Calculations of film boiling heat transfer above the quench front during reflooding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K.C.; Yadigaroglu, G.
1980-01-01
An analytical method for calculating inverted-annular film boiling heat transfer above the quench front during the reflooding phase of a LOCA is presented. A two-fluid model comprising a laminar vapor film and a turbulent liquid-vapor mixture core is used. 12 refs
Direct numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer over a circular cylinder at Re = 2000
Vidya, Mahening Citra; Beishuizen, N.A.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
2016-01-01
Unsteady direct numerical simulations of the flow around a circular cylinder have been performed at Re = 2000. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations were validated with laminar cold flow simulations and experiments. Heat transfer simulations were carried out and the time-averaged
Heat transfer characteristics of a direct contact heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, I.; Nishi, Y.
1993-01-01
As a first step for development of a direct contact steam generator for FBRs, fundamental heat transfer characteristics of a liquid-liquid contact heat exchanger were evaluated by heat transfer experiment with low melting point alloy and water. Distinctive characteristics of direct contact heat transfer with liquid metal and water was obtained. (author)
Multiple flow patterns and heat transfer in confined jet impingement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xianchang; Gaddis, J. Leo; Wang Ting
2005-01-01
The flow field of a 2-D laminar confined impinging slot jet is investigated. Numerical results indicate that there exist two different solutions in some range of geometric and flow parameters. The two steady flow patterns are obtained under identical boundary conditions but only with different initial flow fields. Two different exit boundary conditions are investigated with two commercial software packages to eliminate artificial or computational effects. The different flow patterns are observed to significantly affect the heat transfer. A flow visualization experiment is carried out to verify the computational results and both flow patterns are observed. The bifurcation mechanism is interpreted and discussed
Heat transfer study under supercritical pressure conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, Tohru; Yoshida, Suguru; Mori, Hideo; Morooka, Shinichi; Komita, Hideo; Nishida, Kouji
2003-01-01
Experiments were performed on heat transfer and pressure drop of a supercritical pressure fluid flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube of a small diameter, using HCFC22 as a test fluid. Following results were obtained. (1) Characteristics of the heat transfer are similar to those for the tubes of large diameter. (2) The effect of tube diameter on the heat transfer was seen for a 'normal heat transfer, but not for a 'deteriorated' heat transfer. (3) The limit heat flux for the occurrence of deterioration in heat transfer becomes larger with smaller diameter tube. (4) The Watts and Chou correlation has the best prediction performance for the present data in the 'normal' heat transfer region. (5) Frictional pressure drop becomes smaller than that for an isothermal flow in the region near the pseudocritical point, and this reduction was more remarkable for the deteriorated' heat transfer. (author)
Mongiovì, Maria Stella; Jou, David; Sciacca, Michele
2018-01-01
This review paper puts together some results concerning non equilibrium thermodynamics and heat transport properties of superfluid He II. A one-fluid extended model of superfluid helium, which considers heat flux as an additional independent variable, is presented, its microscopic bases are analyzed, and compared with the well known two-fluid model. In laminar situations, the fundamental fields are density, velocity, absolute temperature, and heat flux. Such a theory is able to describe the thermomechanical phenomena, the propagation of two sounds in liquid helium, and of fourth sound in superleak. It also leads in a natural way to a two-fluid model on purely macroscopical grounds and allows a small amount of entropy associated with the superfluid component. Other important features of liquid He II arise in rotating situations and in superfluid turbulence, both characterized by the presence of quantized vortices (thin vortex lines whose circulation is restricted by a quantum condition). Such vortices have a deep influence on the transport properties of superfluid helium, as they increase very much its thermal resistance. Thus, heat flux influences the vortices which, in turn, modify the heat flux. The dynamics of vortex lines is the central topic in turbulent superfluid helium. The model is generalized to take into account the vortices in different cases of physical interest: rotating superfluids, counterflow superfluid turbulence, combined counterflow and rotation, and mass flow in addition to heat flow. To do this, the averaged vortex line density per unit volume L, is introduced and its dynamical equations are considered. Linear and non-linear evolution equations for L are written for homogeneous and inhomogeneous, isotropic and anisotropic situations. Several physical experiments are analyzed and the influence of vortices on the effective thermal conductivity of turbulent superfluid helium is found. Transitions from laminar to turbulent flows, from diffusive to
Effects of ship motions on laminar flow in tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, B.H., E-mail: yanbh1986@163.co [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yu, L. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2010-01-15
The thermal-hydraulics of barge-mounted floating nuclear desalination plants is the incentive for this study. Laminar flow in tubes in heaving motion is modeled. The friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are obtained. All the equations of laminar flow in steady state are applicable for heeling motion. The effect of ship motions on the laminar developing region is also analyzed. The ship motions can weaken the boundary layer in the laminar developing region and strengthen the laminar frictional resistance. The effect of ship motions on the instability of laminar flow is also investigated. The ship motions do not affect the instability point, but they can shorten the distance between the instability point and the transition point, and cause the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow to occur earlier.
Chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefevre, A.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Saatdjian, E.
2003-01-01
The heat transfer rate from a solid boundary to a highly viscous fluid can be enhanced significantly by a phenomenon which is called chaotic advection or Lagrangian turbulence. Although the flow is laminar and dominated by viscous forces, some fluid particle trajectories are chaotic due either to a suitable boundary displacement protocol or to a change in geometry. As in turbulent flow, the heat transfer rate enhancement between the boundary and the fluid is intimately linked to the mixing of fluid in the system. Chaotic advection in real Stokes flows, i.e. flows governed by viscous forces and that can be constructed experimentally, is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is made on recent new results on 3-D time-periodic open flows which are particularly important in industry
Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F
1951-01-01
Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Ruichang; Liu Ruolei; Zhong Yong; Liu Tao
2006-01-01
This paper reports on an experimental study on transitional heat transfer of water flow in a heated vertical tube under natural circulation conditions. In the experiments the local and average heat transfer coefficients were obtained. The experimental data were compared with the predictions by a forced flow correlation available in the literature. The comparisons show that the Nusselt number value in the fully developed region is about 30% lower than the predictions by the forced flow correlation due to flow laminarization in the layer induced by co-current bulk natural circulation and free convection. By using the Rayleigh number Ra to represent the influence of free convection on heat transfer, the empirical correlations for the calculation of local and average heat transfer behavior in the tube at natural circulation have been developed. The empirical correlations are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the experimental results, the effect of the thermal entry-length behavior on heat transfer design in the tube under natural circulation was evaluated
Enhancing heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks using converging flow passages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehghan, Maziar; Daneshipour, Mahdi; Valipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Rafee, Roohollah; Saedodin, Seyfolah
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks are studied. • The Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers are presented for width-tapered MCHS. • Converging walls are found to enhance the thermal performance of MCHS. • The optimum performance of MCHS for fixed inlet and outlet pressures is discussed. • For the optimum configuration, the pumping power is reduced up to 75%. - Abstract: Constrained fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks (MCHS) with converging channels are investigated using the finite volume method (FVM) in the laminar regime. The maximum pressure of the MCHS loop is assumed to be limited due to constructional or operational conditions. Results show that the Poiseuille number increases with increased tapering, while the required pumping power decreases. Meanwhile, the Nusselt number increases with tapering as well as the convection heat transfer coefficient. The MCHS having the optimum heat transfer performance is found to have a width-tapered ratio equal to 0.5. For this tapering configuration and at the maximum pressure constraint of 3000 Pa, the pumping power reduces by a factor of 4 while the overall heat removal rate is kept fixed in comparison with a straight channel
Numerical investigation on the convective heat transfer in a spiral coil with radiant heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđević Milan Lj.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to numerically investigate the heat transfer in spiral coil tube in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The Archimedean spiral coil was exposed to radiant heating and should represent heat absorber of parabolic dish solar concentrator. Specific boundary conditions represent the uniqueness of this study, since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but also in the axial direction. The curvature ratio of spiral coil varies from 0.029 at the flow inlet to 0.234 at the flow outlet, while the heat transfer fluid is water. The 3-D steady-state transport equations were solved using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. Results showed that secondary flows strongly affect the flow and that the heat transfer is strongly asymmetric, with higher values near the outer wall of spiral. Although overall turbulence levels were lower than in a straight pipe, heat transfer rates were larger due to the curvature-induced modifications of the mean flow and temperature fields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42006
Experimental investigate of heat transfer for graphene/water nanofluid in micro heat exchanger
Abd Elhafez, S. E.; Abo-Zahhad, E. M.; El-Shazly, A. H.; El-Kady, M. F.
2017-02-01
In this investigation, the heat transfer characteristics of graphene nano platelets (GNPs)/water nanofluid were studied in a micro heat exchanger (MHE). The micro heat exchanger performance was also examined. The test setup was worked out in the laminar regime with Reynold numbers varying between 100 and 400GNPs/water nanofluid was prepared three different concentrations (0.025 wt. %, 0.05 wt. % and 0.1 wt. %) using ultrasonic wave. The influence of mass flow rate, inlet temperatures and weight fraction on the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and logarithmic mean temperature (LMTD) were examined. The results showed considerable enhancement on the overall heat transfer coefficient of graphene/water nanofluid and the MHE effectiveness. A maximum enhancement on overall heat transfer coefficient was reached to 150% at Re=100 by 0.1wt% nanofluid. The effectiveness of micro heat exchanger was enhanced by increase weight fraction of graphene nanoparticle. Moreover, the experimental results showed that 0.1 wt. % GNPs/water nanofluid, flowing through MHE, has had high pressure drop, and pumping power, when it has been compared with 0.5 wt. % and 0.025 wt.%.
Pressure drop and heat transfer in viscoelastic duct flow - A new look
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostic, M.; Hartnett, J.P.
1987-01-01
Asymptotic friction factors and heat transfer j-factors for turbulent duct flow of viscoelastic fluids are viewed from a new reference - the extended laminar flow results which exhibit the lowest possible friction and heat transfer. This analysis suggests that the presence of elasticity laminarizes the flow. A simple model which takes account of the reinforced fluid structure resulting from the presence of macromolecular polymer chains is introduced to explain the decrease in the turbulence level associated with viscoelastic fluids. A major feature of the proposed model is that a viscoelastic fluid has a nonuniform and nonisotropic viscosity, which in a duct flow produced non-homogeneous turbulent fluctuations. The observed decrease in friction factor and heat transfer, as well as the large increases in critical Reynolds number and hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths are consistent with the model
MHTGR inherent heat transfer capability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkoe, J.M.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on the Commercial Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) which achieves improved reactor safety performance and reliability by utilizing a completely passive natural convection cooling system called the RCCS to remove decay heat in the event that all active cooling systems fail to operate. For the highly improbable condition that the RCCS were to become non-functional following a reactor depressurization event, the plant would be forced to rely upon its inherent thermo-physical characteristics to reject decay heat to the surrounding earth and ambient environment. A computational heat transfer model was created to simulate such a scenario. Plant component temperature histories were computed over a period of 20 days into the event. The results clearly demonstrate the capability of the MHTGR to maintain core integrity and provide substantial lead time for taking corrective measures
Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu
The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.
Radiation effects on heat transfer in heat exchangers, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taira, Tatsuji.
1980-01-01
In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor system, in which the working fluid exchanges heat at high temperature near 1000 deg C, the heat transfer acceleration by positively utilizing the radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces should be considered. This paper reports on the results of experiment and analysis for the effects of radiant heat on the heat transfer performance at elevated temperature by applying the heat transfer-accelerating method using radiators to the heat exchanger with tube bundle composed of two channels of heating and heated sides. As the test heat exchangers, a parallel counter flow exchanger and the cross flow exchanger simulating helical tubes were employed, and the results studied on the characteristics of each heat exchanger are described. The plates placed in parallel to flow in every space of the tube bundle arranged in a matrix were used as the heat transfer accelerator. The effects of acceleration with the plates were the increase of heat transmission from 12 to 24% and 12 to 38% in the parallel flow and cross flow heat exchangers, respectively. Also, it was clarified that the theoretical analysis, in which it was assumed that the region within pitch S and two radiator plates, with a heat-transferring tube placed at the center, is the minimum domain for calculation, and that the heat exchange by radiation occurs only between the domain and the adjacent domains, can estimate the heat transfer-accelerating effect and the temperature distribution in a heat exchanger with sufficient accuracy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Heat transfer--Orlando (Symposium), 1980
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein, R.P.
1980-01-01
This conference proceedings contains 36 papers of which 3 appear as abstracts. 23 papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: thermodynamics of PWR and LMFBR Steam Generators; two-phase flow in parallel channels; geothermal heat transfer; natural circulation in complex geometries; heat transfer in non-Newtonian systems; and process heat transfer
Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde
2003-01-01
Microgravity boiling heat transfer is one of the most basic research topics in aerospace technology, which is important for both scientific research and engineering application. Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer is presented, including terrestrial simulation technique, terrestrial simulation experiment, microgravity experiment, and flow boiling heat transfer
Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.
Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer
Koplow, Jeffrey P
2013-12-10
Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.
Transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukamoto, Osami
1976-01-01
The transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium are investigated. The critical burnout heat fluxes for pulsive heating are measured, and empirical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are given. The burnout is detected by observing the super-to-normal transition of the temperature sensor which is a thin lead film prepared on the heated surface by vacuum evaporation. The mechanism of boiling heat transfer for pulsive heating is discussed, and theoretical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are derived. The empirical data satisfy the theoretical relations fairly well. (auth.)
Flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Hongsheng; Tan, Sichao; Zhuang, Nailiang; Lan, Shu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer experiment in transitional flow regime under rolling motion. • Increases of average friction factor and Nu were found. • Periodic breakdown of laminar flow contributes to the increase. • Nonlinear variation of pressure drop or Nu with Re also contributes to the increase. • Effect of critical Reynolds number shift was discussed. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer characteristics under rolling motion are extremely important to thermohydraulic analysis of offshore nuclear reactors. An experimental study was conducted in a heated rectangular channel to investigate flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion. The results showed that the average friction factor and Nusselt number are higher than that of the corresponding steady flow as the flow rate fluctuates in transitional flow regime. Larger relative flow rate fluctuation was observed under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. In the same manner, larger increases of average friction factor and Nusselt number were achieved under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. The increases were mainly caused by the flow rate fluctuation through periodic breakdown of laminar flow and development of turbulence in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime. First, turbulence, which enhances the rate of momentum and energy exchange, occurs near the crest of flow rate wave even the flow is still in laminar flow regime according to the average Reynolds number. Second, as a result of rapid increases of the friction and heat transfer with Reynolds number in transitional flow regime, the increases of the friction and the heat transfer near the crest of flow rate wave are larger than the decreases of them near the trough of flow rate wave, which also contributes to increases of average friction and heat transfer. Additionally, the effect of critical Reynolds number shift under unsteady flow and heating
Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process
Beke, Tamas
2012-01-01
Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…
Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5
Brinich, Paul F.
1961-01-01
Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.
Scaling of heat transfer augmentation due to mechanical distortions in hypervelocity boundary layers
Flaherty, W.; Austin, J. M.
2013-10-01
We examine the response of hypervelocity boundary layers to global mechanical distortions due to concave surface curvature. Surface heat transfer and visual boundary layer thickness data are obtained for a suite of models with different concave surface geometries. Results are compared to predictions using existing approximate methods. Near the leading edge, good agreement is observed, but at larger pressure gradients, predictions diverge significantly from the experimental data. Up to a factor of five underprediction is reported in regions with greatest distortion. Curve fits to the experimental data are compared with surface equations. We demonstrate that reasonable estimates of the laminar heat flux augmentation may be obtained as a function of the local turning angle for all model geometries, even at the conditions of greatest distortion. This scaling may be explained by the application of Lees similarity. As a means of introducing additional local distortions, vortex generators are used to impose streamwise structures into the boundary layer. The response of the large scale vortices to an adverse pressure gradient is investigated. Surface streak evolution is visualized over the different surface geometries using fast response pressure sensitive paint. For a flat plate baseline case, heat transfer augmentation at similar levels to turbulent flow is measured. For the concave geometries, increases in heat transfer by factors up to 2.6 are measured over the laminar values. The scaling of heat transfer with turning angle that is identified for the laminar boundary layer response is found to be robust even in the presence of the imposed vortex structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Masuro
1992-10-01
In the present paper, mass transfer has been numerically studied in a laminar flow through a circular graphite tube to evaluate graphite corrosion rate and generation rate of carbon monoxide during a pipe rupture accident in a high temperature gas cooled reactor. In the analysis, heterogeneous (graphite oxidation and graphite/carbon dioxide reaction) and homogeneous (carbon monoxide combustion) chemical reactions were dealt in the multi-component gas mixture; helium, oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Multi-component diffusion coefficients were used in a diffusion term. Mass conservation equations of each gas component, mass conservation equation and momentum conservation equations of the gas mixture were solved by using SIMPLE algorism. Chemical reactions between graphite and oxygen, graphite and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide combustion were taken into account in the present numerical analysis. An energy equation for the gas mixture was not solved and temperature was held to be constant in order to understand basic mass transfer characteristics without heat transfer. But, an energy conservation equation for single component gas was added to know heat transfer characteristics without mass transfer. The effects of these chemical reactions on the mass transfer coefficients were quantitatively and qualitatively clarified in the range of 50 to 1000 of inlet Reynolds numbers, 0 to 0.5 of inlet oxygen mass fraction and 800 to 1600degC of temperature. (author)
Blowdown heat transfer experiment, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soda, Kunihisa; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Osaki, Hideki; Shiba, Masayoshi
1976-09-01
Blowdown heat transfer experiment has been carried out with a transparent test section to observe phenomena in coolant behavior during blowdown process. Experimental parameters are discharge position, initial system pressure, initial coolant temperature, power supply to heater rods and number of heater rods. At initial pressure 7-12 ata and initial power 6-50 kw per one heater rod, the flow condition in the test section is a major factor in determining time of DNB occurrence and physical process to DNB during blowdown. (auth.)
Liquid metal heat transfer issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.
1984-01-01
An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept
Experimental transient natural convection heat transfer from a vertical cylindrical tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Alberto Dopazo, J.
2011-01-01
In this paper heat transfer experimental data is presented and compared to general correlations proposed in the literature for transient laminar free convection from a vertical cylindrical tank. The experimental data has been obtained from heating and cooling experiments carried out with a cylindrical full-scale hot water storage tank working under real operating conditions. The experimental device and the data acquisition system are described. The calculation procedures established to obtain the experimental values of the heat transfer coefficients, as well as the data reduction process, are detailed. The local convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients are obtained from different heating power conditions for local Rayleigh numbers within the range of 1x10 5 -3x10 8 . The great quantity of available experimental data allows a detailed analysis with a reliable empirical base. The experimental local convection heat transfer coefficients are correlated and compared to correlations proposed in open literature for engineering calculations. - Highlights: → Experimental data of transient local convection heat transfer coefficients from a cylindrical tank for heating and cooling processes is obtained. → The transient behaviour of the convection coefficients is dependent on temperature difference evolutions between the surface and the air. → The Nu.Ra -1/4 ratio decreases proportionally in (T s -T ∞ ) -0.9 . → A new correlation based on the semi-infinite region theory for laminar transient free convection is proposed.
Tunable heat transfer with smart nanofluids.
Bernardin, Michele; Comitani, Federico; Vailati, Alberto
2012-06-01
Strongly thermophilic nanofluids are able to transfer either small or large quantities of heat when subjected to a stable temperature difference. We investigate the bistability diagram of the heat transferred by this class of nanofluids. We show that bistability can be exploited to obtain a controlled switching between a conductive and a convective regime of heat transfer, so as to achieve a controlled modulation of the heat flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peyghambarzadeh, S.M.; Sarafraz, M.M.; Vaeli, N.; Ameri, E.; Vatani, A.; Jamialahmadi, M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The cooling performance of water and n-heptane is compared during subcooled flow boiling. ► Although n-heptane leaves the heat exchanger warmer it has a lower heat transfer coefficient. ► Flow rate, heat flux and degree of subcooling have direct effect on heat transfer coefficient. ► The predictions of some correlations are evaluated against experimental data. - Abstract: In this research, subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure n-heptane and distilled water at different operating conditions have been experimentally measured and compared. The heat exchanger consisted of vertical annulus which is heated from the inner cylindrical heater with variable heat flux (less than 140 kW/m 2 ). Heat flux is varied so that two different flow regimes from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling condition are created. Meanwhile, liquid flow rate is changed in the range of 2.5 × 10 −5 –5.8 × 10 −5 m 3 /s to create laminar up to transition flow regimes. Three subcooling levels including 10, 20 and 30 °C are also considered. Experimental results demonstrated that subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient increases when higher heat flux, higher liquid flow rate and greater subcooling level are applied. Furthermore, influence of the operating conditions on the bubbles generation on the heat transfer surface is also discussed. It is also shown that water is better cooling fluid in comparison with n-heptane
Passive heat transfer enhancement in 3D corrugated tube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian
transfer and fluid flow with a constant wall temperature and total pressure drop. The governing equations for these problems were solved using the Finite Element Method. The results of numerical modelling show significant increase in NTU for double corrugated tubes compared to a circular tube. The friction......An innovative hydraulic design was studied for corrugated tube geometry for a heat exchanger. An ellipse based double corrugation was used as a concept of the geometry. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) is maintained over the tube length while the shape of the cross section varies continuously along...... the flow direction. 38 corrugated tubes with a Dh of 5 mm were studied numerically with corrugation heights from 0.23 to 0.69 mm and corrugation periods from 5 to 50 mm for laminar flow with water. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as a tool to study the effect of corrugation geometry on heat...
Experimental study on method for heat transfer enhancement using a porous material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimura, Takuya; Takeda, Tetsuaki
2011-01-01
There are several methods for enhancement of heat transfer; for example, there are attaching various fins on the heat transfer surface, processing the surface roughly, and so on. When cooling high temperature circular or rectangular channels by forced convection of gas, there are several methods for enhancement of heat transfer such as attaching radial or spiral fins on the channel surface or inserting twisted tape in the channel. In the case of the gas heating type steam reformer, disk type fins are attached on the outside surface of the reformer tube, and the tube is inserted into the guide tube to increase an amount of heat transferred from the high temperature gas. However, it has to take into consideration the deterioration of the structure strength by attaching the fins on the tube surface with the design of the steam reformer. The objective of this study is to clarify performances of a method for heat transfer enhancement using porous material with high porosity. The experiment has been performed using an apparatus which simulated the passage structure of the steam reformer to obtain characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop. From the results obtained in this experiment, the heat transfer rate by this method showed a good performance in the laminar flow region. It was also found that the method for heat transfer enhancement using porous material with high porosity is further improved under the high temperature condition as compared with the other methods for heat transfer enhancement. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, J.F.
1977-01-01
Acoustic sounder measurements of a vertical profile of the abrupt transition from a laminar to a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer were compared with meteorological measurements made at 10 and 137 m on an instrumented tower. Sounder data show that conditions necessary for the onset of the momentum burst phenomenon exist sometime during a clear afternoon when heat flux changes sign and the planetary surface cools. Under these conditions, the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stable. Prior to this situation, the entire boundary layer is in turbulent motion from surface heating. The boundary layer is then an effective barrier for all fluxes, and as the maximum flux Richardson number is reached at some height close to but above the surface, turbulence is dampened and a laminar layer forms. The profile of this layer is recorded by the sounder. Surface temperature drops, a strong wind shear develops, and the Richardson number decreases below its critical value (Ri/sub cr/<0.25). Subsequently, the laminar layer is eroded by turbulence from above, and with a burst of momentum and heat, it eventually reaches the ground
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehrabian, M. A.; Mansouri, S. H.; Sheikhzadeh, G. A.
2002-01-01
The single-phase flow and thermal performance of a double pipe heat exchanger are examined by experimental methods. The working fluid is water at atmospheric pressure. Temperature measurements at the inlet and outlet of the two streams and also at an intermediate point half way between the inlet and outlet is made, using copper-constantan thermocouple wires. Mass flow rates for each stream are also measured using calibrated ratemeters. Heat is supplied to the inner tube stream by an immersion heater. The overall heat transfer coefficients are inferred from the measured data. The heat transfer coefficient of the inner tube flow (circular cross section) is calculated using the standard correlations. The heat transfer coefficient of the outer tube flow (annular cross section) is then deduced.Higher heat transfer coefficients are reported in the laminar flow regime in comparison to the predictions of standard correlations for straight and smooth tubes. The reasons for this discrepancy are identified and discussed. Experimental errors in measuring temperatures and mass flow rates are studied and their effects on the heat transfer coefficients are estimated. Experimental results for the range of operating conditions used in this work show that the outer tube side heat transfer coefficients are smaller than the inner side heat transfer coefficients by a factor of almost 1.5 and 3.4 in counter flow and parallel flow arrangements, respectively. The agreement with predictions is very good for the counter flow arrangement, but not very good for the parallel flow arrangement
Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehrdad Massoudi
2012-01-01
fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a
Efficiency analysis of straight fin with variable heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadri, Somayyeh; Raveshi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Shayan
2012-01-01
In this study, one type of applicable analytical method, differential transformation method (DTM), is used to evaluate the efficiency and behavior of a straight fin with variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. Fins are widely used to enhance heat transfer between primary surface and the environment in many industrial applications. The performance of such a surface is significantly affected by variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient, particularly for large temperature differences. General heat transfer equation related to the fin is derived and dimensionalized. The concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced, and then this method is employed to derive solutions of nonlinear equations. Results are evaluated for several cases such as: laminar film boiling or condensation, forced convection, laminar natural convection, turbulent natural convection, nucleate boiling, and radiation. The obtained results from DTM are compared with the numerical solution to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of design parameters on temperature and efficiency are evaluated by some figures. The major aim of the present study, which is exclusive for this article, is to find the effect of the modes of heat transfer on fin efficiency. It has been shown that for radiation heat transfer, thermal efficiency reaches its maximum value
Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
1997-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...... the whole surface and with measured temperature difference between the inner surface and the evaporation temperature a mean heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The calculated heat transfer coefficient has been compared with the Chart Correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predicts too low heat...... transfer coefficient but the ratio between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has...
Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed
Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer
Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W
1974-01-01
Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.
Adiabatic partition effect on natural convection heat transfer inside a square cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahmoudi Nezhad, Sajjad; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; yousefi, Tooraj
2018-01-01
A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach......-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study...... partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms...
Garg, Vijay K.
2001-01-01
The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.
Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions
Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)
2013-01-01
Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhigang [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huai, Xiulan; Tao, Yujia; Chen, Huanzhuo [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2007-12-15
Three-dimensional conjugate numerical simulations using the inlet, average and variable thermal properties respectively were performed for the laminar water flow and heat transfer in rectangular microchannels with D{sub h} of 0.333 mm at Re of 101-1775. Both average and variable properties are adopted in data reduction. The calculated local and average characteristics of flow and heat transfer are compared among different methods, and with the experiments, correlations and simplified theoretical solution data from published literatures. Compared with the inlet property method, both average and variable property methods have significantly lower f{sub app}, but higher convective heat transfer coefficient h{sub z} and Nu{sub z}. Compared with the average property method, the variable property method has higher f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and lower h{sub z} at the beginning, but lower f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and higher h{sub z} at the later section of the channel. The calculated Nu{sub ave} agree well with the Sieder-Tate correlation and the recently reported experiment, validating the traditional macroscale theory in predicting the flow and heat transfer characteristics in the dimension and Re range of the present work. (author)
Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.
1992-07-07
This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.
P. K. Nagarajan; P. Sivashanmugam
2011-01-01
Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evalu...
Finite element simulation of heat transfer
Bergheau, Jean-Michel
2010-01-01
This book introduces the finite element method applied to the resolution of industrial heat transfer problems. Starting from steady conduction, the method is gradually extended to transient regimes, to traditional non-linearities, and to convective phenomena. Coupled problems involving heat transfer are then presented. Three types of couplings are discussed: coupling through boundary conditions (such as radiative heat transfer in cavities), addition of state variables (such as metallurgical phase change), and coupling through partial differential equations (such as electrical phenomena).? A re
Numerical study of heat and mass transfer in inertial suspensions in pipes.
Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Brandt, Luca
2017-11-01
Controlling heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions has many important applications such as packed and fluidized bed reactors and industrial dryers. In this work, we study the heat and mass transfer within a suspension of spherical particles in a laminar pipe flow, using the immersed boundary method (IBM) to account for the solid fluid interactions and a volume of fluid (VoF) method to resolve temperature equation both inside and outside of the particles. Tracers that follow the fluid streamlines are considered to investigate mass transfer within the suspension. Different particle volume fractions 5, 15, 30 and 40% are simulated for different pipe to particle diameter ratios: 5, 10 and 15. The preliminary results quantify the heat and mass transfer enhancement with respect to a single-phase laminar pipe flow. We show in particular that the heat transfer from the wall saturates for volume fractions more than 30%, however at high particle Reynolds numbers (small diameter ratios) the heat transfer continues to increase. Regarding the dispersion of tracer particles we show that the diffusivity of tracers increases with volume fraction in radial and stream-wise directions however it goes through a peak at 15% in the azimuthal direction. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).
Selection of Rational Heat Transfer Intensifiers in the Heat Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Burtsev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the applicability of different types of heat transfer intensifiers in the heat exchange equipment. A review of the experimental and numerical works devoted to the intensification of the dimpled surface, surfaces with pins and internally ribbed surface were presented and data on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of these surfaces were given. We obtained variation of thermal-hydraulic efficiency criteria for 4 different objective functions and 15 options for the intensification of heat transfer. This makes it possible to evaluate the advantages of the various heat transfer intensifiers. These equations show influence of thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the heat transfer intensifiers (the values of the relative heat transfer and drag coefficients on the basic parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger: the number and length of the tubes, the volume of the heat exchanger matrix, the coolant velocity in the heat exchanger matrix, coolant flow rate, power to pump coolant (or pressure drop, the amount of heat transferred, as well as the average logarithmic temperature difference. The paper gives an example to compare two promising heat transfer intensifiers in the tubes and shows that choosing the required efficiency criterion to search for optimal heat exchanger geometry is of importance. Analysis is performed to show that a dimpled surface will improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger despite the relatively small value of the heat transfer intensification, while a significant increase in drag of other heat transfer enhancers negatively affects their thermalhydraulic efficiency. For example, when comparing the target functions of reducing the heat exchanger volume, the data suggest that application of dimpled surfaces in various fields of technology is possible. But there are also certain surfaces that can reduce the parameters of a heat exchanger. It is shown that further work development should be aimed at
A literature survey on numerical heat transfer
Shih, T. M.
1982-12-01
Technical papers in the area of numerical heat transfer published from 1977 through 1981 are reviewed. The journals surveyed include: (1) ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, (2) International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, (3) AIAA Journal, (4) Numerical Heat Transfer, (5) Computers and Fluids, (6) International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, (7) SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, and (8) Journal of Computational Physics. This survey excludes experimental work in heat transfer and numerical schemes that are not applied to equations governing heat transfer phenomena. The research work is categorized into the following areas: (A) conduction, (B) boundary-layer flows, (C) momentum and heat transfer in cavities, (D) turbulent flows, (E) convection around cylinders and spheres or within annuli, (F) numerical convective instability, (G) radiation, (H) combustion, (I) plumes, jets, and wakes, (J) heat transfer in porous media, (K) boiling, condensation, and two-phase flows, (L) developing and fully developed channel flows, (M) combined heat and mass transfer, (N) applications, (O) comparison and properties of numerical schemes, and (P) body-fitted coordinates and nonuniform grids.
Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
1998-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....
Supercritical heat transfer phenomena in nuclear system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Moo Hwan; Anderson, Mark H.; Corradini, Michael L.
2005-01-01
A supercritical water (SCW) power cycle has been considered as one of the viable candidates for advanced fission reactor designs. However, the dramatic variation of thermo-physical properties with a modest change of temperature near the pseudo-critical point make existing heat transfer correlations such as the Dittus-Boelter correlation not suitably accurate to calculate the heat transfer in supercritical fluid. Several other correlations have also been suggested but none of them are able to predict the heat transfer over a parameter range, needed for reactor thermal-hydraulics simulation and design. This has prompted additional research to understand the characteristic of supercritical fluid heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Masuro; Kawamura, Hiroshi
1986-01-01
Pressure loss and heat transfer of a transitional gas flow are affected significantly by the entrance configuration. The friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient were measured using a circular tube with four different kinds of entrance configurations. The Reynolds number at the transition from laminar to intermittent flow was varied from about 1,940 to 9,120. The intermittency factor was measured for heated and unheated flows ; and the relation between the intermittency and the friction factor or heat transfer coefficient was examined. Several existing correlations were tested and found to correlate with the experimental results fairly well. (author)
Effect of radiation heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchanger, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yukio; Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio.
1977-01-01
In high temperature helium gas-cooled reactors, the nuclear energy can be utilized effectively, and the safety is excellent as compared with conventional reactors. They are advantageous also in view of environmental problems. In this report, the high temperature heat exchanger used for heating steam with the helium from a high temperature gas reactor is modeled, and the case that radiating gas flow between parallel plates is considered. Analysis was made on the case of one channel and constant heat flux and on the model for a counter-flow type heat exchanger with two channels, and the effect of radiation on the heat transfer in laminar flow and turbulent flow regions was clarified theoretically. The basic equations, the method of approximate solution and the results of calculation are explained. When one dimensional radiation was considered, the representative temperature Tr regarding fluid radiation was introduced, and its relation to mean mixing temperature Tm was determined. It was clarified that the large error in the result did not arise even if Tr was taken equally to Tm, especially in case of turbulent flow. The error was practically negligible when the rate of forced convection heat transfer in case of radiating medium flow was taken same as that in the case without radiation. (Kako, I.)
Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren
2005-01-01
on calculations with a CFD-model, which has earlier been validated by means of experiments. The CFD-model is used to determine the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle in all levels of the mantle as well as the heat transfer between the wall...... transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation......Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...
Conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat mass exchanger ducts
Zhang, Li-Zhi
2013-01-01
Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer in Heat Mass Exchanger Ducts bridges the gap between fundamentals and recent discoveries, making it a valuable tool for anyone looking to expand their knowledge of heat exchangers. The first book on the market to cover conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat exchangers, author Li-Zhi Zhang goes beyond the basics to cover recent advancements in equipment for energy use and environmental control (such as heat and moisture recovery ventilators, hollow fiber membrane modules for humidification/dehumidification, membrane modules for air purification, desi
Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brewster, M.Q.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles
Heat transfer capability analysis of heat pipe for space reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Huaqi; Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Lixin; Yang Ning; Hu Pan; Ma Tengyue; Zhang Liang
2015-01-01
To insure the safety of space reactor power system with no single point failures, the reactor heat pipes must work below its heat transfer limits, thus when some pipes fail, the reactor could still be adequately cooled by neighbor heat pipes. Methods to analyze the reactor heat pipe's heat transfer limits were presented, and that for the prevailing capillary limit analysis was improved. The calculation was made on the lithium heat pipe in core of heat pipes segmented thermoelectric module converter (HP-STMC) space reactor power system (SRPS), potassium heat pipe as radiator of HP-STMC SRPS, and sodium heat pipe in core of scalable AMTEC integrated reactor space power system (SAIRS). It is shown that the prevailing capillary limits of the reactor lithium heat pipe and sodium heat pipe is 25.21 kW and 14.69 kW, providing a design margin >19.4% and >23.6%, respectively. The sonic limit of the reactor radiator potassium heat pipe is 7.88 kW, providing a design margin >43.2%. As the result of calculation, it is concluded that the main heat transfer limit of HP-STMC SRPS lithium heat pipe and SARIS sodium heat pipe is prevailing capillary limit, but the sonic limit for HP-STMC SRPS radiator potassium heat pipe. (authors)
Kozlova, Sofya V; Ryzhkov, Ilya I
2014-09-01
In this paper, laminar convective heat transfer of water-alumina nanofluid in a circular tube with uniform heat flux at the tube wall is investigated. The investigation is performed numerically on the basis of two-component model, which takes into account nanoparticle transport by diffusion and thermophoresis. Two thermal regimes at the tube wall, heating and cooling, are considered and the influence of nanoparticle migration on the heat transfer is analyzed comparatively. The intensity of thermophoresis is characterized by a new empirical model for thermophoretic mobility. It is shown that the nanoparticle volume fraction decreases (increases) in the boundary layer near the wall under heating (cooling) due to thermophoresis. The corresponding variations of nanofluid properties and flow characteristics are presented and discussed. The intensity of heat transfer for the model with thermophoresis in comparison to the model without thermophoresis is studied by plotting the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on the Peclet number. The effectiveness of water-alumina nanofluid is analyzed by plotting the average heat transfer coefficient against the required pumping power. The analysis of the results reveals that the water-alumina nanofluid shows better performance in the heating regime than in the cooling regime due to thermophoretic effect.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Mehrali, Mohammad; Akhiani, Amir Reza
2017-01-01
The effect of a permanent magnetic field on the heat transfer characteristics of hybrid graphene-magnetite nanofluids (hybrid nanofluid) under forced laminar flow was experimentally investigated. For this purpose, a reduced graphene oxide-Fe3O4 was synthesized by using two-dimensional (2D) graphene...... and it shows that the thermal conductivity increased up to 11%. The hybrid nanofluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid with liquid like behavior with superparamagnetic properties as was evident from its magnetic saturation value at 45.9 emu/g. Moreover, the experimental heat-transfer results indicated that the heat...... transfer enhancement of the hybrid nanofluid compared to the control fluid (distilled water) was negligible when no magnetic field was applied. Additionally, the convective heat transfer was significantly improved under the influence of a magnetic field with a maximum enhancement of 82% in terms...
A Numerical Study on Laminar Free Convection between Vertical Flat Plates with Symmetric Heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ameer A. Jadoaa
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The development of free convection in a viscous fluid between heated plates is investigated. The basic governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations are solved numerically by finite difference method. Results are obtained for the variations of Nusselt number, velocity, temperature, and pressure throughout the flow field assuming the fluid to enter the channel with ambient temperature and a flat velocity profile. The flow and heat-transfer characteristics of the channel are studied and a development height established. Heating plate condition is (C.W.T and C.H.F. An correlation equation has been deduced for the average Nusselt number as a function of Rayligt number. A comparison is made between the results of this theoretical investigation and theoretical work of (Bodoia, J.R 1962[1].
Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawaji, Masahiro [City College of New York, NY (United States); Valentin, Francisco I. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Artoun, Narbeh [City College of New York, NY (United States); Banerjee, Sanjoy [City College of New York, NY (United States); Sohal, Manohar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McEligot, Donald M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-12-21
The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.
Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, Masahiro; Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Sohal, Manohar; Schultz, Richard; McEligot, Donald M.
2015-01-01
The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.
Heat transfer and fluid flow in regular rod arrays with opposing flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.W.
1979-01-01
The heat transfer and fluid flow problem of opposing flow in the fully developed laminar region has been solved analytically for regular rod arrays. The problem is governed by two parameters: the pitch-to-diameter ratio and the Grashof-to-Reynolds number ratio. The critical Gr/Re ratios for flow separation caused by the upward buoyancy force on the downward flow were evaluated for a large range of P/D ratios of the triangular array. Numerical results reveal that both the heat transfer and pressure loss are reduced by the buoyancy force. Applications to nuclear reactors are discussed
Experimental study of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in vertical narrow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chang; Gao Puzhen; Wang Zhanwei; Tan Sichao
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The effect of wall heating on the laminar to turbulent transition is experimentally studied. ► The flow characteristic demonstrates that heating leads to the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent regimes. ► The heat transfer characteristics also indicates that heating leads to the delay of flow regime transition. - Abstract: Experimental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics of a vertical narrow channel with uniform heat flux condition are conducted to analysis the effect of wall heating on the laminar to turbulent transition. The friction factor in the heating condition is compared with that in the adiabatic condition and the results show that wall heating leads to the delay of laminar to turbulent transition. In addition, the heat transfer characteristic indicates that the critical Reynolds number at the point of laminar flow breakdown increases with the increase of fluid temperature difference, and the local Nusselt number at the point of laminar breakdown increases with the increase of the inlet Reynolds number. The analyses of the flow and heat transfer characteristics both indicate that the heating has a stabilizing effect on the water flow at present experimental scale.
Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer over a Moving Plate in a Parallel Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Anuar
2009-01-01
Effects of thermal radiation on the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a moving fluid is investigated. Under certain conditions, the present problem reduces to the classical Blasius and Sakiadis problems. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the fluid move in the opposite directions. Moreover, the existence of thermal radiation is to reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids
Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.
2012-01-01
We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.
Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, A
1965-03-15
This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Re{sub b} > 10{sup 5} free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow.
Heat transfer from humans wearing clothing
Lotens, W.A.
1993-01-01
In this monograph the effects of clothing on human heat transfer are described. The description is based on the physics of heat and mass transfer, depending on the design of the clothing, the climate, and the activity of the wearer. The resulting model has been stepwise implemented in computer
Evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Minato, Akihiko
1993-01-01
A multidimensional analysis code for two-phase flow using a two-fluid model was improved by taking into consideration the condensation heat transfer, film thickness, and film velocity, in order to develop an evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater. The following results were obtained by a two-dimensional analysis of a feed-water heater for a power plant. (1) In the model, the film flowed downward in laminar flow due to gravity, with droplet entrainment and deposition. For evaluation of the film thickness, Fujii's equation was used in order to account for forced convection of steam flow. (2) Based on the former experimental data, the droplet deposition coefficient and droplet entrainment rate of liquid film were determined. When the ratio at which the liquid film directly flowed from an upper heat transfer tube to a lower heat transfer tube was 0.7, the calculated total heat transfer rate agreed with the measured value of 130 MW. (3) At the upper region of a heat transfer tube bundle where film thickness was thin, and at the outer region of a heat transfer tube bundle where steam velocity was high, the heat transfer rate was large. (author)
On heat transfer of weakly compressible power-law flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Botong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper completes a numerical research on steady momentum and heat transfer in power-law fluids in a channel. Weakly compressible laminar fluids are studied with no slip at the walls and uniform wall temperatures. The full governing equations are solved by continuous finite element method. Three thermal conductivity models are adopted in this paper, that is, constant thermal conductivity model, thermal conductivity varying as a function of temperature gradient, and a modified temperature-gradient-dependent thermal conductivity model. The results are compared with each other and the physical characteristics for values of parameters are also discussed in details. It is shown that the velocity curve from the solution becomes straight at higher power-law index. The effects of Reynolds numbers on the dilatant fluid and the pseudo-plastic look similar to each other and their trends can be easily predicted. Furthermore, for different models, the temperature curves also present pseudo-plastic and dilatant properties.
Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances
Lahey, Jr, RT
2013-01-01
This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the
Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.
Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J
2013-01-01
Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).
"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann
2008-06-12
ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers
Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred
2010-01-01
The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.
Heat transfer from internally-heated molten UO2 pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein, R.P.; Baker, L. Jr.; Gunther, W.H.; Cook, C.
1978-01-01
Experimental measurements of heat transfer from internally heated pools of molten UO 2 have been obtained for two cell sizes: 10 cm x 10 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm. The experiments with the large cell have supported a previous conclusion from early small data that the measured downward heat fluxes are higher than would be expected on the basis of considerations of thermal convection. A convective model underpredicts the downward heat fluxes by a factor of 2.5 to 4.5 for all but one early experiment. Arbitrary assumptions of increased thermal conductivity do not account for the discrepancy. A single model based on internal thermal radiation heat transfer is able to account for the high values. The model uses the optically thick Rosseland approximation. Because of this, it is tentatively concluded that thermal radiation plays a dominant role in controlling the heat transfer from internally heated molted fuel
Droplet heat transfer and chemical reactions during direct containment heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, L. Jr.
1986-01-01
A simplified model of heat transfer and chemical reaction has been adapted to evaluate the expected behavior of droplets containing unreacted Zircaloy and stainless steel moving through the containment atmosphere during postulated accidents involving direct containment heating. The model includes internal and external diffusive resistances to reaction. The results indicate that reactions will be incomplete for many conditions characteristic of direct containment heating sequences
Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.
2011-01-01
The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.
Flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weizhong Zhang; Takashi Hibiki; Kaichiro Mishima
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: In view of the significance of a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at conditions of low liquid Reynolds number or liquid laminar flow, and very few existing correlations in principle suitable for such flow conditions, this study is aiming at developing a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. The obtained results are as follows: 1. A new heat transfer correlation has been developed for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions based on superimposition of two boiling mechanisms, namely convective boiling and nucleate boiling. In the new correlation, two terms corresponding to the mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convective boiling are obtained from the pool boiling correlation by Forster and Zuber and the analytical annular flow model by Hewitt and Hall-Taylor, respectively. 2. An extensive database was collected for saturated flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number conditions, including data for different channels geometries (circular and rectangular), flow orientations (vertical and horizontal), and working fluids (water, R11, R12, R113). 3. An extensive comparison of the new correlation with the collected database shows that the new correlation works satisfactorily with the mean deviation of 16.6% for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. 4. The detailed discussion reveals the similarity of the newly developed correlation for flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number to the Chen correlation for flow boiling at high liquid Reynolds number. The Reynolds number factor F can be analytically deduced in this study. (authors)
The magnetic fluid for heat transfer applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakatsuka, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Neveu, S.; Koganezawa, H.
2002-01-01
Real-time visual observation of boiling water-based and ionic magnetic fluids (MFs) and heat transfer characteristics in heat pipe using ionic MF stabilized by citrate ions (JC-1) as working liquid are reported. Irrespective of the presence or absence of magnetic field water-based MF degraded during boiling. However, the degradation of JC-1 was avoided by heating the fluid in magnetic field. Furthermore, the heat transfer capacity of JC-1 heat pipe under applied magnetic field was enhanced over the no field case
Natural convection heat transfer in SIGMA experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Gang Hee; Suh, Kune Yull
2004-01-01
A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) results in core melt formation and relocation at various locations within the reactor core over a considerable period of time. If there is no effective cooling mechanism, the core debris may heat up and commence natural circulation. The high temperature pool of molten core material will threaten the structural integrity of the reactor vessel. The extent and urgency of this threat depend primarily upon the intensity of the internal heat sources and upon the consequent distribution of the heat fluxes on the vessel walls in contact with the molten core material pools. In such a steady molten pool convection state, the thermal loads against the vessel would be determined by the in-vessel heat transfer distribution involving convective and conductive heat transfer from the decay-heated core material pool to the lower head wall in contact with the core material. In this study, upward and downward heat transfer fraction ratio is focused on
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malvandi, Amir, E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.
Modelling of heat transfer to fluids at a supercritical pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuisheng, He
2014-01-01
A key feature of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is that, by raising the pressure of the reactor coolant fluid above the critical value, a phase change crisis is avoided. However, the changes in water density as it flows through the core of an SCWR are actually much higher than in the current water-cooled reactors. In a typical design, the ratio of the density of water at the core inlet to that at exit is as high as 7:1. Other fluid properties also vary significantly, especially around the pseudo-critical temperature (at which the specific heat capacity peaks). As a result, turbulent flow and heat transfer behaviour in the core is extremely complex and under certain conditions, significant heat transfer deterioration can potentially occur. Consequently, understanding and being able to predict flow and heat transfer phenomena under normal steady operation conditions and in start-up and hypothetical fault conditions are fundamental to the design of SCWR. There have been intensive studies on flow and heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure recently and several excellent review papers have been published. In the talk, we will focus on some turbulence modelling issues encountered in CFD simulations. The talk will first discuss some flow and heat transfer issues related to fluids at supercritical pressures and their potential implications in SCWR, and some recent developments in the understanding and modelling techniques of such problems, which will be followed by an outlook for some future developments.Factors which have a major influence on the flow and will be discussed are buoyancy and flow acceleration due to thermal expansion (both are due to density variations but involve different mechanisms) and the nonuniformity of other fluid properties. In addition, laminar-turbulent flow transition coupled with buoyancy and flow acceleration plays an important role in heat transfer effectiveness and wall temperature in the entrance region but such
Component Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Capability Operability Monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalina, M.; Djetelic, N.
2010-01-01
The ultimate heat sink (UHS) is of highest importance for nuclear power plant safe and reliable operation. The most important component in line from safety-related heat sources to the ultimate heat sink water body is a component cooling heat exchanger (CC Heat Exchanger). The Component Cooling Heat Exchanger has a safety-related function to transfer the heat from the Component Cooling (CC) water system to the Service Water (SW) system. SW systems throughout the world have been the root of many plant problems because the water source, usually river, lake, sea or cooling pond, are conductive to corrosion, erosion, biofouling, debris intrusion, silt, sediment deposits, etc. At Krsko NPP, these problems usually cumulate in the summer period from July to August, with higher Sava River (service water system) temperatures. Therefore it was necessary to continuously evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger operation and confirm that the system would perform its intended function in accordance with the plant's design basis, given as a minimum heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger design specification sheet. The Essential Service Water system at Krsko NPP is an open cycle cooling system which transfers heat from safety and non-safety-related systems and components to the ultimate heat sink the Sava River. The system is continuously in operation in all modes of plant operation, including plant shutdown and refueling. However, due to the Sava River impurities and our limited abilities of the water treatment, the system is subject to fouling, sedimentation buildup, corrosion and scale formation, which could negatively impact its performance being unable to satisfy its safety related post accident heat removal function. Low temperature difference and high fluid flows make it difficult to evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger due to its specific design. The important effects noted are measurement uncertainties, nonspecific construction, high heat transfer capacity, and operational specifics (e
Heat Transfer in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers at High Temperature
Hafeez, Pakeeza
Heat transfer though open-cell metal foam is experimentally studied for heat exchanger and heat shield applications at high temperatures (˜750°C). Nickel foam sheets with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per linear inch (PPI), have been used to make the heat exchangers and heat shields by using thermal spray coating to deposit an Inconel skin on a foam core. Heat transfer measurements were performed on a test rig capable of generating hot gas up to 1000°C. The heat exchangers were tested by exposing their outer surface to combustion gases at a temperature of 550°C and 750°C while being cooled by air flowing through them at room temperature at velocities up to 5 m/s. The temperature rise of the air, the surface temperature of the heat exchangers and the air temperature inside the heat exchanger were measured. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated for different velocities. The heat transfer performance of the 40PPI sample brazed with the foil is found to be the most efficient. Pressure drop measurements were also performed for 10 and 40PPI metal foam. Thermographic measurements were done on 40PPI foam heat exchangers using a high temperature infrared camera. A high power electric heater was used to produce hot air at 300°C that passed over the foam heat exchanger while the cooling air was blown through it. Heat shields were made by depositing porous skins on metal foam and it was observed that a small amount of coolant leaking through the pores notably reduces the heat transfer from the hot gases. An analytical model was developed based assuming local thermal non-equilibrium that accounts for the temperature difference between solid and fluid phase. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the predicted values of the model.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chow, L
1998-01-01
.... The heat generated from a 9x9-heater array was removed by liquid nitrogen pool boiling. The orientation and space limitation of the array were varied to explore their effects on the critical heat flux (CHF) value...
Heat exchanger network retrofit optimization involving heat transfer enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yufei; Smith, Robin; Kim, Jin-Kuk
2012-01-01
Heat exchanger network retrofit plays an important role in energy saving in process industry. Many design methods for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks have been proposed during the last three decades. Conventional retrofit methods rely heavily on topology modifications which often result in a long retrofit duration and high initial costs. Moreover, the addition of extra surface area to the heat exchanger can prove difficult due to topology, safety and downtime constraints. Both of these problems can be avoided through the use of heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger network retrofit. This paper presents a novel design approach to solve heat exchanger network retrofit problems based on heat transfer enhancement. An optimisation method based on simulated annealing has been developed to find the appropriate heat exchangers to be enhanced and to calculate the level of enhancement required. The physical insight of enhanced exchangers is also analysed. The new methodology allows several possible retrofit strategies using different retrofit methods be determined. Comparison of these retrofit strategies demonstrates that retrofit modification duration and payback time are reduced when heat transfer enhancement is utilised. Heat transfer enhancement can be also used as a substitute for increased heat exchanger network surface area to reduce retrofit investment costs.
Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Gylys
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.
2003-01-01
Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elmnefi, Mohamed Salem
2010-11-24
In the present study, a new optical method was implemented to study the heat transfer from flat stagnation point flames which can be regarded as one-dimensional in the central part. Premixed methane-air flames and hydrogen-methane-air flames were investigated. The effects of burner-to-plate distance and the fresh gas mixture velocity on heat transfer were examined. Experiments were performed using light induced phosphorescence from thermographic phosphors to study the wall temperatures and heat fluxes of nearly one-dimensional flat premixed flames impinging upward normally on a horizontal water cooled circular flat plate. The investigated flames were stoichiometric, lean and rich laminar methane/air flames with different equivalence ratios of {phi} =1, {phi} = 0.75 and {phi} = 1.25 and stoichiometric laminar hydrogen/methane/air flames. Mixtures of air with 10, 25, 50 and 75 % hydrogen in methane (CH{sub 4}) as well as a pure hydrogen flames at ambient pressure were investigated. The central part of this plate was an alumina ceramic plate coated from both sides with chromium doped alumina (ruby) and excited with a Nd:YAG laser or a green light emitting diode (LED) array to measure the wall temperature from both sides and thus the heat flux rate from the flame. The outlet velocity of the gases was varied from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s. The burner to plate distance ranged from 0.5 to 2 times the burner exit diameter (d = 30 mm).The accuracy of the method was evaluated. The measured heat flux indicate the change of the flame stabilization mechanism from a burner stabilized to a stagnation plate stabilized flame. The results were compared to modeling results of a one dimensional stagnation point flow, with a detailed reaction mechanism. In order to prove the model, also measured gas phase temperatures by OH LIF for a stoichiometric stagnation point flame were discussed. It turns out that the flame stabilization mechanism and with it the heat fluxes change from low to high
Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt
2012-01-01
The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study......, a single bluff body and two bluff bodies arranged in tandem are considered. Due to the formation of horseshoe vortices, the heat transfer is enhanced appreciably for both cases. However, for the case of two bluff bodies in tandem, it is found that the presence of the second bluff body decreases the heat...... transfer as compared to the case of a single bluff body. In addition, the results show that the heat transfer exhibits Reynolds number similarity. For a single bluff body, the Nusselt number profiles collapse well when the data are scaled by Re0.55; for two bluff bodies arranged in tandem, the heat...
Supercritical heat transfer in an annular channel with external heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remizov, O.V.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Shurkin, N.G.; Sergeev, V.V.
1980-01-01
Results are presented of experimental studies of the burnout heat transfer in a 32x28x3000 mm annular channel with a uniform distribution of a heat flow at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa and mass rates of 350-1000 kg/m 2 xs. The heating is electrical, external, one-sided. It is shown that dependencies of the heat-transfer coefficient on rated parameters in the annular channel and tube are similar. An empirical equation has been obtained for the calculation of the burnout heat transfer in the annual channels with external heating in the following range: pressure, 6.9 -13.7 MPa; mass rate 350-700 kg/m 2 xs, and steam content ranging from Xsub(crit) to 1
Heat transfer and carryover of low pressure water in a heated vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.A.
1976-01-01
Local heat transfer coefficients in the stable film boiling and dispersed flow regimes were studied for the upward flow of low pressure water in a heated vertical tube. Wall temperatures were maintained constant with time and along the tube so that both axial and time temperature gradients approached zero. Heat flux along the tube was not constant but was applied so as to maintain a steady state temperature profile. A preheater was used to bring the liquid to saturation before it entered the main portion of the test section and in some cases the equilibrium quality was greater than zero at the entrance to the main test section. The test section was made of stainless steel, and the lower portion, the preheater, was heated directly by dc current. Copper block heat spikes were clamped to the upper test section and were used to apply the heat flux to maintain the wall temperature constant with time. Several theories for the different possible types of flow (laminar or turbulent, tube or film) were compared with the experimental data. The carry-over point for low flooding rates (1 inch/sec or less) was inferred from these comparisons and gave good agreement with the Plummer critical mass criterion for liquid carry-over
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, Nobuhiro; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Inaba, Hideo
1978-01-01
In the present study the behavior of heat transfer in a rectangular cavity with one isothermal vertical wall heated and the other cooled is investigated. Heat transfer coefficients on the vertical walls are measured for fluids with Prandtl number Pr of 3 to 40,000 in case of aspect-ratio H/W from 5 to 47.5 and their correlated results are presented for laminar, transition and turbulent regions, respectively. It is shown that the present arrangement (Nu sub(H) - Ra sub(H)) using the height of cavity as a representative length may significantly be useful in the various heat transfer modes accompanied with flow patterns of them. (auth.)
Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop
Edelstein, Fred
1988-01-01
A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.
Forced convection heat transfer in He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani, A.
1986-01-01
An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid
Heat transfer from two-side heated helical channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimonis, V.; Ragaishis, V.; Poshkas, P.
1995-01-01
Experimental results are presented on the heat transfer from two-side heated helical channels to gas (air) flows. The study covered six configurations and wide ranges of geometrical (D/h=5.5 to 84.2) and performance (Re=10 3 to 2*10 5 ) parameters. Under the influence of Re and of the channel curvature, the heat transfer from both the convex and the concave surfaces for two-side heating (q w1 ≅ q w2 ) is augmented by 20-30% over one-side heating. Improved relations to predict the critical values of Reynolds Re cr1 and Re cr2 are suggested. They enable more exact predictions of the heat transfer from convex surface in transient flows for one-side heating. The relation for annular channels is suggested for the turbulent heat transfer from the convex and concave surfaces of two-side heated helical channels. It can be adapted by introducing earlier expresions for one-side heated helical channels. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs
Interfacial stability with mass and heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, D.Y.
1977-07-01
A simplified formulation is presented to deal with interfacial stability problems with mass and heat transfer. For Rayleigh-Taylor stability problems of a liquid-vapor system, it was found that the effect of mass and heat transfer tends to enhance the stability of the system when the vapor is hotter than the liquid, although the classical stability criterion is still valid. For Kelvin-Holmholtz stability problems, however, the classical stability criterion was found to be modified substantially due to the effect of mass and heat transfer
Heat transfer between adsorbate and laser-heated hot electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueba, H; Persson, B N J
2008-01-01
Strong short laser pulses can give rise to a strong increase in the electronic temperature at metal surfaces. Energy transfer from the hot electrons to adsorbed molecules may result in adsorbate reactions, e.g. desorption or diffusion. We point out the limitations of an often used equation to describe the heat transfer process in terms of a friction coupling. We propose a simple theory for the energy transfer between the adsorbate and hot electrons using a newly introduced heat transfer coefficient, which depends on the adsorbate temperature. We calculate the transient adsorbate temperature and the reaction yield for a Morse potential as a function of the laser fluency. The results are compared to those obtained using a conventional heat transfer equation with temperature-independent friction. It is found that our equation of energy (heat) transfer gives a significantly lower adsorbate peak temperature, which results in a large modification of the reaction yield. We also consider the heat transfer between different vibrational modes excited by hot electrons. This mode coupling provides indirect heating of the vibrational temperature in addition to the direct heating by hot electrons. The formula of heat transfer through linear mode-mode coupling of two harmonic oscillators is applied to the recent time-resolved study of carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen hopping on an ultrafast laser-heated Pt(111) surface. It is found that the maximum temperature of the frustrated translation mode can reach high temperatures for hopping, even when direct friction coupling to the hot electrons is not strong enough
Alami Nia Amin; Campo Antonio
2016-01-01
In the present study, the heat transfer enhancement of a bundle of flush-mounted ribbons placed on the floor of a rectangular duct was investigated experimentally. The flush-mounted ribbons act as heat sources and the cooling happens with air. The air flow was two-dimensional, steady, viscous and incompressible under either laminar (500 ≤ ReDh < 2000) and turbulent (2000 ≤ Re Dh ≤ 4500) conditions. The hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of the air flo...
Heat transfer enhancement using 2MHz ultrasound.
Bulliard-Sauret, Odin; Ferrouillat, Sebastien; Vignal, Laure; Memponteil, Alain; Gondrexon, Nicolas
2017-11-01
The present work focuses on possible heat transfer enhancement from a heating plate towards tap water in forced convection by means of 2MHz ultrasound. The thermal approach allows to observe the increase of local convective heat transfer coefficients in the presence of ultrasound and to deduce a correlation between ultrasound power and Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficient under ultrasound remains constant while heat transfer coefficient under silent conditions increases with Reynolds number from 900 up to 5000. Therefore, heat transfer enhancement factor ranges from 25% up to 90% for the same energy conditions (supplied ultrasonic power=110W and supplied thermal power=450W). In the same time cavitational activity due to 2MHz ultrasound emission was characterized from mechanical and chemical viewpoints without significant results. At least, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been performed in order to investigate hydrodynamic modifications due to the presence of 2MHz ultrasound. It was therefore possible to propose a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement mechanism with high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transport coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow through a four-cusp channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de; Parise, J.A.R.; Souza Mendes, P.R. de.
1986-01-01
The heat transfer coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow in a four-cusp channel were determined. A numerical solution was developed for laminar flow an and experimental study for turbulent flow was carried out. Systematic variations of the Reynolds number were done in the range 900-30000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients for the four-cusp channel are much lower than the coefficients for the circular tube. (author) [pt
Heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated duct, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satoh, Isao; Kurosaki, Yasuo
1986-01-01
The objective of this article is to study theoretically and experimentally the effects of nonuniform heating on turbulent heat transfer characteristics for flow in a horizontal rectangular duct ; a vertical side wall was uniformly heated, and the other wall were insulated. In our theoretical approach, the zero-equation model for turbulent eddy viscosity was employed. The effects of mesh size of finite difference on the calculation results were examined, and some refined compensation for wall temperatures and wall shear stresses by no use of fine mesh were proposed to reduce the calculation time. The heat transfer coefficients in thermally developing region for a nonuniformly heated duct obtained from numerical solutions are larger than the one for uniformly heated case. The buoyancy effects on heat transfer were evaluated. However, it was seen that the secondary flow due to buoyancy force was hardly expected to enhance heat transfer in a turbulent duct flow. Experiments were performed to measure the velocity and temperature profiles in a turbulent duct flow with a nonuniform heated wall. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical ones. (author)
Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenfeld, J.H.
1987-01-01
A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance
Heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids. A numerical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fariñas Alvariño, P; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Llamas Galdo, M I
2012-01-01
The aim of the reported investigation is to asses the effect of brownian and thermophoretic diffusion in nanofluids convective heat transfer. In order to capture these effects, a new equation for particles distribution had to be consider. Momentum and energy equations have been reformulated in order to include brownian and thermophretic diffusion. These modes of diffusion have been suggested extensively in the literature but their effect on momentum and energy transport has not yet been numerically analyzed. In order to obtain a solution for the modified set of governing equations, a new CFD solver had to be devised. The new solver has been applied to a case study involving hydrodynamic and thermally developing laminar flow regime in a pipe. Pure base fluid solutions have been used to asses the accuracy of the model. Numerical nanofluid solutions compare reasonably well with both experimental results obtained elsewhere and the Churchill and Ozoe correlation. The observed heat transfer enhancement by the nanofluid has been attributed to its transport properties rather than to another transport mechanism.
Falling film flow, heat transfer and breakdown on horizontal tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.T.
1980-11-01
Knowledge of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes is required in the assessment of certain CANDU reactor accident sequences for those CANDU reactors which use moderator dump as one of the shut-down mechanisms. In these reactors, subsequent cooling of the calandria tubes is provided by falling films produced by sprays. This report describes studies of falling film flow and heat transfer characteristics on horizontal tubes. Analyses using integral methods are given for laminar and turbulent flow, ignoring and accounting for momentum effects in the film. Preliminary experiments on film flow stability on horizontal tubes are described and various mechanisms of film breakdown are examined. The work described in this report shows that in LOCA with indefinitely delayed ECI in the NPD or Douglas Point (at 70 percent power) reactors, the falling films on the calandria tubes will not be disrupted by any of the mechanisms considered, provided that the pressure tubes do not sag onto the calandria tubes. However, should the pressure tubes sag onto the calandria tubes, film disruption will probably occur
Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study
Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.
2018-04-01
1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.
Convective heat transfer of supercritical CO_2 in a rock fracture for enhanced geothermal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Le; Jiang, Peixue; Wang, Zhenchuan; Xu, Ruina
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Contrasting experiments between a rough and a smooth fracture were performed. • A numerical model of rough fracture was reconstructed based on CT scanning data. • Heat transfer in rough fracture was affected by channeling and disturbance effects. - Abstract: Convective heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure fluid in a rock fracture are important for building an accurate heat transfer model of enhanced geothermal systems. This paper presents experimental investigations of laminar convection heat transfer of supercritical pressure CO_2 in an artificial smooth parallel-plate fracture and a rough and tortuous fracture that was created using the Brazilian technique. Hot rock with a relatively high initial temperature reserves more heat, which can ensure a larger heat extraction rate for a longer time when cold fluid flows through the fracture. Compared with the smooth parallel-plate fracture, CO_2 flowing through the rough and tortuous fracture with an equivalent hydraulic aperture extracted less heat from the hot rock due to the less efficient heat exchange in a rough fracture caused by channeling effect. This was illustrated by numerical simulation results of the reconstructed fracture based on micro-computed tomography scan data. The overall Nusselt number obtained from the numerical results was larger in a rough fracture with a larger Reynolds number due to disturbance effect on the boundary layer development. The heat transfer performance in a rough fracture is therefore influenced by interactions of the channeling and disturbance effects caused by the tortuous flow path.
Heat Transfer Phenomena of Supercritical Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krau, Carmen Isabella; Kuhn, Dietmar; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2008-07-01
In concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors, the reactor core is cooled and moderated by water at supercritical pressures. The significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water requires an exact knowledge of the heat transfer mechanism to avoid fuel pin damages. Near the pseudo-critical point a deterioration of heat transfer might happen. Processes, that take place in this case, are not fully understood and are due to be examined systematically. In this paper a general overview on the properties of supercritical water is given, experimental observations of different authors will be reviewed in order to identify heat transfer phenomena and onset of occurrence. The conceptional design of a test rig to investigate heat transfer in the boundary layer will be discussed. Both, water and carbon dioxide, may serve as operating fluids. The loop, including instrumentation and safety devices, is shown and suitable measuring methods are described. (authors)
Heat transfer studies in pool fire environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitsche, F.
1993-01-01
A Type B package has to withstand severe thermal accident conditions. To calculate the temperature behaviour of such a package in a real fire environment, heat transfer parameters simulating the effect of the fire are needed. For studying such heat transfer parameters, a systematic programme of experimental and theoretical investigations was performed which was part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (Nitsche and Weib 1990). The studies were done by means of small, unfinned and finned, steel model containers of simplified design in hydrocarbon fuel open fire tests. By using various methods, flame and container temperatures were measured and also container surface absorptivity before and after the test to study the effect of sooting and surface painting on heat transfer. Based on all these experimental data and comparative calculations, simplified, effective heat transfer parameters could be derived, simulating the effect of the real fire on the model containers. (J.P.N.)
Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in separated flows
Kumar, Saurav; Vengadesan, S.
2017-11-01
The flow separation appears in a wide range of heat transfer applications and causes poor heat transfer performance. It motivates the study of heat transfer enhancement in laminar as well as turbulent flows over a backward facing step by means of an adiabatic fin mounted on the top wall. Recently, we have studied steady, 2-D numerical simulations in laminar flow and investigated the effect of fin length, location, and orientation. It revealed that the addition of fin causes enhancement of heat transfer and it is very effective to control the flow and thermal behavior. The fin is most effective and sensitive when it is placed exactly above the step. A slight displacement of the fin in upstream of the step causes the complete change of flow and thermal behavior. Based on the obtained 2-D results it is interesting to investigate the side wall effect in three-dimensional simulations. The comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the available experimental results will be presented. Special attention has to be given to capture unsteadiness in the flow and thermal field.
Transient heat transfer in liquid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiotsu, Masahiro
1991-01-01
Detailed knowledge on the steady-state and transient heat transfer from solid surfaces in He I and He II is important as a database for the analysis of the influence of local thermal disturbances on the stability of He I or He II cooled large superconducting magnets. In this paper, an overview of the transient heat transfer characteristics on solid surfaces in He I and He II caused by various large stepwise heat inputs, such as the quasi-steady nucleate boiling with a certain lifetime in He I and the quasi-steady Kapitza conductance heat flux with a certain lifetime in He II, are presented in comparison with their steady-state heat transfer characteristics. (author)
Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids
Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.
2014-08-12
A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.
Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ► The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ► The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ► The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ► The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Masuro
1989-07-01
In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) has been researched and developed with a purpose of attaining a coolant temperature of around 1000degC at the reactor outlet. In order to design VHTR, comprehensive knowledge is required on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of laminar-turbulent transition, of coolant flow with large thermal property variation due to temperature difference, and of heat transfer deterioration. In the present investigation, experimental and analytical studies are made on a gas flow in a circular tube to elucidate the thermo-hydraulic characteristics. Friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in transitional flows are obtained. Influence of thermal property variation on the friction factor is qualitatively determined. Heat transfer deterioration in the turbulent flow subjected to intense heating is experimentally found to be caused by flow laminarization. The analysis based on a k-kL two-equation model of turbulence predicts well the experimental results on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in flows with thermal property variation and in laminarizing flows. (author)
Heat transfer enhancement on nucleate boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang, M.; Guibai, L.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer with additives that was investigated experimentally. More than fifteen kinds of additives were chosen and tested. Eight kinds of effective additives which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer were selected. Experimental results showed that boiling heat transfer coefficient of water was increased by 1 to 5 times and that of R-113 was increased by 1 to 4 times when trace amount additives were put in the two boiling liquids. There exist optimum concentrations for the additives, respectively, which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer rate best. In order to analyze the mechanism of the enhancement of boiling heat transfer with additives, the surface tension and the bubble departure diameter were measured. The nucleation sites were investigated by use of high-speed photograph. Experimental results showed that nucleation sites increase with additive amount increasing and get maximum. Increasing nucleation sites is one of the most important reason why nucleate boiling heat transfer can be enhanced with additives
Theory of Periodic Conjugate Heat Transfer
Zudin, Yuri B
2012-01-01
This book presents the theory of periodic conjugate heat transfer in a detailed way. The effects of thermophysical properties and geometry of a solid body on the commonly used and experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient are analytically presented from a general point of view. The main objective of the book is a simplified description of the interaction between a solid body and a fluid as a boundary value problem of the heat conduction equation for the solid body. At the body surface, the true heat transfer coefficient is composed of two parts: the true mean value resulting from the solution of the steady state heat transfer problem and a periodically variable part, the periodic time and length to describe the oscillatory hydrodynamic effects. The second edition is extended by (i) the analysis of stability boundaries in helium flow at supercritical conditions in a heated channel with respect to the interaction between a solid body and a fluid; (ii) a periodic model and a method of heat transfer sim...
Nonlocal heat transfer in nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanavin, A.P.; Uryupin, S.A.
2008-01-01
Kinetics of electrons in a degenerate conductor heated up by absorption of a high-frequency field localized in a region of about hundred nanometers has been studied. A new law for nonlocal electron thermal flux has been predicted
Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows
Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar
2018-04-01
Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.
Theory of periodic conjugate heat transfer
Zudin, Yuri B
2016-01-01
This book presents the theory of periodic conjugate heat transfer in detail. It offers a simplified description of the interaction between a solid body and a fluid as a boundary value problem of the heat conduction equation for the solid body.
Cornish heat transfer experiment - final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourke, P.J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.
1985-01-01
The transfer of heat released in an in-site heating experiment simulating high level radioactive waste packages in granite in Cornwall has been found to be mainly by conduction but some appreciable convection does occur. Interim analysis of the data suggests that the latter may account for about 20% of the total. (author)
Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone
Xie, Charles
2012-01-01
Heat transfer is widely taught in secondary Earth science and physics. Researchers have identified many misconceptions related to heat and temperature. These misconceptions primarily stem from hunches developed in everyday life (though the confusions in terminology often worsen them). Interactive computer simulations that visualize thermal energy,…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokomine, Takehiko; Oohara, Ken; Kunugi, Tomoaki
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We performed heat transfer experiment on HEMJ-type multiple jet impingement. • For narrow gap case, degradation of heat transfer performance was observed. • The re-laminarization was anticipated if the temperature level is high. • For actual design of divertor cooling, the re-laminarization must be considered. - Abstract: In order to explore the possibility of improvement of the He-cooled modular divertor with multiple jet cooling (HEMJ) concept including optimization of design parameter, an experimental study on heat transfer performance of the HEMJ divertor was performed by means of helium loop at Georgia Tech, in which the pressure, flow rate and temperature of helium pressure is up to 10 MPa, 8 g/s and 300 °C, respectively, under heat flux of 6 MW/m"2 loaded by means of induction heater. Although the non-dimensional distance between jet nozzle and impingement surface H normalized by typical nozzle diameter D, H/D is 0.9 in the reference design of HEMJ, heat transfer experiments were carried out under the condition of H/D = 0.5 and 0.25 to enhance the heat transfer performance. In the case of H/D = 0.25, the averaged Nusselt number was increased by about 20% from the value for H/D = 0.5 in the case that the jet temperature less than 100 °C. By contraries, the averaged Nusselt number was decreased with increase in jet temperature which is larger than 200 °C in the H/D = 0.25 case. It is expected that the degradation of heat transfer performance with increasing the jet temperature is caused by the re-laminarization occurred near heat transfer surface.
Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.
1993-07-20
A method is described for effecting improved heat transfer with in an industrial furnace having a cylindrical furnace section, a door at one end of the furnace section, an end plate at the opposite end of the section a circular fan plate concentrically positioned within the furnace section to define a cylindrical fan chamber between the plate and the end section with a fan there between and a heat treat chamber between the plate and the door, the fan plate defining a non-orificing annular space extending between the interior of the cylindrical furnace section and the outer edge of the plate, the plate having a centrally located under-pressure opening extending there through and a plurality of circumferentially spaced tubular heating elements extending through the annular space into the heat treating chamber, the method comprising the steps of: (a) heating the heating elements to a temperature which is hotter that the temperature of the work within the heat treating chamber; (b) rotating the fan at a speed sufficient to form a portion of the furnace atmosphere as a wind mass swirling about the fan chamber; (c) propagating the wind mass through the annular space into the heat treating chamber as a swirling wind mass in the form of an annulus, the wind mass impinging the heating elements to establish heat transfer contact therewith while the mass retains its annulus shape until contacting the door and without any significant movement of the wind mass into the center of the heat treating chamber; (d) drawing the wind mass through the under-pressure zone after the wind mass comes into heat transfer contact with the work in the heat treating chamber; and (e) thereafter heating the work by radiation from the beating elements at high furnace temperatures in excess of about 1,600 F.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF AL2O3 NANOFLUID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.V. Sharma
2011-12-01
Full Text Available L. Syam Sundar1 and K.V. Sharma2This paper reports experimental investigations of fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube, fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments are conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of 700
Axial slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer in rotating concentric cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Dong; Chao, Chang Qing; Wang, Ying Ze; Zhu, Fang Neng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Kim, Hyoung Bum [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
The slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer characteristics in Taylor-Couette flow was numerically studied by changing the rotating Reynolds number and applying the negative temperature gradient. The concentric cylinders with slit wall are seen in many rotating machineries. Six different models with the slit number 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 were investigated in this study. The results show the axial slit wall enhances the Taylor vortex flow and suppresses the azimuthal variation of wavy Taylor vortex flow. When negative temperature gradient exists, the results show that the heat transfer augmentation appears from laminar Taylor vortex to turbulent Taylor flow regime. The heat transfer enhancement become stronger as increasing the Reynolds number and slit number. The larger slit number model also accelerates the flow transition regardless of the negative temperature gradient or isothermal condition.
Axial slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer in rotating concentric cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dong; Chao, Chang Qing; Wang, Ying Ze; Zhu, Fang Neng; Kim, Hyoung Bum
2016-01-01
The slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer characteristics in Taylor-Couette flow was numerically studied by changing the rotating Reynolds number and applying the negative temperature gradient. The concentric cylinders with slit wall are seen in many rotating machineries. Six different models with the slit number 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 were investigated in this study. The results show the axial slit wall enhances the Taylor vortex flow and suppresses the azimuthal variation of wavy Taylor vortex flow. When negative temperature gradient exists, the results show that the heat transfer augmentation appears from laminar Taylor vortex to turbulent Taylor flow regime. The heat transfer enhancement become stronger as increasing the Reynolds number and slit number. The larger slit number model also accelerates the flow transition regardless of the negative temperature gradient or isothermal condition
Heat transfer with freezing and thawing
Lunardini, VJ
1991-01-01
This volume provides a comprehensive overview on the vast amount of literature on solidification heat transfer. Chapter one develops important basic equations and discusses the validity of considering only conductive heat transfer, while ignoring convection, in the large class of materials which make up the porous media. Chapters 2 to 4 deal with problems that can be expressed in plane (Cartesian) coordinates. These problems are further divided into boundary conditions of temperature, prescribed heat flux, and surface convection. Chapter 5 examines some plane geometries involving three-dime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sircilli Neto, F.; Passaro, A.; Borges, E.M.
1991-01-01
The cooling systems of nuclear reactors for spacial applications include direct current electromagnetic pumps, which are used to circulate the coolant fluid thru the reactor core. In this work, the transfer of the heat generated by the electrical current in a magnet C excitation coils, which is used in a prototype pump, was evaluated. Considering the processes of heat transfer by conduction, natural convection and radiation, the results of simulation with the codes HEATING5 and AUTHEATS indicate the utilization of the 180 sup(0)C thermal class conductor for a working Joule power of 4 10 sup(4) W/m sup(3) in each magnet coil. (author)
Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J
2016-06-01
Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided.
Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop
Silverstein, Calvin C.
1989-01-01
Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.
Postaccident heat removal. II. Heat transfer from an internally heated liquid to a melting solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faw, R.E.; Baker, L. Jr.
1976-01-01
Microwave heating has been used in studies of heat transfer from a horizontal layer of internally heated liquid to a melting solid. Experiments were designed to simulate heat transfer and meltthrough processes of importance in the analysis of postaccident heat removal capabilities of nuclear reactors. Glycerin, heated by 2.45-GHz microwave radiation, was used to simulate molten fuel. Paraffin wax was used to simulate a melting barrier confining the fuel. Experimentally measured heat fluxes and melting rates were consistent with a model based on downward heat transfer by conduction through a stagnant liquid layer and upward heat transfer augmented by natural convection. Melting and displacement of the barrier material occurred by upward-moving droplets randomly distributed across the melting surface. Results indicated that the melting and displacement process had no effect on the heat transfer process
An analytical solution to the heat transfer problem in thick-walled hunt flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluck, Michael J; Wolfendale, Michael J
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Convective heat transfer in Hunt type flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct. • Analytical solution to the H1 constant peripheral temperature in a rectangular duct. • New H1 result demonstrating the enhancement of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Analytical solution to the H2 constant peripheral heat flux in a rectangular duct. • New H2 result demonstrating the reduction of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Results are important for validation of CFD in magnetohydrodynamics and for implementation of systems code approaches. - Abstract: The flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct, subject to a strong transverse magnetic field is of interest in a number of applications. An important application of such flows is in the context of coolants in fusion reactors, where heat is transferred to a lead-lithium eutectic. It is vital, therefore, that the heat transfer mechanisms are understood. Forced convection heat transfer is strongly dependent on the flow profile. In the hydrodynamic case, Nusselt numbers and the like, have long been well characterised in duct geometries. In the case of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields (magnetohydrodynamics), the flow profiles are very different and one can expect a concomitant effect on convective heat transfer. For fully developed laminar flows, the magnetohydrodynamic problem can be characterised in terms of two coupled partial differential equations. The problem of heat transfer for perfectly electrically insulating boundaries (Shercliff case) has been studied previously (Bluck et al., 2015). In this paper, we demonstrate corresponding analytical solutions for the case of conducting hartmann walls of arbitrary thickness. The flow is very different from the Shercliff case, exhibiting jets near the side walls and core flow suppression which have profound effects on heat transfer.
Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer
Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron
2015-09-22
A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.
Analysis of surface roughness effects on heat transfer in micro-conduits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koo, J.; Kleinstreuer, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
2005-06-01
Modern heat rejection systems, such as micro-heat sinks, are attractive because of their potential for high performance at small size and low weight. However, the impact of microscale effects on heat transfer have to be considered and quantitatively analyzed in order to gain physical insight and accurate Nusselt number data. The relative surface roughness (SR) was selected as a key microscale parameter, represented by a porous medium layer (PML) model. Assuming steady laminar fully developed liquid flow in microchannels and microtubes, the SR effects in terms of PML thermal conductivity ratio and Darcy number on the dimensionless temperature profile and Nusselt number were analyzed. In summary, the PML characteristics, especially the SR-number and conductivity ratio k{sub m}/k{sub f}, greatly affect the heat transfer performance where the Nusselt number can be either higher or lower than the conventional value. The PML influence is less pronounced in microtubes than in parallel-plate microchannels. (author)
Convection Heat Transfer Modeling of Ag Nanofluid Using Different Viscosity Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Bakhsh Kasaeian
2012-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of adding nanoparticles (including Ag to a fluid media for improving free convection heat transfer were analysed. The free convective heat transfer was assumed to be in laminar flow regime, and the corresponding calculations and solutions were all done by the integral method. Water, as a Newtonian fluid, was considered as the base and all relevant thermo physical properties of the nanofluids were considered to be unvarying. The calculations performed and the graphs generated showed that, in general, the addition of nanoparticles to the fluid media resulted in an increment or improvement of its heat transfer coefficient. With increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles, the heat transfer rate of the fluid also increased. The increment in heat transfer is also dependent on the nanoparticles’ thermal conductivity and the viscosity theory which was utilized in the calculations. In this study, four different theories were used to calculate the viscosities of the nanofluids. The effects of viscosity on the nanofluids’ thermal conductivity were apparent from the calculations which were performed for nanoparticle concentrations of 4% or less. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisis kesan penambahan nanopartikel Ag ke dalam media bendalir bagi tujuan pembaikkan pemindahan haba perolakan bebas. Perolakan bebas diandaikan berada di zon aliran laminar, di mana penyelesaian dan pengiraan telah dilakukan mengunakan kaedah kamilan. Air yang merupakan cecair Newtonian, dianggap sebagai asas dan sifat terma fizikal nanocecair dianggapkan tidak berubah. Mengikut pengiraan yang dilakukan dan graf yang diplotkan, umumnya penambahan nanopartikel kepada media bendalir menyebabkan peningkatan dan pengembangan pekali pemindahan haba. Kadar pemindahan haba meningkat dengan nanopartikel. Peningkatan pemindahan haba juga bergantung kepada pengalir haba nanopartikel dan teori kelikatan yang digunakan. Di dalam kajian ini, empat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medhat M. Helal
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of heat and mass transfer in a power law, two-dimensional, laminar, boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid over an inclined plate with heat generation and thermophoresis is investigated by the characteristic function method. The governing non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and heat transfer problem are transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equation which was solved using Runge–Kutta shooting method. Exact solutions for the dimensionless temperature and concentration profiles, are presented graphically for different physical parameters and for the different power law exponents 0 0.5.
Heat transfer in the atmosphere
Oerlemans, J.
1982-01-01
The atmosphere is almost transparent to solar radiation and almost opaque to terrestrial radiation. This implies that in the mean the atmosphere cools while the earth's surface is heated. Convection in the lower atmosphere must therefore occur. The upward flux of energy associated with it
Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley
2005-09-01
Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.
Heat transfer characteristics of a helical heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
San, Jung-Yang; Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hao
2012-01-01
Heat transfer performance of a helical heat exchanger was investigated. The heat exchanger is composed of a helical tube with rectangular cross section and two cover plates. The ε–Ntu relation of the heat exchanger was obtained using a numerical method. In the analysis, the flow in the tube (helical flow) was considered to be mixed and the flow outside the tube (radial flow) was unmixed. In the experiment, the Darcy friction factor (f) and convective heat transfer coefficient (h) of the radial flow were measured. The radial flow was air and the helical flow was water. Four different channel spacing (0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mm) were individually considered. The Reynolds numbers were in the range 307–2547. Two correlations, one for the Darcy friction factor and the other for the Nusselt number, were proposed. - Highlights: ► We analyze the heat transfer characteristics of a helical heat exchanger and examine the effectiveness–Ntu relation. ► Increasing number of turns of the heat exchanger would slightly increase the effectiveness. ► There is an optimum Ntu value corresponding to a maximum effectiveness. ► We measure the Darcy friction factor and Nusselt number of the radial flow and examine the correlations.
Lunar ash flow with heat transfer.
Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.
1972-01-01
The most important heat-transfer process in the ash flow under consideration is heat convection. Besides the four important nondimensional parameters of isothermal ash flow (Pai et al., 1972), we have three additional important nondimensional parameters: the ratio of the specific heat of the gas, the ratio of the specific heat of the solid particles to that of gas, and the Prandtl number. We reexamine the one dimensional steady ash flow discussed by Pai et al. (1972) by including the effects of heat transfer. Numerical results for the pressure, temperature, density of the gas, velocities of gas and solid particles, and volume fraction of solid particles as function of altitude for various values of the Jeffreys number, initial velocity ratio, and two different gas species (steam and hydrogen) are presented.
Heat transfer in a thermoacoustic process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beke, Tamas
2012-01-01
Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis aimed at determining the stability–instability border of the thermoacoustic system. In this paper, we present a project type of physical examination and modelling task. We employed an electrically heated Rijke tube in our thermoacoustic project work. The aim of our project is to help our students enlarge their knowledge about thermodynamics, mainly about thermoacoustics, and develop their applied information technology and mathematical skills. (paper)
Heat transfer from thermal effluent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czapski, U.H.; Mumford, W.
1975-01-01
Measurements of the turbulent fluxes of sensible heat and momentum, together with profiles of horizontal wind, temperature, and humidity (wet bulb) have been conducted above the thermal plume of the Nine Mile Point Nuclear plant near Oswego, New York on Lake Ontario. The spectral analysis of the data, obtained with sonic anemometer and ultrafast thermocouples, reveals the importance of microthermals and similar features for the transport of heat. Temperature variance spectra and the cospectra wT and uw show distinct deviations from the -5/3 Kolmogorov law in the inertial subrange, suggesting a high input of energy in the eddy frequency range between 0.01 and 1 Hz. It is shown that microthermals in this frequency range are also responsible for a large portion of the momentum transport. 46 refs
Numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior with condensation heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi.
1995-01-01
In this study, condensation heat transfer experiments were performed in order to verify a condensation heat transfer model coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for steam velocity effect. In the experiments, 112 horizontal staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16 mm and length of 0.55 m were used. Steam and spray water were supplied to the test section, and inlet quality was controlled by the spray water flow rate. The temperature was 100degC and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. The overall heat transfer coefficients were measured for inlet quality of 13-100%. From parameter calculations for the falling liquid film ratio from the upper tubes to the lower tubes, the calculated overall heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data to within ±5% at the falling liquid film ratio of 0.7. (author)
Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons
Lladó Gambín, Adriana
2016-01-01
A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the mod...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vierow, Karen; Wu, Tiejun [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette (United States); Nagae, Takashi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Tokyo (Japan)
2003-07-01
Under certain circumstances in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the coolant system may be in a partially drained state and reflux condensation in the steam generator U-tubes can be the major heat removal mechanism. Noncondensable gases may be present and would degrade the heat transfer rate. If heat removal rates are insufficient, this situation could lead to core boil-off, fuel rod heatup, and eventually core damage. The Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS) and the Nuclear Heat Transfer Systems Laboratory at Purdue University have begun a cooperative research program to investigate the effectiveness of reflux condensation in PWR steam generator U-tubes in the presence of noncondensable gases. The final objectives are to provide local heat transfer data for development of methods to analyze reflux condensation in PWR steam generator U-tubes and to investigate the potential for flooding. Key features of the experimental data reported herein are that they are local data under laminar steam/gas mixture and condensate film flow and they are taken from a test section with dimensions similar to an actual steam generator tube. Steady state data were obtained under various steam and air inlet flow rates and pressures. The data show the significant degrading effect of noncondensable gas on heat transfer coefficients. From the data, correlations for the reflux condensation local heat transfer coefficient and the local Nusselt number under laminar conditions were derived. These experiments are providing essential and unique fundamental data for development of methods to analyze reflux condensation.
Alnoman, Saeed
2015-12-01
The stabilization characteristics of laminar non-premixed jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane, one of the primary reference fuels for octane rating, have been studied experimentally in heated coflow air. Non-autoignited and autoignited lifted flames were analyzed. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below 940 K, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. These lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization. At high initial temperatures over 940 K, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. These autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then to lifted mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of an alternating nonuniform magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer in a channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goharkhah, Mohammad; Ashjaee, Mehdi
2014-01-01
Forced convective heat transfer of water based Fe 3 O 4 nanofluid (ferrofluid) in the presence of an alternating non-uniform magnetic field is investigated numerically. The geometry is a two-dimensional channel which is subjected to a uniform heat flux at the top and bottom surfaces. Nonuniform magnetic field produced by eight line source dipoles is imposed on several parts of the channel. Also, a rectangular wave function is applied to the dipoles in order to turn them on and off alternatingly. The effects of the alternating magnetic field strength and frequency on the convective heat transfer are investigated for four different Reynolds numbers (Re=100, 600, 1200 and 2000) in the laminar flow regime. Comparing the results with zero magnetic field case, show that the heat transfer enhancement increases with the Reynolds number and reaches a maximum of 13.9% at Re=2000 and f=20 Hz. Moreover, at a constant Reynolds number, it increases with the magnetic field intensity while an optimum value exists for the frequency. Also, the optimum frequency increases with the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is always accompanied by a pressure drop penalty. A maximum pressure drop increase of 6% is observed at Re=2000 and f=5 Hz which shows that the pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement. - Highlights: • An alternating magnetic field is imposed on ferrofluid flow in a heated channel. • Heat transfer is enhanced noticeably compared to the case with no magnetic field. • Heat transfer depends on Reynolds number, magnetic field intensity and frequency. • Optimum frequency is independent of intensity but increases with Reynolds number. • Pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement
Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattox, D. L.
1979-06-01
The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.
Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
2001-09-01
Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyrboel, Susanne
1998-05-01
Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For lager thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the
Heat transfer 1990. Proceedings of the ninth international heat transfer conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hetsroni, G.
1990-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Heat Transfer Conference. Included in Volume 3 are the following chapters: Refrigerant vapor condensation on a horizontal tube bundle. Local heat transfer in a reflux condensation inside a closed two-phase thermosyphon and surface temperature by means of a pulsed photothermal effects
Numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations on multiprocessor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oehman, G.A.; Malen, T.E.; Kuusela, P.
1989-01-01
The first part of the report presents the basic principles of parallel processing, and factors influencing tbe efficiency of practical applications are discussed. In a multiprocessor computer, different parts of the program code are executed in parallel, i.e. simultaneous with respect to time, on different processors, and thus it becomes possible to decrease the overall computation time by a factor, which in the ideal case is equal to the number of processors. The application study starts from the numerical solution of the twodimesional Laplace equation, which describes the steady heat conduction in a solid plate and advances through the solution of the three dimensional Laplace equation to the case of study laminar fluid flow in a twodimensional box at Reynolds numbers up to 20. Hereby the stream function-vorticity method is first applied and the SIMPLER method. The conventional (sequential) numerical algoritms for these fluid flow and heat transfer problems are found not to be ideally suited for conversion to parallel computation, but sped-up ratios considerably above 50 % of the theoretical maximum are regularly achieved in the runs. The numerical procedures we coded in the OCCAM-2 language and the test runs were performed at who Akademi on the imperimental HATHI-computers containing 16 T4l4 and 100 INMOS T800 transputers respectively.
Numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations on multiprocessor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oehman, G.A.; Malen, T.E.; Kuusela, P.
1989-12-31
The first part of the report presents the basic principles of parallel processing, and factors influencing tbe efficiency of practical applications are discussed. In a multiprocessor computer, different parts of the program code are executed in parallel, i.e. simultaneous with respect to time, on different processors, and thus it becomes possible to decrease the overall computation time by a factor, which in the ideal case is equal to the number of processors. The application study starts from the numerical solution of the twodimesional Laplace equation, which describes the steady heat conduction in a solid plate and advances through the solution of the three dimensional Laplace equation to the case of study laminar fluid flow in a twodimensional box at Reynolds numbers up to 20. Hereby the stream function-vorticity method is first applied and the SIMPLER method. The conventional (sequential) numerical algoritms for these fluid flow and heat transfer problems are found not to be ideally suited for conversion to parallel computation, but sped-up ratios considerably above 50 % of the theoretical maximum are regularly achieved in the runs. The numerical procedures we coded in the OCCAM-2 language and the test runs were performed at who Akademi on the imperimental HATHI-computers containing 16 T4l4 and 100 INMOS T800 transputers respectively.
Inertial effects on heat transfer in superhydrophobic microchannels
Cowley, Adam; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie; Iverson, Brian; BYU Fluids Team
2015-11-01
This work numerically studies the effects of inertia on thermal transport in superhydrophbic microchannels. An infinite parallel plate channel comprised of structured superhydrophbic walls is considered. The structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces consists of square pillars organized in a square array aligned with the flow direction. Laminar, fully developed flow is explored. The flow is assumed to be non-wetting and have an idealized flat meniscus. A shear-free, adiabatic boundary condition is used at the liquid/gas interface, while a no-slip, constant heat flux condition is used at the liquid/solid interface. A wide range of Peclet numbers, relative channel spacing distances, and relative pillar sizes are considered. Results are presented in terms of Poiseuille number, Nusselt number, hydrodynamic slip length, and temperature jump length. Interestingly, the thermal transport is varied only slightly by inertial effects for a wide range of parameters explored and compares well with other analytical and numerical work that assumed Stokes flow. It is only for very small relative channel spacing and large Peclet number that inertial effects exert significant influence. Overall, the heat transfer is reduced for the superhydrophbic channels in comparison to classic smooth walled channels. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) - United States (Grant No. CBET-1235881).
Valentin Rodriguez, Francisco Ivan
High pressure/high temperature forced and natural convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. VHTRs are designed with the capability to withstand accidents by preventing nuclear fuel meltdown, using passive safety mechanisms; a product of advanced reactor designs including the implementation of inert gases like helium as coolants. The present experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced and natural circulation experiments. This work examines fundamental aspects of high temperature gas heat transfer applied to VHTR operational and accident scenarios. Two different types of experiments, forced convection and natural circulation, were conducted under high pressure and high temperature conditions using three different gases: air, nitrogen and helium. The experimental data were analyzed to obtain heat transfer coefficient data in the form of Nusselt numbers as a function of Reynolds, Grashof and Prandtl numbers. This work also examines the flow laminarization phenomenon (turbulent flows displaying much lower heat transfer parameters than expected due to intense heating conditions) in detail for a full range of Reynolds numbers including: laminar, transition and turbulent flows under forced convection and its impact on heat transfer. This phenomenon could give rise to deterioration in convection heat transfer and occurrence of hot spots in the reactor core. Forced and mixed convection data analyzed indicated the occurrence of flow laminarization phenomenon due to the buoyancy and acceleration effects induced by strong heating. Turbulence parameters were also measured using a hot wire anemometer in forced convection experiments to confirm the existence of the flow laminarization phenomenon. In particular, these results demonstrated the influence of pressure on delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow. The heat
Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices
Koplow, Jeffrey P.
2016-02-16
Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.
Heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system in simulated weightlessness conditions
Bologa, M. K.; Grosu, F. P.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Motorin, O. V.; Polikarpov, A. A.
2017-10-01
The process of heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system (ECS) at circulation of dielectric liquid in a closed thermoelectrohydrodynamic (TEHD) loop consisting of an evaporator, a condenser and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump for pumping of heat carrier, is considered. Previously, the authors studied the dependence of heat transfer on the angle of rotation of TEHD loop in a vertical plane. The report contains the results of studies of heat transfer at electrohydrodynamic pumping of the heat carrier (8% solution of acetone in Freon 113) in the condenser area by means of EHD pump of “cone-cone” type. All elements of the ECS are arranged in a horizontal plane and the heat transfer from the heater to the condenser without EHD pumping is impossible. A pulsating heat carrier flow mode, depending on the heat input and the voltage applied to the pump, takes place at EHD pumping. As the input power is decreasing the frequency of the coolant pulsations as well as the departure diameter and number of vapour bubbles are also decreasing. At some critical heat input the pulsations disappear and the transition from turbulent mode to the laminar one takes place causing the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient. The increase of the pumping flow rate by raising the voltage applied to the EHD pump, results in a partial suppression of boiling. The maximum intensification of heat transfer is reached at pulsation frequency of 1.25 Hz. The maximum heat flow from the heater was 4.2·104 W/m2. Graphical representation and the physical interpretation of the results, which reflect the essence of the process, are given.
Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.
Heat transfer pipe shielding device for heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanawa, Jun.
1991-01-01
The front face and the rear face of a frame that surrounds the circumference of the water chamber body of a multi-tube heat exchanger are covered by a rotational shielding plate. A slit is radially formed to the shielding plate for the insertion of a probe or cleaner to the heat transfer pipe and a deflector is disposed on the side opposite to the slit. The end of the heat transfer pipe to be inspected is exposed to the outer side by way of the slit by the rotation of the shielding plate, and the probe or cleaner is inserted in the heat transfer pipe to conduct an eddy current injury monitoring test or cleaning. The inside of the water chamber and the heat transfer pipe is exhausted by a ventilation nozzle disposed to the frame. Accordingly, a shielding effect upon inspection and cleaning can be obtained and, in addition, inspection and exhaustion at the cleaning position can be conducted easily. Since the operation for attachment and detachment is easy, the effect of reducing radiation dose per unit can be obtained by the shortening of the operation time. (N.H.)
Heat transfer with a split water channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krinsky, S.
1978-01-01
The heat transfer problem associated with the incidence of synchrotron radiation upon a vacuum chamber wall cooled by a single water channel was previously studied, and a numerical solution to the potential problem was found using the two-dimensional magnet program POISSON. Calculations were extended to consider the case of a split water channel using POISSON to solve the potential problem for a given choice of parameters. By optimizing the dimensions, boiling of the water can be avoided. A copper chamber is a viable solution to the heat transfer problem at a beam port
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.
Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer
Theodore, Louis
2011-01-01
This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu
Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression
Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs
Heat transfer for plasma facing components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, R.D.; Meng, X.; Maughan, H.
1995-01-01
Although the high heat flux requirements for plasma-facing components have been reduced drastically from 40.0 MW/m 2 to near 10.0 MW/m 2 , there are still some refinements needed. This paper highlights: (1) recent accomplishments and pinpoints new thermal solutions and problem areas of immediate concern to the development of plasma-facing components, and (2) next generation thermal hydraulic problems which must be addressed to insure safety and reliability in component operation. More specifically the near-term thermal hydraulic problems entail: (1) generating an appropriate data base to insure the development of single-side heat flux correlations; and (2) adapting the existing vast uniform heat flux literature to the case of non-uniform heat flux distributions found in plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Results are presented for the latter task which includes: (a) an accurate subcooled flow boiling curve correlation for the partial nucleate boiling regime which can be adapted using previously proposed correlations relating single-side boundary heat flux to heat transfer, in uniformly heated channels, (b) the evaluation of the possibility of using the existing literature directly with redefined parameters, and (c) an estimation of circumferential variations in the heat transfer coefficient
Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.
Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C
2013-10-09
In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.
Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2013-11-01
In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).
Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novomestský, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.novomestsky@fstroj.uniza.sk; Smatanová, Helena, E-mail: helena.smatanova@fstroj.uniza.sk; Kapjor, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.kapjor@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)
2016-06-30
This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nariai, H.; Ishiguro, H.; Nagata, S.; Yabe, A.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the augmentation effect of electrohydrodynamically (EHD) induced flow disturbance on forced-convection heat transfer in a channel that was experimentally investigated in order to determine the applicability of the enhanced heat transfer into a low- pressure drop heat exchanger, such as a high-performance oil cooler. The investigation is mainly based on the study carried out on the unique point where the flow is disturbed actively and controllably by applying electric fields between the wall and array of wire electrodes installed near the wall along the main stream. The liquid mixture of refrigerant R113 (96 wt %) and ethanol (4 wt %), called Fronsorubu AE, was selected as a working fluid. Heat transfer was found to be promoted intensely in the turbulent flow as well as in the laminar flow, up to a factor of about twenty-three in the case of laminar flow. It is noteworthy that the rate of increase in heat transfer coefficient is larger compared to that in the pressure drop. From a measurement of velocities by a laser Doppler velocimeter, it was made clear that the electrohydrodynamically induced flow disturbance brings about large heat transfer coefficients
Heat and mass transfer in buildings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kristoffersen, Astrid Rusaas
2005-01-01
This thesis has presented four journal papers about ventilation and heat transfer in buildings. Ventilation and heat transfer in buildings are elements that decide our indoor air quality, thermal comfort and energy use in buildings. Models and experiments are tools to understand the complex physics of heat and air transfer in buildings. As computers are, getting cheaper and more powerful, there is a need to develop reliable models that can predict heat and air transfer in buildings. The first paper in this thesis addressed the widely used multizone model. This model is mainly used to find the airflows between zones in a building. A multizone model is often coupled to an energy analysis program, and affects therefore the calculated energy use in a building. The first paper in this thesis, titled ''Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration'' discussed the impact of a recirculating ventilation system on the decay of the tracer gas concentration in the room. The delay of the tracer gas through the ventilation system affects the concentration in the room, and must be accounted for when calculating the amount of fresh air that the ventilation system supplies. The second paper titled ''CFD Investigation of Room Ventilation for Improved Operation of a Downdraft Table: Novel Concepts'' investigated the performance of a downdraft table by changing the ventilation configuration in the room by use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD can provide a microscopic description of the airflow and the behavior of pollutants and temperature distribution in a room. This paper calculated the airflow pattern in the room without influence of thermal effects, and demonstrated the usage of CFD. It was found that the total airflow could be reduced compared to an existing configuration (and hence reduce energy costs), and at the same time increasing the performance of the downdraft table (increasing the indoor air quality). A room with a
Condensation heat transfer of a feed-water heater and improvement of its performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi
1995-01-01
In this study, a condensation heat transfer model, coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, was developed. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for the steam velocity effect. The model was verified by condensation heat transfer experiments. In the experiments, 112 horizontal, staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16mm and length of 0.55m were used. The calculated over-all heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data within ±5% under the inlet quality conditions of 13-100%. Based on a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, an improved feed-water heater with support plates, which have flow holes between the upper and lower tube bundles, was designed. The total heat exchange capacity of the improved feed-water heater increased about 6%. (author)
Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Zeng
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.
Heat and mass transfer at adiabatic evaporation of binary zeotropic solutions
Makarov, M. S.; Makarova, S. N.
2016-01-01
Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a laminar flow of three-component gas at adiabatic evaporation of binary solutions from a flat plate are presented. The studies were carried out for the perfect solution of ethanol/methanol and zeotrope solutions of water/acetone, benzene/acetone, and ethanol/acetone. The liquid-vapor equilibrium is described by the Raoult law for the ideal solution and Carlson-Colburn model for real solutions. The effect of gas temperature and liquid composition on the heat and diffusion flows, and temperature of vapor-gas mixture at the interface is analyzed. The formula for calculating the temperature of the evaporation surface for the binary liquid mixtures using the similarity of heat and mass transfer was proposed. Data of numerical simulations are in a good agreement with the results of calculations based on the proposed dependence for all examined liquid mixtures in the considered range of temperatures and pressures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga; Grabas, Bogusław; Maciejewska, Beata
2016-01-01
The paper presents results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a vertical minichannel with a depth of 1.7 mm and a width of 16 mm. The element responsible for heating FC-72, which flowed laminarly in the minichannel, was a plate with an enhanced surface. Two types of surface textures were considered. Both were produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. Infrared thermography was used to record changes in the temperature on the outer smooth side of the plate. Two-phase flow patterns were observed through a glass pane. The main aim of the study was to analyze how the two types of surface textures affect the heat transfer coefficient. A two-dimensional heat transfer approach was proposed to determine the local values of the heat transfer coefficient. The inverse problem for the heated wall was solved using a semi-analytical method based on the Trefftz functions. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance along the minichannel length and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported in the saturated boiling region for the plate with the type 1 texture produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. (paper)
Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer
Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso
2014-01-01
This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758
Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Maria Carlomagno
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.
Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.
2013-01-01
Nanofluids are considered for improving the heat exchange in forced convective flow. In literature, the benefit of nanofluids compared to the corresponding base fluid is represented by several figures-of-merit in which the heat transfer benefit and the cost of pumping the fluid are considered. These
The log mean heat transfer rate method of heat exchanger considering the influence of heat radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-L.; Ke, M.-T.; Ku, S.-S.
2009-01-01
The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method is conventionally used to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers. Because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations, thus LMTD method neglects the influence of heat radiation. From the recent investigation of a circular duct in some practical situations, it is found that even in the situation of the temperature difference between outer duct surface and surrounding is low to 1 deg. C, the heat radiation effect can not be ignored in the situations of lower ambient convective heat coefficient and greater surface emissivities. In this investigation, the log mean heat transfer rate (LMHTR) method which considering the influence of heat radiation, is developed to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2005-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the calculation from heat transfer theory of the stagnation enthalpy from experimental measurements of the stagnation-point heat transfer and stagnation pressure. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 A value of stagnation enthalpy can be obtained at the location in the stream where the model is tested. This value gives a consistent set of data, along with heat transfer and stagnation pressure, for ablation computations. 1.2.2 This computation of stagnation enthalpy does not require the measurement of any arc heater parameters. 1.3 Limitations and ConsiderationsThere are many factors that may contribute to an error using this type of approach to calculate stagnation enthalpy, including: 1.3.1 TurbulenceThe turbulence generated by adding energy to the stream may cause deviation from the laminar equilibrium heat transfer theory. 1.3.2 Equilibrium, Nonequilibrium, or Frozen State of GasThe reaction rates and expansions may be such that the gas is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. 1.3.3 Noncat...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wissink, Jan G.; Rodi, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.
Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system
Metz, P.D.
A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.
Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes
Gonzalo Voltas, David
2013-01-01
This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...
Heat transfer in two-phase flow of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbotin, V.I.; Deev, V.I.; Solodovnikov, V.V.; Arkhipov, V.V.
1986-01-01
The results of experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase helium flow are presented. The effect of operating parameters (pressure, mass velocity, heat flux and quality) on boiling heat transfer intensity was investigated. A significant influence of boiling process prehistory on heat transfer coefficients was demonstrated. On the basis of experimental data obtained three typical regimes of flow boiling heat transfer were found. Analogy of heat transfer in flow boiling and pool boiling of helium and noncryogenic liquids was established. Correlations were developed which are in close agreement with available heat transfer data
Ribeiro, Carla
2017-01-01
The double-wall paper cup is an everyday object that can be used in the laboratory to study heat transfer. The experiment described here has been done by physics students aged 12-13 years; it can also be used in a different context to prompt debate about environmental issues.
Conjugate problems in convective heat transfer
Dorfman, Abram S
2009-01-01
The conjugate heat transfer (CHT) problem takes into account the thermal interaction between a body and fluid flowing over or through it, a key consideration in both mechanical and aerospace engineering. Presenting more than 100 solutions of non-isothermal and CHT problems, this title considers the approximate solutions of CHT problems.
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION WITH HEAT TRANSFER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu Dragan
2017-12-01
and manner under which the efficiency itself is calculated. The paper presents a more robust approach to measuring efficiency, regardless of the heat transfer within the turbomachinery itself. Possible applications of the study may range from cold-start regime simulation to the optimization of inter-cooling setup or even flow angle control without mechanically actuated OGV
Evaporative Heat Transfer Mechanisms within a Heat Melt Compactor
Golliher, Eric L.; Gotti, Daniel J.; Rymut, Joseph Edward; Nguyen, Brian K; Owens, Jay C.; Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.; Hong, Andrew E.
2013-01-01
This paper will discuss the status of microgravity analysis and testing for the development of a Heat Melt Compactor (HMC). Since fluids behave completely differently in microgravity, the evaporation process for the HMC is expected to be different than in 1-g. A thermal model is developed to support the design and operation of the HMC. Also, low-gravity aircraft flight data is described to assess the point at which water may be squeezed out of the HMC during microgravity operation. For optimum heat transfer operation of the HMC, the compaction process should stop prior to any water exiting the HMC, but nevertheless seek to compact as much as possible to cause high heat transfer and therefore shorter evaporation times.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, W.; Aye, M.; Qiu, S.; Jia, D. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an (China)]. E-mail: wxtian_xjtu@163.com
2004-07-01
The field synergy principle was proposed by Guo Z. Y based on 2-D boundary laminar flow and it resulted from a second look at the mechanism of convective heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to numerically verify the applicability of this theory under turbulent flow or even with recirculating flow condition. (author)
Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer
Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.
2013-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.
On the thermoeconomics of heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sayed, Y.M.
1991-01-01
The cost effectiveness of improving the thermodynamics of heat transfer in an energy system is investigated by considering steam power systems bottoming a given gas turbine. Higher efficiencies are basically achieved by improving the temperature match of the heat addition process using both structural and parametric modes of change. The heat transfer surfaces, when expressed solely in terms of efficiency, indicate the existence of an envelope bounding them. The envelope can be approximated by a simple continuous function. Minimum surface for a given efficiency is on or closest to the envelope. Similar features apply to capital cost and to the cost objective function. In this paper the generalization and the limitations of the envelopment concept are discussed as well as the relevance to artificial intelligence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Srinivasa Rao
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The forced convection heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are determined for the flow of water and nanofluid in a vertical packed bed column. The analysis is undertaken in the laminar and transition Reynolds number range. The column is filled with spherical glass beads as the bed material. The heat transfer coefficients with Al2O3 nanofluid increased by 12% to 15% with the increase of volume concentration from 0.02% to 0.5% compared with water. The experimental values of axial temperature are in good agreement with the NTU-ε method proposed by Schumann’s model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. N. B. Rao
1982-01-01
Full Text Available Laminar natural convection flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid confined between two long vertical wavy walls has been analysed taking the fluid properties constant and variable. In particular, attention is restricted to estimate the effects of viscous dissipation and wall waviness on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. Use has been made of a linearization technique to simplify the governing equations and of Galerkin's method in the solution. The solutions obtained for the velocity and the temperature-fields hold good for all values of the Grashof number and wave number of the wavy walls.
Analysis of Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Axial Annular Flow of Giesekus Viscoelastic Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohseni, Mehdi Moayed; Rashidi, Fariborz; Movagar, Mohammad Reza Khorsand [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
Analytical solutions for the forced convection heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids obeying the Giesekus model are obtained in a concentric annulus under laminar flow for both thermal and hydrodynamic fully developed conditions. Boundary conditions are assumed to be (a) constant fluxes at the walls and (b) constant temperature at the walls. Temperature profiles and Nusselt numbers are derived from dimensionless energy equation. Subsequently, effects of elasticity, mobility parameter and viscous dissipation are discussed. Results show that by increasing elasticity, Nusselt number increases. However, this trend is reversed for constant wall temperature when viscous dissipation is weak. By increasing viscous dissipation, the Nusselt number decreases for the constant flux and increases for the constant wall temperature. For the wall cooling case, when the viscous dissipation exceeds a critical value, the generated heat overcomes the heat which is removed at the walls, and fluid heats up longitudinally.
Analysis of thermal dispersion in an array of parallel plates with fully-developed laminar flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jiaying; Lu Tianjian; Hodson, Howard P.; Fleck, Norman A.
2010-01-01
The effect of thermal dispersion upon heat transfer across a periodic array of parallel plates is studied. Three basic heat transfer problems are addressed, each for steady, fully-developed, laminar fluid flow: (a) transient heat transfer due to an arbitrary initial temperature distribution within the fluid, (b) steady heat transfer with constant heat flux on all plate surfaces, and (c) steady heat transfer with constant wall temperatures. For problems (a) and (b), the effective thermal dispersivity scales with the Peclet number Pe according to 1 + CPe 2 , where the coefficient C is independent of Pe. For problem (c) the coefficient C is a function of Pe.
Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger
Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin
2016-12-01
In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.
Mansoor, Mohammad M.
2012-02-01
A 3D-conjugate numerical investigation was conducted to predict heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular cross-sectional micro-channel employing simultaneously developing single-phase flows. The numerical code was validated by comparison with previous experimental and numerical results for the same micro-channel dimensions and classical correlations based on conventional sized channels. High heat fluxes up to 130W/cm 2 were applied to investigate micro-channel thermal characteristics. The entire computational domain was discretized using a 120×160×100 grid for the micro-channel with an aspect ratio of (α=4.56) and examined for Reynolds numbers in the laminar range (Re 500-2000) using FLUENT. De-ionized water served as the cooling fluid while the micro-channel substrate used was made of copper. Validation results were found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and numerical data [1] with an average deviation of less than 4.2%. As the applied heat flux increased, an increase in heat transfer coefficient values was observed. Also, the Reynolds number required for transition from single-phase fluid to two-phase was found to increase. A correlation is proposed for the results of average Nusselt numbers for the heat transfer characteristics in micro-channels with simultaneously developing, single-phase flows. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mokhtari, A. [Yazd Univ., Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Goharkhah, M.; Ashjaee, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2009-07-01
Laminar free convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry which consists of a downward cone attached to a vertical cylinder was studied. In particular, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to determine the change in local and average heat transfer coefficients on the surface of an isothermal combined geometry for different vertex angles. The effect of the vertex angle on heat transfer was also investigated by keeping the height of the cylinder and slant length of the cone constant for all objects. The experimental data showed that the local heat transfer coefficient on the conical part increased in the vicinity of the cylinder and cone intersection. The distance between the point of minimum heat transfer coefficient on the cone and vertex of the cone decreased as the vertex angle increased. The maximum average Nusselt number for a constant Rayleigh number was obtained for the geometry with the smallest vertex angle. For all objects, the average Nusselt number increased with an increase in the Rayleigh number. An experiment was carried out on a vertical isothermal cylinder of circular cross section in order to validate the experimental approach. An analytical solution was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. 31 refs., 9 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Y. Ogunmola
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Regular perturbation technique is applied to analyze the fluid flow and heat transfer in a pipe containing third-grade fluid with temperature-dependent viscosities and heat generation under slip and no slip conditions. The obtained approximate solutions were used to investigate the effects of slip on the heat transfer characteristics of the laminar flow in a pipe under Reynolds’s and Vogel’s temperature-dependent viscosities. Also, the effects of parameters such as variable viscosity, non-Newtonian parameter, viscous dissipation, and pressure gradient at various values were established. The results of this work were compared with the numerical results found in literature and good agreements were established. The results can be used to advance the analysis and study of the behavior of third-grade fluid flow and steady state heat transfer processes such as those found in coal slurries, polymer solutions, textiles, ceramics, catalytic reactors, and oil recovery applications.
Heat transfer coefficient as parameter describing ability of insulating liquid to heat transfer
Nadolny, Zbigniew; Gościński, Przemysław; Bródka, Bolesław
2017-10-01
The paper presents the results of the measurements of heat transfer coefficient of insulating liquids used in transformers. The coefficient describes an ability of the liquid to heat transport. On the basis of the coefficient, effectiveness of cooling system of electric power devices can be estimated. Following liquids were used for the measurements: mineral oil, synthetic ester and natural ester. It was assumed that surface heat load is about 2500 W·m-2, which is equal the load of transformer windings. A height of heat element was 1.6 m, because it makes possible steady distribution of temperature on its surface. The measurements of heat transfer coefficient was made as a function of various position of heat element (vertical, horizontal). In frame of horizontal position of heat element, three suppositions were analysed: top, bottom, and side.
Heat transfer coefficient as parameter describing ability of insulating liquid to heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadolny Zbigniew
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the measurements of heat transfer coefficient of insulating liquids used in transformers. The coefficient describes an ability of the liquid to heat transport. On the basis of the coefficient, effectiveness of cooling system of electric power devices can be estimated. Following liquids were used for the measurements: mineral oil, synthetic ester and natural ester. It was assumed that surface heat load is about 2500 W·m-2, which is equal the load of transformer windings. A height of heat element was 1.6 m, because it makes possible steady distribution of temperature on its surface. The measurements of heat transfer coefficient was made as a function of various position of heat element (vertical, horizontal. In frame of horizontal position of heat element, three suppositions were analysed: top, bottom, and side.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Tao; Liu Xiaohua; Zhang Lun; Jiang Yi
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Investigates match properties of heat or mass transfer processes in HVAC system. ► Losses are caused by limited transfer ability, flow and parameter mismatching. ► Condition of flow matching is the same heat capacity of the fluids. ► Parameter matching is only reached along the saturation line in air–water system. ► Analytical solutions of heat and mass transfer resistance are derived. - Abstract: Sensible heat exchangers and coupled heat and mass transfer devices between humid air and water/desiccant are commonly used devices in air-conditioning systems. This paper focuses on the match properties of sensible heat transfer processes and coupled heat and mass transfer processes in an effort to understand the reasons for performance limitations in order to optimize system performance. Limited heat transfer capability and flow mismatching resulted in heat resistance of the sensible heat transfer process. Losses occurred during the heat and mass transfer processes due to limited transfer capability, flow mismatching, and parameter mismatching. Flow matching was achieved when the heat capacities of the fluids were identical, and parameter matching could only be reached along the saturation line in air–water systems or the iso-concentration line in air–desiccant systems. Analytical solutions of heat transfer resistance and mass transfer resistance were then derived. The heat and mass transfer process close to the saturation line is recommended, and heating sprayed water resulted in better humidification performance than heating inlet air in the air humidifier.
Experimental study on convective heat transfer with thin porous bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi; Furuya, Masahiro
2001-01-01
Experimental studies are made on the convective heat transfer of three types of thin porous bodies. Heat transfer performances, flow patterns and temperature profiles near the porous bodies are compared with each other. The heat transfer performance of porous bodies with the largest pore diameter is large. It became clear that the high heat transfer performance depends on an excellent heat transportation ability inside the pore and near the surface of the porous bodies. (author)
Experimental study of laminar mixed convection in a rod bundle with mixing vane spacer grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohanta, Lokanath, E-mail: lxm971@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cheung, Fan-Bill [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bajorek, Stephen M.; Tien, Kirk; Hoxie, Chris L. [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Investigated the heat transfer during mixed laminar convection in a rod bundle with linearly varying heat flux. • The Nusselt number increases downstream of the inlet with increasing Richardson number. • Developed an enhancement factor to account for the effects of mixed convection over the forced laminar heat transfer. - Abstract: Heat transfer by mixed convection in a rod bundle occurs when convection is affected by both the buoyancy and inertial forces. Mixed convection can be assumed when the Richardson number (Ri = Gr/Re{sup 2}) is on the order of unity, indicating that both forced and natural convection are important contributors to heat transfer. In the present study, data obtained from the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient in the mixed convection regime, which was found to be significantly larger than those expected assuming purely forced convection based on the inlet flow rate. The inlet Reynolds (Re) number for the tests ranged from 500 to 1300, while the Grashof (Gr) number varied from 1.5 × 10{sup 5} to 3.8 × 10{sup 6} yielding 0.25 < Ri < 4.3. Using results from RBHT test along with the correlation from the FLECHT-SEASET test program for laminar forced convection, a new correlation is proposed for mixed convection in a rod bundle. The new correlation accounts for the enhancement of heat transfer relative to laminar forced convection.
Topology optimization for transient heat transfer problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeidan, Said; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
The focus of this work is on passive control of transient heat transfer problems using the topology optimization (TopOpt) method [1]. The goal is to find distributions of a limited amount of phase change material (PCM), within a given design domain, which optimizes the heat energy storage [2]. Our......, TopOpt has later been extended to transient problems in mechanics and photonics (e.g. [5], [6] and [7]). In the presented approach, the optimization is gradient-based, where in each iteration the non-steady heat conduction equation is solved,using the finite element method and an appropriate time......-stepping scheme. A PCM can efficiently absorb heat while keeping its temperature nearly unchanged [8]. The use of PCM ine.g. electronics [9] and mechanics [10], yields improved performance and lower costs depending on a.o., the spatial distribution of PCM.The considered problem consists in optimizing...
Heat Transfer in Health and Healing.
Diller, Kenneth R
2015-10-01
Our bodies depend on an exquisitely sensitive and refined temperature control system to maintain a state of health and homeostasis. The exceptionally broad range of physical activities that humans engage in and the diverse array of environmental conditions we face require remarkable strategies and mechanisms for regulating internal and external heat transfer processes. On the occasions for which the body suffers trauma, therapeutic temperature modulation is often the approach of choice for reversing injury and inflammation and launching a cascade of healing. The focus of human thermoregulation is maintenance of the body core temperature within a tight range of values, even as internal rates of energy generation may vary over an order of magnitude, environmental convection, and radiation heat loads may undergo large changes in the absence of any significant personal control, surface insulation may be added or removed, all occurring while the body's internal thermostat follows a diurnal circadian cycle that may be altered by illness and anesthetic agents. An advanced level of understanding of the complex physiological function and control of the human body may be combined with skill in heat transfer analysis and design to develop life-saving and injury-healing medical devices. This paper will describe some of the challenges and conquests the author has experienced related to the practice of heat transfer for maintenance of health and enhancement of healing processes.
A generalized relationship for swirl decay in laminar pipe flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Swirling ﬂow is of great importance in heat and mass transfer enhancements and in ﬂow measurements. In this study, laminar swirling ﬂow in a straight pipe was considered. Steady three-dimensional axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations were solved numerically using a control volume approach. The swirl number ...
A generalized relationship for swirl decay in laminar pipe flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MS received 24 July 2008; revised 28 January 2010; accepted 1 February 2010. Abstract. Swirling flow is of great importance in heat and mass transfer enhance- ments and in flow measurements. In this study, laminar swirling flow in a straight pipe was considered. Steady three-dimensional axisymmetric Navier–Stokes ...
Heat transfer with geometric shape of micro-fin tubes (I) - Condensing heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, K M; Chang, J S; Bai, C H; Chung, M [Yeungnam University, Kyungsan (Korea)
1999-11-01
To examine the enhancement mechanism of condensing heat transfer through microfin tube, the condensation experiments with refrigerant HCFC 22 are performed using 4 and 6 kinds of microfin tubes with outer diameter of 9.52 mm and 7.0 mm, respectively. Used microfin tubes have different shape and number of fins with each other. The main heat transfer enhancement mechanism is known to be the enlargement of heat transfer area and turbulence promotion. Together with these main factors, we can find other enhancement factors by the experimental data, which are the overflow of the refrigerant over the microfin and microfin arrangement. The overflow of the refrigerant over the microfin can be analyzed by the geometric shape of the microfin. microfin tubes having a shape which can give much overflow over the microfin show large condensing heat transfer coefficients. The effect of microfin arrangement is related to the heat transfer resistance of liquid film of refrigerant. The condensing heat transfer coefficients are high for the microfin tube with even distribution of liquid film. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
Film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inai, Nobuhiko
1979-01-01
The experimental data on the film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium are required for investigating the stability of superconducting wires. On the other hand, liquid helium has the extremely different physical properties as compared with the liquids at normal temperature such as water. In this study, the experiments on pool boiling were carried out, using the horizontal top surface of a 20 mm diameter copper cylinder in liquid helium. For observing individual bubbles, the experiments on film boiling from a horizontal platinum wire were performed separately in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and photographs of floating-away bubbles were taken. The author pointed out the considerable upward shift of the boiling curve near the least heat flux point in film boiling from the one given by the Berenson's equation which has been said to agree comparatively well with the data on the film boiling of the liquids at normal temperature, and the reason was investigated. Consequently, a model for film boiling heat transfer was presented. Also one equation expressing the film boiling at low heat flux for low temperature liquids was proposed. It represents well the tendency to shift from Berenson's equation of the experimental data on film boiling at the least heat flux point for liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and water having extremely different physical properties. Some discussions are added at the end of the paper. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melhem Omar A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, second law analysis is introduced for circular cylinder confined between parallel planes. An analytical approach is adopted to study the effects of block age, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers on the entropy generation due to the laminar flow and heat transfer. Four different fluids are considered in the present analysis for comparison purposes. Heat transfer for the cylinder at an isothermal boundary condition is incorporated. In general, the entropy generation rate decreases as the blockage ratio decreases. In addition, the entropy generation rate increases with increasing Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. At a fixed Reynolds number, the effect of block age becomes more notice able for higher Prandtl number fluid. Similarly, for the same fluid, the effect of block age becomes more no tice able as the Reynolds number increases.
Melting heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan
2010-01-01
An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer from a warm, laminar liquid flow to a melting stretching/shrinking sheet. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the melting parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from a stretching sheet, it is found that the solutions for a shrinking sheet are non-unique.
Two-Dimensional Variable Property Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation of Nanofluids in Microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramiar, A.; Ranjbar, A.A.
2013-01-01
Laminar two-dimensional forced convective heat transfer of CuO-water and Al 2 O 3 -water nanofluids in a horizontal microchannel has been studied numerically, considering axial conduction effects in both solid and liquid regions and variable thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The results show that using nanoparticles with higher thermal conductivities will intensify enhancement of heat transfer characteristics and slightly increases shear stress on the wall. The obtained results show more steep changes in Nusselt number for lower diameters and also higher values of Nusselt number by decreasing the diameter of nanoparticles. Also, by utilizing conduction number as the criterion, it was concluded from the results that adding nanoparticles will intensify the axial conduction effect in the geometry considered.
Conjugate heat transfer effects on wall bubble nucleation in subcooled flashing flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, P.F.; Hijikata, K.
1990-01-01
A variety of models have been proposed to explain observations that large liquid superheat is required to initiate nucleation in flashing flows of subcooled liquids in nozzles, cracks and pipes. In such flows an abrupt change in the fluid temperature occurs downstream of the nucleating cavities. This paper examines the subcooling of the nucleating cavities due to conjugate heat transfer to the cold downstream fluid. This examination suggests a mechanism limiting the maximum active cavity size. Simple analysis shows that, of the total superheat required to initiate flashing, a substantial portion results from conjugate wall subcooling, which decreases the cavity vapor pressure. The specific case of flashing critical nozzle flow is examined in detail. Here boundary-layer laminarization due to the strong favorable pressure gradient aids the analysis of conjugate heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Cheng, S.C.; Nguyen, C.
1989-01-01
A computational method for predicting heat transfer, valid for a wide range of flow conditions (from pool boiling and laminar flow conditions to highly turbulent flow), has been developed. It correctly identifies the heat transfer modes and predicts the heat transfer rates as well as transition points (such as the critical heat flux point) on the boiling curve. The computational heat transfer method consists of a combination of carefully chosen heat transfer equations for each heat transfer mode. Each of these equations has been selected because of their accuracy, wide range of application, and correct asymptotic trends. Using a mechanistically-based heat transfer logic, these equations have been combined in a convenient software package suitable for PC or mainframe application. The computational method has been thoroughly tested against many sets of experimental data. The parametric and asymptotic trends of the prediction method have been examined in detail. Correction factors are proposed for extending the use of individual predictive techniques to various geometric configurations and upstream conditions. (orig.)
Heat transfer studies in waste repository design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehm, R.F.; Chen, Y.T.; Izzeldin, A.; Kuharic, W.; Sudan, N.
1994-01-01
The main task of this project is the development of visualization methods in heat transfer through porous media. Experiments have been performed related to the determination of the wavelength that gives equality of the refractive indices of the porous material and the liquid. The work has been accomplished using the calibration setup consisting of a 2-in. long test cell filled with 2-mm diameter soda-lime glass beads. A supplemental task is an unsaturated flow experiment with heat transfer in porous media. For this work the medium of interest in quartz beads. Essentially two-dimensional flows of admitted water are able to be examined. During this quarter, the setup and calibration of the experimental instrumentation was done. Also the modification of the main experimental tank and the inflow system was carried out. Initial testing was done
Double diffusive conjugate heat transfer: Part I
Azeem, Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.
2018-05-01
The present work is undertaken to investigate the effect of solid wall being placed at left of square cavity filled with porous medium. The presence of a solid wall in the porous medium turns the situation into a conjugate heat transfer problem. The boundary conditions are such that the left vertical surface is maintained at highest temperature and concentration whereas right vertical surface at lowest temperature and concentration in the medium. The top and bottom surfaces are adiabatic. The additional conduction equation along with the regular momentum and energy equations of porous medium are solved in an iterative manner with the help of finite element method. It is seen that the heat and mass transfer rate is lesser due to smaller thermal and concentration gradients.
Heat transfer modeling an inductive approach
Sidebotham, George
2015-01-01
This innovative text emphasizes a "less-is-more" approach to modeling complicated systems such as heat transfer by treating them first as "1-node lumped models" that yield simple closed-form solutions. The author develops numerical techniques for students to obtain more detail, but also trains them to use the techniques only when simpler approaches fail. Covering all essential methods offered in traditional texts, but with a different order, Professor Sidebotham stresses inductive thinking and problem solving as well as a constructive understanding of modern, computer-based practice. Readers learn to develop their own code in the context of the material, rather than just how to use packaged software, offering a deeper, intrinsic grasp behind models of heat transfer. Developed from over twenty-five years of lecture notes to teach students of mechanical and chemical engineering at The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, the book is ideal for students and practitioners across engineering discipl...
Low-melting point heat transfer fluid
Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Bradshaw, Robert W.
2010-11-09
A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.
Computer graphics in heat-transfer simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamlin, G.A. Jr.
1980-01-01
Computer graphics can be very useful in the setup of heat transfer simulations and in the display of the results of such simulations. The potential use of recently available low-cost graphics devices in the setup of such simulations has not been fully exploited. Several types of graphics devices and their potential usefulness are discussed, and some configurations of graphics equipment are presented in the low-, medium-, and high-price ranges
The Winfrith 9MW heat transfer rig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obertelli, J.D.
1976-01-01
The Winfrith 9MW Rig is used for studying heat transfer and flow resistance in a variety of test sections at system pressures up to 68 bar. The basic rig and its instrumentation are discussed together with the characteristics of the test section design. The rig has been used in studies involving the full scale simulation of Steam Generating Heavy Water (SGHW) fuel assemblies and the paper discusses the measurements made in this type of study. (author)
Principles of heat and mass transfer
Incropera, Frank P; Bergman, Theodore L; Lavine, Adrienne S
2013-01-01
Completely updated, the seventh edition provides engineers with an in-depth look at the key concepts in the field. It incorporates new discussions on emerging areas of heat transfer, discussing technologies that are related to nanotechnology, biomedical engineering and alternative energy. The example problems are also updated to better show how to apply the material. And as engineers follow the rigorous and systematic problem-solving methodology, they'll gain an appreciation for the richness and beauty of the discipline.
Heat transfer in multi-phase materials
Öchsner, Andreas
2011-01-01
This book provides a profound understanding, which physical processes and mechanisms cause the heat transfer in composite and cellular materials. It shows models for all important classes of composite materials and introduces into the latest advances. In three parts, the book covers Composite Materials (Part A), Porous and Cellular Materials (Part B) and the appearance of a conjoint solid phase and fluid aggregate (Part C).
Heat transfer studies on spiral plate heat exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajavel Rangasamy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer coefficients in a spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The test section consists of a plate of width 0.3150 m, thickness 0.001 m and mean hydraulic diameter of 0.01 m. The mass flow rate of hot water (hot fluid is varying from 0.5 to 0.8 kg/s and the mass flow rate of cold water (cold fluid varies from 0.4 to 0.7 kg/s. Experiments have been conducted by varying the mass flow rate, temperature, and pressure of cold fluid, keeping the mass flow rate of hot fluid constant. The effects of relevant parameters on spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The data obtained from the experimental study are compared with the theoretical data. Besides, a new correlation for the Nusselt number which can be used for practical applications is proposed.
Conjugate Problems in Convective Heat Transfer: Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abram Dorfman
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A review of conjugate convective heat transfer problems solved during the early and current time of development of this modern approach is presented. The discussion is based on analytical solutions of selected typical relatively simple conjugate problems including steady-state and transient processes, thermal material treatment, and heat and mass transfer in drying. This brief survey is accompanied by the list of almost two hundred publications considering application of different more and less complex analytical and numerical conjugate models for simulating technology processes and industrial devices from aerospace systems to food production. The references are combined in the groups of works studying similar problems so that each of the groups corresponds to one of selected analytical solutions considered in detail. Such structure of review gives the reader the understanding of early and current situation in conjugate convective heat transfer modeling and makes possible to use the information presented as an introduction to this area on the one hand, and to find more complicated publications of interest on the other hand.
Experimental heat transfer in tube bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, M.; Mariy, A.; Habib, M.
1983-01-01
Previous work has looked for the problem of heat transfer with flow parallel to rod bundle either by treating each rod individually as a separate channel or by treating the bundle as one unit. The present work will consider the existence of both the central and corner rods simultaneously inside the cluster itself under the same working conditions. The test section is geometrically similar to the fuel assembly of the Egyptian Research Reactor-1. The hydro-thermal performance of bundle having 16 - stainless steel tubes arranged in square array of 1.5 pitch to diameter ratio is investigated. Surface temperature and pressure distributions are determined. Average heat transfer coefficient for both central and corner tubes are correlated. Also, pressure drop and friction factor correlations are predicted. The maximum experimental range of the measured parameters are determined in the nonboiling region at 1400 Reynolds number and 3.64 W/cm 2 . It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient of the central tube is higher than that of the corner tube by 27%. Comparison with the previous work shows satisfactory agreement particularly with the circular tubes correlation - Dittus et al. - at 104 Reynolds number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)
2008-05-15
The effect of oscillations on the heat transfer in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally. A vertical tube was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical oscillator to provide low frequency oscillations. A section of the tube in the middle is subjected to a constant heat flux. The effect of the oscillations on the heat transfer coefficient has been examined. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with oscillations in the laminar regime. In turbulent flow regime (Re > 2,100) it is found that the effect of oscillations did not show any change. A correlation has been developed for enhancement of the local Nusselt number in terms of the effective acceleration and Reynolds number. Using this, an expression has been proposed to calculate the mean Nusselt number as a function of the tube length. (orig.)
An introduction to heat transfer. 2. rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hell, F.
1979-01-01
This book represents a fundamental introduction to heat transfer. Practical problems and tables make the book useful for engeneers and students. The chapters include detailed informations together with exercises of convection, radiat heat transfer, thermal conduction and condensation. (CDS)
Refrigeration. Heat Transfer. Part I: Evaporators and Condensers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard
2002-01-01
The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation.......The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation....
Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)
Heat transfer at a beam port corner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krinsky, S.
Along the general run of the vacuum chamber synchrotron radiation strikes the wall at a glancing angle of about 5.6 0 . The heat source is well-approximated by a ribbon of uniform power density having a small vertical height and an infinite azimuthal length. The heat transfer problem reduces to one in two-dimensions and it has been considered in a previous note. At the corner of a beam port the angle of incidence becomes 90 0 , so the temperature rises much higher than elsewhere. Since the power density at the corner is not uniform in its azimuthal dependence, but is strongly peaked at the point of normal incidence, two-dimensional heat flow is not a good approximation. The rectangular 3d problem is considered. This is easily solved and yields a good first estimate of the temperature rise at the corner
Heat transfer operators associated with quantum operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aksak, C; Turgut, S
2011-01-01
Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a Hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This paper is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations, however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.
Heat transfer characteristics of induced mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Y.; Lahav, C.; Szanto, M.; Shai, I.
1996-01-01
In the present work we focus our attention on the opposed Induced Mixed Convection case, i.e. the flow field structure in a vertical cylinder, closed at its bottom, opens at the top, and being heated circumferentially. The paper reports an experimental study of this complex heat transfer process. For a better understanding of the flow field and the related heat transfer process, two different experimental systems were built. The first was a flow visualization system, with water as the working fluid, while the second system enabled quantitative measurements of the temperature field in air. All the experiments were performed in the turbulent flow regime. In order to learn about all possible flow regimes, the visualization tests were conducted in three different length-to-diameter ratios (1/d=1,5,10). Quantitative measurements of the cylindrical wall temperature, as well as the radial and axial temperature profiles in the flow field, were taken in the air system. Based on the visualization observation and the measured wall temperature profile, it was found that the OIMC can be characterized by three main regimes: a mixing regime at the top, a central turbulent core and a boundary layer type of flow adjacent to the heated wall. (authors)
High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage
Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.
1983-01-01
Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an
Qu, Feng; Sun, Di; Zuo, Guang
2018-06-01
With the rapid development of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Accurate computing hypersonic heating is in a high demand for the design of the new generation reusable space vehicle to conduct deep space exploration. In the past years, most researchers try to solve this problem by concentrating on the choice of the upwind schemes or the definition of the cell Reynolds number. However, the cell Reynolds number dependencies and limiter dependencies of the upwind schemes, which are of great importance to their performances in hypersonic heating computations, are concerned by few people. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on these properties respectively. Results in our test cases show that SLAU (Simple Low-dissipation AUSM-family) is with a much higher level of accuracy and robustness in hypersonic heating predictions. Also, it performs much better in terms of the limiter dependency and the cell Reynolds number dependency.
A Review of Wettability Effect on Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong
2012-01-01
Critical heat flux (CHF) and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) are the key parameters characterizing pool boiling heat transfer. These variables are complicatedly related to thermal-hydraulic parameters of surface wettability, nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency, to mention a few. In essence, wettability effect on pool boiling heat transfer has been a major fuel to enhance the CHF. Often, however, the improved wettability effect hinders the nucleate boiling. Thus a comprehensive review of such wettability effect may enlighten a further study in this boiling heat transfer area. Phan et al. described surface wettability effects on boiling heat transfer
Subcooled boiling heat transfer on a finned surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, J.E.; Tran, V.T.; Mills, P.J.
1992-01-01
Experimental and numerical studies have been performed to determine the heat transfer coefficients from a finned cylindrical surface to subcooled boiling water. The heat transfer rates were measured in an annular test section consisting of an electrically heated fuel element simulator (FES) with eight longitudinal, rectangular fins enclosed in a glass tube. A two-dimensional finite-element heat transfer model using the Galerkin method was employed to determine the heat transfer coefficients along the periphery of the FES surface. An empirical correlation was developed to predict the heat transfer coefficients during subcooled boiling. The correlation agrees well with the measured data. (6 figures) (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Echigo, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamiuto, K.
1975-01-01
An analytical procedure is presented for simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer with a fully developed laminar flow in a pipe by taking account of the two-dimensional propagation of radiative transfer and also shows the numerical results on the temperature profiles and the heat-transfer characteristics. In order to solve the energy equation with two-dimensional radiative transfer the entire ranges of the temperature field have to be solved simultaneously both along the radial and flow directions. Moreover, the heat flux by thermal radiation emitted from the heating wall propagates upstream so that it is necessary to examine the temperature profiles of the flowing medium to a certain distance upstream from the entrance of the heating section. In this way in order to attempt to solve the governing equation numerically by a finite difference method the dimension of matrix becomes extremely large provided that a satisfactory validity of numerical calculation is required Consequently the band matrix method is used and the temperature profiles of the medium in both regions upstream and downstream from the entrance of the heating section are illustrated and the heat transfer results are discussed in some detail by comparing with those of the one-dimensional transfer of radiation.(auth)
Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y N; Du, X Z; Xian, H Z; Zhang, Y N
2015-01-01
In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment
Unravelling convective heat transfer in the Rotated Arc Mixer
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Baskan, O.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H.J.H.
2014-01-01
Thermal homogenization is essentially a transient problem and convective heat transfer by (chaotic) advection is known to accelerate this process. Convective heat transfer traditionally is examined in terms of heat-transfer coefficients at domain walls and characterised by Nusselt relations.
Visualisation of heat transfer in 3D unsteady flows
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
2010-01-01
Heat transfer in fluid flows traditionally is examined in terms oftemperature field and heat-transfer coefficients at non-adiabaticwalls. However, heat transfer may alternatively be considered asthe transport of thermal energy by the total convective-conductiveheat flux in a way analogous to the
Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles
Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.
2010-01-01
This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…
Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boscary, J.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance
1997-03-01
The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)
Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boscary, J.
1995-10-01
The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stafford, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Velocity field and local heat transfer trends of centrifugal fans. ► Time-averaged vortices are generated by flow separation. ► Local vortex and impingement regions are evident on surface heat transfer maps. ► Miniature centrifugal fans should be designed with an aspect ratio below 0.3. ► Theory under predicts heat transfer due to complex, unsteady outlet flow. - Abstract: Scaled versions of fan designs are often chosen to address thermal management issues in space constrained applications. Using velocity field and local heat transfer measurement techniques, the thermal performance characteristics of a range of geometrically scaled centrifugal fan designs have been investigated. Complex fluid flow structures and surface heat transfer trends due to centrifugal fans were found to be common over a wide range of fan aspect ratios (blade height to fan diameter). The limiting aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement was 0.3, as larger aspect ratios were shown to result in a reduction in overall thermal performance. Over the range of fans examined, the low profile centrifugal designs produced significant enhancement in thermal performance when compared to that predicted using classical laminar flow theory. The limiting non-dimensional distance from the fan, where this enhancement is no longer apparent, has also been determined. Using the fundamental information inferred from local velocity field and heat transfer measurements, selection criteria can be determined for both low and high power practical applications where space restrictions exist.
Transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saboya, S.M.
1979-09-01
Mean transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers were determined by application of heat and mass transfer analogy in conjunction with the naphthalene sublimation technique. The transfer coefficients are presented in a dimensionless form as functions of the Reynolds number. By using the least squares method analytical expressions for the transfer coefficients were determined with low scattering. (E.G.) [pt
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...
Transfer of heat to fluidized-solids beds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1952-10-16
The improvement in the method described and claimed in patent application 14,363/47 (136,186) for supplying heat to a dense turbulent mass of solid fluidized by a gas flowing upwardly therethrough and subjected to a high temperature in a treating zone, by heat transfer through heat-transfer surfaces of heat-transfer elements in contact with the said turbulent mass of finely divided solid and heated by means of a fluid heating medium, including burning fuels comprising contacting the said heat-transfer surfaces with a fuel and a combustion supporting gas under such conditions that the combustion of the fuel is localized in the heat-transfer element near the point of entry of the fuel and combustion-supporting gas and a substantial temperature gradient is maintained along the path of said fuel combustion-supporting gas and combustion products through the said heat-transfer element.
Mixed convection heat transfer from confined tandem square cylinders in a horizontal channel
Huang, Zhu
2013-11-01
This paper presents a numerical study on the two-dimensional laminar mixed convective flow and heat transfer around two identical isothermal square cylinders arranged in tandem and confined in a channel. The spacing between the cylinders is fixed with four widths of the cylinder and the blockage ratio and the Prandtl number are fixed at 0.1 and 0.7 respectively. The mixed convective flow and heat transfer is simulated by high accuracy multidomain pseudospectral method. The Reynolds number (Re) is studied in the range 80 ≤ Re ≤ 150, the Richardson number (Ri) demonstrating the influence of thermal buoyancy ranges from 0 to 1. Numerical results reveal that, with the thermal buoyancy effect, the mixed convective flow sheds vortex behind the cylinders and keeps periodic oscillating. The variations of characteristic quantities related to flow and heat transfer processes, such as the overall drag and lift coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, are presented and discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thermal buoyancy on the fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analysed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shit, G.C.; Majee, Sreeparna
2015-01-01
Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank–Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance. - Highlights: • We have investigated the pulsatile MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in arteries. • The influence of periodic body acceleration has been taken into account. • The temperature dependent viscosity of blood is considered. • The variable viscosity has an increasing effect on blood flow and heat transfer. • The overall temperature distribution enhances in the presence of magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in; Majee, Sreeparna
2015-08-15
Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank–Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance. - Highlights: • We have investigated the pulsatile MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in arteries. • The influence of periodic body acceleration has been taken into account. • The temperature dependent viscosity of blood is considered. • The variable viscosity has an increasing effect on blood flow and heat transfer. • The overall temperature distribution enhances in the presence of magnetic field.
Heat transfer in initial region of a plane channel at different turbulence levels of inlet flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukomel, A.S.; Gutsev, D.F.; Velichko, V.I.
1976-01-01
Local heat transfer has been experimentally studied on the initial portion of the flat channel in the turbulent air flow. The channel measures 37.5 mm in height and 212.5 mm in width. The heat transfer measurements have been taken at inlet flow turbulence of epsilon 0 =0.7-0.8%. The charts are plotted showing variation of trannser with inlet and additional agitation of the flow. Critical values are found of the Reynolds number which are characteristic of the zones with various types of flow (laminar, transient and turbulent) at epsilon 0 =0.7-0.8%: Resub(crit 1) = 9.3x10sup(4), Resub(crit 2) = 2.9x10sup(5). With the increase of epsilon 0 up to 5% and above, the flow in the boundary layer becomes turbulent practically from the very beginning of the experimental portion. Considerable increase has been revealed of the heat transfer in this group of the experiments. At epsilon (>=) 5% the heat transfer grows up regularly
Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers
Brouwers, H.J.H.
1996-01-01
In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall
Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passarella, D N; Varas, F; MartIn, E B
2011-01-01
In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.
Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail: diego@dma.uvigo.es, E-mail: fvaras@uvigo.es, E-mail: emortega@uvigo.es [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)
2011-05-01
In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirmanto; Kenning, D B R; Lewis, J S; Karayiannis, T G
2012-01-01
Experiments were conducted to investigate the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase flow of de-ionized water in single copper microchannels of hydraulic diameters 0.438 mm, 0.561 mm and 0.635 mm. The channel length was 62 mm. The experimental conditions covered a range of mass flux from 500 to 5000 kg/m 2 s in the laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent regimes. Pressure drop was measured for adiabatic flows with fluid inlet temperatures of 30°C, 60°C and 90°C. In the heat transfer tests, the heat flux ranged from 256 kW/m 2 to 519 kW/m 2 . Friction factors and Nusselt numbers determined from the measurements were higher than for fully-developed conditions, but in reasonable agreement with predictions made using published solutions for hydrodynamically and thermally developing flow. When entrance effects, experimental uncertainties, heat losses, inlet and exit losses, thermal boundary conditions and departure from laminar flow were considered, the results indicate that equations developed for flow and heat transfer in conventional size channels are applicable for water flows in microchannels of these sizes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gou, Junli; Ma, Haifu; Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A review of heat transfer characteristics for water flow in helically coiled tubes are conducted. •An assessment of heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes in helically coiled tubes are performed. •This work could provide references for the use of the correlations and for further studies. -- Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes for water flow in helically coiled tubes based on the compiled datasets from the reviewed literatures. For single phase flow, most of the correlations of the heat transfer coefficient can fit well to the experiments. The correlations of Xin-Ebadian, Dravid and Kalb-Seader for laminar flow and those of Seban-McLaughlim, Mori-Nakayama, Xin-Ebadian, Hardik, Rogers-Mayhew, Mikaila-Poskas and El-Genk-Schriener for turbulent flow are recommended. For flow boiling heat transfer, Steiner-Taborek correlation could be utilized to predict the boiling heat transfer coefficients in helically coiled tubes for a relatively wide range of parameters. For dryout quality, the correlations of Hwang et al. and Santini et al. give relatively better predictions than others. However, more accurate correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and dryout quality need to be developed based on further investigations with wider parameter ranges in the future. The present work could provide references for the investigators for future uses of those correlations and for performing further investigations on the heat transfer characteristics of water flow in helically coiled tubes.
Heat transfer unit and method for prefabricated vessel
Tamburello, David A.; Kesterson, Matthew R; Hardy, Bruce J.
2017-11-07
Vessel assemblies, heat transfer units for prefabricated vessels, and methods for heat transfer prefabricated vessel are provided. A heat transfer unit includes a central rod, and a plurality of peripheral rods surrounding the central rod and connected to the central rod. The plurality of peripheral rods are movable between a first collapsed position and a second bowed position, wherein in the second bowed position a midpoint of each of the plurality of peripheral rods is spaced from the central rod relative to in the first position. The heat transfer unit further includes a heat transfer element connected to one of the plurality of peripheral rods.
Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel
Brinich, P. F.; Graham, R. W.
1977-01-01
Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel of aspect ratio 6 and inner- to outer-wall radius ratio 0.96 were studied. Secondary currents and large longitudinal vortices were found. The heat-transfer rates of the outer and inner walls were independently controlled to maintain a constant wall temperature. Heating the inner wall increased the pressure drop along the channel length, whereas heating the outer wall had little effect. Outer-wall heat transfer was as much as 40 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation, and inner-wall heat transfer was 22 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayoub Abdollahi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of laminar nanofluid flow in microchannel heat sink (MCHS with V-Type inlet/outlet arrangement are numerically studied. A constant heat flux boundary condition is applied on the base plate of MCHS and all the other surfaces of MCHS are insulated. Four different kinds of nanofluids are utilized as working fluids which are SiO2, Al2O3, ZnO and CuO dispersed in pure water as a base fluid. Three different volume fractions of 1%, 1.5% and 2% and three distinctive nanoparticle diameters of 30 nm, 40 nm and 60 nm were employed. The results specify that the SiO2 nanofluid has the uppermost heat transfer rate compared to other tested nanofluids. Increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction together with decreasing the nanoparticles diameter enhances the Nusselt number value. The pressure drop coefficient did not change significantly by using nanofluid with various volume fractions and varied nanoparticle diameters. Moreover, the results indicate that nanofluid can enhance the performance of MCHS with V-shaped inlet/outlet arrangement.
Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.
Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro
2002-10-01
Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.
Computer aided heat transfer analysis in a laboratory scaled heat exchanger unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunes, M.
1998-01-01
In this study. an explanation of a laboratory scaled heat exchanger unit and a software which is developed to analyze heat transfer. especially to use it in heat transfer courses, are represented. Analyses carried out in the software through sample values measured in the heat exchanger are: (l) Determination of heat transfer rate, logarithmic mean temperature difference and overall heat transfer coefficient; (2)Determination of convection heat transfer coefficient inside and outside the tube and the effect of fluid velocity on these; (3)Investigation of the relationship between Nusselt Number. Reynolds Number and Prandtl Number by using multiple non-linear regression analysis. Results are displayed on the screen graphically
Lacoste, Deanna; Xiong, Yuan; Moeck, Jonas P.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Cha, Min
2016-01-01
The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.
Lacoste, Deanna
2016-06-23
The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.
Porous media heat transfer for injection molding
Beer, Neil Reginald
2016-05-31
The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.
Computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer
Pletcher, Richard H; Anderson, Dale
2012-01-01
""I have always considered this book the best gift from one generation to the next in computational fluid dynamics. I earnestly recommend this book to graduate students and practicing engineers for the pleasure of learning and a handy reference. The description of the basic concepts and fundamentals is thorough and is crystal clear for understanding. And since 1984, two newer editions have kept abreast to the new, relevant, and fully verified advancements in CFD.""-Joseph J.S. Shang, Wright State University""Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer is very well written to be used as a t
Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, G; Neagu, M; Borca-Tasciuc, T
1997-07-01
Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.
Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons
Llado-Gambin, Adriana
A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.
Experimental study on external condensation heat transfer characteristics of bellows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Dianyi; Hu Jiansheng
2008-01-01
Flow model and heat transfer of condensation flow outside of bellows have been theoretically and experimentally studied. The formula for calculation of condensation heat transfer coefficient was deduced, and corrected through experiment. The calculation results are accordant with the experimental ones, and the errors is less than 10%. The effect of bellows structure parameters and pipe diameter on the enhancement heat transfer has been investigated. It is found that in the steady flow region, the average condensation heat transfer coefficient in a bellows is 3 ∼ 5 times than that in a straight tube under the same conditions, and when considering the increasing in heat transfer area, the effectiveness of enhancement heat transfer is 5 ∼ 7 times than that in a straight tube. To facilitate the engineering design and application of bellows, the formula for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficient of a fluid in a bellows was also given. (authors)
Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol
2014-01-01
The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete
Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik
2007-01-01
In the present study, the overall conductance and the overall heat transfer area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems have been minimized analytically considering both internal and external irreversibilities with variable temperature (finite capacity) heat reservoirs. Hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat transfer area ratios have been optimized to attain this goal. The results have been verified with the more elaborate numerical optimization results obtained for ammonia based vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems working with variable temperature reservoirs. It is observed that the analytical results for optimum refrigerant temperatures, minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area deviate marginally from the numerically optimized results (within 1%), if one assumes a constant heat rejection temperature. The deviation of minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area is more (about 20%), if one considers both the desuperheating and condensation regions separately. However, in the absence of complex and elaborate numerical models, the simple analytical results obtained here can be used as reasonably accurate preliminary guidelines for optimization of refrigeration and heat pump systems
Numerical study of a heated cavity insulated by a horizontal laminar jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besbes, S.; Mhiri, H.; El Golli, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir (Tunisia). Lab. de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille (France)
2001-08-01
In this work, we present a numerical study of the thermal insulation of a heated two dimensional cavity limited on its superior part by a horizontal plane air jet. The lower horizontal wall is isothermal, while the two vertical walls are adiabatics. A finite difference method based on the stream function-vorticity formulation is developed to solve the dimensionless Navier-Stokes and energy equations resulting from some assumptions. The results allowed us to point out two flow configurations: if natural convection prevails, the hot jet issuing from the nozzle diffuses upwards, and consequently, the cavity cannot be insulated correctly. However, the use of an aspiration zone can then improve the insulation. When forced convection predominates, the hydrodynamic barrier is conserved, and the enclosure is also thermally well confined. (author)
Ice slurry flow and heat transfer during flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niezgoda-Żelasko Beata
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry during its flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections. Moreover, the work discusses the influence of solid particles, type of motion and cross-section on the changes in the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The analysis presented in the paper allows for identification of the criterial relations used to calculate the Fanning factor and the Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flow, taking into account elements such as phase change, which accompanies the heat transfer process. Ice slurry flow is treated as a generalized flow of a non-Newtonian fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zniber, K.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.
2005-01-01
An MHD laminar flow through a two dimensional channel subjected to a uniform magnetic field and heated at the walls of the conduit over the whole length with a sinusoidal heat flux of vanishing mean value or not, is studied analytically. General expressions of the temperature distribution and of the local and mean Nusselt numbers are obtained by using the technique of linear operators in the case of negligible Joule and viscous dissipation and by taking into account the axial conduction effect. The principal results show that an increase of the local Nusselt number with Hartmann number is observed, and, far from the inlet section, the average heat transfer between the fluid and the walls shows a significant improvement at all values of Hartmann number used when the frequency of the prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux is increasing in the case of vanishing mean value of the heat flux and this is true especially at low Peclet numbers
Method of calculating heat transfer in furnaces of small power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khavanov Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This publication presents the experiences and results of generalization criterion equation of importance in the analysis of the processes of heat transfer and thermal calculations of low-power heat generators cooled combustion chambers. With generalizing depending estimated contribution of radiation and convective heat transfer component in the complex for the combustion chambers of small capacity boilers. Determined qualitative and quantitative dependence of the integrated radiative-convective heat transfer from the main factors working combustion chambers of small volume.
Heat and mass transfer in building services design
Moss, Keith
1998-01-01
Building design is increasingly geared towards low energy consumption. Understanding the fundamentals of heat transfer and the behaviour of air and water movements is more important than ever before. Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design provides an essential underpinning knowledge for the technology subjects of space heating, water services, ventilation and air conditioning. This new text: *provides core understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow from a building services perspective *complements a range of courses in building services engineering *
Research on Marine Boiler's Pressurized Combustion and Heat Transfer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pingjian MING; Renqiu JIANG; Yanjun LI; Baozhi SUN
2005-01-01
The effect of pressure on combustion and heat transfer is analyzed. The research is based on the basic combustion and heat transfer theorem. A correction for the heat calculation method for pressurized furnace is made on the basis of the normal pressure case. The correction takes the effect of pressurizing into account. The results show that the correction is reasonable and the method is applicable to combustion and heat transfer of the marine supercharged boiler.
Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mark H. Anderson; MichaelL. Corradini; Riccardo Bonazza; Jeremy R. Licht
2007-01-01
A supercritical water heat transfer facility has been built at the University of Wisconsin to study heat transfer in a circular and square annular flow channel. A series of integral heat transfer measurements has been carried out over a wide range of heat flux, mass velocity and bulk water temperatures at a pressure of 25 MPa. The circular annular test section geometry is a 1.07 cm diameter heater rod within a 4.29 diameter flow channel
Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark H. Anderson; MichaelL. Corradini; Riccardo Bonazza; Jeremy R. Licht
2007-10-03
A supercritical water heat transfer facility has been built at the University of Wisconsin to study heat transfer in ancircular and square annular flow channel. A series of integral heat transfer measurements has been carried out over a wide range of heat flux, mas velocity and bulk water temperatures at a pressure of 25 MPa. The circular annular test section geometry is a 1.07 cm diameter heater rod within a 4.29 diameter flow channel.
Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.
Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico
2012-07-01
We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.
Heat and mass transfer during baking: product quality aspects
Asselman, A.; Straten, van G.; Hadiyanto, H.; Boom, R.M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.
2005-01-01
Abstract Most food product qualities are developed during heating processes. Therefore the internal heating and mass transfer of water are important aspects in food processing. Heating of food products is mostly induced by convection heating. However, the number applications of convective heating in
EFLOD code for reflood heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay, R.R.
1979-01-01
A computer code called EFLOD has been developed for simulation of the heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a nuclear power reactor during the reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant accident. EFLOD models the downcomer, lower plenum, core, and upper plenum of a nuclear reactor vessel using seven control volumes assuming either homogeneous or unequal-velocity, unequal-temperature (UVUT) models of two-phase flow, depending on location within the vessel. The moving control volume concept in which a single control volume models the quench region in the core and moves with the core liquid level was developed and implemented in EFLOD so that three control volumes suffice to model the core region. A simplified UVUT model that assumes saturated liquid above the quench front was developed to handle the nonhomogeneous flow situation above the quench region. An explicit finite difference routine is used to model conduction heat transfer in the fuel, gap, and cladding regions of the fuel rod. In simulation of a selected FLECHT-SET experimental run, EFLOD successfully predicted the midplane maximum temperature and turnaround time as well as the time-dependent advance of the core liquid level. However, the rate of advancement of the quench level and the ensuing liquid entrainment were overpredicted during the early part of the transient
Post CHF heat transfer and quenching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, R.A.; Condie, K.G.
1980-01-01
This paper describes quantitatively new mechanisms in the post-CHF regime which provide understanding and predictive capability for several current two-phase forced convective heat transfer problems. These mechanisms are important in predicting rod temperature turnaround and quenching during the reflood phase of either a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or the FLECHT and Semiscale experiments. The mechanisms are also important to the blowdown phase of a LOCA or the recent Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) experiments L2-2 and L2-3, which were 200% cold leg break transients. These LOFT experiments experienced total core quenching in the early part of the blowdown phase at high (1000 psia) pressures. The mechanisms are also important to certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) operational transients where the reactor may operate in the post-CHF regime for short periods of time. Accurate prediction of the post-CHF heat transfer including core quench during these transients is of prime importance to limit maximum cladding temperatures and prevent cladding deformation
About Navier-Stokes Equation in the Theory of Convective Heat Transfer
Davidzon, M. Y.
2017-10-01
A system of differential equations (Navier-Stokes, continuity, heat conductivity) is used to solve convective heat transfer problems. While solving Navier-Stokes equation, it is usually assumed that tangent stress is proportional to the velocity gradient. This assumption is valid with a small velocity gradient, for example, near an axis of the channel, but velocity gradient can be very large near the channel wall. Our paper shows that if we accept power law instead of linear law for tangential stress, then the velocity profile for creeping, laminar, and turbulent flow in the channel can be calculated without using Navier-Stokes equation. Also, in this case Navier-Stokes equation itself changes: the coefficient of dynamic viscosity changes its value from normal (in case of the creeping flow) to tending to infinity (in case of the well-developed turbulent flow).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyczkowski, R. W.; Solbrig, C. W.; Gidaspow, D.
1980-01-01
A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior.
Time-dependent mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a micro-gravity environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hommel, M.J.
1987-01-01
A fundamental problem of interest for crystal growth in micro-gravity applications involves the mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a uniform flow of fluid at a differing temperature. Under the combined influence of the imposed free stream as well as an induced buoyancy force due to thermal expansion of the fluid, the heat transfer from the sphere will be different from that of either the pure forced convection flow or the pure free convection flow. For the present study, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the laminar flow problem of an impulsively heated, impulsively started sphere in an originally quiescent fluid. Time series expansions are developed for the dependent variables by acknowledging the existence of two district regions: one, an inner region, near the sphere, in which viscous effects are significant; and two, an outer region in which the fluid may be treated as inviscid. The time series expansions are developed in terms of the Reynolds number and Richardson number (Buoyancy Parameter), and the relevant heat transfer and drag coefficients are calculated and plotted
Convection heat transfer of closely-spaced spheres with surface blowing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleinstreuer, C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Chiang, H. (Thermofluid Technology Div., Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung (Taiwan, Province of China))
1993-05-01
A validated computer simulation model has been developed for the analysis of colinear spheres in a heated gas stream. Using the Galerkin finite element method, the steady-state Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations have been solved describing laminar axisymmetric thermal flow past closely-spaced monodisperse spheres with fluid injection. Of interest are the coupled nonlinear interaction effects on the temperature fields and ultimately on the Nusselt number of each sphere for different free stream Reynolds numbers (20 [<=] Re [<=] 200) and intersphere distances (1.5 [<=] d[sub ij] [<=] 6.0) in the presence of surface blowing (0 [<=] v[sub b] [<=] 0.1). Fluid injection (i.e. blowing) and associated wake effects generate lower average heat transfer coefficients for each interacting sphere when the Reynolds number increases (Re > 100). Heat transfer is also reduced at small spacings especially for the second and third sphere. A Nusselt number correlation for each interacting (porous) sphere has been developed based on computer experiments. (orig.)
Study on enhancement of heat transfer of RVACS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi
1989-01-01
As for the enhancement of heat transfer on Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS), utilization of high porosity porous bodies have been proposed by the last report. This report describe the experimental results to evaluate heat transfer performance of the porous bodies and to estimate the extrapolation to long heat transfer surface such as reactor scale. Following are typical results. (1) Usually the Heat Transfer coefficient at the lower reaches is smoller than that of the upper reaches. But Using with the high porosity porous bodies, the Heat Transfer coefficient at the lower reaches remains a constant value against distance from entrance point or a increase slightly compared to that of the upper reaches because of the effect of thermal radiation. (2) From the results of Heat Transfer coefficients against distance from the entrance point, the increasing ratio of enhancement of heat removal in the case of reactor scale is about 1.3. (author)
Nucleate boiling heat transfer on horizontal tubes in bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujital, Y.; Ohta, H.; Hidaka, S.; Nishikawa, K.
1986-01-01
In order to clarify the heat transfer mechanisms of the flooded type horizontal tube bundle evaporator, heat transfer characteristics of tube bundles of experimental scale which consist both of smooth and enhanced tubes were investigated in detail. The experiments of saturated nucleate boiling were performed by using Freon 113 under pressures 0.1 to 1 MPa, and the effects of various parameters, for example, bundle arrangement, heat flux, pressure on the characteristics of an individual tube are clarified. Experimental data is reproduced well by a proposed heat transfer model in which convective heat transfer coefficients due to rising bubbles are estimated as a function of their volumetric flow rate
Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture
Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.
1992-12-29
In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.
Khanjian, Assadour; Habchi, Charbel; Russeil, Serge; Bougeard, Daniel; Lemenand, Thierry
2018-05-01
Convective heat transfer enhancement can be achieved by generating secondary flow structures that are added to the main flow to intensify the fluid exchange between hot and cold regions. One method involves the use of vortex generators to produce streamwise and transverse vortices superimposed to the main flow. This study presents numerical computation results of laminar convection heat transfer in a rectangular channel whose bottom wall is equipped with one row of rectangular wing vortex generators. The governing equations are solved using finite volume method by considering steady state, laminar regime and incompressible flow. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the effect of the angle of attack α of the wing on heat transfer and pressure drop. Different values are taken into consideration within the range 0° heat transfer enhancement, Nusselt number and the friction factor are studied on both local and global perspectives. Also, the location of the generated vortices within the channel is studied, as well as their effect on the heat transfer enhancement throughout the channel for all α values . Based on both local and global analysis, our results show that the angle of attack α has a direct impact on the heat transfer enhancement. By increasing its value, it leads to better enhancement until an optimal value is reached, beyond which the thermal performances decrease.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a concentric tube heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mokamati, S.V.; Prasad, R.C.
2003-01-01
In this paper, numerical simulation of a concentric tube heat exchanger is presented to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in a smooth tube. Increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient can increase heat transfer rate in a concentric tube heat exchanger from a given tubular surface area. This can be achieved by using heat transfer augmentation devices. This work constitutes the initial phase of the numerical simulation of heat transfer from tubes employing augmentation devices, such as twisted tapes, wire-coil inserts, for heat transfer enhancement. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tool was developed with CFX software and the results obtained from the simulations are validated with the empirical correlations for a smooth tube heat exchanger. The difficulties associated with the simulation of a heat exchanger augmented with wire-coil inserts are discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.
2002-01-01
Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat adiabatic surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. The slats are pivoted about their center-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air, i.e. where air-conditioning is being used, being considered. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this being treated by means of the Biuniqueness type approximation. Although the flow is in general three-dimensional, the flow over each slat is assumed to be the same and attention can therefore be restricted to flow over a single slat by using repeating boundary conditions. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (4) the dimensionless slat size (5) the dimensionless slat spacing (6) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated surface has been examined. (author)
On the heat transfer correlation for membrane distillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chi-Chuan
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Heat transfer coefficients applicable for membrane distillation. → Data reduction for heat transfer coefficient for membrane distillation method. → Uncertainty of permeate side due to large magnitude of membrane resistance. → Increase accuracy of heat transfer coefficient by modified Wilson plot technique. -- Abstract: The present study examines the heat transfer coefficients applicable for membrane distillation. In the available literatures, researchers often adopt some existing correlations and claim the suitability of these correlations to their test data or models. Unfortunately this approach is quite limited and questionable. This is subject to the influences of boundary conditions, geometrical configurations, entry flow conditions, as well as some influences from spacer or support. The simple way is to obtain the heat transfer coefficients from experimentation. However there is no direct experimental data for heat transfer coefficients being reported directly from the measurements. The main reasons are from the uncertainty of permeate side and of the comparatively large magnitude of membrane resistance. Additional minor influence is the effect of mass transfer on the heat transfer performance. In practice, the mass transfer effect is negligible provided the feed side temperature is low. To increase the accuracy of the measured feed side heat transfer coefficient, it is proposed in this study to exploit a modified Wilson plot technique. Through this approach, one can eliminate the uncertainty from permeate side and reduce the uncertainty in membrane to obtain a more reliable heat transfer coefficients at feed side from the experimentation.
Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...
Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods
Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.
2014-03-01
This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.
Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dančová P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.
Heat or mass transfer from an open cavity
Kuiken, H.K.
1978-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for heat or mass transfer from an open cavity. It is assumed that the Péclet number, based on conditions at the cavity, and the Prandtl number are both large. The model assumes heat- or mass-transfer boundary layers at the rim of the cavity vortex flow. Heat
Heat transfer enhancement with condensation by surface rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasiliev, L L; Khrolenok, V V [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk (Belarus)
1993-11-01
Process intensification relies on many unit operations on enhanced heat transfer. One technique for the enhancement of condensation heat transfer is the use of surface rotation. This is particularly effective in reducing the condensate film thickness. The formulae and relationships given in this paper are concerned with rotating discs and tubes, and can be used for developing advanced heat exchanger concepts. (Author)
Heat transfer enhancement for fin-tube heat exchanger using vortex generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seong Yeon; Park, Dong Seong; Chung, Min Ho; Lee, Sang Yun
2002-01-01
Vortex generators are fabricated on the fin surface of a fin-tube heat exchanger to augment the convective heat transfer. In addition to horseshoe vortices formed naturally around the tube of the fin-tube heat exchanger, longitudinal vortices are artificially created on the fin surface by vortex generators. The purpose of this study is to investigate the local heat transfer phenomena in the fin-tube heat exchangers with and without vortex generators, and to evaluate the effect of vortices on the heat transfer enhancement. Naphthalene sublimation technique is employed to measure local mass transfer coefficients, then analogy equation between heat and mass transfer is used to calculate heat transfer coefficients. Experiments are performed for the model of fin-circular tube heat exchangers with and without vortex generators, and of fin-flat tube heat exchangers with and without vortex generators. Average heat transfer coefficients of fin-flat tube heat exchanger without vortex generator are much lower than those of fin-circular tube heat exchanger. On the other hand, fin-flat tube heat exchanger with vortex generators has much higher heat transfer value than conventional fin-circular tube heat exchanger. At the same time, pressure losses for four types of heat exchanger is measured and compared
34th UIT Heat Transfer Conference 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
The annual UIT Heat Transfer Conference of the “Unione Italiana di Termofluidodinamica” aims at promoting cooperation in the field of heat transfer and thermal sciences, by bringing together scientists and engineers working in related areas. Several issues of interest are addressed, namely natural, forced and mixed convection, conduction, radiation, multi-phase fluid dynamics and interface phenomena, computational fluid dynamics, micro- and nano-scales, efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies and buildings, heat transfer in fire engineering. The 34th UIT Conference was held in Ferrara (FE), Italy, 4–6 July, 2015 in the spaces of the Scientific and Technological Center of The University of Ferrara. The response has been enthusiastic: 61 abstracts, 36 oral and 18 poster presentations, 48 papers published on the Proceedings To encourage the debate, the Conference Program has scheduled ample poster sessions and invited lectures from the best experts in the field along with a few of the most talented researchers. Keynote Lectures were given by Professor Giovanni S. Barozzi (University of Modena), Professor Paolo Di Marco (University of Pisa) and Professor Nicola Bianco (University of Napoli Federico II). This special volume collects a selection of the scientific contributions discussed during this conference; these works give a good overview of the state-of-the art Italian research in the field of Heat Transfer related topics. I would like to thank sincerely the authors for presenting their works at the conference and in this special issue. I would also like to extend my thanks to the Scientific Committee and the authors for their accurate review process of each paper for this special issue. Special thanks go to the organizing committee. Professor Stefano Piva (president of The Organizing Committee) About UIT (Unione Italiana Termofluidodinamica) The Italian Union of Thermal-Fluid Dynamics (UIT) was founded in Bologna on December 19, 1984
Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics
2004-07-01
Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)
RELAP4/MOD6 reflood heat transfer and data comparison
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, R.A.; Sullivan, L.H.
1981-01-01
This discussion of RELAP4/MOD6 will be limited to the reflood heat transfer models and evaluation of these models by comparison of calculation with results from three reflood experiments. The discussion of the model includes the heat transfer surface concept, the heat transfer correlations, the superheat model and the entrainment model which presents both the two-phase heat transfer and hydraulic models. In the discussion of the reflood heat transfer, the mathematical concept of a multidimensional surface is used to represent the heat flux of a given heat transfer correlation or correlations dependent upon such variables as quality, wall superheat and flux. This concept has been used to investigate the characteristics of the correlations, which are discusssed in detail, and the way they are applied to the two-phase mixture. Of primary importance in the reflood core heat transfer is the consideration of thermal nonequilibrium between the phases and the liquid entrainment, and its distribution up the core. Results obtained to date show the heat transfer and hydraulics to be closely coupled. Comparison of the RELAP4/MOD6 reflood calculations with the data from the forced feed FLECHT and gravity feed FLECHT-SET and Semiscale reflood experiments indicates that the heat transfer and hydraulic models are operational and yield good results
Interfacial heat transfer - State of the art
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.
1987-01-01
Interfacial heat exchanges control the interfacial mass exchange rate, depend on the interfacial area, and are tied to the prediction of thermal nonequilibrium. The nature of the problem usually requires the formulation of mechanistic laws and precludes the general use of universal correlations. This is partly due to the fact that the length scale controlling the interfacial exchanges varies widely from one situation to another and has a strong influence on the exchange coefficients. Within the framework of the ''two-fluid models'', the exchanges occurring at the interfaces are explicitly taken into consideration by the jump condition linking the volumetric mass exchange (evaporation) rate between the phases, to the interfacial energy transfer rates
Experimental study on transient boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visentini, R.
2012-01-01
well. A flexible power supply that can generate a free-shape signal, allows to get to a wall-temperature increase rate up to 2500 K/s but also to obtain lower rates, which permits to study weaker transients and steady state conditions. The thermal measurements are realised by means of an infra-red camera and a high-speed camera is employed in order to see the boiling phenomena at the same time. From the voltage and current measurements the heat flux that is passed to the fluid is known. It is possible to underline some of the main results of this work. We found that, even when the boiling onset occurs soon because of the high power, transient conduction is always coupled with transient convection. The boiling onset occurs when the wall superheat is between 10 K et 30 K. This value corresponds to the activation of the smallest nucleation sites at the wall. The literature correlations well fit the nucleate boiling data in steady-state conditions. When the wall-temperature increase rate leads to transient boiling, the heat flux is higher than in steady state. This is consistent with what was found in previous studies. The nucleate boiling phase may last only a few milliseconds when the power is really high and the wall temperature increases really rapidly (500-2000 K/s). The experiments in transient boiling also point out that the heat flux is larger than in steady state conditions for the other regimes: Critical heat flux and also film boiling. The experimental set-up allows to investigate a large range of parameters (wall-temperature increase rate, flow rate, fluid temperature) by means of accurate temperature measurements and visualisations. Some modeling of the heat transfer are also proposed. (author)
FILM-30: A Heat Transfer Properties Code for Water Coolant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MARSHALL, THERON D.
2001-01-01
A FORTRAN computer code has been written to calculate the heat transfer properties at the wetted perimeter of a coolant channel when provided the bulk water conditions. This computer code is titled FILM-30 and the code calculates its heat transfer properties by using the following correlations: (1) Sieder-Tate: forced convection, (2) Bergles-Rohsenow: onset to nucleate boiling, (3) Bergles-Rohsenow: partially developed nucleate boiling, (4) Araki: fully developed nucleate boiling, (5) Tong-75: critical heat flux (CHF), and (6) Marshall-98: transition boiling. FILM-30 produces output files that provide the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the wetted perimeter as a function of temperature. To validate FILM-30, the calculated heat transfer properties were used in finite element analyses to predict internal temperatures for a water-cooled copper mockup under one-sided heating from a rastered electron beam. These predicted temperatures were compared with the measured temperatures from the author's 1994 and 1998 heat transfer experiments. There was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimentally measured temperatures, which confirmed the accuracy of FILM-30 within the experimental range of the tests. FILM-30 can accurately predict the CHF and transition boiling regimes, which is an important advantage over current heat transfer codes. Consequently, FILM-30 is ideal for predicting heat transfer properties for applications that feature high heat fluxes produced by one-sided heating
CFD modelling of convective heat transfer from a window with adjacent venetian blinds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marjanovic, L. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering]|[DeMontfort Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development; Cook, M; Hanby, V.; Rees, S. [DeMontfort Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development
2005-07-01
There is a limited amount of 3-dimensional modeling information on the performance of glazing systems with blinds. Two-dimensional flow modeling has indicated that 1-dimensional heat transfer can lead to invalid results where 2- and 3-dimensional effects are present. In this study, a 3-dimensional numerical solution was obtained on the effect of a venetian blind on the conjugate heat transfer from an indoor window glazing system. The solution was obtained for the coupled laminar free convection and radiation heat transfer problem, including conduction along the blind slats. Continuity, momentum and energy equations for buoyant flow were solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Grey diffuse radiation exchange between the window, blind and air were considered using the Monte Carlo method. All thermophysical properties of air were assumed to be constant with the exception of density, which was modeled using the Bousinesq approximation. Both winter and summer conditions were considered. In the computational domain, the window represented an isothermal type boundary condition with no slip. The height of the domain was extended beyond the blinds to allow for inflow and outflow regions. Fluid was allowed to entrain into the domain at an ambient temperature in a direction perpendicular to the window. The results indicated that heat transfer between window and indoor air is influenced both quantitatively and qualitatively by the presence of an aluminium venetian blind, and that the cellular flow between the blind slats can have a significant effect on the convective heat transfer from the window surface that is more fully recognized and analyzed in 3 dimensions. refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.
Corrosion of heat exchanger materials under heat transfer conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapping, R.L.; Lavoie, P.A.; Disney, D.J.
1987-01-01
Severe pitting has occurred in moderator heat exchangers tubed with Incoloy-800 in Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The pitting originated on the cooling side (outside) of the tubes and perforation occurred in less than two years. It was known from corrosion testing at CRNL that Incoloy-800 was not susceptible to pitting in Lake Ontario water under isothermal conditions. Corrosion testing with heat transfer across the tube wall was carried out, and it was noted that severe pitting could occur under deposits formed on the tubes in silty Lake Ontario water. Subsequent testing, carried out in co-operation with Ontario Hydro Research Division, investigated the pitting resistance of other candidate tubing alloys: Incoloy-825, 904 L stainless steel, AL-6X, Inconel-625, 70:30 Cu:Ni, titanium, Sanicro-30 and Sanicro-28 1 . Of these, only titanium and Sanicro-28 have not suffered some degree of pitting attack in silt-containing Lake Ontario Water. In the absence of silt, and hence deposits, no pitting took place on any of the alloys tested
Influence of short heat pulses on the helium boiling heat transfer rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, V.K.; Deev, V.I.; Savin, A.N.; Kutsenko, K.V.
1987-01-01
Investigation results on heat transfer in the process of helium boiling on a heated wall under conditions of pulsed heat effect are described. Results of the given study point to one of possible ways of heat exchange intensification in boiling helium by supplying short heat pulse to the heater. Even short-time noncontrolled or incidental increase in the heater capacity during experiment with boiling helium can result in a considerable disagreement of experimental data on heat transfer
Mahmoudinezhad, S.; Rezania, A.; Yousefi, T.; Shadloo, M. S.; Rosendahl, L. A.
2018-02-01
A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study. The results are performed for the various Rayleigh numbers over the cavity side length, and partition angles ranging from 1.5 × 105 to 4.5 × 105, and 0° to 90°, respectively. The experimental verification of natural convective flow physics has been done by using FLUENT software. For a given adiabatic partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms for this behavior, namely blockage ratio and partition orientation, are identified. These effects are explained by numerical velocity vectors and experimental temperatures contours. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation that fairly represents the average Nusselt number of the heated walls as functions of Rayleigh number and the angel of θ for the aforementioned ranges of data is proposed.
Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer
Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo
2016-02-01
Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.
Fink, Richard
2015-01-01
The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.
On the heat transfer in packed beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sordon, G.
1988-09-01
The design of a fusion reactor blanket concept based on a bed of lithium containing ceramic pebbles or a mixture of ceramic and beryllium pebbles demands the knowledge of the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds, including beds formed by a binary mixture of high conducting metallic pebbles and poorly conducting pebbles. In this work, binary mixtures of spheres of same diameter and different conductivities as well as beds formed by one type of spheres were investigated. The experimental apparatus consists of a stainless steel cylinder with a heating rod along the symmetry axis. Experiments with stagnant and flowing gas were performed. The pebbles were of Al 2 O 3 (diameter = 1, 2, 4 mm), of Li 4 SO 4 (diameter = 0.5 mm) of Al (diameter = 2 mm) and of steel (diameter = 2, 4 mm). Experimental values of the thermal conductivity and of the wall heat transfer coefficient are compared with the predicted ones. Modifications of already existing models were suggested. (orig.) [de
TACO: a finite element heat transfer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, W.E. Jr.
1980-02-01
TACO is a two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat transfer analysis. It can perform both linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady state problems. Either plane or axisymmetric geometries can be analyzed. TACO has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties and materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent loadings and boundary conditions are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additionally, TACO has some specialized features such as internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance), bulk nodes, enclosure radiation with view factor calculations, and chemical reactive kinetics. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A bandwidth and profile minimization option is also available in the code. Graphical representation of data generated by TACO is provided by a companion post-processor named POSTACO. The theory on which TACO is based is outlined, the capabilities of the code are explained, the input data required to perform an analysis with TACO are described. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of the code
Supercritical water gasification with decoupled pressure and heat transfer modules
Dibble, Robert W.; Ng, Kim Choon; Sarathy, Mani
2017-01-01
decouples the function of containing high pressure from the high temperature function. The present invention allows the heat transfer function to be conducted independently from the pressure transfer function such that the system equipment can be designed
Analysis of heat transfer in plain carbon steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Kyung Jong
1999-01-01
During cooling of steels, the heat transfer was controlled by radiation, convection, conduction and heat evolution from phase transformation. To analyze the heat transfer during cooling precisely, the material constants such as density, heat capacity and the heat evolved during transformation were obtained as functions of temperature and chemical composition for each phase observed in plain carbon steel using a thermodynamic analysis based on the sublattice model of Fe-C-Mn system. The results were applied to 0.049 wt% and 0.155 wt% carbon steels with an austenitic stainless steel as reference by developing a proper heat transfer governing equation. The equation was solved using the lumped system method. In addition, using a transformation dilatometer with adequate experimental conditions to clarify the individual heat transfer effect, the transformation heat evolved during cooling and the transformation behavior as well as the temperature change were observed. The predicted temperature profiles during cooling were well agreed with the measured ones
Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems
Ambrosek, James Wallace
2011-12-01
A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to
Analysis of the heat transfer in double and triple concentric tube heat exchangers
Rădulescu, S.; Negoiţă, L. I.; Onuţu, I.
2016-08-01
The tubular heat exchangers (shell and tube heat exchangers and concentric tube heat exchangers) represent an important category of equipment in the petroleum refineries and are used for heating, pre-heating, cooling, condensation and evaporation purposes. The paper presents results of analysis of the heat transfer to cool a petroleum product in two types of concentric tube heat exchangers: double and triple concentric tube heat exchangers. The cooling agent is water. The triple concentric tube heat exchanger is a modified constructive version of double concentric tube heat exchanger by adding an intermediate tube. This intermediate tube improves the heat transfer by increasing the heat area per unit length. The analysis of the heat transfer is made using experimental data obtained during the tests in a double and triple concentric tube heat exchanger. The flow rates of fluids, inlet and outlet temperatures of water and petroleum product are used in determining the performance of both heat exchangers. Principally, for both apparatus are calculated the overall heat transfer coefficients and the heat exchange surfaces. The presented results shows that triple concentric tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer efficiencies compared to the double concentric tube heat exchangers.
Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2016-09-15
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)
Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems
Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola
2004-11-01
Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.
Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A.; Polo L, M. A.
2016-09-01
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)
An introduction to heat transfer principles and calculations
Ede, A J; Ower, E
1967-01-01
An Introduction to Heat Transfer Principles and Calculations is an introductory text to the principles and calculations of heat transfer. The theory underlying heat transfer is described, and the principal results and formulae are presented. Available techniques for obtaining rapid, approximate solutions to complicated problems are also considered. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a brief account of some of the concepts, methods, nomenclature, and other relevant information about heat transfer. The reader is then introduced to radiation, conduction, convection, and boiling
Validation of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Capabilities of the 3-D RANS Code TURBO
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping
2010-01-01
The capabilities of the 3-D unsteady RANS code TURBO have been extended to include heat transfer and film cooling applications. The results of simulations performed with the modified code are compared to experiment and to theory, where applicable. Wilcox s k-turbulence model has been implemented to close the RANS equations. Two simulations are conducted: (1) flow over a flat plate and (2) flow over an adiabatic flat plate cooled by one hole inclined at 35 to the free stream. For (1) agreement with theory is found to be excellent for heat transfer, represented by local Nusselt number, and quite good for momentum, as represented by the local skin friction coefficient. This report compares the local skin friction coefficients and Nusselt numbers on a flat plate obtained using Wilcox's k-model with the theory of Blasius. The study looks at laminar and turbulent flows over an adiabatic flat plate and over an isothermal flat plate for two different wall temperatures. It is shown that TURBO is able to accurately predict heat transfer on a flat plate. For (2) TURBO shows good qualitative agreement with film cooling experiments performed on a flat plate with one cooling hole. Quantitatively, film effectiveness is under predicted downstream of the hole.
Modeling of the heat transfer in bypass transitional boundary-layer flows
Simon, Frederick F.; Stephens, Craig A.
1991-01-01
A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model and conditioned momentum, energy and turbulence equations were used to predict bypass transition heat transfer on a flat plate in a high-disturbance environment with zero pressure gradient. The use of conditioned equations was demonstrated to be an improvement over the use of the global-time-averaged equations for the calculation of velocity profiles and turbulence intensity profiles in the transition region of a boundary layer. The approach of conditioned equations is extended to include heat transfer and a modeling of transition events is used to predict transition onset and the extent of transition on a flat plate. The events, which describe the boundary layer at the leading edge, result in boundary-layer regions consisting of: (1) the laminar, (2) pseudolaminar, (3) transitional, and (4) turbulent boundary layers. The modeled transition events were incorporated into the TEXSTAN 2-D boundary-layer code which is used to numerically predict the heat transfer. The numerical predictions in general compared well with the experimental data and revealed areas where additional experimental information is needed.
Modelling heat transfer during flow through a random packed bed of spheres
Burström, Per E. C.; Frishfelds, Vilnis; Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan; Marjavaara, B. Daniel
2018-04-01
Heat transfer in a random packed bed of monosized iron ore pellets is modelled with both a discrete three-dimensional system of spheres and a continuous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Results show a good agreement between the two models for average values over a cross section of the bed for an even temperature profiles at the inlet. The advantage with the discrete model is that it captures local effects such as decreased heat transfer in sections with low speed. The disadvantage is that it is computationally heavy for larger systems of pellets. If averaged values are sufficient, the CFD model is an attractive alternative that is easy to couple to the physics up- and downstream the packed bed. The good agreement between the discrete and continuous model furthermore indicates that the discrete model may be used also on non-Stokian flow in the transitional region between laminar and turbulent flow, as turbulent effects show little influence of the overall heat transfer rates in the continuous model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Jing; Li, Yaojian; Xu, Yongxiang; Sheng, Hongzhi
2010-01-01
In this work, Magnetic Fluid dynamics (MHD) model is used to stimulate the electromagnetic field, heat transfer and fluid flow in a DC non-transferred arc plasma torch. Through the coupled iterative computation about the electromagnetic equations described by magnetic vector potential format and the modified fluid dynamics equations, the electric potential, temperature and velocity distributions in the torch are obtained. The fluid-solid coupled computation method is applied to treat the electric current and heat transfer at the interface between the electrodes and fluid. The location of arc root attachment at the inside surface of anode and the arc voltage of the torch that we have predicted are very consistent with the corresponding experimental results. The calculated results of the torch are applied to the numerical simulation of the plasma jets under the laminar and turbulent condition. (author)
A study on the heat transfer characteristics of a self-oscillating heat pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Seok Hun; Oh, Cheol; Choi, Jae Hyuk
2002-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of a self-oscillating heat pipe are experimentally investigated for the effect of various working fluid fill charge ratios and heat loads. The characteristics of temperature oscillations of the working fluid are also analysed based on chaotic dynamics. The heat pipe is composed of a heating section, a cooling section and an adiabatic section, and has a 0.002m internal diameter, a 0.34m length in each turn and consists of 19 turns. The heating and the cooling portion of each turn has a length of 70mm. A series of experiments was carried out to measure the temperature distributions and the pressure variations of the heat pipe. Furthermore, heat transfer performance, effective thermal conductivity, boiling heat transfer and condensation heat transfer coefficients are calculated for various operating conditions. Experimental results show the efficacy of this type of heat pipe
Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1986-01-01
Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)
INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT- AND MASS TRANSFER IN EVAPORATION - CONDENSATION DEVICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Kulakov
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Results of investigation of capillary structure properties used in evaporation – condensation devices are presented.Constructive solutions for intensification of heat transfer in evaporation and condensation heat exchangers are offered. The obtained heat transfer experimental data at film-type vapor conden-sation are generalized in criterion form.Description of general rule of heat and mass transfer processes in miniature heat pipes with three various capillary structures at wide range of operating parameters is given in the paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A.
1995-01-01
Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1995-09-01
Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.
Haddout, Y.; Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.
2018-06-01
Thermally developing laminar slip flow through a micropipe and a parallel plate microchannel, with axial heat conduction and uniform wall heat flux, is studied analytically by using a powerful method of self-adjoint formalism. This method results from a decomposition of the elliptic energy equation into a system of two first-order partial differential equations. The advantage of this method over other methods, resides in the fact that the decomposition procedure leads to a selfadjoint problem although the initial problem is apparently not a self-adjoint one. The solution is an extension of prior studies and considers a first order slip model boundary conditions at the fluid-wall interface. The analytical expressions for the developing temperature and local Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region are obtained in the general case. Therefore, the solution obtained could be extended easily to any hydrodynamically developed flow and arbitrary heat flux distribution. The analytical results obtained are compared for select simplified cases with available numerical calculations and they both agree. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of flow in the thermal entrance region are strongly influenced by the axial heat conduction and rarefaction effects which are respectively characterized by Péclet and Knudsen numbers.
Graham, John B., Jr.
1958-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.
Non intrusive measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rebay, M.; Mebarki, G.; Padet, J. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Arfaoui, A. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM; Maad, B.R. [Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM
2010-07-01
The efficiency of cooling methods in thermal systems such as radiators and heat exchangers must be improved in order to enhance performance. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between a solid and a fluid is necessary for the control and the dimensioning of thermal systems. In this study, the pulsed photothermal method was used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on a solid-fluid interface, notably between an air flow and a heated slab mounted on a PVC flat plate. This configuration simulated the electronic air-cooling inside enclosures and racks. The influence of the deflector's inclination angle on the enhancement of heat transfer was investigated using 2 newly developed identification models. The first model was based on a constant heat transfer coefficient during the pulsed experiment, while the second, improved model was based on a variable heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was deduced from the evolution of the transient temperature induced by a sudden deposit of a luminous energy on the front face of the slab. Temperature evolutions were derived by infrared thermography, a camera for cartography and a detector for precise measurement in specific locations. The results show the improvement of measurement accuracies when using a model that considers the temporal evolution of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The deflection of air flow on the upper surface of the heated slab demonstrated better cooling of the slab by the deflection of air flow. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.
Surface wettability and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer
Suroto, Bambang Joko; Kohno, Masamichi; Takata, Yasuyuki
2018-02-01
The effect of varying surface wettabilities and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer at intermediate heat flux has been examined and investigated. The experiments were performed using pure water as the working fluid and subcooling ranging from 0, 5 and 10 K, respectively. The three types of heat transfer block were used that are bare surface/hydrophilic (polished copper), superhydrophilic/TiO2-coated on copper and hydrophobic/PTFE surface. The experimental results will be examined by the existing model. The results show that the heat transfer performance of surfaces with PTFE coating is better at low heat flux. While for an intermediate heat flux, superhydrophilic surface (TiO2) is superior compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. It is observed that the heat transfer performance is decreasing when the sub cooling degree is increased.
Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saboya, S.M.; Saboya, F.E.M.
1981-01-01
In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guangming, Xiao; Yanxia, Du; Yewei, Gui; Lei, Liu; Xiaofeng, Yang; Dong, Wei
2014-01-01
The theories of heat transfer, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics are employed to develop the coupled heat transfer analytical methods for the heat-pipe-cooled thermal protection structure (HPC TPS), and a three-dimensional numerical method considering the sonic limit of heat pipe is proposed. To verify the calculation correctness, computations are carried out for a typical heat pipe and the results agree well with experimental data. Then, the heat transfer characteristics and limitations of HPC TPS are mainly studied. The studies indicate that the use of heat pipe can reduce the temperature at high heat flux region of structure efficiently. However, there is a frozen startup period before the heat pipe reaching a steady operating state, and the sonic limit will be a restriction on the heat transfer capability. Thus, the effects of frozen startup must be considered for the design of HPC TPS. The simulation model and numerical method proposed in this paper can predict the heat transfer characteristics of HPC TPS quickly and exactly, and the results will provide important references for the design or performance evaluation of HPC TPS. - Highlights: • Numerical methods for the heat-pipe-cooled thermal protection structure are studied. • Three-dimensional simulation model considering sonic limit of heat pipe is proposed. • The frozen startup process of the embedded heat pipe can be predicted exactly. • Heat transfer characteristics of TPS and limitations of heat pipe are discussed
Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment
Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.
1998-01-01
The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, XueTao; Liang, XinGang
2013-01-01
The entropy generation minimization method is often used to analyze heat transfer processes from the thermodynamic viewpoint. In this paper, we analyze common heat transfer processes with the concept of entropy generation, and propose the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance. It is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance leads to smaller equivalent thermodynamic force difference with prescribed heat transfer rate and larger heat transfer rate with prescribed equivalent thermodynamic force difference. With the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance, the performance of two-stream heat exchangers (THEs) and two-stream heat exchanger networks (THENs) is analyzed. For the cases discussed in this paper, it is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance always leads to better heat transfer performance for THEs and THENs, while smaller values of the entropy generation, entropy generation numbers and revised entropy generation number do not always. -- Highlights: • The concept of entropy resistance is defined. • The minimum entropy resistance principle is developed. • Smaller entropy resistance leads to better heat transfer