WorldWideScience

Sample records for lakes aquatic biota

  1. Concentrations and trophic magnification of cyclic siloxanes in aquatic biota from the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Chan, Cecilia; Drouillard, Ken G.; Keir, Michael J.; Clark, Mandi G.; Backus, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS. -- Highlights: • We investigated trophic magnification of siloxanes in aquatic biota from Lake Erie. • Trophic magnification estimates were variable and sensitive to food web structure. • Lipid partitioning of siloxanes and PCBs differ and may contribute to variability. -- Biomagnification estimates for siloxanes in Lake Erie are sensitive to food web structure, contaminant exposure pathways, and lipid partitioning differences between PCBs and siloxanes

  2. Biota connect aquatic habitats throughout freshwater ecosystem mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Kate A.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fritz, Ken M.; Autrey, Bradley; DeMeester, Julie; Kepner, William G.; Lane, Charles R.; Leibowitz, Scott; Pollard, Amina I.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are linked at various spatial and temporal scales by movements of biota adapted to life in water. We review the literature on movements of aquatic organisms that connect different types of freshwater habitats, focusing on linkages from streams and wetlands to downstream waters. Here, streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and other freshwater habitats are viewed as dynamic freshwater ecosystem mosaics (FEMs) that collectively provide the resources needed to sustain aquatic life. Based on existing evidence, it is clear that biotic linkages throughout FEMs have important consequences for biological integrity and biodiversity. All aquatic organisms move within and among FEM components, but differ in the mode, frequency, distance, and timing of their movements. These movements allow biota to recolonize habitats, avoid inbreeding, escape stressors, locate mates, and acquire resources. Cumulatively, these individual movements connect populations within and among FEMs and contribute to local and regional diversity, resilience to disturbance, and persistence of aquatic species in the face of environmental change. Thus, the biological connections established by movement of biota among streams, wetlands, and downstream waters are critical to the ecological integrity of these systems. Future research will help advance our understanding of the movements that link FEMs and their cumulative effects on downstream waters.

  3. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...

  4. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  5. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  6. Biota and biological principles of the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeson, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The first of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey is presented. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy to understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected biota and biological principles of the aquatic environment. Briefing papers are included on Why biology in water quality studies , Stream biology, Phytoplankton, Periphyton, Drift organisms in streams, Family Chironomidae (Diptera), Influences of water temperature on aquatic biota, and Stream channelization: Effects on stream fauna

  7. The uptake of radiationless by some fresh water aquatic biota review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this paper reviews many studies carried out by the authors along the last thirty years. The behaviour of the radionuclides in the aquatic ecology of Ismailia Canal stream is of great interest for the evaluation of the possible hazards that may occur to man through the movement of such radionuclides via food chain. Laboratory investigations have been carried out in order to understand the accumulation and release of some radionuclide by some aquatic biota (aquatic macrophyte aquatic plants, some snails species and some fish species) inhabiting this fresh water stream. Different parameters such as water ph, contact time, water salinity, etc. were used in these investigations. The kinetic analysis of the uptake process of some radio nuclides by certain biota was performed. From this analysis, it was possible (through the statistical methods) to investigate that the uptake process proceeded through different steps with different rates depending on the radionuclide and the biota species. It was possible to conclude that some of the selected biota can be used as biological indicators for certain radionuclides

  8. Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl Reactor accident on the Biota of Swedish Streams and Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R C; Landner, L; Blanck, H

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in elevated levels of radionuclides in the air space above Sweden, which were then washed into Swedish lakes and streams. Before suspended particles stripped the water column, the concentration of /sup 137/Cs in small Swedish lakes was in the order of 10-40 Bq/l. This level of radioactivity should result in a negligible increase in the external exposure rate. However, by August 1986 increased levels of radioactivity were found at all trophic levels of freshwater ecosystems from algae to top carnivore, and from the available data the levels of radioactivity are still increasing. The calculated dose rate for the aquatic biota caused by the two cesium isotopes, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs, is about 25 times higher than natural levels. While acute effectrs of the Chernobyl fallout on freshwater biota are unlikely, the long term ecological effects bear watching.

  9. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase Creek in Niger ... arsenic, chromium, lead, molybdenum, bismuth and cadmium using atomic ... metal pollution, metal variation, environmental monitoring, bioaccumulation.

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in water, sediments, aquatic plants, and animals from Baiyangdian Lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, in the water, sediments, and biota samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 132 samples were collected in 2008 and 2010, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the lake. Sulfonamides were the dominant antibiotics in the water (0.86-1563 ng L(-1)), while quinolones were prominent in sediments (65.5-1166 μg kg(-1)) and aquatic plants (8.37-6532 μg kg(-1)). Quinolones (17.8-167 μg kg(-1)) and macrolides [from below detection limit (BDL) to 182 μg kg(-1)] were often found in aquatic animals and birds. Salvinia natans exhibited the highest bioaccumulation capability for quinolones among three species of aquatic plants. Geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were greatly due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City was likely the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment of antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that algae and aquatic plants might be at risk in surface water, while animals were likely not at risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  12. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  13. Impact of Boron pollution to Biota Marine aquatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto-SBS; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Power plants and industrial facilities can release potentially harmful chemicals, like boron through direct aqueous discharges or cycling of cooling water to aquatic ecosystems environmental at plant surrounding. Boron is an essential trace element for the growth of marine biota, but can be toxic in excessive amount. Therefore will adversely affect of growth, reproduction or survival. Toxicity to aquatic organism, including vertebrates, invertebrates and plants can vary depending on the organism's life stage and environment. It is recommended that the maximum concentration of total boron for the protection of marine aquatic life should not exceed 1,2 mg B/L. Early stages of life cycle are more sensitive to boron than later ones, and the use of reconstituted water shows higher toxicity in lower boron concentrations than natural waters. (author)

  14. Impact of long-term radiation exposure on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 30 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Pomortseva, N.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Dzyubenko, E.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-purification of closed water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) is an extremely slow process. Therefore, ecosystems of the majority of lakes, dead channels and crawls possess high levels of radionuclide contamination of all components. Along with natural decontamination processes in aquatic ecosystems such as physical decay of radionuclides and their water transport outside the EZ, there is a change of physical and chemical forms of radioactive substances in soils of catchment areas, their transformation and transition in the mobile and bioavailable state, washout to the closed aquatic ecosystems and accumulation by hydrobionts. This essentially deteriorates the radiation situation in closed aquatic ecosystems, which are some kind of 'storage system' of radioactive substances in the EZ and results in increase of radiation dose to aquatic species and manifests in a variety of radiation effects at different levels of biological systems. We established dose-related effects in hydrobionts of lakes within the EZ which indicates a damage of biological systems at subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ, organism and population levels as a result of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in cells of aquatic species, many-a-times exceeds the level of spontaneous mutagenesis level to aquatic biota. Increased levels of chromosome damages may be a manifestation of radiation-induced genetic instability, which is one of the main mechanisms for the protection of living organisms from exposure to stressors with subsequent implementation at higher levels of organization of biological systems. (author)

  15. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in Lake Michigan biota near the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Yaguchi, E.M.; Nelson, D.M.; Marshall, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    A survey was made of four groups of biota in the vicinity of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant near Charlevoix, Michigan, to determine their usefulness in locating possible sources of plutonium and other radionuclides to Lake Michigan. This 70 MW boiling-water reactor, located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, was chosen because its fuel contains recycled plutonium, and because it routinely discharges very low-level radioactive wastes into the lake. Samples of crayfish (Orconectes sp.), green algae (Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.), and an aquatic macrophyte (Potamogeton sp.) were collected in August 1973, at varying distances from the discharge and analyzed for 239 240 Pu, 90 Sr, and five gamma-emitting radionuclides. Comparison samples of reactor waste solution have also been analyzed for these radionuclides. Comparisons of the spatial distributions of the extremely low radionuclide concentrations in biota clearly indicated that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 65 Zn, and 60 Co were released from the reactor; their concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the discharge. Conversely, concentrations of 239 240 Pu, 95 Zr, and 90 Sr showed no correlation with distance, suggesting any input from Big Rock was insignificant with respect to the atmospheric origin of these isotopes. The significance of these results is discussed, particularly with respect to current public debate over the possibility of local environmental hazards associated with the use of plutonium as a nuclear fuel. (U.S.)

  16. Reviewing the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) footprint in the aquatic biota: Uptake, bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Silva, Liliana J.G.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pereira, André a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >M.P.T.; Meisel, Leonor M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Lino, Celeste M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants are amongst the most prescribed pharmaceutical active substances throughout the world. Their presence, already described in different environmental compartments such as wastewaters, surface, ground and drinking waters, and sediments, and their remarkable effects on non-target organisms justify the growing concern about these emerging environmental pollutants. A comprehensive review of the literature data with focus on their footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented. Long-term multigenerational exposure studies, at environmental relevant concentrations and in mixtures of related compounds, such as oestrogenic endocrine disruptors, continue to be sparse and are imperative to better know their environmental impact. - Highlights: • Current knowledge of uptake and bioaccumulation of SSRIs. • Ecotoxicology and effects of SSRIs in the aquatic biota. • Identification of existing knowledge gaps. - A comprehensive review focussing SSRIs antidepressants footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation, and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented

  17. Linking flow, water quality and potential effects on aquatic biota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking the potential effects of altered water quality on aquatic biota, that may result from a change in the flow (discharge) regime, is an essential step in the maintenance of riverine ecological functioning. Determination of the environmental flow requirement of a river (as well as other activities, such as classifying the ...

  18. Biota: Providing often-overlooked connections among freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Christensen, Jay R.; Bennett, Michah; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    When we think about connections in and among aquatic systems, we typically envision clear headwater streams flowing into downstream rivers, river floodwaters spilling out onto adjacent floodplains, or groundwater connecting wetlands to lakes and streams. However, there is another layer of connectivity moving materials among freshwater systems, one with connections that are not always tied to downgradient flows of surface waters and groundwater. These movements are those of organisms, key components of virtually every freshwater system on the planet. In their movements across the landscape, biota connect aquatic systems in often-overlooked ways.

  19. Dose estimation and prediction of radiation effects on aquatic biota resulting from radioactive releases from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to radionuclides released to the environment during various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. Routine releases from these processes are limited in compliance with technical specifications and requirements of federal regulations. These regulations reflect I.C.R.P. recommendations which are designed to provide an environment considered safe for man. It is generally accepted that aquatic organisms will not receive damaging external radiation doses in such environments; however, because of possible bioaccumulation of radionuclides there is concern that aquatic organisms might be adversely affected by internal doses. The objectives of this paper are: to estimate the radiation dose received by aquatic biota from the different processes and determine the major dose-contributing radionuclides, and to assess the impact of estimated doses on aquatic biota. Dose estimates are made by using radionuclide concentration measured in the liquid effluents of representative facilities. This evaluation indicates the potential for the greatest radiation dose to aquatic biota from the nuclear fuel supply facilities (i.e., uranium mining and milling). The effects of chronic low-level radiation on aquatic organisms are discussed from somatic and genetic viewpoints. Based on the body of radiobiological evidence accumulated up to the present time, no significant deleterious effects are predicted for populations of aquatic organisms exposed to the estimated dose rates resulting from routine releases from conversion, enrichment, fabrication, reactors and reprocessing facilities. At the doses estimated for milling and mining operations it would be difficult to detect radiation effects on aquatic populations; however, the significance of such radiation exposures to aquatic populations cannot be fully evaluated without further research on effects of chronic low-level radiation. (U.S.)

  20. Cyanobacterial effects in Lake Ludoš, Serbia - Is preservation of a degraded aquatic ecosystem justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Nada; Drobac, Damjana; Meriluoto, Jussi; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Simeunović, Jelica; Dulić, Tamara; Lazić, Gospava; Petrović, Tamaš; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Subakov-Simić, Gordana; Miljanović, Branko; Codd, Geoffrey A; Svirčev, Zorica

    2018-04-20

    Cyanobacteria are present in many aquatic ecosystems in Serbia. Lake Ludoš, a wetland area of international significance and an important habitat for waterbirds, has become the subject of intense research interest because of practically continuous blooming of cyanobacteria. Analyses of water samples indicated a deterioration of ecological condition and water quality, and the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (the most abundant Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena limnetica, Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis spp.). Furthermore, microcystins were detected in plants and animals from the lake: in macrophyte rhizomes (Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia and Nymphaea elegans), and in the muscle, intestines, kidneys, gonads and gills of fish (Carassius gibelio). Moreover, histopathological deleterious effects (liver, kidney, gills and intestines) and DNA damage (liver and gills) were observed in fish. A potential treatment for the reduction of cyanobacterial populations employing hydrogen peroxide was tested during this study. The treatment was not effective in laboratory tests although further in-lake trials are needed to make final conclusions about the applicability of the method. Based on our observations of the cyanobacterial populations and cyanotoxins in the water, as well as other aquatic organisms and, a survey of historical data on Lake Ludoš, it can be concluded that the lake is continuously in a poor ecological state. Conservation of the lake in order to protect the waterbirds (without urgent control of eutrophication) actually endangers them and the rest of the biota in this wetland habitat, and possibly other ecosystems. Thus, urgent measures for restoration are required, so that the preservation of this Ramsar site would be meaningful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanovsky, A.; Proehl, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  2. TENORM wastes and the potential alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the years seventies release-rates and derived limits for releasing radionuclides into the environment were adopted for each particular radionuclide and for a number of pathways. The release-rate limit adopted for alpha emitters was 10 15 Bq.y -1 for a single site, but limited to 10 14 Bq.y -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po. In addition, to meet the requirements of the London Convention, a derived limit should be expressed in terms of concentration, which for alpha emitters was 10 10 Bq.t -1 , but limited to 10 14 Bq.t -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po, assuming an upper limit to the mass dumping rate of 10 5 t per year at a single dumping site. New data on the radioactivity in the marine environment and biota, including plankton, indicated a potential alpha radiation dose to these aquatic organisms due to the release of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes. At the highest accumulation of 239 Pu in the zooplankton Gammarus in Thule, Greenland, due to an accidental release associated with military activities, the dose rate reached about 0.14 μGy.h -1 . Such dose rate was similar to that received by the phytoplankton Chaetoceros and Rhizosolenia from Agulhas current, Africa, due to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) supposedly enhanced for almost one century of gold mining at first, and subsequently because of heap-leaching uranium extraction from the tailings left behind by earlier gold miners. The paper will discuss the alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota, in general, and to plankton, in particular, due to potential releases of TENORM wastes in the aquatic environment. (author)

  3. Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulbari anua in Cachar, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Susmita; Narzary, Rupali

    2013-05-01

    An investigation on the water quality and aquatic insect community of an oxbow lake (Phulbari anua) of south Assam, North-East India was carried out during February to April, 2010. Aquatic insect community of the oxbow lake was represented by 9 species belonging to 9 families and 4 orders during the study period. Order Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera were found to be dominant. Record of 5 species and 5 families from the order Hemiptera showed that this is the largest order in terms of aquatic insect diversity of the lake. Computation of dominance status of different species of aquatic insects of the lake based on Engelmann's Scale revealed that Anisops lundbladiana and Cloeon sp. were eudominant in the system. The Shannon- Weiner's Diversity Index (H') and Shannon evenness values (J') were found to range from 0.3-0.69 and 0.53 -0.97, respectively indicating perturbation of the system. Again in terms of physico-chemical properties of water the lake is in a satisfactory condition where all the parameters are well within the range of IS 10500. The DO values were found to range from 6.8 to 14.8 mgl(-1). Free CO2 fluctuated from 1 to 4.98 mgl(-1) and nitrate in water ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 mgl(-1). Margalef's water quality index values of most of the samplings also indicated clean water condition of the lake. Correlation coefficient analyses of the environmental variables, aquatic insect diversity and density of the lake revealed that aquatic insect diversity of the lake is mainly governed by dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and free carbon dioxide.

  4. Cs-137 in aquatic organisms in the southern Lake Keurusselkae (Finland)[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The results of a study carried out in Lake Keurusselkae, in the Finnish Lake District, are reported. The aim of the study was to collect biota samples for the INDOFERN Project from an area that was rather highly contaminated (70 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986) with the Chernobyl fallout in Finland. The samples were taken from a relatively small area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari in the southern part of the Keurusselkae water course. In total 15 samples of aquatic plants, 6 samples of aquatic animals, 1 water sample and 2 sediment cores were taken. In August 2003, the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the surface water of the southern Lake Keurusselkae was 49 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas it was 310 Bq m{sup -3} in 1988, two year after the Chernobyl accident. In the relatively shallow area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari, the total amount of {sup 137}Cs in sediments was 32-37 kBq m{sup -2} in 2003, but in a deeper basin close to this area the total amount of {sup 137}Cs was 130 kBq m{sup -2} in 1990. The clearly highest activity concentration and concentration factor of {sup 137}Cs was found in one sample of Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), 1 430 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt; CF 29 200, whereas in another sample of the same species the concentration was only 174 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. In addition, the Water lily (Nymphaea candida), Spiked water millfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), Broad-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton natans) and Yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea) seemed to be good indicators for {sup 137}Cs. The tall freshwater clam (Anodonta sp.) seemed to be a modest accumulator of {sup 137}Cs. Contrary to our results from the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, many aquatic plants demonstrated in fresh water similar accumulation capacity of {sup 137}Cs as fish (perch and roach), while in the sea the uptake of {sup 137}Cs in fish seemed to be more efficient than in aquatic plants. (LN)

  5. Methyl mercury concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from burned and undisturbed lakes on the Boreal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Prepas, E.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Gabos, S.; Zhang, W. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Strachan, W.M.J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    2005-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from 5 lakes in burned catchments in Alberta's Swan Hills region were compared with those from 5 reference lakes on the western Canadian Boreal Plain. The objective was to determine the effect of forest fire on the bioaccumulation of MeHg, a toxic pollutant. It was noted that lakes near the Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC) have fish consumption advisories due to high mercury concentrations. In a separate comparison, MeHg concentrations in biota from a single lake were compared before and after a forest fire interrupted a prescribed timber harvest experiment. The affect of lake water chemistry, watershed characteristics, and trophic ecology on the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in littoral food webs was also examined. The study area covered 2 ecoregions, the Boreal Foothills and the Boreal Mixedwood. Two years after the fire, MeHg concentrations in 5 of 6 aquatic taxa did not differ between burned and reference drainage basins in the Swan Hills. These results were in agreement with previous studies. Biomagnification of MeHg was negatively correlated with lake water chlorophyll 'a' concentration. Ecoregional variation in water chemistry seemed to influence MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota, which eluded comparisons of MeHg bioaccumulation between burned and reference drainage basins. MeHg concentrations in biota were negatively correlated with lake water pH, as well as with total phosphorous and dominant cation concentrations, all of which were higher in Mixedwood than in Foothills lakes. It was concluded that in the short-term, fire may lower MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota in a nutrient-rich setting by inducing an increase in lake productivity that dilutes MeHg at the base of the food web. 42 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  7. Public lakes, private lakeshore: Modeling protection of native aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221–279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners’ behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  8. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  9. Environmental pathways and radiological dosimetry for biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the environment as a result man's activities may be transported, cycled, and/or concentrated in the biotic and abiotic compartments of the ecosystem. Organisms in an environment contaminated with radioactive waste may be irradiated externally by radionuclides in air, water, vegetation, soil or sediment and internally by radionuclides accumulated within their bodies by inhalation or by direct absorption through their skin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the pathways in which biota are exposed to radioactive releases to the environment and to review the methods used to calculate radiation doses to the biota. In general, the methodology for estimating radiation doses to biota in their natural environment is better developed for aquatic biota than for terrestrial biota. The different methodologies which have been used for calculating radiation doses to aquatic biota were reviewed. If the protection of non-human biota is an issue in addressing environmental assessments of nuclear facilities, then the methodology for estimating radiation doses to biota should be improved. It is recommended that dose calculations should be simplified and standardized by developing dose conversion factors for a number of generic aquatic and terrestrial organisms. (author)

  10. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  11. Specific-activity and concentration model applied to cesium movement in an oligotrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model was derived to simulate the time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radionuclides in aquatic systems. Transfer coefficients were determined for movement of 137 Cs in the components of an oligotrophic lake. These coefficients were defined in terms of basic environmental and ecological data so that the model can be applied to a wide variety of sites. Simulations with a model that ignored sediment--water interactions predicted much higher 137 Cs specific activities in the lake water and biota than did those with the complete model. Comparing 137 Cs concentrations predicted by the model with concentrations reported for the biota of an experimentally contaminated oligotrophic lake indicated that the transfer coefficients derived for the biota are adequate

  12. Mercury Dynamics in Aquatic Food Webs of the Finger Lakes, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleckner, L.; Razavi, N. R.; Halfman, J. D.; Cushman, S. F.; Foust, J.; Gilman, B.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fish is a global concern due to the deleterious health effects in humans and wildlife associated with ingesting fish with elevated concentrations. A key to understanding elevated fish Hg concentrations is to examine methyl Hg dynamics at the base of food webs, including algae and zooplankton. Predicting determinants of methyl Hg concentrations in lower trophic level biota remains an active area of research. This study was conducted to assess Hg concentrations in biota of the Finger Lakes (New York, USA), a region where fisheries are an important economic driver, but where no comprehensive assessment of food web Hg dynamics has been completed to date. Sources of Hg in the region include atmospheric pollution from an active coal-fired power plant. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine if fish Hg concentrations were of concern, 2) assess differences in Hg accumulation among lakes and determine predictors of fish Hg concentrations, and 3) evaluate the predictive power of monthly zooplankton methyl Hg concentrations on fish Hg concentrations. From May - October 2015, suspended particulate matter, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled monthly in five of the Finger Lakes (Honeoye, Canandaigua, Seneca, Cayuga, and Owasco Lakes). Fish were sampled once over the same study period and species were targeted from all trophic levels. Results for top predatory fish including Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides), and Walleye (Sander vitreus) showed significant differences among lakes, and elevated concentrations are above US Environmental Protection Agency's screening value (300 ng/g wet weight). No clear pattern in Hg levels among lakes was evident in lower trophic level fishes such as Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Golden Shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), but concentrations were low. Benthivorous Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) exhibited significant differences in Hg among lakes with

  13. Natural origin arsenic in aquatic organisms from a deep oligotrophic lake under the influence of volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos, Romina; Arcagni, Marina; Rizzo, Andrea; Campbell, Linda; Arribére, María; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions are recognized sources of toxic elements to freshwater, including arsenic (As). In order to study the short term changes in the bioaccumulation of naturally occurring As by aquatic organisms in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Argentina), located close to the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC), we described As concentrations at different trophic levels and food web transfer patterns in three sites of the lake prior to the last PCCVC eruption (June 2011), and compared As concentrations in biota before and after the eruption. The highest As concentrations and greater variations both between sites and position in the water column, were observed in phytoplankton (3.9-64.8 µg g(-1) dry weight, DW) and small zooplankton (4.3-22.3 µg g(-1) DW). The pattern of As accumulation in aquatic organisms (whole body or muscle) was: primary producers (phytoplankton) > scrapper mollusks (9.3-15.3 µg g(-1) DW) > filter feeding mollusks (5.4-15.6 µg g(-1) DW) > omnivorous invertebrates (0.4-9.2 µg g(-1) DW) > zooplankton (1.2-3.5 µg g(-1) DW) > fish (0.2-1.9 µg g(-1) DW). We observed As biodilution in the whole food web, and in salmonids food chains, feeding on fish prey; but biomagnification in the food chain of creole perch, feeding on benthic crayfish. The impact of the 2011 PCCVC eruption on the As levels of biota was more evident in pelagic-associated organisms (zooplankton and planktivorous fish), but only in the short term, suggesting a brief high bioavailability of As in water after ash deposition. In benthic organisms As variations likely responded to shift in diet due to coverage of the littoral zone with ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Two FAO/IAEA coordinated research programmes are concerned with isotopic tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soils and aquatic ecosystems. They currently involve 18 studies in 14 countries: Brazil, Canada, Egypt, F.R. Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, USA and USSR. The aim was to develop, standardize and apply labelled substrate techniques for comparative assays of primary autotrophic and microheterotrophic production and decay, and complementary tracer techniques to determine the fate, persistence and bioconcentration of trace contaminants. Comparable data were studied concerning the current status of water bodies and likely changes due to contaminants. Soil capacity to decompose undesirable contaminants and residues, and to promote desirable transformations were studied. The techniques were also applied as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, with priority given to rice ecosystems

  15. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  16. A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, J Vives i; Jones, S R; Gomez-Ros, J M

    2004-01-01

    A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions have been derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or in the media they inhabit. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. The methodology has been validated against more complex dosimetric models and compared with human dosimetry based on ICRP 72. Ecosystem assessments for aquatic biota within the FASSET framework can now be performed simply, once radionuclide concentrations in target organisms are known, either directly or indirectly by deduction from radionuclide concentrations in the surrounding medium

  17. Study of the behaviour of transuranics and possible chemical homologues in Lake Michigan water and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Alberts, J.J.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Concentration factors for Pu, Am and U in Lake Michigan biota are compared to those of a number of stable trace elements that have short residence times in Lake Michigan water. The relative order of uptake for these nuclides in Lake Michigan biota is Am>Pu much>U. Evidence is summarized which suggests that the predominant oxidation state of 239 , 240 Pu in Lake Michigan water is 4+. Concentrations of 239 , 240 Pu in net plankton, filterable particulate matter, sediment trap, and benthic floc samples indicate that sorption by biogenic detritus, and settling of this material, can account for the reduced concentration of 239 , 240 Pu observed in surface waters during summer stratification, but that deposition into the sediments is primarily non-biological. Concentrations of 7 Be, 144 Ce and 137 Cs in sediment trap samples show the effect of spring convective mixing and demonstrate the resuspension of mineral-rich surficial sediments during the summer months. The effect on the concentration of dissolved plutonium in the water column, of varying degrees of resuspension of sedimentary floc, is described using a simple mass-action model. A radiochemical method for the determination of americium and uranium in Lake Michigan environmental samples is also presented. (author)

  18. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  19. Comparison of passive sampling and biota for monitoring of tonalide in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumova, Jitka; Grabicova, Katerina; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Kodes, Vit; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabic, Roman; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic musk compounds are extensively used in personal care and cosmetic products all over the world. Afterwards, they are discharged into the environment mainly because they are not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants. The aim of this study was to investigate if a passive sampler is applicable for the monitoring of tonalide, a polycyclic musk compound, in the aquatic environment and to compare the levels of tonalide in pesticide-polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and biota. For this purpose, four sampling localities on the three biggest rivers in the Czech Republic were selected. Tonalide was determined in POCIS at all sampling sites in the concentration ranging from 9 ng/POCIS (Labe River, Hradec Králové) to 25 ng/POCIS (Morava River, Blatec). The locality with the most frequent occurrence of tonalide in biota samples was the Morava River which well corresponded with the highest tonalide concentration in POCIS among sampling sites. The highest number of positive tonalide detections among all studied biota samples was found in fish plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that tonalide bioaccumulates in fish blood. Tonalide levels were below the limit of quantification in benthos samples at all sampling sites.

  20. Chromosome mutagenesis in populations of aquatic biota in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Danube and Dnieper rivers, 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the level of structural mutagenesis in the reproductive and somatic cells of aquatic biota of various taxa from natural populations of neustic and benthic communities in the Black and Aegean Seas and the Dnieper and Danube rivers between 1986 and 1989. The cytogenetic research covered embryos, larvae and adult worms of Nereidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Turbellaria, adult Sagitta setosa, young Bivalvia molluscs, embryos of Mysidacea, and growing roe of Engraulis encrasicholus, Sprattus sprattus, Diplodus annularis, Mullus barbatus, Trachurus trachurus, Scophthalmus maeoticus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus and Stizostedion lucioperca. It was established that aquatic biota in the open waters of the Black and Aegean Seas had a lower level of chromosome mutagenesis than representatives of the fluvial communities. The intensity of mutagenesis was compared with the data published in the literature on radioactive contamination/chemical pollution of the aqueous medium in these areas. The paper sets out statistical regularities in chromosome mutagenesis (inter-individual variability in the chromosome aberration rate and distribution of chromosome damage in cells), noting different patterns of chromosome aberration distribution among cells. On the basis of a large quantity on our own data from field and experimental cytogenetic studies involving aquatic biota, the paper considers the possibility of using - for the purposes of radiochemical-ecological monitoring - chromosome damage distribution in cells as an indicator of whether mutagens are radiation-related or not. (author)

  1. Initial Impacts of the Mount Polley Tailings Pond Breach on Adjacent Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Gantner, Nikolaus; Albers, Sam; Owens, Philip

    2015-04-01

    On August 4th 2014, the Mount Polley Tailings pond breach near Likely, B.C., released approximately 24 million cubic metres of tailings material into Polley Lake, Hazeltine Creek and Quesnel Lake. The discharge scoured and eroded a swath of soil and sediment delivering an unknown amount of metals and sediment into this tributary ecosystem of the Fraser River. Subsequent efforts by the mine operator to remediate by pumping tailings water from Polley Lake into Hazeltine Creek, which flows into Quesnel Lake, resulted in additional and continuous release of unknown volumes of contaminated water and sediments into the watershed. Heavy metals (e.g., selenium, copper, or mercury) reported as stored in the tailings pond entered the downstream aquatic environment and have been monitored in the water column of Quesnel Lake since August. These contaminants are likely particle-bound and thus subject to transport over long distances without appreciable degradation, resulting in the potential for chronic exposures and associated toxicological effects in exposed biota. While significant dilution is expected during aquatic transport, and the resulting concentrations in the water will likely be low, concentrations in exposed biota may become of concern over time. Metals such as mercury and selenium undergo bioaccumulation and biomagnification, once incorporated into the food chain/web. Thus, even small concentrations of such contaminants in water can lead to greater concentrations (~100 fold) in top predators. Over time, our predictions are that food web transfer will lead to an increase in concentrations from water (1-2 years)->invertebrates (1-2 yrs) ->fishes (2-5 yrs). Pacific salmon travel great distances in this watershed and may be exposed to contaminated water during their migrations. Resident species will be exposed to the contaminated waters and sediments in the study lakes year round. Little or no background/baseline data for metals in biota from Quesnel Lake exists

  2. Evaluation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as biomonitors of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T; Spada, Michael E; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Montesdeoca, Mario R

    2013-03-01

    Zebra mussels have invaded many lakes in the United States and could be a useful tool for monitoring responses of aquatic biota to changes in mercury loading. The goal of the present study was to evaluate zebra mussels for use as a biomonitor of mercury contamination by comparing zebra mussel mercury concentrations between a lake with only indirect atmospheric mercury contamination (Otisco Lake, NY, USA) and a lake that was directly contaminated by mercury discharges (Onondaga Lake, NY, USA). Zebra mussels were sampled in both the spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in zebra mussels were approximately seven times greater in Onondaga Lake than in Otisco Lake, and water column mercury concentrations differed by an order of magnitude between the two lakes. Seasonal differences resulted in significantly higher zebra mussel THg concentrations during the fall for both lakes. There was also significant variation among different sampling sites in Onondaga Lake. Mussel methylmercury concentrations averaged 53% of THg concentrations but were highly variable. Strong relationships between water column THg and zebra mussel THg suggest that zebra mussels are a good indicator of aquatic mercury concentrations and could be used as an effective biomonitor of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Further investigations of plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed including the canal and ponds in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Groves, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a preliminary investigation of Pu in aquatic organisms of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio. Data are presented on the Pu content of aquatic biota from the canal and ponds located adjacent to the Mound Laboratory. These areas have elevated levels of 238 Pu in the water and sediments as the result of a past incident. Radiochemical analysis of biota sampled both upstream and downstream from the effluent pipe of Mound Laboratory showed that plants collected downstream of the laboratory concentrate more 238 Pu than the plants located upstream by two to three orders of magnitude. Activities of 238 Pu in background samples are unexpectedly high and may be attributed to contamination. Activities of fallout 239 , 240 Pu in the plants from upstream and downstream were approximately the same

  4. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  5. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  6. Quantifying aquatic insect deposition from lake to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jamin; Townsend, Philip A; Hook, James C; Hoekman, David; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Adjacent ecosystems are influenced by organisms that move across boundaries, such as insects with aquatic larval stages and terrestrial adult stages, which transport energy and nutrients from water to land. However, the ecosystem-level effect of aquatic insects on land has generally been ignored, perhaps because the organisms themselves are individually small. At the naturally productive Lake Mývatn, Iceland, we used two readily measured quantities: total insect emergence from water and relative insect density on land, to demonstrate an approach for estimating aquatic insect deposition (e.g., kg N x m(-2) x yr(-1)) to shore. Estimates from emergence traps between 2008 and 20.11 indicated a range of 0.15-3.7 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), or a whole-lake emergence of 3.1-76 Mg/yr; all masses are given as dry mass. Using aerial infall trap measurements of midge relative abundance over land, we developed a local-maximum decay function model to predict proportional midge deposition with distance from the lake. The dispersal model predicted midge abundance with R2 = 0.89, a pattern consistent among years, with peak midge deposition occurring 20-25 m inland and 70% of midges deposited within 100 m of shore. During a high-midge year (2008), we estimate midge deposition within the first 50 m of shoreline to be 100 kg xha(-1) x yr(-1), corresponding to inputs of 10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 1 kg P x ha(-1) x yr(-1), or about three to five times above background terrestrial N deposition rates. Consistent with elevated N input where midges are most dense, we observed that soil available nitrate in resin bags decreases with increasing distance from the lake. Our approach, generalizable to other systems, shows that aquatic insects can be a major source of nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems and have the capacity to significantly affect ecosystem processes.

  7. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  8. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  9. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  10. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  11. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  12. LADTAP-2, Organ Doses to Man and Other Biota from Aquatic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Whelan, G.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: LADTAP2 performs environmental dose analyses for releases of liquid effluents from light-water nuclear power plants into surface waters during routine operation. The analyses estimate radiation doses to individuals, population groups, and biota from ingestion (aquatic foods, water, and terrestrial irrigated foods) and external exposure (shoreline, swimming, and boating) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the 'ALARA' philosophy). The program consists of a hydrologic model chosen to represent mixing in the effluent impoundment system and the receiving surface waters and the exposure pathway models which estimate exposure of selected groups at various water usage locations in the environment. Two types of population doses are calculated. An ALARA analysis is performed based on exposure of people within 50 miles of the site, and a NEPA analysis is performed based on exposure of the entire U.S. population to effluents from the site. A population-dose analysis prepared in the form of a cost-benefit table presents the total-body and thyroid doses from each radionuclide released and the population doses (total-body and thyroid) per curie of each radionuclide released. 2 - Method of solution: The impoundment system is represented by one of four hydrologic models: direct release to the receiving water, linear flow with no mixing (the plug-flow model), linear flow through the impoundment with partial recirculation through the reactor (the partially mixed model), or complete mixing in the impoundment with partial recirculation through the reactor (the completely mixed model). The last three account for radiological decay during transit through the impoundment system. Optional models are available to estimate dilution in nontidal rivers and near-shore lake environments. The consequence calculation part of

  13. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  14. Liver histological changes and lipid peroxidation in the amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum induced by sediment elutriates from the Lake Xochimilco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ordoñez, Esperanza; López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; Uría, Esther; Morales, Ignacio Andrés; Pérez, María Estela; Shibayama, Mineko

    2016-08-01

    Lacustrine sediments accumulate pollutants that input from the lake watershed and can be released to the water column by sediment resuspension; thus, pollutants can change their bioavailability and exert adverse effects to aquatic biota. Shallow-urban lakes are particularly susceptible to receive pollutants from urban discharges and sediment resuspension. Lake Xochimilco, in Mexico City, an urban-shallow lake, faces multiple problems: urban sprawl, overexploitation of aquifers, drying of springs, discharge of wastewater from treatment plants, and sediment resuspension. The aquatic biota living in this ecosystem is continuously exposed to the release of pollutants from the sediments. We assessed the risk that pollutants released from sediments from Lake Xochimilco, Touristic (TZ) and Agriculture zone (AZ), can exert on a native amphibian species of the lake (Ambystoma mexicanum) through exposure bioassays to sediment elutriates. We evaluate alterations in the amphibian by three approaches: biochemical (level of lipid peroxidation, LPO), cellular (ultrastructure) and the liver histology of A. mexicanum and we compare them with a batch control. Additionally, we assessed heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) in elutriates. Elutriates from TZ showed the highest concentrations of the metals assessed. Organisms exposed to sediment elutriates from either study sites showed higher LPO values than control organisms (pXochimilco. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Dietary risk ranking for residual antibiotics in cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Li, Le; Zhang, Cong; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Ying; Mao, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species. Then, the total scores per aquatic species were summed by all 15 antibiotic scores of antibiotics, it was found that Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) had the highest dietary risks. Finally, the most concerned antibiotic category and aquatic species were selected. This study highlighted the importance of dietary risk ranking in the production and consumption of cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lake water quality: Chapter 4 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Todd; Holdren, G. Chris; Rosen, Michael R.; Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.; Vanderford, Brett; Wong, Wai Hing; Drury, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of the availability and quality of water in Lake Mead, it has become one of the most intensely sampled and studied bodies of water in the United States. As a result, data are available from sampling stations across the lake (fig. 4-1 and see U.S. Geological Survey Automated Water-Quality Platforms) to provide information on past and current (2012) water-quality conditions and on invasive species that influence—and are affected by—water quality. Water quality in Lakes Mead and Mohave generally exceeds standards set by the State of Nevada to protect water supplies for public uses: drinking water, aquatic ecosystem health, recreation, or agricultural irrigation. In comparison to other reservoirs studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for a national lake assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010), Lake Mead is well within the highest or ‘good’ category for recreation and aquatic health (see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Lakes Assessment and Lake Mead for more details). While a small part of the lake, particularly Las Vegas Bay, is locally influenced by runoff from urbanized tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash, contaminant loading in the lake as a whole is low compared to other reservoirs in the nation, which are influenced by runoff from more heavily urbanized watersheds (Rosen and Van Metre, 2010).

  17. Lake Mixing Regime Influences Arsenic Transfer from Sediments into the Water Column and Uptake in Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, J.; Barrett, P. M.; Hull, E.; Burkart, K.; McLean, J.; Hargrave, O.; Neumann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The former ASARCO copper smelter in Ruston, WA, now a Superfund site, contaminated a large area of the south-central Puget Sound region with arsenic over its almost 100-year history. Arsenic, a priority Superfund contaminant and carcinogen, is a legacy pollutant impacting aquatic ecosystems in urban lakes downwind of the ASARCO emissions stack. We investigated the impact of lake mixing regime on arsenic transfer from sediments into lake water and aquatic biota. We regularly collected water column and plankton samples from four study lakes for two years, and deployed sediment porewater peepers and sediment traps to estimate arsenic flux rates to and from the sediments. In lakes with strong seasonal stratification, high aqueous arsenic concentrations were limited to anoxic hypolimnetic waters while low arsenic concentrations were observed in oxic surface waters. However, in polymictic, shallow lakes, we observed elevated arsenic concentrations throughout the entire oxic water column. Sediment flux estimates support higher rates of arsenic release from sediments and vertical transport. Because high arsenic in oxic waters results in spatial overlap between arsenate, a phosphate analog, and lake biota, we observed enhanced trophic transfer of arsenic in polymictic, shallow study lakes, with higher arsenic accumulation (up to an order of magnitude) in both phytoplankton and zooplankton compared to stratified lakes. Chemical and physical mechanisms for higher steady-state arsenic concentrations will be explored. Our work demonstrates that physical mixing processes coupled with sediment/water redox status exert significant control over bioaccumulation, making shallow, periodically-mixed urban lakes uniquely vulnerable to environmental and human health risks from legacy arsenic contamination.

  18. Zooplankton in littoral waters of a tropical lake: a revisited biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PM. Maia-Barbosa

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Lake Dom Helvécio, in the state of Minas Gerais, with two main objectives: to demonstrate the contribution of the littoral zone, in order to better characterize zooplankton fauna; and to assess the distribution of zooplankton species in different habitats, i.e., the littoral zone with and without aquatic vegetation. The samples were collected in February and July 2006, throughout the littoral zone of the lake, in areas with and without aquatic vegetation. We identified a total of 188 species, of which 130 are new records for Lake Dom Helvécio. One hundred and eighty-four species were identified in the littoral zone with aquatic vegetation, and 117 in the zone with no vegetation. The higher zooplankton richness in areas of the littoral zone with aquatic vegetation can be related to the greater environmental heterogeneity. Compared to previous studies on the littoral zones of lakes along the middle River Doce, the present study expended greater sampling effort, and identified many more species. In relation to biological conservation, this study demonstrated the importance of the littoral zone for better characterization and conservation of the zooplankton fauna, especially when it is colonized by aquatic vegetation. Underestimating the richness of species may provide inaccurate data on the biota, as well as on the ecological conditions in an environment.

  19. Distribution of tritium in a chronically contaminated lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    White Oak Lake located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation receives a continuous input of tritium from operating facilities and waste disposal operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this paper was (1) to determine the distribution and concentration of tritium in an aquatic environment which has received releases of tritium significantly greater than expected releases from nuclear power plants, and (2) to determine the effect of fluctuating tritium concentrations in ambient water on the concentration of tritium in fish. Aquatic biota from White Oak Lake were analyzed for tissue water tritium and tissue bound tritium. Except for one plant species, the ratio of tissue water tritium to lake water tritium ranged from 0.80 to 1.02. The tissue water tritium in Gambusia affinis, the mosquito fish, followed closely the significant changes in tritium concentration in lake water. The turnover of tissue water tritium was very rapid; Gambusia from White Oak Lake eliminated 50% of their tissue water tritium in 14 min. The ratio of the specific activity of the tissue bound tritium to the specific activity of the lake water was greatest for the larger species of fish but never exceeded unity. The radiation dose to man from tritium which could be acquired through the aquatic food chain was relatively small when compared to other pathways. The whole body dose to a hypothetical individual taking in concentrations of tritium measured in White Oak Lake was 1.8 mrem/yr from eating fish and 10.0 mrem/yr from drinking water

  20. Isotopic study of mercury sources and transfer between a freshwater lake and adjacent forest food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; Tsui, Martin Tsz-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Studies of monomethylmercury (MMHg) sources and biogeochemical pathways have been extensive in aquatic ecosystems, but limited in forest ecosystems. Increasing evidence suggests that there is significant mercury (Hg) exchange between aquatic and forest ecosystems. We use Hg stable isotope ratios (δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg) to investigate the relative importance of MMHg sources and assess Hg transfer pathways between Douglas Lake and adjacent forests located at the University of Michigan Biological Station, USA. We characterize Hg isotopic compositions of basal resources and use linear regression of % MMHg versus δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg to estimate Hg isotope values for inorganic mercury (IHg) and MMHg in the aquatic and adjacent forest food webs. In the aquatic ecosystem, we found that lake sediment represents a mixture of IHg pools deposited via watershed runoff and precipitation. The δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values estimated for IHg are consistent with other studies that measured forest floor in temperate forests. The Δ 199 Hg value estimated for MMHg in the aquatic food web indicates that MMHg is subjected to ~ 20% photochemical degradation prior to bioaccumulation. In the forest ecosystem, we found a significant negative relationship between total Hg and δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg of soil collected at multiple distances from the lakeshore and lake sediment. This suggests that IHg input from watershed runoff provides an important Hg transfer pathway between the forest and aquatic ecosystems. We measured Δ 199 Hg values for high trophic level insects and compared these insects at multiple distances perpendicular to the lake shoreline. The Δ 199 Hg values correspond to the % canopy cover suggesting that forest MMHg is subjected to varying extents of photochemical degradation and the extent may be controlled by sunlight. Our study demonstrates that the use of Hg isotopes adds important new insight into the relative importance of MMHg sources and complex Hg transfer

  1. Isotopic study of mercury sources and transfer between a freshwater lake and adjacent forest food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sae Yun, E-mail: saeyunk@umich.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 N. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 N. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 830 N. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nadelhoffer, Knute J. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 830 N. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Timothy Dvonch, J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tsui, Martin Tsz-Ki [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 321 McIver Street, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Studies of monomethylmercury (MMHg) sources and biogeochemical pathways have been extensive in aquatic ecosystems, but limited in forest ecosystems. Increasing evidence suggests that there is significant mercury (Hg) exchange between aquatic and forest ecosystems. We use Hg stable isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg) to investigate the relative importance of MMHg sources and assess Hg transfer pathways between Douglas Lake and adjacent forests located at the University of Michigan Biological Station, USA. We characterize Hg isotopic compositions of basal resources and use linear regression of % MMHg versus δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg to estimate Hg isotope values for inorganic mercury (IHg) and MMHg in the aquatic and adjacent forest food webs. In the aquatic ecosystem, we found that lake sediment represents a mixture of IHg pools deposited via watershed runoff and precipitation. The δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg values estimated for IHg are consistent with other studies that measured forest floor in temperate forests. The Δ{sup 199}Hg value estimated for MMHg in the aquatic food web indicates that MMHg is subjected to ~ 20% photochemical degradation prior to bioaccumulation. In the forest ecosystem, we found a significant negative relationship between total Hg and δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg of soil collected at multiple distances from the lakeshore and lake sediment. This suggests that IHg input from watershed runoff provides an important Hg transfer pathway between the forest and aquatic ecosystems. We measured Δ{sup 199}Hg values for high trophic level insects and compared these insects at multiple distances perpendicular to the lake shoreline. The Δ{sup 199}Hg values correspond to the % canopy cover suggesting that forest MMHg is subjected to varying extents of photochemical degradation and the extent may be controlled by sunlight. Our study demonstrates that the use of Hg isotopes adds important new insight into the relative

  2. Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruthy, S; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-03-01

    We present the first study of microplastics in the sediments of Vembanad Lake, a Ramsar site in India. Microplastics are emerging pollutants of increasing environmental concern with a particle size of microplastics pollution on the environment and biota is not well known. Vast data exist in the literature on marine microplastics while reports on freshwater ecosystems are scarce. In this context, to examine the occurrence of microplastic particles (MPs) in the Vembanad Lake, samples were collected from ten sites and processed for microplastic extraction through density separation. Identification of the polymer components of MPs was done using micro Raman spectroscopy. MPs were recovered from all sediment samples, indicating their extensive distribution in the lake. The abundance of MPs recorded from the sediment samples is in the range of 96-496 particles m -2 with a mean abundance of 252.80 ± 25.76 particles m -2 . Low density polyethylene has been identified as the dominant type of polymer component of the MPs. As clams and fishes are the major source of protein to the local population, the presence of MPs in the lake becomes critically important, posing a severe threat of contaminating the food web of this lake. This study, being the first report from India on MPs in lake sediments, provide impetus for further research on the distribution and impact of this emerging pollutant on the biota of many aquatic systems spread across India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem components and

  4. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem

  5. Impact of water-level changes to aquatic vegetation in small oligotrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert VANDEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effect of drastic water-level changes to the aquatic vegetation in three small oligotrophic lakes situated in Kurtna Kame Field in north-eastern Estonia. The area holds around 40 lakes in 30 km2 of which 18 lakes are under protection as Natura Habitat lakes (Natura 2000 network. The area is under a strong human impact as it is surrounded by oil shale mines, sand quarry, peat harvesting field etc. The most severe impact comes from the groundwater intake established in 1972 in the vicinity of three studied lakes. The exploitation of groundwater led to drastic water-level drops. In 1980s the water-level drops were measured to be up to 3 to 4 meters compared to the levels of 1946. Lake Martiska and Lake Kuradijärv were severely affected and only 29% and 45% of lake area respectively and 21% of initial volume remained. Both lakes were described as oligotrophic lakes before severe human impact and held characteristic macrophytes such as Isoëtes lacustris L., Sparganium angustifolium Michx and Lobelia dortmanna L. As the water level declined the lakes lost their rare characteristic species and can now be described more as a meso- or even eutrophic lakes. When the volume of groundwater abstraction decreased in the 1990s the water levels started to recover but did not reach the natural levels of pre-industrialized era. Also the vegetation did not show any signs of recovery. In 2012 the pumping rates increased again causing a new rapid decline in water levels which almost exceed the previous minimum levels. The water-level monitoring alongside with the macrophyte monitoring data gives us a good case study on how the long term abrupt water-level changes can affect the aquatic vegetation

  6. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Haakanson, L.

    2000-01-01

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  7. Development of a macrophyte-based index of biotic integrity for Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M.W.; Hatch, L.K.; Vondracek, B.; Valley, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional approaches for managing aquatic resources have often failed to account for effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biota that are not directly reflected by chemical and physical proxies of environmental condition. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a potentially effective assessment method to integrate ecological, functional, and structural aspects of aquatic systems. A macrophyte-based IBI was developed for Minnesota lakes to assess the ability of aquatic plant communities to indicate environmental condition. The index was developed using quantitative point intercept vegetation surveys for 97 lakes that represent a range of limnological and watershed characteristics. We followed an approach similar to that used in Wisconsin to develop the aquatic macrophyte community index (AMCI). Regional adaptation of the AMCI required the identification of species representative of macrophyte communities in Minnesota. Metrics and scaling methods were also substantially modified to produce a more empirically robust index. Regression analyses indicated that IBI scores reflected statewide differences in lake trophic state (R2 = 0.57, F = 130.3, df = 1, 95, p indicated a unique response of the IBI to human-induced stress separate from a response to natural lake characteristics. The IBI was minimally affected by differences in sample point density as indicated by Monte Carlo analyses of reduced sampling effort. Our analysis indicates that a macrophyte IBI calibrated for Minnesota lakes could be useful for identifying differences in environmental condition attributed to human-induced stress gradients. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  9. State-of-the-art techniques for inventory of Great Lakes aquatic habitats and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brock, R.H.; Bukata, R.P.; Dawson, J.J.; Horvath, F.J.; Busch, W.-Dieter N.; Sly, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    This section of the Classification and Inventory of Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat report was prepared as a series of individually authored contributions that describe, in various levels of detail, state-of-the-art techniques that can be used alone or in combination to inventory aquatic habitats and resources in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. No attempt was made to review and evaluate techniques that are used routinely in limnological and fisheries surveys and inventories because it was felt that users of this document would be familiar with them.

  10. Mapping Aquatic Vegetation in a Large, Shallow Eutrophic Lake: A Frequency-Based Approach Using Multiple Years of MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation serves many important ecological and socioeconomic functions in lake ecosystems. The presence of floating algae poses difficulties for accurately estimating the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic lakes. We present an approach to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in Lake Taihu (a large, shallow eutrophic lake in China and reduce the influence of floating algae on aquatic vegetation mapping. Our approach involved a frequency analysis over a 2003–2013 time series of the floating algal index (FAI based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data. Three phenological periods were defined based on the vegetation presence frequency (VPF and the growth of algae and aquatic vegetation: December and January composed the period of wintering aquatic vegetation; February and March composed the period of prolonged coexistence of algal blooms and wintering aquatic vegetation; and June to October was the peak period of the coexistence of algal blooms and aquatic vegetation. By comparing and analyzing the satellite-derived aquatic vegetation distribution and 244 in situ measurements made in 2013, we established a FAI threshold of −0.025 and VPF thresholds of 0.55, 0.45 and 0.85 for the three phenological periods. We validated the accuracy of our approach by comparing the results between the satellite-derived maps and the in situ results obtained from 2008–2012. The overall classification accuracy was 87%, 81%, 77%, 88% and 73% in the five years from 2008–2012, respectively. We then applied the approach to the MODIS images from 2003–2013 and obtained the total area of the aquatic vegetation, which varied from 265.94 km2 in 2007 to 503.38 km2 in 2008, with an average area of 359.62 ± 69.20 km2 over the 11 years. Our findings suggest that (1 the proposed approach can be used to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic algae-rich waters and (2 dramatic changes occurred in the

  11. Groundwater interactions with Lobelia lakes- effects on the aquatic plant, Littorella uniflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Daniela Oliveira; Vinther, Hanne Fogh; Krüger, Laila

    Lake Hampen is representative of a group of lakes called Lobelia lakes. These are oligotrophic, clear water lakes which tend to have a low alkalinity. These lakes are termed “Lobelia lakes” due to the characteristic isoetid species which thrive in these conditions. Isoetids are small, evergreen...... aquatic plants whose leaves grow in a rosette form and have a large root base. The large root system enables the plants to better assimilate nutrients from the sediments, and the uptake of CO2 which is used for photosynthesis, and to release O2 into otherwise anoxic sediments. Lake Hampen is situated high...... up in the Jylland ridge and lies close to the groundwater boundary. This means that the groundwater flow between the aquifer and the lake is not constant, sometimes the groundwater flows from the aquifer into the lake (discharge) and other times it flows from the lake into the aquifer (recharge...

  12. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2009-03-01

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  13. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, E. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Saxen, R.; Outola, I. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-03-15

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  14. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  15. The presence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements in water and lakebed materials and the potential for bioconcentration in biota at established sampling sites on Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonauer, Kurt T.; Hart, Robert J.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service is responsible for monitoring the effects of visitor use on the quality of water, lakebed material (bottom sediments), and biota, in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. A sampling program was begun in 2010 to assess the presence, distribution, and concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds in the water column and bottom sediment. In response to an Environmental Impact Statement regarding personal watercraft and as a continuation from previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, water samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using semipermeable membrane devices and inorganic elements using a fixed-bottle sampler deployed at established monitoring sites during 2010 and 2011. Lakebed material samples were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements, some of which could be harmful to aquatic biota if present at concentrations above established aquatic life criteria. Of the 44 PAH compounds analyzed, 26 individual compounds were detected above the censoring limit in the water column by semipermeable membrane devices. The highest number of compounds detected were at Lone Rock Beach, Wahweap Marina, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, and Antelope Marina which are all located in the southern part of Lake Powell where visitation and boat use is high. Because PAHs can remain near their source, the potential for bioconcentration is highest near these sites. The PAH compound found in the highest concentration was phenol (5,902 nanograms per liter), which is included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s priority pollutants list. The dissolved inorganic chemistry of water samples measured at the sampling sites in Lake Powell defined three different patterns of elements: (1) concentrations were similar between sites in the upper part of the lake near Farley Canyon downstream to Halls Crossing Marina, a

  16. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in aquatic biota associated with abandoned mine lands in the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area and nearby Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, northwestern California, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Gibson, Jennifer K.; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2015-01-01

    Park management of the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, in northwestern California, identified a critical need to determine if mercury (Hg) or other elements originating from abandoned mines within the Upper Clear Creek watershed were present at concentrations that might adversely affect aquatic biota living within the park. During 2002–03, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish, and analyzed them for Hg, cadmium, zinc, copper, and other metals and trace elements. The data from the biota, in conjunction with data from concurrent community bioassessments, habitat analyses, water quality, and concentrations of metals and trace elements in water and sediment, were used to identify contamination “hot spots.”

  17. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  18. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  19. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2016-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term dataset on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted seven days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions – especially snowfall – drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well-studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  20. Aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities of Prairie-Pothole wetlands and lakes under a changed climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Renton, David A.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities respond to changes in climate is important for biodiversity conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region and other wetland-rich landscapes. We sampled macroinvertebrate communities of 162 wetlands and lakes previously sampled from 1966 to 1976, a much drier period compared to our 2012–2013 sampling timeframe. To identify possible influences of a changed climate and predation pressures on macroinvertebrates, we compared two predictors of aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities: ponded-water dissolved-ion concentration and vertebrate-predator presence/abundance. Further, we make inferences of how macroinvertebrate communities were structured during the drier period when the range of dissolved-ion concentrations was much greater and fish occurrence in aquatic habitats was rare. We found that aquatic-macroinvertebrate community structure was influenced by dissolved-ion concentrations through a complex combination of direct and indirect relationships. Ion concentrations also influenced predator occurrence and abundance, which indirectly affected macroinvertebrate communities. It is important to consider both abiotic and biotic gradients when predicting how invertebrate communities will respond to climate change. Generally, in the wetlands and lakes we studied, freshening of ponded water resulted in more homogenous communities than occurred during a much drier period when salinity range among sites was greater.

  1. From owned lakes to State assets. Aquatical disputes at Pacaya Samiria National Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Campanera Reig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethnographic research undertook between 2008 and 2015 around a fishing conflict in a lake of the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve —RNPS, Peru— revealed the historical, political and cultural vicissitudes of the communal organization of the aquatic spaces of lowland Amazon. The results show that the creation of the protected natural area and its management policies negatively affected the local customs. Although the administration of the natural area discourse promoted collaboration with the inhabitants, it did not take into account local customary norms, Kukama-Kukamiria aquatic cosmology, and notions such as ‘mezquineo,’ which submit to social control the extraction of resources. This paper analyzes the articulations between the implemented institutional management and the customary communal logics that regulated the access and the use of the lake. The research found that both the customary and the state regulations are in dispute over the sovereignty of aquatic spaces, and that co-management has never been fully implemented, given the difficulty of public institutions in sharing power with communities.

  2. MACROPHYTE RICHNESS AND AQUATIC VEGETATION COMPLEXITY OF THE LAKE IDRO (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bolpagni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey was performed to examine the floristic richness and the structural complexity, spatial patterns and conservation value of aquatic plant communities within the littorals of Lake Idro (northern Italy. During the summers of 2010-2011 we proceeded to characterize aquatic macrophyte meadows applying standardized procedures using transects (44 and plots (49 arrayed perpendicular to the shoreline and randomly positioned within the vegetated belt, respectively. Lake Idro is characterized by rather high floristic richness (20 macrophytes but low levels of vegetation structural complexity (8 vegetation units. Nevertheless, a clear zonation of the littoral vegetation was identified with two main macro-layers: a deeper layer (between 6-10 m of depth dominated by Chara globularis and an upper one (from 6 m of depth to water-air atmosphere mainly colonized by alien elodeids (mainly Elodea nuttallii and Lagarosiphon major. For the first time a complete floristic-vegetation analysis of the Lake Idro was presented. Our data confirm the poor ecological status of the basin, even though the lacustrine vegetation can be considered of conservation concern. Further investigations are needed to improve present evaluations, especially with respect to the impact of eutrophication on macrophytic communities.

  3. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radionuclide data bases available for bioaccumulation factors for freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic models currently in use for dose assessment simulate the transfer of radionuclides in aquatic environments and the transfer to man. In these models the assimilation of a radionuclide in aquatic biota is calculated by using a simple empirical relationship known as the bioaccumulation factor (BF) to represent the transfer of the radionuclide from water to organism. The purpose of this article is to review data bases that are available for BFs for freshwater biota and to identify the uncertainties associated with them. Data bases for raidoisotopes of Co, Cs, C, H, I, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, and U are reviewed. With the exception of ruthenium and carbon, the review is restricted to BFs determined for natural freshwater systems. Factors influencing the variability of BFs are identified, uncertainties associated with the validation of BFs are discussed, and some guidance is given for collecting data and measuring BFs

  6. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O'Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h -1 (1 rad d -1 ). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h -1 to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h -1 will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted

  7. Constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming, and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota from the Loch Katrine wetlands at Park County, WY in 1992. This study was designed to determine if produced waters pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. The radium-226 concentration recorded at the Sidney Battery Discharge in July, 93.7 pCi/l, exceeded WY DEQ's 60 pCi/l standard for the protection of aquatic life. Water quality acute criteria were exceeded for arsenic, Custer Lake, July, and for zinc, Sidney Battery discharge, April. Radium-226 concentrations in sediments from Custer Lake and Sidney Battery Discharge exceeded the 3 pCi/g background for Oregon Basin soils. The radium-226 concentration in aquatic vegetation, Custer Lake, 29.5 pCi/g, greatly exceeded the 2.9 pCi/g average concentration found in plants growing in uranium mill tailings in South Dakota. Radium-226 in aquatic vegetation may be available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations, Sidney Battery Discharge, exceeded the 10 mg/l standard of WY DEQ. Sediment hydrocarbon concentrations were highest at Sidney Battery Discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in gadwalls from Loch Katrine but was detected in northern shovelers from Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in shovelers is indicative of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  8. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ON SPRING ABUNDANCE OF AQUATIC MACRO-INVERTEBRATES INHABITING LAKE TIMSAH, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ibrahim Saad El-Din

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Timsah, Egypt receives several kinds of pollutants coming from domestic sewage of unconnected areas adjoining the shore and possibly marine pollution. During the last decades heavy metals have become common contaminants of aquatic and wetland environments throughout the world because of human activity and technological development. Increasing attention has been given during the last decade to the protection of marine and freshwater aquatic environment against pollution, both nationally and internationally. Macro-benthoses are the most commonly organisms used as bio-indicators water quality assessment. All of the aquatic macro-invertebrates that were collected from El-Taween station, Lake Timsah, Egypt fell into three major groups that were fairly easy to identify. They were annelids (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta, molluscs (Bivalvia and Gastropoda and arthropods (Crustacea. The small sized crustacean Sphaeroma. serratum are considered suitable species for aquatic bio-monitoring because they hold an important position in the aquatic food chain responds to many pollutants, easy to culture and has short life cycles. Iron was most important determinant; it appears in high concentrations in both water sample and the tissue of crustacean sample (S. serratum.

  9. Cernavoda NPP impact study on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, Elena; Bucur, Cristina; Popescu, Ion; Simionov, Vasile; Titescu, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against industrial pollutants has been recognized. The concept of sustainable development, requires new and developing international policies for environmental protection. See 'Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation' IAEA-TECDOC-1091, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. As it is recommended in 'Cernavoda Unit No. 2 NPP Environmental Impact Assessment CES-03702-IAD-006', it is Cernavoda NPP responsibility to conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment study, mainly to assess the impact of nuclear power plant operation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Long records from normal operation of Cernavoda Unit 1, wind pattern, meteorological conditions, and source terms data were used to evaluate areas of interest for environmental impact, conducting to a circle of 20 km radius around mentioned nuclear objective. The screening campaign established tritium level (because Cernavoda NPP is a CANDU type reactor, and tritium is the most important radioisotope evacuated in the environment) in air, water, soil and vegetation, focusing the interest area on particular ecosystem. Using these primary data it was evaluated which are the monitored ecological receptors and which are the measurement endpoints.This paper presents the Ecological Risk Assessment at Cernavoda NPP technical requirements, and the preliminary results of evaluating criteria for representative ecosystem components at Cernavoda NPP. (authors)

  10. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Feng, Y.; Galeriu, D.; Heling, R.; Kryshev, A.I.; Kononovich, A.L.; Watkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the accident; (b) assessment of doses to aquatic biota; and (c) assessment of potential doses and radiation risks to humans from consumption of contaminated fish. Calculations for the Scenario were performed by 19 participants using 6 different models: LAKECO-B (Netherlands); LAKEPOND (Romania); POSOD (USA); WATER, GIDRO and ECOMOD-W (Russia). For all endpoints, model predictions were compared with the test data, which were derived from the results of direct measurements and independent dose estimates based on measurements. Most of the models gave satisfactory agreement for some portions of the test data, although very few participants obtained good agreement with all criteria for model testing. The greatest level of difficulty was with the prediction of non-equilibrium radioecological processes in the first year after the accident (1986). The calculations 5 for this scenario gave modellers a unique opportunity to test their models using an independent data base and to analyse the advantages and weaknesses of different model approaches. The use of post-Chernobyl data in such a scenario is also recommended for use in training students in the field of radioecology and environmental protection. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than p

  12. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  13. Specific activity and concentration model applied to 137Cs movement in a eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model which simulates time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radiocesium in lake ecosystems was applied to a shallow, eutrophic lake that had received a pulse input of 137 Cs. Best estimates of transfer coefficients for abiotic compartments (sediment, interstitial water and lake water) and the macrophyte compartment which controlled the mass balance of cesium in water were determined by ''tuning'' our initial estimates of the transfer coefficients to observed data on 137 Cs concentrations and contents of these compartments. In most cases, the optimized transfer coefficients for the abiotic compartments were not greatly different from our independently derived initial estimates, and the simulations for optimized coefficients were close to those based on initial estimates. The 137 Cs concentrations in water as predicted by the optimized transfer coefficients were then used to calculate 137 Cs kinetics in biota other than macrophytes. In general, model simulations were close to concentrations observed in the biota. The agreement between 137 Cs concentrations and simulations in bottom invertebrates supported our assumption that bottom sediments are not a major source of Cs to the biota. Our specific activity and concentration model was compared to the radionuclide content model, the model used in terrestrial ecosystems. For biotic components of aquatic ecosystems, values of α/sub ij/, the transfer coefficients of our model, are easily estimated from turnover rates of radiocesium in individual organisms in the laboratory

  14. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  15. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in global lakes: A review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Song, Wenjuan; Lin, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Du, Linna; Xing, Wei

    2018-04-10

    Lakes are an important source of freshwater, containing nearly 90% of the liquid surface fresh water worldwide. Long retention times in lakes mean pollutants from discharges slowly circulate around the lakes and may lead to high ecological risk for ecosystem and human health. In recent decades, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging pollutants. The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs in global freshwater lakes are summarized to show the pollution level of antibiotics and ARGs and to identify some of the potential risks to ecosystem and human health. Fifty-seven antibiotics were reported at least once in the studied lakes. Our meta-analysis shows that sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfameter, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and roxithromycin were found at high concentrations in both lake water and lake sediment. There is no significant difference in the concentration of sulfonamides in lake water from China and that from other countries worldwide; however, there was a significant difference in quinolones. Erythromycin had the lowest predicted hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC 5 ) and the highest ecological risk in lakes. There was no significant difference in the concentration of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2) in lake water and river water. There is surprisingly limited research on the role of aquatic biota in propagation of ARGs in freshwater lakes. As an environment that is susceptible to cumulative build-up of pollutants, lakes provide an important environment to study the fate of antibiotics and transport of ARGs with a broad range of niches including bacterial community, aquatic plants and animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiency of Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI of macroinvertebrates in detecting aquatic pollution in an oxbow lake in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the efficiency of a macroinvertebrate-based Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI in detecting aquatic pollution in the Chhariganga oxbow lake in India. In this lake, calculated PTIs were compared with results from an array of physicochemical water and sediment parameters and to a macroinvertebrate diversity assessment conducted in parallel for the same lake. The obtained PTI values fell in a range (between 20 and 31 that are indicative of an absence of organic pollution according to the literature, and are normally reported for systems devoid of anthropogenic activity (for instance no monsoonal polluting jute retting activities. However, in the light of the results for the assessed water and sediment physicochemical parameters, and the support of diversity indexes of macroinvertebrates, using data from the same lake, it was possible to conclude that the obtained PTI values do not reflect the true pollution status of this oxbow lake. As PTI values and diversity indexes contradict each other in detecting pollution, it is advised to take both parameters into consideration when using macroinvertebrates to assess aquatic health.

  17. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, Karen A., E-mail: kiddk@unbsj.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G., E-mail: derek.muir@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xioawa, E-mail: xiaowa.wang@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Whittle, Mike [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Swanson, Heidi K., E-mail: heidikswanson@yahoo.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Johnston, Tom, E-mail: tjohnston@laurentian.ca [Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Biology Department, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Guildford, Stephanie, E-mail: sguildfo@d.umn.edu [Department of Biology and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2205 5th St., Duluth, MN, 55812 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The 'rate' of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to {delta}{sup 15}N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N; {delta}{sup 13}C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury biomagnifies through aquatic food webs to toxic levels in top predator fishes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among-system differences in mercury transfer through food webs occur but have not been explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse lakes supporting lake trout were compared to understand the ecosystem processes that affect mercury biomagnification. Black

  18. Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the

  19. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M; Mackay, Eleanor B; Yasseri, Said; Gunn, Iain D M; Waters, Kate E; Andrews, Christopher; Cole, Stephanie; De Ville, Mitzi; Kelly, Andrea; Meis, Sebastian; Moore, Alanna L; Nürnberg, Gertrud K; van Oosterhout, Frank; Pitt, Jo-Anne; Madgwick, Genevieve; Woods, Helen J; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential to promote rapid ecological recovery. We combined data from 18 treated lakes to examine the lake population responses in the 24 months following La-bentonite application (range of La-bentonite loads: 1.4-6.7 tonnes ha(-1)) in concentrations of surface water total phosphorus (TP; data available from 15 lakes), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; 14 lakes), and chlorophyll a (15 lakes), and in Secchi disk depths (15 lakes), aquatic macrophyte species numbers (6 lakes) and aquatic macrophyte maximum colonisation depths (4 lakes) across the treated lakes. Data availability varied across the lakes and variables, and in general monitoring was more frequent closer to the application dates. Median annual TP concentrations decreased significantly across the lakes, following the La-bentonite applications (from 0.08 mg L(-1) in the 24 months pre-application to 0.03 mg L(-1) in the 24 months post-application), particularly in autumn (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.03 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.02 mg L(-1)). Significant decreases in SRP concentrations over annual (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)), summer (0.018 mg L(-1) to 0.004 mg L(-1)), autumn (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.033 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) periods were also reported. P concentrations following La-bentonite application varied across the lakes and were correlated positively with dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Relatively weak, but significant responses were reported for summer chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi disk depths following La-bentonite applications, the 75th percentile values decreasing from 119 μg L(-1) to 74 μg L(-1) and increasing from

  20. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations...... of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota....... The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities...

  1. Response of aquatic macrophytes to human land use perturbations in the watersheds of Wisconsin lakes, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Laura L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Hauxwell, Jennifer A.; Wagner, Kelly; Knight, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macrophyte communities were assessed in 53 lakes in Wisconsin, U.S.A. along environmental and land use development gradients to determine effects human land use perturbations have on aquatic macrophytes at the watershed and riparian development scales. Species richness and relative frequency were surveyed in lakes from two ecoregions: the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plain Ecoregion. Lakes were selected along a gradient of watershed development ranging from undeveloped (i.e., forested), to agricultural to urban development. Land uses occurring in the watershed and in perimeters of different width (0–100, 0–200, 0–500, and 0–1000 m from shore, in the watershed) were used to assess effects on macrophyte communities. Snorkel and SCUBA were used to survey aquatic macrophyte species in 18 quadrats of 0.25 m2 along 14 transects placed perpendicular to shore in each lake. Effects of watershed development (e.g., agriculture and/or urban) were tested at whole-lake (entire littoral zone) and near-shore (within 7 m of shore) scales using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and linear regression. Overall, species richness was negatively related to watershed development, while frequencies of individual species and groups differed in level of response to different land use perturbations. Effects of land use in the perimeters on macrophytes, with a few exceptions, did not provide higher correlations compared to land use at the watershed scale. In lakes with higher total watershed development levels, introduced species, particularly Myriophyllumspicatum, increased in abundance and native species, especially potamids, isoetids, and floating-leaved plants, declined in abundance. Correlations within the northern and southeastern ecoregions separately were not significant. Multivariate analyses suggested species composition is driven by environmental responses as well as human development pressures. Both water

  2. Phosphorus availability from bottom sediments of lakes using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, F.; Facetti, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Availability of phosphorus from the bottom sediments of a lake plays an import role in the development of aquatic biota and in the enhancement of eutrophication process. In this work the 31 P↔ 32 P isotopic exchange (E values) technique was applied to assess the potential influence of this phosphorus reservoir on the water quality of Acaray and Yguazu Dams, at the Eastern Region of Paraguay. Samples analyzed were taken from the bottom sediments of the water bodies at different sites as well as from the shores. The method is reliable and yields information of ecological significance

  3. Temporal changes in the distribution, methylation, and bioaccumulation of newly deposited mercury in an aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orihel, Diane M. [Clayton H. Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada)], E-mail: orihel@ualberta.ca; Paterson, Michael J.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Bodaly, R.A. [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Gilmour, Cynthia C. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037 (United States); Hintelmann, Holger [Department of Chemistry, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Our objective was to examine how the behavior of atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposited to boreal lake mesocosms changed over time. We added inorganic Hg enriched in a different stable isotope in each of two years, which allowed us to differentiate between Hg added in the first and second year. Although inorganic Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) continued to accumulate in sediments throughout the experiment, the availability of MeHg to the food web declined within one year. This decrease was detected in periphyton, zooplankton, and water mites, but not in gomphid larvae, amphipods, or fish. We suggest that reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition should lead to decreases in MeHg concentrations in biota, but that changes will be more easily detected in short-lived pelagic species than long-lived species associated with benthic food webs. - Mercury deposited to aquatic ecosystems becomes less available for uptake by biota over time.

  4. Mercury biomagnification in three geothermally-influenced lakes differing in chemistry and algal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Piet; Hickey, Christopher W.; Phillips, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of Hg in aquatic organisms is influenced not only by the contaminant load but also by various environmental variables. We compared biomagnification of Hg in aquatic organisms, i.e., the rate at which Hg accumulates with increasing trophic position, in three lakes differing in trophic state. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in food webs were compared in an oligotrophic, a mesotrophic and a eutrophic lake with naturally elevated levels of Hg associated with geothermal water inputs. We explored relationships of physico-chemistry attributes of lakes with Hg concentrations in fish and biomagnification in the food web. Trophic positions of biota and food chain length were distinguished by stable isotope 15 N. As expected, THg in phytoplankton decreased with increasing eutrophication, suggesting the effect of biomass dilution. In contrast, THg biomagnification and THg concentrations in trout were controlled by environmental physico-chemistry and were highest in the eutrophic lake. In the more eutrophic lake frequent anoxia occurred, resulting in favorable conditions for Hg transfer into and up the food chain. The average concentration of THg in the top predator (rainbow trout) exceeded the maximum recommended level for consumption by up to 440%. While there were differences between lakes in food chain length between plankton and trout, THg concentration in trout did not increase with food chain length, suggesting other factors were more important. Differences between the lakes in biomagnification and THg concentration in trout correlated as expected from previous studies with eight physicochemical variables, resulting in enhanced biomagnification of THg in the eutrophic lake. - Highlights: • Relationships between Hg biomagnification and 11 variables in 3 lakes. • Hg in trout too high for consumption in two geothermally-influenced lakes. • Hg biomagnification was highest in the most eutrophic lake. • First study to compare Hg biomagnification in lakes

  5. Mercury biomagnification in three geothermally-influenced lakes differing in chemistry and algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Piet, E-mail: piet.verburg@niwa.co.nz; Hickey, Christopher W.; Phillips, Ngaire

    2014-09-15

    Accumulation of Hg in aquatic organisms is influenced not only by the contaminant load but also by various environmental variables. We compared biomagnification of Hg in aquatic organisms, i.e., the rate at which Hg accumulates with increasing trophic position, in three lakes differing in trophic state. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in food webs were compared in an oligotrophic, a mesotrophic and a eutrophic lake with naturally elevated levels of Hg associated with geothermal water inputs. We explored relationships of physico-chemistry attributes of lakes with Hg concentrations in fish and biomagnification in the food web. Trophic positions of biota and food chain length were distinguished by stable isotope {sup 15}N. As expected, THg in phytoplankton decreased with increasing eutrophication, suggesting the effect of biomass dilution. In contrast, THg biomagnification and THg concentrations in trout were controlled by environmental physico-chemistry and were highest in the eutrophic lake. In the more eutrophic lake frequent anoxia occurred, resulting in favorable conditions for Hg transfer into and up the food chain. The average concentration of THg in the top predator (rainbow trout) exceeded the maximum recommended level for consumption by up to 440%. While there were differences between lakes in food chain length between plankton and trout, THg concentration in trout did not increase with food chain length, suggesting other factors were more important. Differences between the lakes in biomagnification and THg concentration in trout correlated as expected from previous studies with eight physicochemical variables, resulting in enhanced biomagnification of THg in the eutrophic lake. - Highlights: • Relationships between Hg biomagnification and 11 variables in 3 lakes. • Hg in trout too high for consumption in two geothermally-influenced lakes. • Hg biomagnification was highest in the most eutrophic lake. • First study to compare Hg biomagnification in

  6. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  7. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), 1847-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, with an area of about 6000 square kilometers at its historic high elevation. Since its historic low elevation of 1277.52 meters in 1963, the lake has risen to a new historic high elevation of 1283.77 meters in 1986-1987, a net increase of about 6.25 meters. About 60 percent of this increase, 3.72 meters, has occurred since 1982 in response to greater than average precipitation and less than average evaporation. Variations in salinity have resulted in changes in the composition of the aquatic biological community which consists of bacteria, protozoa, brine shrimp and brine flies. These changes were particularly evident following the completion of a causeway in 1959 which divided the lake. Subsequent salinities in the north part of the lake have ranged from 16 to 29 percent and in the south part from 6 to 28 percent. Accompanying the rise in lake elevation from 1982 to 1987 have been large decreases in salinity of both parts of the lake. This has resulted in changes in the biota from obligate halophiles, such as Dunaliella salina and D. viridis, to opportunistic forms such as a blue-green alga (Nodularia spumigena). The distribution and abundance of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in the lake also have followed closely the salinity. In 1986, when the salinity of the south part of the lake was about 6 percent, a population of brackish-water killifish (Lucania parva) was observed along the shore near inflow from a spring. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  9. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  10. Cyanotoxins in arctic lakes of southwestern Greenland and the potential for toxin transfer within-lake and across the aquatic-terrestrial boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout-Haney, J. V.; Cottingham, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic lakes are often characterized as low-resource environments in which the autotrophic community is limited by factors such as nutrients, temperature, and light. Studies of cyanotoxins have traditionally focused on nutrient-rich lakes with conspicuous blooms, however toxigenic cyanobacteria are confined to neither high nutrient environments nor planktonic taxa. We quantified the occurrence of cyanotoxins across 19 arctic lakes of varying size and depth in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwestern Greenland. Whole lake water microcystins (MC) were detected in all lakes and ranged from low (100 ng/L) concentrations. Benthic colonial cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc are a prominent feature of certain lakes in this region, with estimated densities ranging between 500 and >500,000 colonies per lake. MC were present in the tissue of Nostoc colonies (95% CI, 1638.9 - 3237.6 pg MC (g wet weight)-1) and were actively released by colonies into surrounding water in laboratory trials. These results highlight the potential importance of toxic benthic cyanobacteria in lake ecosystems. Further, we investigated the transfer of these cyanotoxins to other organisms in the lake as well as several mechanisms (i.e., emerging insects, aerosols) that may influence the movement of toxins into the terrestrial ecosystem. The presence and movement of cyanotoxins in the coupled terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem demonstrate that high-latitude lakes can support toxigenic cyanobacteria, and that we may be underestimating the potential for these systems to develop high levels of toxicity in the future.

  11. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  12. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  13. Effects of flow dynamics on the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone (ATTZ) of lower Missouri river sandbars with implications for selected biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy-Smith, Emily; Galat, David L.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Sandbars are an important aquatic terrestrial transition zone (ATTZ) in the active channel of rivers that provide a variety of habitat conditions for riverine biota. Channelization and flow regulation in many large rivers have diminished sandbar habitats and their rehabilitation is a priority. We developed sandbar-specific models of discharge-area relationships to determine how changes in flow regime affect the area of different habitat types within the submerged sandbar ATTZ (depth) and exposed sandbar ATTZ (elevation) for a representative sample of Lower Missouri River sandbars. We defined six different structural habitat types within the sandbar ATTZ based on depth or exposed elevation ranges that are important to different biota during at least part of their annual cycle for either survival or reproduction. Scenarios included the modelled natural flow regime, current managed flow regime and two environmental flow options, all modelled within the contemporary river active channel. Thirteen point and wing-dike sandbars were evaluated under four different flow scenarios to explore the effects of flow regime on seasonal habitat availability for foraging of migratory shorebirds and wading birds, nesting of softshell turtles and nursery of riverine fishes. Managed flows provided more foraging habitat for shorebirds and wading birds and more nursery habitat for riverine fishes within the channelized reach sandbar ATTZ than the natural flow regime or modelled environmental flows. Reduced summer flows occurring under natural and environmental flow alternatives increased exposed sandbar nesting habitat for softshell turtle hatchling emergence. Results reveal how management of channelized and flow regulated large rivers could benefit from a modelling framework that couples hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics to predict habitat conditions for a variety of biota.

  14. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    pollution of the Ase-creek. Metal concentrations in the fish species and aquatic plants in this study .... analysis of water, fishes and aquatic plants samples from Ase-Creek in the Niger .... Speciation in the Environment. Blackie A and P, New.

  15. Phosphorus availability from bottom sediments of lakes using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, F.; Facetti, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Availability of phosphorus from the bottom sediments of a lake plays an import role in the development of aquatic biota and in the enhancement of the eutrophication process. In this work, the 31 P- 32 P isotopic exchange (E values) technique was applied to assess the potential influence of this phosphorus 'reservoir' on the water quality of the Acaray and Yguazu Dams in the Easter Region of Paraguay. Samples analyzed were taken from the bottom sediments of the water body at different sites as well as from the shores. The method is reliable and yields information of potential ecological significance. (author) 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Long-Term Evaluation of Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York; An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmers, John

    1997-01-01

    After the open-water disposal of dredged sediments was observed to have deleterious effects on the aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes, an alternative was sought to reduce the exposure of lake biota...

  17. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  18. Exploring the Spatial-Seasonal Dynamics of Water Quality, Submerged Aquatic Plants and Their Influencing Factors in Different Areas of a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality in lakes and its negative effects on freshwater ecosystems have become a serious problem worldwide. Exploring the dynamics in the associated factors is essential for water pollution management and control. GIS interpolation, principal component analysis (PCA and multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the main pollution sources in different areas of Honghu Lake. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphate (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+–N, and permanganate index (CODMn have similar characteristics and that their values gradually increased from south to north during the three seasons in Honghu Lake. The major influencing factors of water quality varied across the different areas and seasons. The relatively high concentrations of TN and TP, which might limit the growth of submerged aquatic plants, were mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. Our work suggests that spatial analyses combined with PCA are useful for investigating the factors that influence water quality and submerged aquatic plant biomass in different areas of a lake. These findings provide sound information for the future water quality management of the lake or even the entire lake basin.

  19. From "Duck Factory" to "Fish Factory": Climate induced changes in vertebrate communities of prairie pothole wetlands and small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region’s myriad wetlands and small lakes contribute to its stature as the “duck factory” of North America. The fishless nature of the region’s aquatic habitats, a result of frequent drying, freezing, and high salinity, influences its importance to waterfowl. Recent precipitation increases have resulted in higher water levels and wetland/lake freshening. In 2012–13, we sampled chemical characteristics and vertebrates (fish and salamanders) of 162 Prairie Pothole wetlands and small lakes. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and bootstrapping techniques to reveal relationships. We found fish present in a majority of sites (84 %). Fish responses to water chemistry varied by species. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) occurred across the broadest range of conditions. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) occurred in a smaller, chemically defined, subset. Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile) were restricted to the narrowest range of conditions. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) rarely occurred in lakes with fish. We also compared our chemical data to similar data collected in 1966–1976 to explore factors contributing to the expansion of fish into previously fishless sites. Our work contributes to a better understanding of relationships between aquatic biota and climate-induced changes in this ecologically important area.

  20. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton acts as a primary producer and biological filter of aquatic ecosystem. Jute retting during monsoon is a common anthropological activity in the rural Bengal. Quantitative seasonal bio-monitoring of phytoplankton community composition with relative abundance and its diversity indices was carried out in this study from April 2013 to March 2014 to assess water quality and the impact of jute retting on phytoplankton diversity of a tropical fresh water oxbow lake in Nadia district of India. We recorded a total of 34 genera of 5 distinct classes, Chlorophyceae (15, Bacillariophyceae (13, Cyanophyceae (4, Dinophyceae (1 and Euglenophyceae (1. Members of Chlorophyceae dominated throughout the year. Unlike Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae was found to be significantly increased during monsoon when compared to the rest of the year. Average phytoplankton density was highest in post-monsoon (8760/L followed by monsoon (4680/L and pre-monsoon (3650/L. Owing to the dominance of class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae we found this lake to be oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Indices values of genera richness, Shannon-Wiener, evenness and Simpson’s diversity reached their lowest 14, 1.61, 0.61 and 0.68 in monsoon and highest 23, 2.42, 0.77 and 0.86 in post monsoon respectively. The lowest diversity values during monsoon clearly suggested that the selected lake has highest anthropogenic pollution due to jute retting which impacted significantly on phytoplankton diversity. Therefore, the lake is not conducive for fish growth especially during monsoon and we opine that there is a need to regulate jute retting process, intensity and its density in the lake during the monsoon to ensure enhanced biodiversity for sustainable management and conservation of aquatic environment of this Oxbow lake.

  1. Effects of Hypolimnetic Oxygenation on Mercury Cycling in Twin Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, M.; Dent, S.; Reed, B.; Moore, B.; Yonge, D.; Shallenberger, E.

    2010-12-01

    , particularly late in the fall. Analytical work and data analysis is ongoing to measure methylmercury in zooplankton and normalize mercury levels in zooplankton to zooplankton density to account for the potential effects of biodilution. This study sheds light on the complex biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation of mercury in lakes and the effects of hypolimnetic oxygenation on methylmercury cycling in lake ecosystems. With few management options available to resource managers, and limited near-term improvements expected from source control efforts, applied research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of in-lake management strategies, such as lake oxygenation, in repressing mercury accumulation in aquatic biota.

  2. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  4. Non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fisheries of the Susquehanna River from the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, C.R. Jr.; Samworth, R.B.

    1979-11-01

    The non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fishes of the Susquehanna River from the March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station were assessed through the post-accident period of July 1979. Thermal and chemical discharges during the period did not exceed required effluent limitations. Several million gallons of treated industrial waste effluents were released into the river which were not of unusual volumes compared with normal operation and were a very small proportion of the seasonally high river flows. The extent and relative location of the effluent plume were defined and the fisheries known to have been under its immediate influence were identified, including rough, forage, and predator/sport fishery species

  5. Evaluation of Green-LiDAR Data for Mapping Extent, Density and Height of Aquatic Reed Beds at Lake Chiemsee, Bavaria—Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Corti Meneses

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic reed is an important indicator for the ecological assessment of freshwater lakes. Monitoring is essential to document its expansion or deterioration and decline. The applicability of Green-LiDAR data for the status assessment of aquatic reed beds of Bavarian freshwater lakes was investigated. The study focused on mapping diagnostic structural parameters of aquatic reed beds by exploring 3D data provided by the Green-LiDAR system. Field observations were conducted over 14 different areas of interest along 152 cross-sections. The data indicated the morphologic and phenologic traits of aquatic reed, which were used for validation purposes. For the automatic classification of aquatic reed bed spatial extent, density and height, a rule-based algorithm was developed. LiDAR data allowed for the delimitating of the aquatic reed frontline, as well as shoreline, and therefore an accurate quantification of extents (Hausdorff distance = 5.74 m and RMSE of cross-sections length 0.69 m. The overall accuracy measured for aquatic reed bed density compared to the simultaneously recorded aerial imagery was 96% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.91 and 72% (Kappa = 0.5 compared to field measurements. Digital Surface Models (DSM, calculated from point clouds, similarly showed a high level of agreement in derived heights of flat surfaces (RMSE = 0.1 m and showed an adequate agreement of aquatic reed heights with evenly distributed errors (RMSE = 0.8 m. Compared to field measurements, aerial laser scanning delivered valuable information with no disturbance of the habitat. Analysing data with our classification procedure improved the efficiency, reproducibility, and accuracy of the quantification and monitoring of aquatic reed beds.

  6. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  7. Integrating remote sensing approach with pollution monitoring tools for aquatic ecosystem risk assessment and management: a case study of Lake Victoria (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Silvia; Corsi, Ilaria; Mazzuoli, Stefania; Vignoli, Leonardo; Loiselle, Steven A; Focardi, Silvano

    2006-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems around the world, lake, estuaries and coastal areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic pollutants through different sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban discharges, atmospheric deposition and terrestrial drainage. Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world and the largest tropical lake. Bordered by Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya, it provides a livelihood for millions of Africans in the region. However, the lake is under threat from eutrophication, a huge decline in the number of native fish species caused by several factors including loss of biodiversity, over fishing and pollution has been recently documented. Increasing usage of pesticides and insecticides in the adjacent agricultural areas as well as mercury contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores are currently considered among the most emergent phenomena of chemical contamination in the lake. By the application of globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial data-sets based on remote sensing integrated with information on heavy metals accumulation and insecticides exposure in native and alien fish populations, the present study aims at assessing the environmental risk associated to the contamination of the Lake Victoria water body on fish health, land cover distribution, biodiversity and the agricultural area surrounding the lake. By the elaboration of Landsat 7 TM data of November 2002 and Landsat 7 TM 1986 we have calculated the agriculture area which borders the Lake Victoria bay, which is an upland plain. The resulting enhanced nutrient loading to the soil is subsequently transported to the lake by rain or as dry fall. The data has been inserted in a Geographical information System (ARCGIS) to be upgraded and consulted. Heavy metals in fish fillets showed concentrations rather low except for mercury being higher than others as already described in previous investigations. In the same tissue, cholinesterases activity (ChE) as an

  8. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.F.; Nagorskaya, L.L.; Smith, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in 137 Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m -2 and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 μGy h -1 . General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since 90 Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by 90 Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: → We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. → Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. → No relationship between

  9. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Bogle, M.A.; Brantley, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239 Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  10. Investigation on applicability of Biota dose assessment model to Japanese environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Isao; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    We examined applicability of established assessment tools to Japanese environment, which are developed to evaluate radiological impact for biota. In this study, we chose two assessment tools, the one is RESRAD-BIOTA which was developed by US-DOE, and the other is ERICA assessment tools which developed by EURATOM. We considered paddy field as the typical Asian environment and used maximum of global fallout nuclide concentrations which were monitored in Joetsu. From our trial calculation for general screening, Tier 1 of ERICA suggested that concentration of 137 Cs in aquatic systems is exceeded the screening level. On the other hand, RESRAD-BIOTA, concentration of 90 Sr, and terrestrial systems in ERICA were less than screening levels. Thus, we proceeded to apply the ERICA Tier 2 using with same parameter set in Tier 1, and found that each species was not exceeded the screening level. Finally, we calculated dosimetries of considerable species living in paddy field. We tested both tools and we adopted ERICA because of flexibility in body dimensions of adding organism. From our calculation, we concluded that graded approaches which are adopted in RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA are effective to apply Japanese environment. (author)

  11. Aquatic environmental assessment of Lake Balaton in the light of physical-chemical water parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyén, Vitkor; Németh, József; Juzsakova, Tatjana; Domokos, Endre; Kovács, Zsófia; Rédey, Ákos

    2017-11-01

    One of the issues of the Hungarian Water Management Strategy is the improvement and upgrading of the water of Lake Balaton. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) specifies and sets forth the achievement of the good ecological status. However, the assessment of the water quality of the lake as a complex system requires a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation procedure. Measurements were carried out around the Lake Balaton at ten different locations/sites and 13 physical-chemical parameters were monitored at each measurement site.For the interpretation of the water chemistry parameters the Aquatic Environmental Assessment (AEA) method devised by authors was used for the water body of the Lake Balaton. The AEA method can be used for all types of the water bodies since it is flexible and using individual weighting procedure for the water chemistry parameters comprehensive information can be obtain. The AEA method was compared with existing EIA methods according to a predefined criterion system and proved to be the most suitable tool for evaluating the environmental impacts in our study.On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the status of the quality of studied area on the Lake Balaton can be categorized as proper quality (from the outcome of the ten measurement sites this conclusion was reached at seven sites).

  12. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances.

  13. Patterns of transuranic uptake by aquatic organisms: consequences and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Literature on the behavior of plutonium and transuranic elements in aquatic organisms is reviewed. The commonality of observed distribution coefficients over a wide array of aquatic environments (both freshwater and marine) and the lack of biomagnification in aquatic food chains from these environments are demonstrated. These findings lead to the conclusion that physical processes dominate in the transfer of transuranic elements from aquatic environments to man. The question of the nature of the association of plutonium with aquatic biota (surface sorption vs biological incorporation) is discussed as well as the importance of short food chains in the transfer of plutonium to man

  14. Assessing the suitability of stream water for five different uses and its aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Surface water is one of the essential resources for supporting sustainable development. The suitability of such water for a given use depends both on the available quantity and tolerable quality. Temporary status for a surface water quality has been identified extensively. Still the suitability of the water for different purposes needs to be verified. This study proposes a water quality evaluation system to assess the aptitude of the Selangor River water for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport, irrigation use, livestock watering, and aquaculture use. Aptitude of the water has been classified in many parts of the river segment as unsuitable for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport as well as aquaculture use. The water quality aptitude classes of the stream water for nine locations along the river are evaluated to contribute to decision support system. The suitability of the water for five different uses and its aquatic ecosystem are verified.

  15. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  16. Millennial-scale variability in Holocene aquatic productivity from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Finney, Bruce P.; Dorfman, Jason M.; Stansell, Nathan D.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene records of lacustrine primary production are commonly used to reconstruct past changes in environmental and climatic conditions. While several methods exist to infer paleoproductivity trends, few studies to date have applied multiple geochemical indices in the same core sequence from Arctic lakes to evaluate their fidelity and sensitivity to specific climate variables over long (Holocene length) timescales. In this study, we evaluate sub-century to millennial-scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity over the Holocene using geochemical (biogenic opal and sedimentary chlorin) analyses of sediments from Burial Lake in the western Brooks Range, Alaska. Large fluctuations in opal and related proxies occur at millennial timescales over the last 10,000 years. We interpret the changes in opal to result from variability in diatom productivity, which is indirectly mediated by climate primarily through changes in the duration of the ice-free growing season and the availability of limiting nutrients at this oligotrophic, tundra lake. Comparison of the opal and sedimentary chlorin record, which is correlated with TOC, shows contrasting patterns on both short (century to multi-century) and relatively long (millennial) time scales. The concentration of opal far exceeds that of TOC and variations in sediment dry bulk density, driven by changes in the accumulation of opal, are likely responsible in part for the variations in sedimentary chlorin. Further, C/N ratio values indicate a mixed algal-terrestrial source of sedimentary organic matter. This result highlights the complexity in the climatic interpretation of sedimentary chlorin as an index of whole lake production, because the signal is prone to dilution/concentration from opal and also reflects a combination of aquatic and terrestrial production. Time series analysis of the productivity records indicates the presence of a significant ∼1500-yr oscillation in opal concentration, which has been found in North Atlantic

  17. Monitoring a newly re-born patient: water quality and cyanotoxin occurrence in a reconstructed shallow Mediterranean lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Gkelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Karla (Central Greece is a unique example - at European scale - of a shallow lake ecosystem that was dried in the 1960s and in 2009 started to be restored. The lake is listed in the network of the Greek protected areas as it is considered a vital aquatic ecosystem, in terms of biodiversity. It has, however, already been adversely affected by both agricultural and industrial land uses in the surrounding area, leading to eutrophication and shifting algal community towards bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterial species. After repeated heavy-blooms, cyanotoxin occurrence and mass fish kills, the local ecosystem management authority has implemented a water quality monitoring program (July 2013 - July 2015 to assess environmental pressures and the response of aquatic biota in the lake. Microscopic, immunological, and molecular techniques combined with physico-chemical parameters, complemented by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were used to monitor cyanobacteria blooms and the associated cyanotoxin production from three different sites in Lake Karla and from the adjacent Kalamaki Reservoir. Water quality was also assessed by the structure of benthic invertebrate community on the sediment. Cyanobacteria were the main phytoplankton component, representing more than 70% of the total phytoplankton abundance; dominant taxa belonged to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Limnothrix redekei, Anabaenopsis elenkinii, and Microcystis spp. Euglenophytes (Euglena, diatoms (Nitzschia, and chlorophytes (Scenedesmus were also important phytoplankton constituents. LC-MS/MS confirmed the co-occurrence of microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, neo-saxitoxin and anatoxin-a. The occurrence of cyanotoxins in relation to the persistent and dominant cyanobacteria and the impact of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms on the newly constructed lake along with the land uses and the emergent mitigation measures are discussed.

  18. Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to typical non human biota around Kaiga nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Joshi, R.M.; Ajith, T.L.; Ravi, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to prove exclusively that biota is sufficiently protected from ionizing radiation since pathway leading to biota exposure is quite different compared to that for human being and non human biota has access to contaminated areas while human access is limited. The radiation from purely natural sources may be a useful benchmark since radiation at these levels is tolerated by biota. This paper presents the estimation of radiation dose to typical members of biota around Kaiga site, which includes a herbivorous mammalian species (cow), one avio fauna (pigeon), one burrowing animal (earthworm) and an aquatic animal (fish). The internal and external doses to species from naturally occurring radio nuclides were evaluated from concentrations of radio nuclides in soil, air, water and dietary items and the relevant concentration factors. An attempt is made for the evaluation of dose to above biota from reactor originated radio nuclides. The study identifies the most significant radionuclide, most significant pathway leading to radiological risk to member of biota from natural sources and reactor-produced radionuclides. From the computed dose to biota per unit release from reactor, study identifies the significant radionuclide and pathways for reactor produced radionuclides. The study conclusively proves that biota dose from reactor produced radionuclides from KGS is negligible. (author)

  19. Radiological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on aquatic biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of contaminants; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. Unlike exposures to chemicals, which are expressed as the concentration in water or sediment, exposures to radionuclides are expressed as the dose rate received by the organism. The recommended acceptable dose rate to natural populations of aquatic biota is 1 rad d{sup {minus}1}. Blaylock, Frank, and O`Neal provide formulas and exposure factors for estimating the dose rates to representative aquatic organisms. Those formulas were used herein to calculate the water and sediment concentrations that result in a total dose rate of 1 rad d{sup {minus}1} to fish for selected radionuclides. These radiological benchmarks are intended for use at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation and at the Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plants as screening values only to show the nature and extent of contamination and identify the need for additional site-specific investigation.

  20. Radiological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on aquatic biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of contaminants; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. Unlike exposures to chemicals, which are expressed as the concentration in water or sediment, exposures to radionuclides are expressed as the dose rate received by the organism. The recommended acceptable dose rate to natural populations of aquatic biota is 1 rad d -1 . Blaylock, Frank, and O'Neal provide formulas and exposure factors for estimating the dose rates to representative aquatic organisms. Those formulas were used herein to calculate the water and sediment concentrations that result in a total dose rate of 1 rad d -1 to fish for selected radionuclides. These radiological benchmarks are intended for use at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation and at the Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plants as screening values only to show the nature and extent of contamination and identify the need for additional site-specific investigation

  1. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  2. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N.; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ 15 N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  4. Application of Bayesian Network modeling on the stability and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in aquatic ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ondiaka, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The stability of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the aquatic systems influences their eventual interactions with aquatic biota – and subsequently the observed toxic effects. Increasing data suggests that physicochemical properties of ENMs...

  5. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  6. Emergent Macrophytes Support Zooplankton in a Shallow Tropical Lake: A Basis for Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Kifle, Demeke; Triest, Ludwig

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the biodiversity value of littoral zones of lakes is a priority for aquatic biodiversity conservation. However, less emphasis has been given to the littoral part of tropical African lakes, with many of the previous researches focusing only on the open water side. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the littoral zone of a shallow freshwater tropical lake (Ziway, Ethiopia), dominated by two emergent macrophytes, on zooplankton community structure. We hypothesized that the wetland vegetation serves as a preferred microhabitat for zooplankton communities. A lake with substantial coverage of emergent macrophytes was monitored monthly from January to August, 2016. The monitoring included the measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Sampling sites were selected to represent areas of the macrophyte vegetation ( Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) and the open water part of the lake. Sites with macrophyte vegetation were found to be the home of more dense and diverse zooplankton community. However, during the period of high vegetation loss, the density of crustacean zooplankton showed significant reduction within the patches of macrophytes. From biodiversity conservation perspective, it was concluded that the preservation of such small areas of macrophytes covering the littoral zone of lakes could be as important as protecting the whole lake. However, the rapid degradation of wetland vegetation by human activities is a real threat to the lake ecosystem. In the not-too-far future, it could displace and evict riparian vegetation and the biota it supports.

  7. Hydro biological investigations of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheikaite, S.; Sinkevichiene, Z.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Astrauskas, A.; Barshiene, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purposes of this research were to investigate changes in the physical, chemical and tropic conditions of Lake Drukshiai caused by the combined effect of Ignalina NPP and how it effects on structures and function of biocenoses; to estimate the influence of phytocenoses, zoocenoses and bacteriocenoses on the quality of water in Lake Drukshiai; to estimate the eco toxicological state of Lake Drukshiai. According to the complex hydro biological investigations on Lake Drukshiai - Ignalina NPP cooler great changes in planktonic organism community, tendencies of those changes in different ecological zones were evaluated in 1993 - 1997. The amount of species of most dominant planktonic organisms in 1993 - 1997 decreased 2-3 times in comparison with that before Ignalina NPP operation: phytoplankton from 116 to 40 - 50, zooplankton - from 233 to 139. The organic matter increasing tendency was determined in bottom sediments of the lake. The highest amount of it was evaluated in the south - eastern part of the lake. 69 water macrophyte species were found in bottom sediments during the investigation period. 16 species were not found in this lake earlier. Abundance of filamentous green algae was registered.The rates of fish communities successional transformation were ten times in excess of those of the given processes in natural lakes. Moreover the comparison of results on Lake Drukshiai bioindication analysis with changes of comparable bio markers which were obtained from other water systems of Lithuania, Switzerland, Sweden and Poland, including those with active nuclear power plants in their environment was carried out. It was determined that the functional and structural changes in Lake Drukshiai biota are mostly caused by chemical pollution. It was found out that the frequency of cytogenetic damage emerged as a specific radionuclide - caused effect in aquatic organisms inhabiting Lake Drukshiai, is slightly above the background level and is 5 times lower than the same

  8. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  10. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    aggregation behaviour after sunlight exposure was observed for bare QDs. These results further emphasize that the shell of QDs seems to make them less harmful to aquatic biota, both under standard environmental conditions and after the exposure to a relevant abiotic factor like sunlight.

  11. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  12. Abstracts of the 31. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, L.E.; Haya, K.; Niimi, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for an informal exchange of recent research information and knowledge on aquatic and environmental toxicology. Topics ranged from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, setting regulations and developing criteria for sediment and water quality. The workshops were attended by representatives from industry, governments and universities. The current challenges and approaches to deal with aquatic toxicology and their biological effect on aquatic biota were discussed. The sessions were entitled as follows: environmental effects monitoring; pesticides; ecological risk assessment; sediment disposal at sea; oil and gas; pharmaceuticals; artifactual toxicity in municipal waste water; sediment and soil toxicity; contaminants in aquatic systems; biological effects; and discoveries in aquatic sciences. The conference included 4 plenary sessions and 119 platform papers, of which 24 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in a food web from a large, shallow, hypereutrophic lake (Lake Taihu) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Li, Biao; Zhang, Mingmei; Xing, Denghua; Jia, Yonfeng; Wei, Chaoyang

    2011-08-01

    Due to the fast development of industry and the overuse of agrichemicals in past decades, Lake Taihu, an important source of aquatic products for Eastern China, has simultaneously suffered mercury (Hg) contamination and eutrophication. The objectives of this study are to understand Hg transfer in the food web in this eutrophic, shallow lake and to evaluate the exposure risk of Hg through fish consumption. Biota samples including macrophytes, sestons, benthic animals, and fish were collected from Lake Taihu in the fall of 2009. The total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), δ(13)C and δ(15)N in the samples were measured. The signature for δ(15)N increased with the trophic levels. Along with a diet composed of fish, the significant relationship between the δ(13)C and δ(15)N indicated that a pelagic foraging habitat is the dominant pathway for energy transfer in Lake Taihu. The concentrations of THg and MeHg in the organisms varied dramatically by ∼3 orders of magnitude from primary producers (macrophytes and sestons) to piscivorous fish. The highest concentrations of both THg (100 ng g(-1)) and MeHg (66 ng g(-1)), however, were lower than the guideline of 200 ng g(-1) of MeHg for vulnerable populations that is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of THg and MeHg of 92 and 56 ng day(-1) kg(-1) body weight, respectively, was generally lower than the tolerable intake of 230 ng day(-1) kg(-1) body weight for children recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Significant relationships between the δ(15)N and the logarithm of THg and MeHg showed an obvious biomagnification of Hg along the food web. The logarithmic bioaccumulation factor of MeHg in the fish (up to 5.7) from Lake Taihu, however, was relatively low compared to that of other aquatic ecosystems. Health risk of exposure to Hg by consumption of fish for local residents is relatively low in the Lake Taihu area. Dilution of Hg levels in

  14. Distribution of C, N, P in aquatic plants of some lakes in the middle of Yangtze river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang; Wu Ying; Zhou Juzhen; Zhang Jing; Li Wei

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing three elements (C, N, P, 13 C) in the ten aquatic plants of nine lakes in the middle of Yangtze River, the concentrations of C, N and δ 13 C in leaves of aquatic macrophytes depend on the environment where they live in. The concentration of C and N in leaves of submerged macrophytes is significantly lower than that of leaves of floating and emergent macrophytes because of limitation of inorganic carbon; And at the same time, because δ 13 C of inorganic carbon in water is higher than that of CO 2 in air, δ 13 C of leaves of submerged macrophytes is higher than that of leaves of floating and emergent macrophytes. (authors)

  15. Carbon-14 Specific Activity Model Validation for Biota in Wetland Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Sharp, K.J.; Benz, M.L.; Carr, J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    2008-01-01

    biota were compared to levels measured in environmental media (including moss, soil and air) to determine whether concentrations in such media reflect animal exposure, for application in routine environmental monitoring programs on the CRL site. In general, for most types of receptor animals, 14 C specific activities were found to be similar to or less than those measured in air, soil and surface vegetation at all locations sampled, suggesting that in most cases, estimates of 14 C levels in animals could either be realistically or conservatively predicted based on the values measured in environmental media. In the case of fungi, receptor-to-media 14 C specific activity ratios fell between 0.04 and 0.23 relative to air, between 0.03 and 0.70 relative to soil, and between 0.078 and 0.31 relative to moss. Small mammal specific activities also generally fell well below those that would be predicted based on specific activities measured in environmental media, with ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.36 relative to air, from 0.17 to 0.85 relative to soil and from 0.21 to 0.58 relative to moss. Similar ratios were also established for snakes; however, a notable exception occurred for amphibians, a type of animal that tends to spend relatively more time in aquatic environments than the other species tested. In the case of Duke Swamp amphibians, animal-to-air 14 C specific activity ratios ranged from 0.40 to 2.3, animal-to-soil ratios ranged from 0.81 to 3.4 and animal-to-moss ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.4. These higher 14 C levels in amphibians relative to the environmental media may be due to increased 14 C exposure of aquatic or amphibious animals that occupy systems receiving inputs via groundwater. In such systems, 14 C is incorporated in aquatic plants and animals, and later transferred to higher predatory species, such as amphibians, that consume them. Therefore, with the exception of amphibians and other aquatic receptor species, it is reasonable to estimate concentrations of

  16. Eutrophication in Poyang Lake (Eastern China) over the Last 300 Years in Response to Changes in Climate and Lake Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mengna; Yu, Ge; Guo, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Poyang Lake is suffering from persistent eutrophication, which is degrading the local ecosystem. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive eutrophication in lake systems is essential to fight the ongoing deterioration. In this study, hydraulic residence time (HRT) was used to evaluate Poyang Lake's trophic state. A hydrology and ecosystem forced model was constructed to simulate long-term changes in algae and aquatic plant biomass and total phosphorous (TP). A comparison analysis revealed that between 1812 and 1828 (i.e., a consistent-change stage), climate and hydrology were the main driving forces, while algae and aquatic plant biomass contributed only 20.9% to the trophic changes in Poyang Lake. However, between 1844 and 1860 the biomass predominated contributing 63.6%. This could be attributed to nutrient absorption by algae and aquatic plants. A correlation analysis of the water TP and algae and aquatic plant biomass revealed a strong positive relationship. However, the algae and aquatic plant growth rate tended to decline after the biomass reached half of the maximum. This research reconstructs the long-term trophic evolution of Poyang Lake and provides a better understanding of the relationship between climatic and hydrological changes and lake ecosystems.

  17. Application of a new sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and of the Aquatic Lemna test to assess the sediment quality of Lake Skadar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stesevic, D.; Sundic, D.; Mijovic, S. [Montenegro Univ., Podgorica (ME). Faculty of Sciences; Feiler, U.; Heininger, P. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hygiene; Seiler, T.B.; Hollert, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Zoology; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung - Biologie V

    2007-10-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Situated in the transboundary belt between Montenegro and Albania, the Lake Skadar is the largest freshwater reservoir in Southeastern Europe. Because of the wide range of endemic, rare or endangered plant and animal species it supports, Lake Skadar and its extensive adjacent wetlands are internationally recognised as a site of significance and importance (Ramsar site). Within the last 10 to 20 years, Lake Skadar was exposed to intensive pollution. For the assessment of the ecotoxic load of the sediments sampled in Lake Skadar, a triad approach was recently applied. Overall, a complex spectrum of ecotoxic loads was elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use plant-based bioassays for assessing the sediment quality of Lake Skadar in order to facilitate and complement the triad test battery. The newly developed sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor were applied to native sediments and pore water, respectively, allowing the investigation of different toxicity-effects caused by particle-bound pollutants as well as pollutants in the interstitial water. This investigation is the first application of the novel sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum to lake sediments. Materials and Methods: Sediment samples were taken from nine selected sites at Lake Skadar and investigated by the sediment contact assay with Myriophyllum aquaticum. The pore water was extracted from these sediment samples to be analysed in the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor. The results of the sediment contact tests were compared with each other and with those of the aquatic growth inhibition test. Results and Discussion: Both applied macrophyte biotests revealed distinct changes in the growth behaviour of the two macrophytes subsequent to the exposure to the investigated natural sediments of Lake Skadar. The Myriophyllum sediment contact test revealed significant toxicity in

  18. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body.

  19. Monitoring of Aquatic Biota in Intensive Fish Farming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Mareš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct a detailed research of aquatic invertebrates in the intensive breeding system of salmonid fish in order to determine the taxonomic composition of the community and its seasonal dynamics, and to identify those species that may be hosts of parasitic disease agents. To date, this issue has not been studied at all in the Czech Republic. Monitoring was conducted on the Danish type recirculation system near the municipality of Pravíkov in the Highlands of the Czech Republic from April till November 2015. A total of 9 series of samples were taken. Macrozoobenthos was evaluated in terms of taxonomic composition and abundance. Basic physicochemical properties of water (temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and conductivity were also measured. In total, 69 taxa of aquatic invertebrates were noted, with the wall being the richest with a mean abundance of 756 pcs/m2. Permanent groups predominated; the most numerous group was the subphylum Crustaceae, represented by a single species, Asellus aquticus.

  20. Solar and atmospheric forcing on mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Tomi P; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the influence of long-term external forcing on aquatic communities in Alpine lakes. Fossil microcrustacean (Cladocera) and macrobenthos (Chironomidae) community variability in four Austrian high-altitude lakes, determined as ultra-sensitive to climate change, were compared against records of air temperature, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and solar forcing over the past ~400years. Summer temperature variability affected both aquatic invertebrate groups in all study sites. The influence of NAO and solar forcing on aquatic invertebrates was also significant in the lakes except in the less transparent lake known to have remained uniformly cold during the past centuries due to summertime snowmelt input. The results suggest that external forcing plays an important role in these pristine ecosystems through their impacts on limnology of the lakes. Not only does the air temperature variability influence the communities but also larger-scale external factors related to atmospheric circulation patterns and solar activity cause long-term changes in high-altitude aquatic ecosystems, through their connections to hydroclimatic conditions and light environment. These findings are important in the assessment of climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems and in greater understanding of the consequences of external forcing on lake ontogeny. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of the factors influencing radiocesium concentrations of fish inhabiting natural aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinks, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Distributions of radioactive and stable cesium were determined in water, sediment, and biota from eight different aquatic ecosystems between 1971 and 1973. The ecosystems included four lakes, fresh and brackish water regions of the Hudson River estuary, and two coastal marine sites. In the Hudson River estuary, the distribution of radiocesium between suspended and dissolved phases in water was found to be a function of salinity. Mean rates of deposition of suspended radiocesium into bottom sediment are calculated from the temporal changes in concentrations of the media, and observed depth distributions in sediment are semi-quantitatively described. Desorption by salt water is identified as the major mechanism for transport of radiocesium from bottom sediment in the lower estuary, and half-times for removal by this mechanism are estimated to be 1.5 to 2.0 years. Suspended-dissolved distributions of radiocesium in water, and depth distributions in sediment are also presented for lake and marine systems. Accumulation of radiocesium by fish is examined in relation to radiocesium distributions in water, sediment, and other biota, and to the chemical characteristics of each ecosystem. Radiocesium dissolved in water was the primary source to the fish in all ecosystems. Sediment inventories of 137 Cs constituted a secondary source which provided as much as 50 percent of the radiocesium in benthic feeding fish in the Hudson River. Dietary intake of 137 Cs is shown to be inversely related to the potassium concentration in the ambient water, and results in an inverse proportionality between the concentration factor in fish and the potassium concentrations in the different freshwater and estuarine ecosystems

  2. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Schwartz, W.J.; Hesslein, R.H.; Mills, K.H.; Turner, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals ( 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 75 Se 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 203 Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow>pearl dace>tadpoles>slimy sculpin>leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order: 65 Zn> 203 Hg> 75 Se> 134 Cs> 60 Co> 85 Sr= 59 Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominately from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75 Se, 134 Cs and 203 Hg; kidney and gut for 60 Co; and bone for 65 Zn and 75 Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut

  3. Global distribution of dissolved organic matter along the aquatic continuum: Across rivers, lakes and oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Philippe; Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin; Markager, Stiig

    2017-12-31

    Based on an extensive literature survey containing more than 12,000 paired measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and absorption of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) distributed over four continents and seven oceans, we described the global distribution and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the aquatic continuum across rivers and lakes to oceans. A strong log-linear relationship (R 2 =0.92) between DOC concentration and CDOM absorption at 350nm was observed at a global scale, but was found to be ecosystem-dependent at local and regional scales. Our results reveal that as DOM is transported towards the oceans, the robustness of the observed relation decreases rapidly (R 2 from 0.94 to 0.44) indicating a gradual decoupling between DOC and CDOM. This likely reflects the decreased connectivity between the landscape and DOM along the aquatic continuum. To support this hypothesis, we used the DOC-specific UV absorbance (SUVA) to characterize the reactivity of the DOM pool which decreased from 4.9 to 1.7m 2 × gC -1 along the aquatic continuum. Across the continuum, a piecewise linear regression showed that the observed decrease of SUVA occurred more rapidly in freshwater ecosystems compared to marine water ecosystems, suggesting that the different degradation processes act preferentially on CDOM rather than carbon content. The observed change in the DOM characteristics along the aquatic continuum also suggests that the terrestrial DOM pool is gradually becoming less reactive, which has profound consequences on cycling of organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From lake to estuary, the tale of two waters: a study of aquatic continuum biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Paul; Osborne, Todd Z

    2018-01-25

    The balance of fresh and saline water is essential to estuarine ecosystem function. Along the fresh-brackish-saline water gradient within the C-43 canal/Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE), the quantity, timing and distribution of water, and associated water quality significantly influence ecosystem function. Long-term trends of water quality and quantity were assessed from Lake Okeechobee to the CRE between May 1978 and April 2016. Significant changes to monthly flow volumes were detected between the lake and the estuary which correspond to changes in upstream management. and climatic events. Across the 37-year period, total phosphorus (TP) flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentration significantly increased at the lake; meanwhile, total nitrogen (TN) FMW concentrations significantly declined at both the lake and estuary headwaters. Between May 1999 and April 2016, TN, TP, and total organic carbon (TOC), ortho-P, and ammonium conditions were assessed within the estuary at several monitoring locations. Generally, nutrient concentrations decreased from upstream to downstream with shifts in TN/TP from values > 20 in the freshwater portion, ~ 20 in the estuarine portion, and estuary is net heterotrophic with productivity being negatively influenced by TP, TN, and TOC likely due to a combination of effects including shading by high color dissolved organic matter. We conclude that rainfall patterns, land use, and the resulting discharges of runoff drive the ecology of the C-43/CRE aquatic continuum and associated biogeochemistry rather than water management associated with Lake Okeechobee.

  5. Eutrophication in Poyang Lake (Eastern China over the Last 300 Years in Response to Changes in Climate and Lake Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengna Liao

    Full Text Available Poyang Lake is suffering from persistent eutrophication, which is degrading the local ecosystem. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive eutrophication in lake systems is essential to fight the ongoing deterioration. In this study, hydraulic residence time (HRT was used to evaluate Poyang Lake's trophic state. A hydrology and ecosystem forced model was constructed to simulate long-term changes in algae and aquatic plant biomass and total phosphorous (TP. A comparison analysis revealed that between 1812 and 1828 (i.e., a consistent-change stage, climate and hydrology were the main driving forces, while algae and aquatic plant biomass contributed only 20.9% to the trophic changes in Poyang Lake. However, between 1844 and 1860 the biomass predominated contributing 63.6%. This could be attributed to nutrient absorption by algae and aquatic plants. A correlation analysis of the water TP and algae and aquatic plant biomass revealed a strong positive relationship. However, the algae and aquatic plant growth rate tended to decline after the biomass reached half of the maximum. This research reconstructs the long-term trophic evolution of Poyang Lake and provides a better understanding of the relationship between climatic and hydrological changes and lake ecosystems.

  6. δ15N and nutrient stoichiometry of water, aquatic organisms and environmental implications in Taihu lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Dan, Dai; Kun, Lei; Chengda, He; Haibing, Cong; Guo, Fu; Qiujin, Xu; Fuhong, Sun; Fengchang, Wu

    2018-06-01

    Nitrogen pollution has become a worldwide problem and the source identification is important for the development of pertinent control measures. In this study, isotope end members (rain, nitrogen fertilizer, untreated/treated sewage), and samples (river water discharging to Taihu lake, lake water, aquatic organisms of different trophic levels) were taken during 2010-2015 to examine their δ 15 N values and nutrient stoichiometry. Results indicated that phytoplankton (primary producers), which directly take up and incorporate N from the lake water, had a similar δ 15 N value (14.1‰ ± 3.2) to the end member of treated sewage (14.0‰ ± 7.5), and the most frequently observed δ 15 N value in the lake water was 8-12‰, both indicating the dominant impact of the sewage discharge. Relationship analysis between N isotope value of nitrate and nitrate concentration indicated that different N cycling existed between the algae-dominated northwest lake (NW) and the macrophyte-dominated southeast lake (SE), which is a result of both impacts of river inputs and denitrification. Our nutrient stoichiometry analysis showed that the lake water had a significantly higher N:P ratio than that of algae (p economic development in the watershed further confirmed that the rapid population increase and urbanization have resulted in a great change in the N loading and source proportion. We suggest that although P control is necessary in terms of eutrophication control, N pollution control is urgent for the water quality and ecological recovery for Taihu lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Schmolke, A.; Thorbek, P.; Bruns, E.; Baveco, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a

  8. Microplastics as Vectors for Environmental Contaminants : Exploring Sorption, Desorption, and Transfer to Biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Rist, Sinja; Bodin, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and effects of microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment are receiving increasing attention. In addition to their possible direct adverse effects on biota, the potential role of MPs as vectors for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), compared to natural pathways, is a topic...... outline research needed to fill knowledge gaps and improve model-based calculations of MP-facilitated HOC transfer in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:488–493. © 2017 SETAC...... of much debate. It is evident, however, that temporal and spatial variations of MP occurrence do (and will) occur. To further improve the estimations of the role of MPs as vectors for HOC transfer into biota under varying MP concentrations and environmental conditions, it is important to identify...

  9. Nonnative trout impact an alpine-nesting bird by altering aquatic-insect subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin, Peter N; Knapp, Roland A; Lawler, Sharon P

    2010-08-01

    Adjacent food webs may be linked by cross-boundary subsidies: more-productive donor systems can subsidize consumers in less-productive neighboring recipient systems. Introduced species are known to have direct effects on organisms within invaded communities. However, few studies have addressed the indirect effects of nonnative species in donor systems on organisms in recipient systems. We studied the direct role of introduced trout in altering a lake-derived resource subsidy and their indirect effects in altering a passerine bird's response to that subsidy. We compared the abundance of aquatic insects and foraging Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni, "Rosy-Finch") at fish-containing vs. fishless lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (USA). Introduced trout outcompeted Rosy-Finches for emerging aquatic insects (i.e., mayflies). Fish-containing lakes had 98% fewer mayflies than did fishless lakes. In lakes without fish, Rosy-Finches showed an aggregative response to emerging aquatic insects with 5.9 times more Rosy-Finches at fishless lakes than at fish-containing lakes. Therefore, the introduction of nonnative fish into the donor system reduced both the magnitude of the resource subsidy and the strength of cross-boundary trophic interactions. Importantly, the timing of the subsidy occurs when Rosy-Finches feed their young. If Rosy-Finches rely on aquatic-insect subsidies to fledge their young, reductions in the subsidy by introduced trout may have decreased Rosy-Finch abundances from historic levels. We recommend that terrestrial recipients of aquatic subsidies be included in conservation and restoration plans for ecosystems with alpine lakes.

  10. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  11. Water Quality Investigations at Lake Merritt in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G.; Casino, C.; Johnson, K.; Huang, J.; Le, A.; Truisi, V. M.; Turner, D.; Yanez, F.; Yu, J. F.; Unigarro, M.; Vue, G.; Garduno, L.; Cuff, K.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Merritt is a saltwater tidal lagoon that forms a portion of a wildlife refuge in downtown Oakland, California. The general area was designated as the nation's first wildlife refuge in 1869, and is currently the home to over 90 species of migrating waterfowl, as well as a variety of aquatic wildlife. Situated within an area composed of compacted marine sediment located near the center of Oakland, Lake Merritt also serves as a major local catchment basin, receiving significant urban runoff from a 4,650 acre local watershed through 60 storm drains and four culverted creeks. Due to factors related to its geographical location, Lake Merritt has suffered from poor water quality at various times throughout its history. In fact, in May of 1999 the US Environmental Protection Agency designated Lake Merritt as a body of water whose beneficial uses are impaired, mainly due to high levels of trash and low levels of dissolved oxygen. As a contribution to continuing efforts to monitor and assess water quality of the Lake, we began a water quality investigation during the Summer of 2005, which included the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations of samples collected near its surface at over 85 different locations. These measurements were made using a sensor attached to a PASCO data- logger. The sensor measures the electric current produced by a chemical reaction in its probe, which is composed of a platinum cathode and a silver anode surrounded by an electrolyte solution. Results of these measurements were statistically analyzed, mapped, and then used in assessing the quality of Lake Merritt's water, particularly in relation to supporting aquatic biota. Preliminary analysis of results obtained so far indicates that the highest quality waters in Lake Merritt occur in areas that are closest to a source of San Francisco Bay water, as well as those areas nearby where water circulation is robust. Significantly high levels of dissolved oxygen were measured in an area that

  12. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  13. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  14. Arsenic, Fluoride and Vanadium in surface water (Chasicó Lake, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria laura ePuntoriero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chasicó Lake is the main water body in the southwest of the Chaco-Pampean plain. It shows some differences from the typical Pampean shallow lakes, such as high salinity and high arsenic and fluoride levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trace elements [arsenic (As, fluoride (F- and vanadium (V] present in Chasicó Lake. Surface and groundwater were sampled in dry and wet periods, during 2010 and 2011. Fluoride was determined with a selective electrode. As and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Significant correlation in surface water was only found for As and F- (r=0.978, p<0.01. The As, F- and V concentration values were higher and more widely dispersed in surface water than in groundwater, as a consequence of evaporation. The fact that these elements do not correlate in surface water may also indicates that groundwater would not be the main source of origin of As, F- and V in surface water. The origin of these trace elements is from volcanic glass from Pampean loess. As, F- and V concentration were higher than in national and international guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota. Hence, this issue is relevant since the silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important commercial species in Chasicó Lake. This fish is both consumed locally and exported to other South-American countries through commercial and sport fishing.

  15. Radiation Dose Assessment Model for Marine Biota (K-BIOTA-DYN-M)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, a dynamic compartment model based on the food chain of marine biota, which can be used with easily obtainable ecological parameters, is presented to predict the activity concentration and dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear. The model was applied to investigate a long-term effect of the Fukushima accident on the marine biota by using {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5years after the accident in the port of FDNPS, which was known to be the most severely contaminated. A dynamic compartment model was presented to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota, and was tested through the prediction of the activity concentration and dose rate of the marine biota using the seawater activities of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs measured after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), as a result the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011. The prediction results showed the radiological effect on the population of the marine biota as a consequence of the accident was insignificant. This result is also valid for biota in a less contaminated offshore because the present assessment was made for the most highly contaminated area such as marine ecosystem in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of the marine biota as the consequence of a nuclear accident.

  16. Using temporal coherence to determine the response to climate change in Boreal Shield lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Shelley E; Keller, Bill; Dillon, Peter J; Yan, Norman; Paterson, Michael; Findlay, David

    2003-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have important impacts on aquatic ecosystems. On the Boreal Shield, mean annual air temperatures are expected to increase 2 to 4 degrees C over the next 50 years. An important challenge is to predict how changes in climate and climate variability will impact natural systems so that sustainable management policies can be implemented. To predict responses to complex ecosystem changes associated with climate change, we used long-term biotic databases to evaluate how important elements of the biota in Boreal Shield lakes have responded to past fluctuations in climate. Our long-term records span a two decade period where there have been unusually cold years and unusually warm years. We used coherence analyses to test for regionally operating controls on climate, water temperature, pH, and plankton richness and abundance in three regions across Ontario: the Experimental Lakes Area, Sudbury, and Dorset. Inter-annual variation in air temperature was similar among regions, but there was a weak relationship among regions for precipitation. While air temperature was closely related to lake surface temperatures in each of the regions, there were weak relationships between lake surface temperature and richness or abundance of the plankton. However, inter-annual changes in lake chemistry (i.e., pH) were correlated with some biotic variables. In some lakes in Sudbury and Dorset, pH was dependent on extreme events. For example, El Nino related droughts resulted in acidification pulses in some lakes that influenced phytoplankton and zooplankton richness. These results suggest that there can be strong heterogeneity in lake ecosystem responses within and across regions.

  17. Benthic algae compensate for phytoplankton losses in large aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Soren; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; Sibley, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities can induce major trophic shifts in aquatic systems, yet we have an incomplete understanding of the implication of such shifts on ecosystem function and on primary production (PP) in particular. In recent decades, phytoplankton biomass and production in the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined in response to reduced nutrient concentrations and invasive mussels. However, the increases in water clarity associated with declines in phytoplankton may have positive effects on benthic PP at the ecosystem scale. Have these lakes experienced oligotrophication (a reduction of algal production), or simply a shift in autotrophic structure with no net decline in PP? Benthic contributions to ecosystem PP are rarely measured in large aquatic systems, but our calculations based on productivity rates from the Great Lakes indicate that a significant proportion (up to one half, in Lake Huron) of their whole-lake production may be benthic. The large declines (5-45%) in phytoplankton production in the Great Lakes from the 1970s to 2000s may be substantially compensated by benthic PP, which increased by up to 190%. Thus, the autotrophic productive capacity of large aquatic ecosystems may be relatively resilient to shifts in trophic status, due to a redirection of production to the near-shore benthic zone, and large lakes may exhibit shifts in autotrophic structure analogous to the regime shifts seen in shallow lakes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  19. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  20. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Eva

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  1. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA.

  2. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between environmental factors and the richness of submerged macrophytes species in 73 Danish lakes, which are mainly small, shallow, and have mesotrophic to hypertrophic conditions. We found that mean species richness per lake was only 4.5 in acid lakes of low...... alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  3. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  4. Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahu Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  5. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  6. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137 Cs and 60 Co to fish; 137 Cs and 60 Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  9. Applying DoE's Graded Approach for assessing radiation impacts to non-human biota at the Incl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    In July 2002, The US Department of Energy (DOE) released a new technical standard entitled A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota. DOE facilities are annually required to demonstrate that routine radioactive releases from their sites are protective of non-human receptors and sites are encouraged to use the Graded Approach for this purpose. Use of the Graded Approach requires completion of several preliminary steps, to evaluate the degree to which the site environmental monitoring program is appropriate for evaluating impacts to non-human biota. We completed these necessary activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the following four tasks: (1) develop conceptual models and evaluate exposure pathways; (2) define INL evaluation areas; (3) evaluate sampling locations and media; (4) evaluate data gaps. All of the information developed in the four steps was incorporated, data sources were identified, departures from the Graded Approach were justified, and a step-by-step procedure for biota dose assessment at the INL was specified. Finally, we completed a site-wide biota dose assessment using the 2002 environmental surveillance data and an offsite assessment using soil and surface water data collected since 1996. These assessments demonstrated the environmental concentrations of radionuclides measured on and near the INL do not present significant risks to populations of non-human biota

  10. Floristic diversity of midforest lakes (Sobibór Landscape Park, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation greatly impacts lake functions. Forest ecosystems surrounding lakes are effective protection zone of lakes and their associated flora and fauna. The presence of aquatic plants depends on many factors, including the chemical composition and acidity of water, the shape of the lake catchment, the angle of slope along shorelines and the management of surrounding lands. Natural ecosystems throughout Eastern Europe are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Aquatic systems and bogs are particularly sensitive to disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of land management, forest type and stand age on aquatic plant colonisation within lakes as well as to quantify and qualify the structure of macrophyte communities within two lakes, Płotycze Sobiborskie and Orchowe, located in the Sobibór Landscape Park in western Poland. Even though there were few bogs within the catchment areas and lake buffer zones, where they did occur they had the greatest effect on macrophyte presence. The results of this research indicate that in the absence of anthropogenic disturbances midforest water-bog complexes are relatively stable systems and preserve their natural character. The applied multi-criteria evaluation of macrophytes in the studied lakes and their surrounding buffer zones and catchment areas allowed the lakes to be characterised as lakes with a good ecological status.

  11. Biomagnification of mercury and selenium in two lakes in southern Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Økelsrud, Asle, E-mail: asle.okelsrud@hit.no [Department of Environmental and Health Studies, University College of Southeast Norway, Hallvard Eikas Plass 1, 3800 Bø (Norway); Lydersen, Espen [Department of Environmental and Health Studies, University College of Southeast Norway, Hallvard Eikas Plass 1, 3800 Bø (Norway); Fjeld, Eirik [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of both mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in two lakes in southern Norway to reveal a suggested mitigating effect of Se on Hg biota accumulation. The study included analysis of total Se (Se), total Hg (Hg), and methyl-mercury (MeHg) in water, littoral and pelagic invertebrates and perch (Perca fluviatilis), together with stable isotope analysis (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C) in biota. Mean dissolved Se ranged from 22 to 59 ng L{sup −1}, while Hg and MeHg in lake water ranged from 1 to 3 ng L{sup −1} and 0.01 to 0.06 ng L{sup −1}. Biota Se and Hg concentrations (dry weight) ranged from 0.41 mg Se kg{sup −1} and 0.06 mg Hg kg{sup −1} in primary littoral invertebrates and up to 2.9 mg Se kg{sup −1} and 3.6 mg Hg kg{sup −1} in perch. Both Hg and Se biomagnified in the food web, with a trophic magnification factor (TMF) of 4.64 for Hg and 1.29 for Se. The reported positive transfer of Se in the food web, despite the low measured dissolved Se, suggest that a major proportion of the Se in these lakes are both highly bioavailable and bioaccumulative. However, we did not find support for a Se-facilitated inhibition in the accumulation of Hg in perch, as Se and Hg concentrations in perch muscle correlated positively and Se did not explain any variations in Hg after we controlled for the effects of other important covariates. We postulate that this may be a result of insufficient concentrations of dissolved Se and subsequently in biota in our studied lakes for an efficient Hg sequestration up the food web. - Highlights: • Hg, Se and stable isotopes were investigated in biota in two Norwegian Boreal lakes • Both Hg and Se biomagnified in the food web, with a TMF of 4.64 and 1.29 respectively • Food carbon source, trophic level and age explained Se and Hg variations in perch • Perch muscle Se and Hg were positively correlated.

  12. Biomagnification of mercury and selenium in two lakes in southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Økelsrud, Asle; Lydersen, Espen; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of both mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in two lakes in southern Norway to reveal a suggested mitigating effect of Se on Hg biota accumulation. The study included analysis of total Se (Se), total Hg (Hg), and methyl-mercury (MeHg) in water, littoral and pelagic invertebrates and perch (Perca fluviatilis), together with stable isotope analysis (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) in biota. Mean dissolved Se ranged from 22 to 59 ng L −1 , while Hg and MeHg in lake water ranged from 1 to 3 ng L −1 and 0.01 to 0.06 ng L −1 . Biota Se and Hg concentrations (dry weight) ranged from 0.41 mg Se kg −1 and 0.06 mg Hg kg −1 in primary littoral invertebrates and up to 2.9 mg Se kg −1 and 3.6 mg Hg kg −1 in perch. Both Hg and Se biomagnified in the food web, with a trophic magnification factor (TMF) of 4.64 for Hg and 1.29 for Se. The reported positive transfer of Se in the food web, despite the low measured dissolved Se, suggest that a major proportion of the Se in these lakes are both highly bioavailable and bioaccumulative. However, we did not find support for a Se-facilitated inhibition in the accumulation of Hg in perch, as Se and Hg concentrations in perch muscle correlated positively and Se did not explain any variations in Hg after we controlled for the effects of other important covariates. We postulate that this may be a result of insufficient concentrations of dissolved Se and subsequently in biota in our studied lakes for an efficient Hg sequestration up the food web. - Highlights: • Hg, Se and stable isotopes were investigated in biota in two Norwegian Boreal lakes • Both Hg and Se biomagnified in the food web, with a TMF of 4.64 and 1.29 respectively • Food carbon source, trophic level and age explained Se and Hg variations in perch • Perch muscle Se and Hg were positively correlated

  13. Characterization of three acid strip mine lakes in Grundy County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Master, W. A.

    1979-09-01

    Three small lakes with acid water and one with circumneutral water at an abandoned strip mine site were characterized to identify factors limiting biological productivity. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature profiles were determined. Water samples were analyzed for 23 parameters, and the lakes were examined for the presence of aquatic vascular plants and benthic inhabitants. The acid lakes ranged from 0.9 ha to 2.7 ha in surface area and from 3.1 m to 6.7 m in maximum depth. The mean pH of the acid lakes ranged from 3.1 to 3.9. Chemicals found at concentrations higher than Illinois surface water standards or federal criteria for the protection of aquatic life included Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, SO/sub 4/=, and Zn. A number of these chemicals were at sufficiently high concentrations to limit the survival and productivity of most aquatic fauna. The lake with the poorest water quality had the least diversity of aquatic vascular plants and benthic invertebrates, while the circumneutral lake had the greatest diversity of species.

  14. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Uptake, turnover and distribution of chlorinated fatty acids in aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern, Helena

    1999-09-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids (CIFAs) are the major contributors of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish lipids. A known anthropogenic source of CIFAs is chlorine bleached pulp production. Additional anthropogenic sources may exist, e.g., chlorine-containing discharge from industrial and household waste and they may also occur naturally. CIFAs have a wide geographic distribution. They have, for instance, been identified in fish both from Alaskan and Scandinavian waters. In toxicological studies of CIFAs, the most pronounced effects have been found in reproductive related processes. CIFAs have also been shown to disrupt cell membrane functions. The present study was carried out to further characterise the ecotoxicological properties of CIFAs and their presence in biota. To investigate the biological stability of CIFAs, two experiments were carried out using radiolabelled chlorinated and non-chlorinated fatty acids. In both experiments, CIFAs were taken up from food by fish and assimilated to lipids. From the first experiment it was concluded that the chlorinated fatty acid investigated was turned over in the fish to a lower degree than the non-chlorinated analogue. In the second experiment, the transfer of a chlorinated fatty acid was followed over several trophic levels and the chlorinated fatty acid was transferred to the highest trophic level. In samples with differing loads of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from both fish and marine mammals, high concentrations and diversity of CIFAs were detected. This was also observed in samples with low POP concentration. Chlorohydroxy fatty acids made up a considerable portion of the CIFAs in certain samples, both from limnic fish and marine mammals. CIFAs in fish were found to be bound in complex lipids such as triacylglycerols (storage lipids) and phospholipids, as well as in acyl sterols (membrane lipids). In the marine mammals investigated, high concentrations of CIFAs were mainly bound in phospholipids. If

  16. Water reservoirs - aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects relating to eutrophication of Batca Doamnei and Reconstructia hydropower lakes situated near Piatra Neamt town. The presence of phosphorus salts in the two water reservoirs (ten times the admissible content) is responsible for excessive growth of plants. In Reconstructia lake the diversity of species is also explained by the existence of large amounts of nitrogen salts. The general characteristic of aquatic macrophyte is the resistance to large variations of environmental factors (water level, currents, temperature, turbidity, organic material content), adaptation to water pollution conditions and development of adverse condition resistant forms. Besides Cladophora, a harmful species in fishing waters when growing excessively, others species are favorable to aquatic life and help to the consolidation of complex lake biocenoses, providing support, food and habitation for many small animal species which also favor other species economically valuable. The aquatic macrophytes are true biological filters which maintain the natural auto-purging potential of the waters. Taking into consideration these facts, the direct and indirect effects of plant destruction on the whole ecosystem should be carefully analyzed

  17. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R; Brown, J; Holm, E; Roos, P; Saxen, R; Outola, I

    2012-01-15

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  18. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2012-01-01

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  19. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  20. Prehistoric Human-environment Interactions and Their Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, H.; Henderson, A. C. G.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Cavers, G.; Crone, A.; Davies, K. L.; Fonville, T. R.; Head, K.; Langdon, P. G.; Matton, R.; McCormick, F.; Murray, E.; Whitehouse, N. J.; Brown, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the first widespread human-environment interactions in Scotland and Ireland occurred 3000 years ago when communities first inhabited wetlands, building artificial islands in lakes called crannogs. The reason behind the development and intermittent occupation of crannogs is unclear. We don't know if they were a response to changes in environment or if they were driven by societal influences. Furthermore, the impact of the construction, settlement and human activities on lake ecosystems is unknown, but is a key example of early anthropogenic signatures on the environment. Our research characterises the prehistoric human-environment interactions associated with crannogs by analysing geochemical and biological signals preserved within the crannog and wetland sediments. Records of anthropogenic activities and environmental change have been produced using lipid biomarkers of faecal matter, sedimentary DNA, and the remains of beetles, aquatic invertebrates (chironomids), siliceous algae (diatoms) and pollen. Results of these analyses reveal settlement occupations occurred in phases from the Iron Age to the Medieval Period. The main effects of occupation on the wetland ecosystems are nutrient-driven increases in productivity and shifts in aquatic species from clear water taxa to those associated with more eutrophic conditions. Crannog abandonment reduces nutrient inputs and therefore levels of aquatic productivity, as evidenced by decreases in the abundance of siliceous algae. Despite returns to pre-settlement nutrient and productivity levels, the lake ecosystems do not recover to their previous ecological state: dominant aquatic invertebrate and siliceous algae taxa shift in response to elevated levels of macrophytes within the lakes. Whilst these phase changes in lake ecosystems highlight their adaptive capacity to environmental change, the temporary human interactions associated with crannogs had persisting environmental impacts that shaped the long

  1. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, Celine [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)]. E-mail: surettc@umoncton.ca; Lucotte, Marc [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Tremblay, A. [Environment Unit, Dams and Environment Direction, Hydro-Quebec Production 75 Rene-Levesque West, 10th floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Z 1A4 (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered.

  2. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, Celine; Lucotte, Marc; Tremblay, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered

  3. Natural Radioactivity in Biota From Balok River and Its Associated Committed Effective Dose to Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Wo, Y.; Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Mohamad Noh Sawon; Khairul Nizam Razali; Dainee Nor Fardzilla Ahmad Tugi

    2016-01-01

    Several types of biota samples such as fishes, crabs and snails were collected from the Balok river which located close to the Gebeng industrial site that situated Lynas rare earth processing plant. Local communities were worried that operational of Lynas plant could introduce some radioactive contaminants into the adjacent river and endanger the aquatic animals and people. The activity concentration of radionuclides in these biota samples were determined using HPGe Gamma spectrometry system and found to be low and insignificant. They were ranged from MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) to 2.88 Bq/ kg, MDA to 6.75 Bq/ kg, MDA to 7.98 Bq/ kg, MDA to 4.43 Bq/ kg and MDA to 32.50 Bq/ kg, for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The MDA values for these radionuclides were varies and quiet high due to the limited sample size available. Using the computer code ERICA tool, it was found that the radiation risk of these radionuclides to the aquatic lives to be less than 1 μGy/ h and was below than the probability selected and therefore the potential radiation risk to human being should also be low. By using the dose conversion factors given in the AELB (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulation 2010, assuming an adult consumed one kilogram of these contaminated biota, he would expected to receive a total committed effective dose per unit intake between 2.2 - 23.7 μSv depending on the consumed species. However, this value was far below the annual dose limit of 1,000 μSv for general public as stipulated under Act 304. (author)

  4. Uptake of γ-emitting radionuclides by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water before and after passage through the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three experimental systems were designed to investigate the differential accumulation of radionuclides by biota from low-level aqueous effluents after passage through the ground. One system received river water (control), one received dilute low-level radioactive effluents (trench), and the third received the low-level effluents after it had percolated through about 260 m or porous gravel (springs). Biota studied included filamentous green algae, clams (Corbicula), goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Veronica. Trophic level differences in accumulation of the various radionuclides from the diluted trench water were not consistent but generally followed the pattern algae > goldfish > molluscs > carp. Cobalt-60 was accumulated to the highest level of any radionuclide, and accumulation levels at the three sites were directly related to the concentration of 60 Co in the water. Manganese-54, 59 Fe, and 106 Ru were also accumulated to measurable levels in biota at the springs site indicating their bioavailability after passage through the ground

  5. Perch population assessment in lakes reclaimed using oil-sands derived material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G.; Power, M.; Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. van

    1995-01-01

    The mining and extraction of petroleum products from oil-sands involves large areas of land and produces enormous volumes of tailings. One possible land reclamation option is to incorporate fine-tailings material into the bottoms of constructed lakes capped with natural surface water. The wet landscape method represents potential risk to aquatic biota-naphthenic acids and PAHs elute from pore water contained in the fine-tailings substrate. In spring 1995 yellow perch were stocked into a large-scale (5ha) experimental pond that consisted of fine-tailings capped with natural water as well as into two other reclaimed ponds that were constructed with oil-sands overburden material. Prior to stocking of perch, ponds had colonized with cyprinids, macrophytes and benthic invertebrates over a two year period. Perch were sampled in fall 1995 for age, condition factor, liver size, gonad size, fecundity, stomach contents, liver mixed-function oxygenase activity (MFO), bile PAH metabolites and plasma steroid hormones. When compared to the source lake, perch in the DP did not show reduced reproductive potential. Perch in all of the reclaimed ponds demonstrated exposure to organic compounds as indicated by marginally induced MFO activity and increased liver size. Exposure to naphthenates and PAHs in water as well as ecological environmental factors will be discussed

  6. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention ponds — Sediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  7. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention ponds — Sediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete, E-mail: das@civil.aau.dk [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild [Department of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7H, 9200 Aalborg East (Denmark); Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  8. Ecology, fish and fishery of Lake Liambezi, a recently refilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Liambezi (300 km2) refilled in 2009 after a prolonged 22-year dry period. Its aquatic macrophyte populations, fish fauna and fishery shortly after refilling are described. The emergent aquatic macrophyte Phragmites australis formed dense stands covering large parts of the lake, while extensive beds of submerged ...

  9. Fish Diversity in Relation to Aquatic Macrophytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of fish diversity in relation to aquatic macrophytes and physicochemical parameters of Ona Lake in Asaba was carried out within a period of eighteen months. Fish samples were collected fortnightly from three sampling sites using cast, gill and trigger nets. Aquatic macrophytes found in close association with ...

  10. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  11. Dynamics of radiation exposure to marine biota in the area of the Fukushima NPP in March–May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of radiation dose rates are presented for marine biota in March–May 2011 in the coastal zone near Fukushima NPP, and in the open sea. Calculations of fish contamination were made using two methods: a concentration factor approach, and a dynamic model. For representative marine organisms (fish and molluscs) the radiation dose rates did not exceed the reference level of 10 mGy/day. At a distance 30 km from the NPP, in the open sea the radiation doses for marine biota were much lower than those in the coastal zone near the NPP. Comparative estimates are presented for radiation doses to aquatic organisms in the exclusion zones of the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trail, and the Chernobyl NPP.

  12. Influence of cooling water discharges from Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant on aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Zargar, S.; Kulkarni, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The alterations induced in the ambient temperature can lead to wide manifestations in species distribution and community structure. In general, elevated water temperature causes changes in species composition, species dominance, standing crop and productivity of biota including phytoplankton communities in any aquatic ecosystem. Thus warm water discharges from power plants into the receiving water bodies may adversely affect aquatic ecology. In the absence of exhaustive data on the response of aquatic organisms and ecosystems in the tropics to elevated temperatures, the only option is to draw inferences, from the experiences in the subtropical and temperature areas. Since, sufficient data on similar line are not available in tropical environment, present paper delineates certain aspects of aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir where cooling water is discharged. The study suggests the heated effluents from Kaiga Nuclear Power plant caused changes in dissolved oxygen and pH of water, heterotrophic bacterial population, sediment biogeochemical cycles related biochemical processes, species composition, species dominance, standing crop and productivity of biota including phytoplankton communities within 500 m from End of Discharge Canal point of Kadra reservoir when two units are running in full capacity. (author)

  13. Mercury contamination level and speciation inventory in Lakes Titicaca & Uru-Uru (Bolivia): Current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédron, S; Point, D; Acha, D; Bouchet, S; Baya, P A; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M; Molina, C I; Groleau, A; Chauvaud, L; Thebault, J; Amice, E; Alanoca, L; Duwig, C; Uzu, G; Lazzaro, X; Bertrand, A; Bertrand, S; Barbraud, C; Delord, K; Gibon, F M; Ibanez, C; Flores, M; Fernandez Saavedra, P; Ezpinoza, M E; Heredia, C; Rocha, F; Zepita, C; Amouroux, D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels. Total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filtered water and sediment of Lake Titicaca are in the lowest range of reported levels in other large lakes worldwide. Downstream, Hg levels are 3-10 times higher in the shallow eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru than in Lake Titicaca due to high Hg inputs from the surrounding mining region. High percentages of MMHg were found in the filtered and unfiltered water rising up from <1 to ∼50% THg from the oligo/hetero-trophic Lake Titicaca to the eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru. Such high %MMHg is explained by a high in situ MMHg production in relation to the sulfate rich substrate, the low oxygen levels of the water column, and the stabilization of MMHg due to abundant ligands present in these alkaline waters. Differences in MMHg concentrations in water and sediments compartments between Lake Titicaca and Uru-Uru were found to mirror the offset in MMHg levels that also exist in their respective food webs. This suggests that in situ MMHg baseline production is likely the main factor controlling MMHg levels in fish species consumed by the local population. Finally, the increase of anthropogenic pressure in Lake Titicaca may probably enhance eutrophication processes which favor MMHg production and thus accumulation in water and biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  15. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  16. Mapping Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Using RapidEye Satellite Data: The Example of Lake Kummerow (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fritz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and plays an important role as a long-term indictor for the trophic state of freshwater lakes. Variations in water level height, nutrient condition, light availability and water temperature affect the growth and species composition of SAV. Detailed information about seasonal variations in littoral bottom coverage are still unknown, although these effects are expected to mask climate change-related long-term changes, as derived by snapshots of standard monitoring methods included in the European Water Framework Directive. Remote sensing offers concepts to map SAV quickly, within large areas, and at short intervals. This study analyses the potential of a semi-empirical method to map littoral bottom coverage by a multi-seasonal approach. Depth-invariant indices were calculated for four Atmospheric & Topographic Correction (ATCOR2 atmospheric corrected RapidEye data sets acquired at Lake Kummerow, Germany, between June and August 2015. RapidEye data evaluation was supported by in situ measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water column and bottom reflectance. The processing chain was able to differentiate between SAV and sandy sediment. The successive increase of SAV coverage from June to August was correctly monitored. Comparisons with in situ and Google Earth imagery revealed medium accuracies (kappa coefficient = 0.61, overall accuracy = 72.2%. The analysed time series further revealed how water constituents and temporary surface phenomena such as sun glint or algal blooms influence the identification success of lake bottom substrates. An abundant algal bloom biased the interpretability of shallow water substrate such that a differentiation of sediments and SAV patches failed completely. Despite the documented limitations, mapping of SAV using RapidEye seems possible, even in eutrophic lakes.

  17. 210Pb and 210Po in Venice Lagoon Biota and their contribution to population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.; Sansone, U.; Belli, M.; Sepulcri, D.; Bidoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product resulting from the processes applied in phosphoric acid or phosphate fertilizer production. The phosphate ore used in these chemical processes contains the naturally occurring radioactive materials U, and Th, along with their decay products. Large volumes of solid waste products were discharged from a phosphoric acid production plant on the edge of the Venice lagoon (Italy). Water, suspended matter, and biota were monitored in the Venice lagoon, since this aquatic environment can be considered to represent the final area of deposition for the radionuclides transported from inland. The present paper reports data on the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb determined in biota living in the lagoon, and an estimation of the contribution to internal dose to man from the ingestion of food originating in the investigated area. (orig.)

  18. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Meng, Wei; He, Zhongqi; Feng, Weiying; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state 13 C NMR and solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O–C–O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH 3 and COO/N–C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH 3 and COO/N–C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes. - Highlights: • WEOM derived from aquatic macrophytes was characterized. • C and P in WEOM were characterized by solid 13 C NMR and solution 31 P NMR. • Degradation and transformation of macrophyte-derived C and P were investigated. • Macrophyte-derived WEOM are important source for bioavailable nutrients in lakes.

  19. Environmental study of some metals on several aquatic macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macrophytes can be used in the study of quality of water ecosystems and in monitoring of metals and other pollutants. This study was focused on assessment of metals accumulation in certain aquatic macrophytes (biomonitors), in comparison with water and sediment (abiotic monitors) of the lake. Concentrations of ...

  20. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs) represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been...... rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series of standardized stationary tests were conducted to assess system performance. Furthermore...... for stationary transmitters due to accumulation of small tracking errors, moving transmitters can result in both over-and underestimation of distances depending on circumstances. Both deployed APTs were capable of providing high resolution positional data at the scale of entire lakes and are suitable systems...

  1. Responses of aquatic ecosystems to environmental changes in Finland and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eWeckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the state of global freshwater reservoirs has increased due to deterioration of the water quality during the last decades. This has prompted monitoring and restoration efforts such as the European Water Framework Directive and the national-scale 2nd-investigation and monitoring of the water quality, water volume and biota resources in China. The challenge so far has been the determination of the natural state (reference conditions of freshwater ecosystems. We used the sediment archives of five lakes and one brackish water embayment in Finland and China to assess the impact of selected variables of climatology, hydrology, nutrients, and changes in human population on these ecosystems during the last few centuries. The study sites represent catchment areas with varying land use. Despite the long distance between the sites and their different land-use characteristics, the direction and timing of changes during the last few centuries are well comparable between the high latitudes of Finland and the mid-low latitudes of China. This study reinforces the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change and underlines the usefulness of the palaeolimnological approach as a tool for determining reference conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Mercury, Selenium, Methylmercury in Consumed Fish from Shkodra Lake

    OpenAIRE

    , S. Fejzo; , K. Korro; , A. Alia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs from Shkodra Lake. 45 species of fish exists in this lake where 12 are migrate species. Some of the main types of fish that grow up in this lake are: crap, mullet, buy, carsi, cubla etc. Also the Shkodra Lake contains a very rich biota of microalgae, about 700 species with 250 algae type’s which grow up to 3 meter depth. These constitute a good environment food, but from the other side exist like ...

  3. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  4. Seasonal bat activity related to insect emergence at three temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarina, Ioanna; Gravier, Dorian; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of aquatic food resources entering terrestrial systems is important for food web studies and conservation planning. Bats, among other terrestrial consumers, often profit from aquatic insect emergence and their activity might be closely related to such events. However, there is a lack of studies which monitor bat activity simultaneously with aquatic insect emergence, especially from lakes. Thus, our aim was to understand the relationship between insect emergence and bat activity, and investigate whether there is a general spatial or seasonal pattern at lakeshores. We assessed whole-night bat activity using acoustic monitoring and caught emerging and aerial flying insects at three different lakes through three seasons. We predicted that insect availability and seasonality explain the variation in bat activity, independent of the lake size and characteristics. Spatial (between lakes) differences of bat activity were stronger than temporal (seasonal) differences. Bat activity did not always correlate to insect emergence, probably because other factors, such as habitat characteristics, or bats' energy requirements, play an important role as well. Aerial flying insects explained bat activity better than the emerged aquatic insects in the lake with lowest insect emergence. Bats were active throughout the night with some activity peaks, and the pattern of their activity also differed among lakes and seasons. Lakes are important habitats for bats, as they support diverse bat communities and activity throughout the night and the year when bats are active. Our study highlights that there are spatial and temporal differences in bat activity and its hourly nocturnal pattern, that should be considered when investigating aquatic-terrestrial interactions or designing conservation and monitoring plans.

  5. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-10-01

    Recently, food web studies have started exploring how resources from one habitat or ecosystem influence trophic interactions in a recipient ecosystem. Benthic production in lakes and streams can be exported to terrestrial habitats via emerging aquatic insects and can therefore link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we develop a general conceptual model that highlights zoobenthic production, insect emergence, and ecosystem geometry (driven principally by area-to-edge ratio) as important factors modulating the flux of aquatic production across the ecosystem boundary. Emerging insect flux, defined as total insect production emerging per meter of shoreline (g C x m(-1) x yr(-1)) is then distributed inland using decay functions and is used to estimate insect deposition rate to terrestrial habitats (g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). Using empirical data from the literature, we simulate insect fluxes across the water-land ecosystem boundary to estimate the distribution of fluxes and insect deposition inland for lakes and streams. In general, zoobenthos in streams are more productive than in lakes (6.67 vs. 1.46 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) but have lower insect emergence to aquatic production ratios (0.19 vs. 0.30). However, as stream width is on average smaller than lake radius, this results in flux (F) estimates 2 1/2 times greater for lakes than for streams. Ultimately, insect deposition onto land (within 100 m of shore) adjacent to average-sized lakes (10-ha lakes, 0.021 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) is greater than for average-sized streams (4 m width, 0.002 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) used in our comparisons. For the average lake (both in size and productivity), insect deposition rate approaches estimates of terrestrial secondary production in low-productivity ecosystems (e.g., deserts and tundra, approximately 0.07 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). However, larger lakes (1300 ha) and streams (16 m) can have average insect deposition rates (approximately 0.01-2.4 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1

  6. Distribution and bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in water, sediment and fishes in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake: Implications for ecological and human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Liu; Wu, Shengmin; Xu, Huaizhou; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shenghu; Shi, Lili; Yao, Cheng; Liu, Yanhua; Cheng, Jie

    2017-06-01

    The occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation of six endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) were investigated in water, sediment and biota samples from Luoma Lake, a shallow Chinese freshwater lake. Total concentrations of ∑phenolic EDCs were much higher than ∑estrogens EDCs in both waters and sediments. There were not obvious differences on the concentrations of target compounds [except nonylphenol (NP)] in upstream, lake and downstream locations, these may be suggested that they were mainly affected by non-point discharges in this area. However, the high concentration of NP in water may be associated with the discharge of rural domestic wastewater without thorough treatment. Furthermore, concentrations of NP were about 2-3 order magnitude higher than those of OP in both water and sediment compartments. Relatively higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were obtained for DES and EE2. Ecological risk assessment revealed greater risk of NP in surface water, which may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. The estrogen equivalent concentration (EEQ) of male were higher than those in female, and occurred in the order of city >rural-urban>countryside. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor, Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. 3. Professor, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. (Received: October, 2010; Accepted: May, 2011). The occurrence and diversity of aquatic macrophytes on Jebba Lake were documented during the ...

  8. Multidisciplinary characterisation of sedimentary processes in a recent maar lake (Lake Pavin, French Massif Central and implication for natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation processes occurring in the most recent maar lake of the French Massif Central (Lake Pavin are documented for the first time based on high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric surveys and by piston coring and radiocarbon dating on a sediment depocentre developed on a narrow sub aquatic plateau. This new data set confirms the mid Holocene age of maar lake Pavin formation at 6970±60 yrs cal BP and highlights a wide range of gravity reworking phenomena affecting the basin. In particular, a slump deposit dated between AD 580–640 remoulded both mid-Holocene lacustrine sediments, terrestrial plant debris and some volcanic material from the northern crater inner walls. Between AD 1200 and AD 1300, a large slide scar mapped at 50 m depth also affected the southern edge of the sub aquatic plateau, suggesting that these gas-rich biogenic sediments (laminated diatomite are poorly stable. Although several triggering mechanisms can be proposed for these prehistoric sub-aquatic mass wasting deposits in Lake Pavin, we argue that such large remobilisation of gas-rich sediments may affect the gas stability in deep waters of meromictic maar lakes. This study highlights the need to further document mass wasting processes in maar lakes and their impacts on the generation of waves, favouring the development of dangerous (and potentially deadly limnic eruptions.

  9. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. Final report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeller, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times

  10. Mercury in the Calcasieu River/lake Complex, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.S.; Ramelow, G.J.; Beck, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Calcasieu River/Lake Complex is of great economic importance to southwestern Louisiana. Calcasieu Lake is an important fishing ground for shrimp and oysters. The Calcasieu River/Lake Complex has been the focus of an interdisciplinary study to assess the types and areas of pollution along this important waterway. Particular attention has been given to Hg because of the toxicity of this metal, and the local importance of the chloralkali industry--an industry that is known to discharge Hg into the environment. Water, sediment and biota were collected at stations in Calcasieu Lake, Calcasieu River, and along three bayou tributaries that were studied intensively. Intensive sampling included all stations along the particular bayou studied that month

  11. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    lakes, which is additional evidence of the limited confinement at Round Lake. A comparison of the water quality and lake-bottom sediments at the three lakes indicate that Round Lake is strongly influenced by the addition of large quantities of calcium-bicarbonate enriched augmentation water. Round Lake had higher alkalinity, pH, calcium and dissolved oxygen concentrations, specific conductance, and water clarity than the two non-augmented lakes. Round Lake was generally saturated to supersaturated with respect to calcite, but was undersaturated when augmentation was low and after high rainfall periods. Calcium carbonate has accumulated in the lake sediments from calcite precipitation, from macrophytes such as Nitella sp., and from the deposition of carbonate-rich mollusk shells, such as Planerbella sp., both of which thrive in the high alkalinity lake water. Lake-bottom sediments and aquatic biota at Round Lake had some of the highest radium-226 activity levels measured in a Florida lake. The high radium-226 levels (27 disintegrations per minute per dry mass) can be atrributed to augmenting the lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Although the ground water has relatively low levels of radium-226 (5.8 disintegrations per minute per liter), the large volumes of ground water added to the lake for more than 30 years have caused radium-226 to accumulate in the sediments and lake biota.The Round Lake basin had higher calcium and bicarbonate concentrations in the surficial aquifer than at the non-augmented lakes, which indicates the lateral leakage of calcium-bicarbonate enriched lake water into the surficial aquifer. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicated that water in well nests near the lake consists of as much as 100 percent lake leakage, and water from the augmentation well had a high percentage of recirculated lake water (between 59 and 73 percent lake leakage). The ground water surrounding Round Lake was undersaturated with respect to calcite

  12. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  13. Review of emerging contaminants in aquatic biota from Latin America: 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Wunderlin, Daniel; Barcelo, Damià

    2017-07-01

    Although it is known that emerging contaminants are widespread all over the globe, there is a gap of information about their distribution in some geographical areas, such as Latin America. The present bibliographic work reviews the available literature about the presence of organic emerging contaminants in Latin American freshwater and marine biota between 2002 and 2016 and includes 23 works from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Nicaragua. In particular, the present review provides an overview of the occurrence of continuously present contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pyrethroid insecticides, as well as the new groups of persistent organic pollutants, the halogenated flame retardants and the perfluoroalkyl substances. A wide overview is provided, considering not only occurrence data but also effects and potential transfer through the food chain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1716-1727. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  15. Establishment patterns of water-elm at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen S. Doerr; Sanjeev Joshi; Richard F. Keim

    2015-01-01

    At Catahoula Lake in central Louisiana, an internationally important lake for water fowl, hydrologic alterations to the surrounding rivers and the lake itself have led to an expansion of water-elm (Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel.) into the lake bed. In this study, we used dendrochronology and aerial photography to quantify the expansion of water-elm in the lake and identify...

  16. Photosynthetic pathways of some aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R A [Wayne State Univ., Detroit; Wetzel, R G

    1977-12-01

    Over 40 species of aquatic angiosperms, including submersed, floating and emergent types, have been examined for photosynthetic status as part of a search for possible aquatic C/sub 4/ species. The C/sub 4/ system is viewed as potentially of adaptive value in certain aquatic situations, although evidence for its occurrence there is not conclusive. Emphasis was on plants from North-temperate softwater and hardwater lakes to explore both possibilities of CO/sub 2/ limitation, i.e., low total inorganic carbon in softwater vs. low free CO/sub 2/ in hardwater lakes. On the basis of leaf cross-section anatomy, all plants examined, with one exception, clearly did not show evidence of C/sub 4/ ''Krantz anatomy.'' In the submersed plant Potamogeton praelongus Wulf, large starch-producing chloroplasts were concentrated in cells surrounding vascular bundles and in a narrow band of cells between vascular bundles. The in situ photosynthetic rate of this plant was twice that of a related species, but other evidence including PEP carboxylase content and photorespiratory response to high O/sub 2/ did not confirm the presence of the C/sub 4/ photosynthesis.

  17. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  18. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Affonso

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012, channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012 and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples were applied to the variables in order to: 1 quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2 assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system’s types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system’s types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are

  19. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  20. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N. Rubén; Gandolfo, María A.; Zamaloa, María C.; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  1. Salamander colonization of Chase Lake, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Salt concentrations in lakes are dynamic. In the western United States, water diversions have caused significant declines in lake levels resulting in increased salinity, placing many aquatic species at risk (Galat and Robinson 1983, Beutel et al. 2001). Severe droughts can have similar effects on salt concentrations and aquatic communities (Swanson et al. 2003). Conversely, large inputs of water can dilute salt concentrations and contribute to community shifts (Euliss et al. 2004).

  2. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei, E-mail: mengwei@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Feng, Weiying [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O–C–O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH{sub 3} and COO/N–C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH{sub 3} and COO/N–C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes. - Highlights: • WEOM derived from aquatic macrophytes was characterized. • C and P in WEOM were characterized by solid {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR. • Degradation and transformation of macrophyte-derived C and P were investigated. • Macrophyte-derived WEOM are important source for bioavailable nutrients in lakes.

  3. Fuzzy logic modeling of bioaccumulation pattern of metals in coastal biota of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation patterns of ten metals in tissues of plant, Eichornia crassipes, and fishes, Hydrocynus forskahlii and Oreochromis mossambicus, were modeled with simple fuzzy classification (SFC) to assess toxic effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal biota. The plant sample was separated into root, stem, and leaves and the fishes into bones, internal tissues, and muscles. They were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Fe, Mn, and Zn after wet oxidation of their dried samples. The results were converted into membership functions of five accumulation classes and aggregated with SFC. The classification results showed that there was no metal accumulation in the plant parts while the fishes were classified into low accumulation category. The internal tissues of the fishes had higher metal accumulation than the other parts. Generally, Fe and Mn had highest concentrations in the biota but are natural to the area and may not constitute significant risk. Cr had the highest transfer and accumulation from the coastal water into the aquatic lives and may be indicative of risk prone system being a toxic metal. Metal contaminations in the zone had not significantly accumulated in the biota making them less prone to risk associated with metal accumulation.

  4. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, E B; Da-Silva, C J

    2009-02-01

    On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide a sufficient habitat heterogeneity to give very low, or null, index values. Thus, environmental conservation measures should be more effective in promoting the conservation of the species, given the high levels of biological diversity found in the habitats studied.

  5. IOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR BIOTA OF FRESHWATER BODIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd is probable or unknown. Besides biological importance, we also know about toxicity of heavy metals – a group of mineral polluting substances, which are the most distributed and dangerous for biota. Their negative effect includes drastic deterioration of conditions for existence of the majority of aquatic organisms, some species disappear, others reduce their number, components of trophic chains are lost, links in ecosystems become broken, and productivity of biocenoses decreases. Practical value. An array of generalized information will be useful for scientists who investigate freshwater ecosystems and effect of toxicants on them, in particular heavy metals.

  6. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anekwe Jennifer Ebele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are a unique group of emerging environmental contaminants, due to their inherent ability to induce physiological effects in human at low doses. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the presence of various PPCPs in different environmental compartments, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects to humans and wildlife. Therefore, this article reviews the current state-of-knowledge on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment. The environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria. Available literature on the sources, transport and degradation of PPCPs in the aquatic environment are evaluated, followed by a comprehensive review of the reported concentrations of different PPCP groups in the freshwater aquatic environment (water, sediment and biota of the five continents. Finally, future perspectives for research on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment are discussed in light of the identified research gaps in current knowledge.

  7. Developing a novel approach to analyse the regimes of temporary streams and their controls on aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, F.; Prat, N.; García-Roger, E. M.; Latron, J.; Rieradevall, M.; Llorens, P.; Barberá, G. G.; Brito, D.; de Girolamo, A. M.; Lo Porto, A.; Neves, R.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Perrin, J. L.; Querner, E. P.; Quiñonero, J. M.; Tournoud, M. G.; Tzoraki, O.; Froebrich, J.

    2011-10-01

    Temporary streams are those water courses that undergo the recurrent cessation of flow or the complete drying of their channel. The biological communities in temporary stream reaches are strongly dependent on the temporal changes of the aquatic habitats determined by the hydrological conditions. The use of the aquatic fauna structural and functional characteristics to assess the ecological quality of a temporary stream reach can not therefore be made without taking into account the controls imposed by the hydrological regime. This paper develops some methods for analysing temporary streams' aquatic regimes, based on the definition of six aquatic states that summarize the sets of mesohabitats occurring on a given reach at a particular moment, depending on the hydrological conditions: flood, riffles, connected, pools, dry and arid. We used the water discharge records from gauging stations or simulations using rainfall-runoff models to infer the temporal patterns of occurrence of these states using the developed aquatic states frequency graph. The visual analysis of this graph is complemented by the development of two metrics based on the permanence of flow and the seasonal predictability of zero flow periods. Finally, a classification of the aquatic regimes of temporary streams in terms of their influence over the development of aquatic life is put forward, defining Permanent, Temporary-pools, Temporary-dry and Episodic regime types. All these methods were tested with data from eight temporary streams around the Mediterranean from MIRAGE project and its application was a precondition to assess the ecological quality of these streams using the current methods prescribed in the European Water Framework Directive for macroinvertebrate communities.

  8. Extracellular enzyme activities of aquatic bacteria in polluted environment: 2. Amylolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbaciauskiene, V.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples were taken from Lake Drukshiai tributaries (Ricanka); Gulbinele Stream affected by urban rain sewerage from Visaginas; Gulbinele Stream into which municipal sewage from Visaginas (MS) and industrial rain sewerage from the Ignalina NPP and their mouth, and Lake Dringis. Lake Dringis, in Aukstaitija National Park, was selected as an ecosystem pattern of a weak anthropogenic influence, while Lake Drukshiai was chosen as a regularly polluted water body. Lake Drukshiai, the cooling basin of the Ignalina NPP (IRS-1.2), is being polluted with industrial and municipal sewage through its tributaries. The amylolytic activity (AA) of heterotrophic aquatic bacteria was tested. The highest total mean AA of aquatic bacteria was calculated in Lake Dringis. Here, the results were significantly higher than in Lake Drukshiai tributaries and their mouths, excepting the mouths of the Ricanka and MS. The lowest mean of AA in Lake Drukshiai was characteristic of the IRS-1.2 tributary. A comparison of the mean AA of active isolates showed that certain bacterial strains from the sites of varying degrees of pollution could be noted for a relatively high level of enzymatic activity. Thus, anthropogenic pollution exerts a negative effect on the total mean AA, although certain strains of bacteria are able to adapt to the stressful environment and remain active. (author)

  9. Consequences of radioactive deposition on aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1994-12-01

    The publication concentrates on the analyses of the main effects of radioactive deposition on Nordic aquatic environments. A modelling approach is applied for predicting the temporal behaviour of concentrations in fish of inland freshwater ecosystems. The observed values are considered in parallel with the calculations. The time-integrated consequences, the radiation doses are estimated for the relatively significant dose pathways. After a preliminary study of various lake environments in Nordic countries, three representative examples of lake systems were selected for closer consideration: small forest lake, medium-sized forest lake and mountain lake. The effects of changes in the trophic levels of lakes are also tentatively accounted for. The results of the analyses indicate that the radiological consequences of shallow forest lakes are greater than those of mountain lakes which usually have shorter turnover times compared to forest lakes. In long-term consideration, the fish ingestion pathway may in general become important and, in addition to the external exposure, has a high contribution to the expected doses. (orig.) (8 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  10. Using tree swallows to monitor impacts of aquatic contamination in Great Lakes areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnode, K.A.; Bodenstein, B.; Hetzel, R.; Pearson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Tree swallows were used to evaluate movement and potential impacts of contaminants from sediments in Newton Creek (diesel range organics: DROs) and Sheboygan River (PCBs), tributaries to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, respectively. Contaminated sites occurred along the course of each river, while reference sites were located upstream or on a nearby river. Productivity was monitored and eggs, day 1 nestlings, and day 12 nestlings were collected from each nest. Whole body or egg homogenates were analyzed for PCBs or DROs. EROD activity in livers from day 12 nestlings is being determined for both PCB and DRO exposures. In the Newton Creek study, hatching success was similar for DRO and reference sites. DROs were detected in gastrointestinal tracts of 1 nestling from the reference and 1 from the contaminated site. DROs were not detected in any egg samples. In the Sheboygan River study, hatching success rates differed between 1 reference and 1 contaminated river segment. PCB daily accumulation rates from day 1 to day 12 nestlings were computed for Sheboygan River. All nestlings at reference nests had negative rates due to growth dilution effects. Preliminary analyses indicate the average rate for nestlings from contaminated segments of the river was 220.3 ng/g/day. These 1995 findings will be combined with 1996 data to evaluate the effectiveness of tree swallows for monitoring ecosystem impacts of aquatic contaminants in Wisconsin

  11. Determinants of biodiversity in subtropical shallow lakes (Atlantic coast, Uruguay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruk, C.; Rodriguez-Gallego, L.; Meerhoff, M.; Quintans, F.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Scasso, F.; Paggi, J.C.; Peeters, E.; Marten, S.

    2009-01-01

    P> Shallow lakes and ponds contribute disproportionally to species richness relative to other aquatic ecosystems. In-lake conditions (e.g. presence of submerged plants) seem to play a key role in determining diversity, as has been demonstrated for temperate lakes. When water quality deteriorates

  12. Method for calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms with application of plutonium-239 in plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms is presented. The mean alpha energies per disintegration of radionuclides of interest are listed to be used in standard methodologies to calculate dose to aquatic biota. As an application, the upper limits for the alpha dose rates from 239 Pu to the total body of plankton are estimated based on data available in open literature [pt

  13. Biological transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to Lake Ellasjoeen, Bjoernoeya (Bear Island), Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A.; Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva, Tromso (Norway); Kallenborn, R. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Herzke, D. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Tromso (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    During recent years, multidisciplinary studies have been carried out on Bjoernoeya (Bear Island, Norway), elucidating the fate and the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in this pristine Arctic environment. High concentrations of POPs, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-dichlorethane (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured in sediment and biota from Ellasjoeen, a lake located in the southern, mountainous part of Bjoernoeya. In Lake Oeyangen, located only 6 km north of Ellasjoeen on the central plains of the island, levels of POPs are several times lower than in Ellasjoeen. One reason for the different POP contamination levels in Ellasjoeen and Oeyangen is probably differences in precipitation regime between the southern mountainous part of the island and the central plains further north, leading to differences in the deposition of air transported contaminants. Another possible source for contaminants to Ellasjoeen is the large colonies of seabirds (mainly kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), little auk (Alle alle) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)), which are situated close to the lake during the ice-free period (early June - October). These seabirds feed in the marine environment, and deposit large amounts of guano (excrements) directly into the lake or in the catchment area of the lake. Oeyangen is not influenced by seabirds. There are two ways in which input from seabirds can lead to higher levels of POPs in Ellasjoeen: direct input of POPs through allochthonous material (guano, bird remains) a change in trophic state of the lake as a result of nutrient loadings from the seabirds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of guano as a transport medium for POPs to Ellasjoeen. Two main approaches were followed: an investigation of the trophic status of Ellasjoeen, as well as the reference lake, Oeyangen, through analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, analyses of selected

  14. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  15. Isotope Tracer-Aided Studies of Agrochemical-Biota Interactions in Soil and Water. Short Communications and Report of the Second Combined Meeting of Participants in Two Co-ordinated Research Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The importance of soil and water quality to agriculture and fisheries is self-evident. Soil and water ecosystems have a certain capacity to accept and degrade agrochemical residues. It is generally the microflora which determines this capacity. The residues can affect critical microbial processes such as heterotrophic activity, algal primary production, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. Many methods have been developed to measure the fate and effects of these chemicals in the systems. Isotopic labelling is an essential tool in this measuring. Tracers are used not only to estimate the fate and conversion of the chemicals but also to measure by labelled substrate techniques their impact on the biota. The present document illustrates these different aspects. Pew measuring techniques have, however, found general acceptance. The great variety in methods hampers obtaining comparable data. The report stresses the need to seek more uniformity in methodology for estimating agrochemical residue - biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems.This is a progress report containing short communications or abstracts of the papers presented at the second meeting of the Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated research programmes on agrochemical residue - biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems which was held 23-27 October 1978 in Burnaby, B.C., Canada. The importance of soil and water quality to agriculture and fisheries is self-evident. Soil and water ecosystems have a certain capacity to accept and degrade agrochemical residues. It is generally the microflora which determines this capacity. The residues can affect critical microbial processes such as heterotrophic activity, algal primary production, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. Many methods have been developed to measure the fate and effects of these chemicals in the systems. Isotopic labelling is an essential tool in this measuring. Tracers are used not only to estimate the fate and conversion of the chemicals but

  16. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in aquatic environments. Annual progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The present work is a combination of studies on natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in aquatic environments and on the biogeochemistry of the transuranium elements 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am, in the Bikini Lagoon. The objectives of the biogeochemical studies are to evaluate the cycling of the radionuclides in the aquatic environment from their sources, their distribution within ecosystems, their uptake by biota, and their sinks. Detailed studies of the conditions which now exist some 17 years since the last nuclear detonations at Bikini should give a basis for predicting the effects of large-scale or low-level continuous releases of nuclear waste products in the marine environment

  17. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.

    2009-01-01

    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  18. Biotic interactions in temporal trends (1992–2010) of organochlorine contaminants in the aquatic food web of Lake Laberge, Yukon Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.; Stern, G.A.; Kidd, K.A.; Croft, M.V.; Gewurtz, S.; Diamond, M.; Kinnear, L.; Roach, P.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in 6 organochlorine (OC) contaminant groups; chlordane (CHL), DDT, HCH, toxaphene (CHB), PCB and chlorinated benzenes (CBz) were measured in biota of a sub-Arctic lake (Lake Laberge, YT) following the closure of a commercial fishery in 1991. This study examined morphological (length, weight, age), biochemical (lipid content, δ 13 C, δ 15 N), population and OC data for 9 fishes and zooplankton between 1993 and 2003 (2010 for lake trout) to investigate causes for the OC declines. Growth dilution was a major factor influencing the decrease of OCs in lake trout, round whitefish and possibly zooplankton most notably in the early 2000s. A decline in lipids of most fish species also contributed to OC declines, although no such change was evident for zooplankton. It is suspected that increases in fish populations or climate variations over the 1990s, may have contributed towards a shift in plankton community composition. From 1991 to 1999, CPUE increased for 7 of the fish species and declined for 2 others. Concurrently, the zooplankton community shifted from an abundance of C. scutifer in 1993 to dominance by D. pribilofensis in 2001. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data suggested that food web interactions for most fish species have not changed over time. Although concentrations of OCs have declined in many fishes, the “rate” of OC transfer (using slopes of log OC vs. nitrogen isotope ratios) through the food web was greater in 2001 than in 1993. Overall, the declines in OC concentrations in the fish from Lake Laberge occurred concurrently with changes in their growth, lipid, and abundance, suggesting that ecosystem responses to the closure of the fishery were in part responsible for the lower contaminants in these fishes. As a result of this study, the Yukon government rescinded the health advisory for limiting the consumption of fish from Lake Laberge. - Highlights: ► Organochlorine contaminants in a sub-Arctic lake were monitored post

  19. Biotic interactions in temporal trends (1992–2010) of organochlorine contaminants in the aquatic food web of Lake Laberge, Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.J. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); University of Manitoba, Dept. of Soil Science, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Stern, G.A., E-mail: gary.stern@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); Kidd, K.A. [University of New Brunswick, Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada E2L 4E5 (Canada); Croft, M.V. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); Gewurtz, S.; Diamond, M. [University of Toronto, Department of Geography, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G3 (Canada); Kinnear, L. [Northern Climate Exchange, Yukon Research Center, Yukon College, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada Y1A 5K4 (Canada); Roach, P. [Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, Rm 415C - 300 Main St., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Declines in 6 organochlorine (OC) contaminant groups; chlordane (CHL), DDT, HCH, toxaphene (CHB), PCB and chlorinated benzenes (CBz) were measured in biota of a sub-Arctic lake (Lake Laberge, YT) following the closure of a commercial fishery in 1991. This study examined morphological (length, weight, age), biochemical (lipid content, δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N), population and OC data for 9 fishes and zooplankton between 1993 and 2003 (2010 for lake trout) to investigate causes for the OC declines. Growth dilution was a major factor influencing the decrease of OCs in lake trout, round whitefish and possibly zooplankton most notably in the early 2000s. A decline in lipids of most fish species also contributed to OC declines, although no such change was evident for zooplankton. It is suspected that increases in fish populations or climate variations over the 1990s, may have contributed towards a shift in plankton community composition. From 1991 to 1999, CPUE increased for 7 of the fish species and declined for 2 others. Concurrently, the zooplankton community shifted from an abundance of C. scutifer in 1993 to dominance by D. pribilofensis in 2001. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data suggested that food web interactions for most fish species have not changed over time. Although concentrations of OCs have declined in many fishes, the “rate” of OC transfer (using slopes of log OC vs. nitrogen isotope ratios) through the food web was greater in 2001 than in 1993. Overall, the declines in OC concentrations in the fish from Lake Laberge occurred concurrently with changes in their growth, lipid, and abundance, suggesting that ecosystem responses to the closure of the fishery were in part responsible for the lower contaminants in these fishes. As a result of this study, the Yukon government rescinded the health advisory for limiting the consumption of fish from Lake Laberge. - Highlights: ► Organochlorine contaminants in a sub-Arctic lake were monitored post

  20. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) and Lake-Catchment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsLake and stream conditions respond to both natural and human-related landscape features. Characterizing these features within contributing areas (i.e., delineated watersheds) of streams and lakes could improve our understanding of how biological conditions vary spatially and improve the use, management, and restoration of these aquatic resources. However, the specialized geospatial techniques required to define and characterize stream and lake watersheds has limited their widespread use in both scientific and management efforts at large spatial scales. We developed the StreamCat and LakeCat Datasets to model, predict, and map the probable biological conditions of streams and lakes across the conterminous US (CONUS). Both StreamCat and LakeCat contain watershed-level characterizations of several hundred natural (e.g., soils, geology, climate, and land cover) and anthropogenic (e.g., urbanization, agriculture, mining, and forest management) landscape features for ca. 2.6 million stream segments and 376,000 lakes across the CONUS, respectively. These datasets can be paired with field samples to provide independent variables for modeling and other analyses. We paired 1,380 stream and 1,073 lake samples from the USEPAs National Aquatic Resource Surveys with StreamCat and LakeCat and used random forest (RF) to model and then map an invertebrate condition index and chlorophyll a concentration, respectively. Results/ConclusionsThe invertebrate

  1. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  2. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies.

  3. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  4. The ecology and impact of the invasion of Lake Ontario by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussel (D. bugensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negley, T.L.; Mills, E.L.; Baldwin, B.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Munawar, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we present a detailed description of the zebra and quagga mussel invasion in Lake Ontario, with specific emphasis on: (1) the development of the Dreissena populations in Lake Ontario, (2) previously unreported data from 1997 and 1998 for Dreissena populations at Nine-Mile Point in Lake Ontario, (3) factors influencing dreissenid development in Lake Ontario, and (4) the effects of dreissenid colonization on the biota of the Lake Ontario ecosystem.

  5. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  6. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, S. S.; Zhu, Y.; Meng, W.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O-C-O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes.

  7. Expanding Aquatic Observations through Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. W. Brewin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities and argue, based on current technological developments and recent research, that the time is right to employ recreational citizens to improve large-scale aquatic sampling efforts. We discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for this strategy to be successful (e.g., sensor integration, data quality, and citizen motivation, the steps needed to realize its potential, and additional societal benefits that arise when engaging citizens in scientific sampling.

  8. Bioavailability of radionuclides and dose rate in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, Dmitri; Nazarov, Alexandr

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Our studies were carried out during 1997-2007 within Krasnensky flood-lands on the left bank of the Pripyat River, which is the most contaminated region of the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. During 1991-1993 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as flood protection dams was constructed within the Krasnensky flood-lands, which preventing washing away of radioactive substances from soils and changing a hydrological mode of flood plain flows during a high water. In its turn it was by the reason of strengthening of over-moistening and swamping processes within embankment territories. As a result - on a background of the common tendencies of increase of the mobile forms of 90 Sr in soils of catchment territories and bottom sediments of the exclusion zone, there is an increase of humic acids concentrations in waterlogged soils of Krasnensky flood-lands. It is also raises the content of the water-soluble forms of 90 Sr forming with acids the soluble complexes. Thus the increase of concentrations of the mobile radionuclide forms and their inclusion into biotic circulation of aquatic ecosystems is observed. It confirms also an increase of 90 Sr specific activity in water of lakes within Krasnensky flood-lands, against a background of stabilisation of this parameter for 137 Cs last years. Such dynamics of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents is significantly reflected on dose rate for hydrobionts due to incorporated radionuclides. However if in running water bodies the decrease of radionuclide contents defines, accordingly, and the decrease of dose rates, in lakes of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River the situation has an absolutely other character. At rather stable internal absorbed dose rate, caused by 137 Cs during 1993-2007, the dose, caused by the 90 Sr content, has grown more than in 20 times for some species of higher aquatic plants and fish in comparison with the beginning of 1990-s. As a result the total internal dose

  9. Bioaccumulation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in perch in Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), a high production volume chemical used in personal care products, enters the environment both via air and sewage treatment plant (STP) recipients. It has been found in fish, and there is concern that it may be a bioaccumulative substance. In this work D5 was analyzed in perch from six Swedish lakes that did not receive STP effluent, and in perch and sediment from six lakes that received STP effluent. In the lakes receiving the STP effluent, the D5 concentrations in sediment varied over three orders of magnitude and were correlated with the number of persons connected to the STP normalized to the surface area of the receiving body. In the lakes not receiving effluent, the D5 levels in perch were all below the LOQ, while D5 was above the LOQ in almost all perch from lakes that received effluent. The D5 concentrations in perch and sediment from the lakes receiving STP effluent were correlated. This shows that STP effluent is a much more important source of D5 to aquatic ecosystems than atmospheric deposition, and that the risk of adverse effects of D5 on aquatic life will be greatest in small recipients receiving large amounts of STP effluent. The bioaccumulation of D5 was compared to that of PCB 180 on the basis of multimedia bioaccumulation factors (mmBAFs), which describe the fraction of the contaminant present in the whole aquatic environment (i.e. water and surface sediment) that is transferred to the fish. In four of the six lakes the mmBAF of D5 was >0.3 of the mmBAF of PCB 180. Given that PCB 180 is a known highly bioaccumulative chemical, this indicates that the bioaccumulation of D5 in perch is considerable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of metal toxicity to tropical biota. Recommendations for revision of Australian water quality guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchich, S.

    1997-01-01

    The specific objectives of this study were to: review available data on the toxicity of metals to aquatic biota in tropical Australia; identify metals considered to be priority toxicants to aquatic biota in tropical Australia; and employ previously developed toxicity testing protocols for two tropical freshwater species to obtain preliminary toxicity data for two priority metals. From the literature review, it was concluded that insufficient metal toxicity data exist for Australian tropical species. Data were absent for a range of metals (eg Ag, As, Al, Cr, Hg, Ni, Sb and Se) listed in the current Australian water quality guidelines. Aluminium, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, U, V and Zn were identified as priority metals of potential ecotoxicological concern in aquatic ecosystems of tropical Australia, largely as a consequence of mining activities, but also from urban impacts. Instead of testing the toxicity of the priority metals for which data do not currently exist (ie Al, Co, Ni and V), it was deemed more important to conduct further experimental work on Cu and U, in the context of elucidating the relatively high variability in the toxic response of these two metals. As a result, Cu and U were selected and toxicity tests conducted using two tropical freshwater species (green hydra (Hydra viridissima) and gudgeon fish (Mogurnda mogurnda)) from the Australian wet/dry tropics using test protocols designed to maximise the greatest sensitivity of metal response in the shortest period of time. Hydra viridissima was about eight times more sensitive to Cu than U, whereas M. mogurnda was about twenty times more sensitive. Once differences between the sublethal and lethal endpoints of the two organisms were corrected by statistical extrapolation, H. viridissima was approximately seven times more sensitive than M. mogurnda to U, but only about three times more sensitive to Cu. Both species were more sensitive to Cu than U. These results are generally consistent with those from

  11. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  12. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane from diverse aquatic environments in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, E. H.; Crawford, J. T.; Loken, L. C.; Casson, N. J.; Gubbins, N. J.; Oliver, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of aquatic environments to landscape carbon cycling is particularly apparent in carbon- and water-rich regions. Such areas arguably represent an end member in terms of the relative significance of aquatic carbon cycling, while dry, carbon-poor zones are the likely opposing end member. Not surprisingly, most limnological attention has focused on these former regions, leaving open questions as to how aquatic systems in other locales influence larger-scale carbon dynamics. This includes human-dominated landscapes where agricultural and urban land uses can fundamentally alter carbon dynamics. Surveys of streams, ponds, and lakes in a southern Wisconsin landscape highlight three findings relevant to understanding the role of these aquatic systems in larger-scale carbon dynamics. First, streams and ponds had unexpectedly high summertime concentrations in and fluxes of CO2 and CH4. These values were approximately an order of magnitude greater than for less disturbed, forest and wetland-dominated landscapes in northern Wisconsin. Second, while mean C gas concentrations in lakes were lower than in streams and ponds, detailed spatial measurements demonstrate variability in surface water CO2 (43-1090 ppm pCO2) and CH4 (6-839 ppm pCH4) within a lake on a single day is similar to that observed among 25 streams included in our survey (260-6000 ppm pCO2; 50-600 ppm pCH4). This small-scale heterogeneity highlights a basic challenge for upscaling site-specific data collected at one or a few points to the whole lake and across lakes. Third, while agricultural and urban ecosystems are not necessarily carbon-rich environments, area-specific carbon storage in streams and ponds is substantial (up to 3000-5000 g C per m2). Further, carbon storage was strongly related to CH4 concentrations in streams, as C-rich sediments provided both an environment and substrate to fuel methanogenesis. The picture that emerges of C processing in aquatic environments throughout this human

  13. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  14. Does wildfire cause cascading effects on aquatic C cycling? A study of soil, well and lake DOC composition and bio/photolability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Devito, K. J.; Blodau, C.

    2012-12-01

    In May 2011 a wildfire broke out north of Utikuma Lake in central Alberta, Canada, which eventually burned an area of ~880 km2. Wildfire alters soil properties, potentially altering the chemical composition of terrestrial DOC that reaches downstream aquatic environments. In order to study the potential effects of wildfire on lake carbon cycling, we sampled and incubated DOC from soil samples (n=52), wells (n=35) and lakes (n=32) from within and outside the recent fire perimeter. We incubated the DOC samples under both dark and UV conditions to assess both bio- and photolability, and followed DOC composition throughout the incubations by measuring DOC absorbing and fluorescing properties. A strong effect of wildfire was found among DOC samples leached from surface peatland and upland soils - with fire yielding increased DOC aromaticity associated with decreased biodegradability but also increased photolability. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence matrices revealed distinct regions that were associated with DOC leached from charred soils, potentially linked to their lower biodegradability. Dark and UV conditions gave rise to very different trajectories of changes to DOC composition throughout incubations, with preferential losses of non-aromatic DOC under dark conditions and aromatic DOC under UV conditions. The DOC composition index that was found to best predict both DOC bio- and photolability was specific UV absorbance, which is also a very simple and quick index to measure. For lakes, we found that the primary influences on DOC composition and bio-/photolability was linked to lake size and hydrogeological setting (whether located on a lacustrine clay plain or in a moraine/outwash region) that controls groundwater influence and the hydrological connectivity to adjacent peatlands. Further analysis of well and lake water incubations will be used to detect whether wildfire can be detected to have a subtle secondary effect on DOC composition and lability or if

  15. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  16. A framework for profiling a lake's riparian area development potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Ciara Schlichting; Dorothy H. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges for managing residential development occur at the interface between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems -in a lake`s riparian area. Land use planners need a framework they can use to identify development hotspots, areas were the next push for development will most likely occur. Lake riparian development profiles provide a framework...

  17. A dynamic model to estimate the dose rate of marine biota (K-BIOTADYN- M) and its application to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-ho [Nuclear Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeodaero, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    than the UNSCEAR's benchmark level to protect the aquatic biota from the ionizing radiation, indicating that the integrity of marine ecosystem would be maintained. In addition, the simulation results will be compared with the measured activity concentration of the biota as well as the results predicted by the equilibrium model. (authors)

  18. Radioactive contamination of the environment and biota on Novaya Zemlya following nuclear weapon tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, G.G.; Matishov, D.G.; Shchipa, E.; Pavlova, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Data of radiochemical studies have shown that in key elements of ecosystems on the archipelago (lake and sea waters, bottom deposits, mosses lichens, birds and deer) the content of Cs 137 and other radioisotopes is within the background level. Bottom deposits and soils of local territories of the abandoned nuclear test sites are the exception (the concentration of radioisotopes in the environment and biota amounts to 5000 Bq/rg and more). It is recommended that mosses and lichens on the ground and benthonic organisms in the sea should be used as biological indicators of artificial radiological background

  19. Cross shore transport by wind-driven turbidity plumes in western Lake Superior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity plumes frequently occur in the western arm of Lake Superior and may represent a significant cross shelf transport mechanism for sediment, nutrient and biota. We characterize a plume that formed in late April 2016 using observations from in situ sensors and remote sensin...

  20. Analysis of strontium-90 in the bones of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, C.G. Jr.; Kinney, R.M.; Lisk, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclides such as Sr-90, mainly from liquid effluent releases from nuclear power generating facilities, can contaminate water and biota. Lake Ontario ultimately receives the outflow from each of the other Great Lakes. In the work reported, brown trout (Salmo trutta) were captured from Lake Ontario and their entire skeletal bone material analyzed for Sr-90. They showed an average concentration of Sr-90 approximately four times greater than control brown trout captured from nearby Cayuga Lake in Central New York State which has no nuclear generating facilities. The results are discussed considering fallout and hydrographic considerations. (author)

  1. Specific activity and concentration model applied to cesium-137 movement in a eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model which simulates time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radiocesium in lake ecosystems was applied to a shallow, eutrophic lake that had received a pulse input of 137 Cs. Best estimates of transfer coefficients for abiotic compartments (sediment, interstitial water, and water) and macrophyte compartment which control mass balance of cesium in water were determined by tuning our initial estimates of the transfer coefficients to observed data on 137 Cs concentrations and contents of these compartments. In most cases, the optimized transfer coefficients of the abiotic compartments were not greatly different from our independently-derived initial estimates, and the simulations for optimized coefficients were close to those based on initial estimates. The simulations of 137 Cs concentration in water predicted by the optimized transfer coefficients were used to derive 137 Cs kinetics in biota other than macrophytes. In general, model simulations were close to concentrations observed in the biota. The agreement between 137 Cs concentrations and simulations in bottom invertebrates supported our assumption that bottom sediments are not a major source of Cs to the biota. (U.S.)

  2. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state (13)C NMR and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Meng, Wei; He, Zhongqi; Feng, Weiying; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P

    2016-02-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state (13)C NMR and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O-C-O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of plant-derived carbon and phosphorus in lakes by sequential fractionation and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Although debris from aquatic macrophytes is one of the most important endogenous sources of organic matter (OM) and nutrients in lakes, its biogeochemical cycling and contribution to internal load of nutrients in eutrophic lakes are still poorly understood. In this study, sequential fractionation by H{sub 2}O, 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M HCl, combined with {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, was developed and used to characterize organic carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in six aquatic plants collected from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China. Organic matter, determined by total organic carbon (TOC), was unequally distributed in H{sub 2}O (21.2%), NaOH (29.9%), HCl (3.5%) and residual (45.3%) fractions. For P in debris of aquatic plants, 53.3% was extracted by H{sub 2}O, 31.9% by NaOH, and 11% by HCl, with 3.8% in residual fractions. Predominant OM components extracted by H{sub 2}O and NaOH were carbohydrates, proteins and aliphatic acids. Inorganic P (P{sub i}) was the primary form of P in H{sub 2}O fractions, whereas organic P (P{sub o}) was the primary form of P in NaOH fractions. The subsequent HCl fractions extracted fewer species of C and P. Some non-extractable carbohydrates, aromatics and metal phytate compounds remained in residual fractions. Based on sequential extraction and NMR analysis, it was proposed that those forms of C (54.7% of TOC) and P (96.2% of TP) in H{sub 2}O, NaOH and HCl fractions are potentially released to overlying water as labile components, while those in residues are stable and likely preserved in sediments of lakes. These results will be helpful in understanding internal loading of nutrients from debris of aquatic macrophytes and their recycling in lakes. - Highlights: • Sequential fractionation combined with NMR analysis was applied on aquatic plants. • Labile and stable C and P forms in aquatic plants were characterized. • 54.7% of OM and 96.2% of P in aquatic plants are potentially available. • 45.3% of OM and 3.8% of P in aquatic

  4. Hydrology, water quality, trophic status, and aquatic plants of Fowler Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fowler Lake Management District, completed a hydrologic and water-quality study of Fowler Lake in southeastern Wisconsin during calendar year 1984. Data on temperature, pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate phosphorus, and various nitrogen species were collected from January through November 1984. The water-quality data indicate that Fowler Lake can be classified as a mildly fertile lake with excellent water clarity as indicated by Secchi depth readings generally greater than 12 feet. Although phosphorus concentrations are generally less than 0.01 milligram per liter, the lake does produce dense stands of macrophytes during the open-water period. The lake is thermally stratified during the summer months, resulting in oxygen depletion in the deepest parts of the lake.

  5. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora).

  6. The impacts of past climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Anderson, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    The last two million years of global history have been dominated by the impacts of rapid climate change. This influence is not immediately obvious to most biologists whose observations rarely extend beyond a period of a few years, but becomes apparent when interpreting long-term data sets whether they be population studies or palaeoecological data. It is appropriate therefore to consider how terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have responded to climate change during the Quaternary when speculating about response to future climatic developments. In this chapter we discuss and illustrate the complex interactions between climate and anthropogenic influence on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the Holocene. Climate influences ecosystems both directly (e.g. physiological responses or lake thermal stratification) and indirectly (e.g. via fire frequency or catchment hydrology). Lake sediments can be used to study both past climatic change directly and the effects of past climatic variability. In this chapter we present summary examples of the influence of past climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well showing how lake sediment records can provide proxy records of past climate change. The geological record from the last 18 000 years documents large changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are primarily driven by climatic change, but are modified by internal ecosystem processes. These changes are comparable in magnitude and rapidity to those predicted for the near future. Species at their distributional limits are particularly sensitive to climate change and contractions of range can be sudden in response to extreme climatic events such as the storm of December 1999 that damaged Picea trees far more than tree species that lay within their natural range limits. Palaeoecological records provide compelling evidence for direct climate forcing of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems but importantly also permit comparative analyses of impacts

  7. Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Gay, David A.; Morrison, Heather A.; Williams, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land–water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. - Highlights: ► We describe a bi-national synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region. ► Emission controls have reduced Hg inputs to inland lakes about 20% since the 1980s. ► Wet and dry deposition and evasion are regionally important atmospheric Hg fluxes. ► Land use affects Hg inputs to surface waters and bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ► In some waters, Hg levels in yellow perch pose risks to fish, wildlife, and humans. - A synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region reveals the chronology of contamination; the importance of wet and dry deposition and evasion to Hg budgets; the influence of land–water linkages; bioaccumulation in aquatic foods webs; and risks associated with Hg in an important prey fish.

  8. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2001-01-01

    The catchment areas of Lake Victoria in Tanzania are impacted by mercury contamination from small-scale gold mining activities. A preliminary survey of the mercury contamination has indicated in some cases mercury concentrations that are higher than background levels in soil and river sediment downstream of the mining areas. Average mercury concentration in contaminated soil is in the order of 3.4 mg/kg whereas in river sediment the concentration is about 4.9 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations in fish from a few areas of the Lake Victoria close to gold mining areas are in the range of 2-20 ppb. These fish mercury concentrations are surprisingly low considering the extent of mercury contamination in the Lake Victoria catchment. The dynamics of mercury cycling and their long-term impact on mercury levels in fish and other aquatic organisms in the Lake Victoria gold fields still need to be clarified. Research activities for the first year (2000) will concentrate on the determination of total mercury distribution patterns among soil, river water, sediment, and biota (fish, and other aquatic biota) in two areas (Mugusu-Nungwe Bay and Imweru-Bukombe Bay) of the Lake Victoria gold fields. The relationships between local tropical soil-sediment- and water-chemistry and the distribution of mercury in the contaminated areas will be investigated. Data from this work will be used in the identification and selection of suitable bio-monitors for mercury contamination and human health risk assessment in the study areas. In the second year, the project will focus mainly on methylmercury production and partition between sediment, water and biota in contaminated local tropical sediments. The main factors influencing the methylation and distribution of mercury species will be evaluated in laboratory experiments and extrapolated to environmental conditions. The results of the project will have important implications in mercury pollution monitoring, mitigation, and health risk assessment not

  9. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora.

  10. Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from various sources and implications for ameliorative effects on metal toxicity to aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A.; Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott, E-mail: ssmith@wlu.camailto [Department of Chemistry, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM), expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC in mg C L{sup -1}), is an ubiquitous complexing agent in natural waters, and is now recognized as an important factor mitigating waterborne metal toxicity. However, the magnitude of the protective effect, judged by toxicity measures (e.g. LC50), varies substantially among different NOM sources even for similar DOC concentrations, implying a potential role of NOM physicochemical properties or quality of NOM. This review summarizes some key quality parameters for NOM samples, obtained by reverse osmosis, and by using correlation analyses, investigates their contribution to ameliorating metal toxicity towards aquatic biota. At comparable and environmentally realistic DOC levels, molecular spectroscopic characteristics (specific absorbance coefficient, SAC, and fluorescence index, FI) as well as concentrations of fluorescent fractions obtained from mathematical mixture resolution techniques (PARAFAC), explain considerable variability in the protective effects. NOM quality clearly influences the toxicity of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). NOM quality may also influence the toxicity of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg), but as yet insufficient data are available to unequivocally support the latter correlations between toxicity reduction and NOM quality predictors. Cu binding capacities, protein-to-carbohydrate ratio, and lipophilicity, show insignificant correlation to the amelioration offered by NOMs, but these conclusions are based on data for Norwegian NOMs with very narrow ranges for the latter two parameters. Certainly, various NOMs alleviate metal toxicity differentially and therefore their quality measures should be considered in addition to their quantity.

  11. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  12. Holocene evolution of lakes in the forest-tundra biome of northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, William O.; Edlund, Mark B.; Umbanhowar, Charles E.; Camill, Philip; Lynch, Jason A.; Geiss, Christoph; Stefanova, Vania

    2017-03-01

    The late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of the western Hudson Bay region of Subarctic Canada is poorly constrained. Here, we present a regional overview of the post-glacial history of eight lakes which span the forest-tundra biome in northern Manitoba. We show that during the penultimate drainage phase of Lake Agassiz the lake water had an estimated pH of ∼6.0, with abundant quillwort (Isöetes spp.) along the lakeshore and littoral zone and some floating green algae (Botryococcus spp. and Pediastrum sp.). Based on multiple sediment proxies, modern lake ontogeny in the region commenced at ∼7500 cal yrs BP. Pioneering diatom communities were shaped by the turbid, higher alkalinity lake waters which were influenced by base cation weathering of the surrounding till following Lake Agassiz drainage. By ∼7000 cal yrs BP, soil development and Picea spp. establish and the lakes began a slow trajectory of acidification over the remaining Holocene epoch. The natural acidification of the lakes in this region is slow, on the order of several millennia for one pH unit. Each of the study lakes exhibit relatively stable aquatic communities during the Holocene Thermal Maximum, suggesting this period is a poor analogue for modern climatic changes. During the Neoglacial, the beginning of the post-Little Ice Age period represents the most significant climatic event to impact the lakes of N. Manitoba. In the context of regional lake histories, the rate of diatom floristic change in the last 200-300 years is unprecedented, with the exception of post-glacial lake ontogeny in some of the lakes. For nearly the entire history of the lakes in this region, there is a strong linkage between landscape development and the aquatic ecosystems; however this relationship appears to become decoupled or less strong in the post-LIA period. Significant 20th century changes in the aquatic ecosystem cannot be explained wholly by changes in the terrestrial ecosystem, suggesting that future

  13. American Fisheries Society 136th Annual Meeting Lake Placid, NY 10-14 September, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhouse, D.; Walsh, M.G.; Keeler, S.; Long, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The New York Chapter of the American Fisheries Society and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation invite you to experience the beauty of New York's famous Adirondack Park as the American Fisheries Society (AFS) convenes its 136th Annual Meeting in the legendary Olympic Village of Lake Placid, NY, 10-14 September 2006. Our meeting theme "Fish in the Balance" will explore the interrelation between fish, aquatic habitats, and man, highlighting the challenges facing aquatic resource professionals and the methods that have been employed to resolve conflicts between those that use or have an interest in our aquatic resources. As fragile as it is beautiful, the Adirondack Region is the perfect location to explore this theme. Bordered by Mirror Lake and its namesake, Lake Placid, the Village of Lake Placid has small town charm, but all of the conveniences that a big city would provide. Whether its reliving the magic of the 1980 hockey team's "Miracle on Ice" at the Lake Placid Olympic Center, getting a panoramic view of the Adirondack high peaks from the top of the 90 meter ski jumps, fishing or kayaking in adjacent Mirror Lake, hiking a mountain trail, or enjoying a quiet dinner or shopping excursion in the various shops and restaurants that line Main Street, Lake Placid has something for everyone.

  14. Evaluating organochlorine pesticide residues in the aquatic environment of the Lake Naivasha River basin using passive sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Yasser; Mannaerts, Chris M

    2018-05-18

    Passive sampling techniques can improve the discovery of low concentrations by continuous collecting the contaminants, which usually go undetected with classic and once-off time-point grab sampling. The aim of this study was to evaluate organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the aquatic environment of the Lake Naivasha river basin (Kenya) using passive sampling techniques. Silicone rubber sheet and Speedisk samplers were used to detect residues of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, pp-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, pp-DDD, endrin aldehyde, pp-DDT, endosulfan sulfate, and methoxychlor in the Malewa River and Lake Naivasha. After solvent extraction from the sampling media, the residues were analyzed using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the OCPs and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the PCB reference compounds. Measuring the OCP residues using the silicone rubber samplers revealed the highest concentration of residues (∑OCPs of 81 (± 18.9 SD) μg/L) to be at the Lake site, being the ultimate accumulation environment for surficial hydrological, chemical, and sediment transport through the river basin. The total OCP residue sums changed to 71.5 (± 11.3 SD) μg/L for the Middle Malewa and 59 (± 12.5 SD) μg/L for the Upper Malewa River sampling sites. The concentration sums of OCPs detected using the Speedisk samplers at the Upper Malewa, Middle Malewa, and the Lake Naivasha sites were 28.2 (± 4.2 SD), 31.3 (± 1.8 SD), and 34.2 (± 6.4 SD) μg/L, respectively. An evaluation of the different pesticide compound variations identified at the three sites revealed that endosulfan sulfate, α-HCH, methoxychlor, and endrin aldehyde residues were still found at all sampling sites. However, the statistical analysis of one-way ANOVA for testing the differences of ∑OCPs between the sampling sites for both the silicone rubber sheet and Speedisk samplers

  15. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: rowand@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

  16. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and environmental variables. The results can be formulated in three main conclusions. 1) Primary production and respiration in stratified lakes are not evenly distributed in the water column. Generally you can expect the net production to decreases with depth as gross primary production (GPP) decreases with depth......, unless it is a very clear lake, while respiration is relatively stable. Metabolism estimates based on data from the epilimnion will only represent a minor proportion of the whole lake metabolism under conditions of strong stratification and high water transparency. At a low depth of the upper mixed layer...

  17. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  18. Radiation dose to human and non-human biota in the republic of Korea resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation doses to human and non-human biota in the Republic of Korea, as a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident. By using the measured airborne activity and ground deposition, the effective and thyroid doses of five human age groups (infant, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult) were estimated by the ECOSYS code, and the whole body absorbed dose rate of the eight Korean reference animals and plants (RAPs) was estimated by the K-BIOTA (the Korean computer code to assess the risk of radioactivity to wildlife). The first-year effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 5.7E-5 mSv in the infant group to 2.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 5.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.4E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The life-time (70 years) effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 1.5E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 6.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.5E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The estimated maximum whole body absorbed dose rate to the Korean RAPs was 6.7E-7 mGy/d for a snake living in soil (terrestrial biota), and 2.0E-5 mGy/d for freshwater fish (aquatic biota), both of which were far less than the generic dose criteria to protect biota from ionizing radiation. Also, the screening level assessment for ERICA's (Environmental Risks from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessments and management) limiting organisms showed that the risk quotient (RQ) for the estimated maximum soil and water activity was significantly less than unity for both the terrestrial and freshwater organisms. Conclusively, the radiological risk of the radioactivity released into the environment by the Fukushima nuclear accident to the public and the non-human biota in the republic of Korea is considered negligible.

  19. FABM-PCLake – linking aquatic ecology with hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Fenjuan; Bolding, Karsten; Bruggeman, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    This study presents FABM-PCLake, a redesigned structure of the PCLake aquatic ecosystem model, which we implemented in the Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM). In contrast to the original model, which was designed for temperate, fully mixed freshwater lakes, the new FABM......-PCLake represents an integrated aquatic ecosystem model that can be linked with different hydrodynamic models and allows simulations of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes for zero-dimensional, one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional environments. FABM-PCLake describes interactions between multiple......, including water currents, light and temperature influence a wide range of biogeochemical processes. The model enables studies on ecosystem dynamics in physically heterogeneous environments (e.g., stratifying water bodies, and water bodies with horizontal gradients in physical and biogeochemical properties...

  20. Lakes and rivers as microcosms, version 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Jenkins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limnology has been greatly influenced by The Lake as a Microcosm (Forbes, 1887, which described a holistic focus on the internal machinations of singular, island-like aquatic ecosystems. I consider three persistent influences of The Lake as a Microcosm: as an organizing paradigm for the teaching of limnology relative to its practice; the idea that inland waters are like islands, and the replicability of types of inland waters. Based on inspection of recent peer-reviewed literature and 32 limnology texts, we teach limnology according to Forbes but do not practice it in that holistic context. Instead, we practice limnology as aquatic ecology. Based on novel analyses of species-area relationships for 275 inland waters and 392 islands, inland waters are more like continental habitat patches than islands; the island metaphor is poetic but not accurate. Based on a quantitative review of beta diversity (40 data sets representing 10,576 inland waters and 26 data sets representing 1529 terrestrial sites, aquatic systems are no more replicable than are terrestrial systems; a typological approach to limnology is no more justified than it is in terrestrial systems. I conclude that a former distinction between limnology and aquatic ecology no longer applies, and that we should define limnology as the ecology of inland waters. Also, we should not consider lakes and rivers as islands that represent other systems of the same type, but should consider them as open, interactive habitat patches that vary according to their geology and biogeography. I suggest modern limnology operates according to 3 paradigms, which combine to form 3 broad limnological disciplines and establish a basis for a plural, interactive view of lakes and rivers as microcosms. This model of modern limnology may help better connect it to ecology and biogeography and help limnology be even more relevant to science and society.

  1. Macrobrachium amazonicum: an alternative for microbiological monitoring of aquatic environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the role of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, as carrier of Candida spp., by analyzing the correlation between Candida spp. from these prawns and their environment (surface water and sediment, through M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR. For this purpose, 27 strains of Candida spp. were evaluated. These strains were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of adult M. amazonicum (7/27 from Catú Lake, Ceará State, Brazil and from the aquatic environment (surface water and sediment of this lake (20/27. Molecular comparison between the strains from prawns and the aquatic environment was conducted by M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR, utilizing the primers M13 and OPQ16, respectively. The molecular analysis revealed similarities between the band patterns of eight Candida isolates with the primer M13 and 11 isolates with the primer OPQ16, indicating that the same strains are present in the digestive tract of M. amazonicum and in the aquatic environment where these prawns inhabit. Therefore, these prawns can be used as sentinels for environmental monitoring through the recovery of Candida spp. from the aquatic environment in their gastrointestinal tract

  2. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... rings word opgesom terwyl sommige van die lesse wat by Kariba geleer is en 'n ... one area of the lake must have an effect, directly or indirectly, on other consumer organisms in the aquatic environment. Con- sidering ... are liable to attain their high density at the price of other taxa. ... be measured. Data on ...

  3. A lake as a microcosm: reflections on developments in aquatic ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob; Chapman, Ben B.

    2013-01-01

    and still is, specially since it touches upon almost all aspects of the lake ecosystem, from individual behaviour to food web interactions and environmental issues. Therefore, there is no doubt that even if 125 years have passed, Forbes’ paper still is a source of inspiration and deserves to be read. Hence......In the present study, we aim at relating Forbes’ remarkable paper on ‘‘The lake as a microcosm’’, published 125 years ago, to the present status of knowledge in our own research group. Hence, we relate the observations Forbes made to our own microcosm, Lake Krankesjo¨n in southern Sweden, that has...... that lakes are more isolated than many other biomes, but have, indeed, many extensions, for example, input from the catchment, fishing and fish migration. We also conclude that irrespective of whether lakes should be viewed as microcosms or not, the paper by Forbes has been exceptionally influential...

  4. TOXIC EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE BIOTA OF FRESHWATER RESERVOIRS OF UKRAINE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the studies of toxic and lethal concentrations of pesticides on phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish in current conditions of Ukraine. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that pesticides with different chemical origins have disastrous effects on everyone without the exception of freshwater biota organisms. The article highlights the peculiarities of the toxic effects of pesticides of major chemical groups, which are used or stored in Ukraine. Their toxic and lethal concentrations for the major species of phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and ichthyofauna reservoirs are considered. The data on basic features of behavioral reactions of aquatic organisms on poisoning by pesticides are provided. The basic structural and systemic diosrders of homeostasis of the organisms of aquatic biota are described. The effect of pesticides on phytoplankton needs further research, however, is was found that they have common feature as the disturbace of photosynthesis process and accumulation. In turn, this provoques kills in water bodies and poisoning of phytoplanctivorous fish. Zooplanktonic organisms are highly sensitive to pesticides; hence they can be used as an indicator of the state of fresh water. It was found that, pesticides depending on their concentration have different toxic effects on zooplankton organisms. The effect of pesticides on benthic organisms was little investigated. It is known that benthic communities respond to the presence of pesticide by changes in species composition, number of species, abundance and biomass of benthos in general and individual taxonomic groups of benthic invertebrates. The toxicity of pesticides for fish depends on their chemical nature, the form of the preparation, dose, fish species and age, water temperature and the content of oxygen and salts. In particular, juvenile fish are much more sensitive to the chemicals, and an increase in

  5. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lu, Zong; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003–2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  6. Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Yanling; Chen, Da; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Ǻke

    2017-06-01

    The present study measured concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in surface sediments and two benthic invertebrate species (Anodonta woodiana and Bellamya aeruginosa) collected from Dianshan Lake, located in the Yangtze River Delta. The Dianshan Lake acts as one of the most important drinking water sources to Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Concentrations of trace metals and metalloids ranged from 0.04 mg/kg for Cd to 288.0 mg/kg for Zn. Substantial bioaccumulation in invertebrates was observed for Zn and Cu based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) measurements. The results revealed that concentrations of metals and metalloids in sediments from Dianshan Lake were at the lower end of the range of levels found in other regions of China. The assessment of three significantly inter-related evaluation indices, including the geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), potential ecological risk factor (Er i ), and mean probable effect concentration quotients (Q m-PEC ), suggested that sediment-associated trace elements exhibited no considerable ecological risks in the studied watershed. However, the target hazard quotient and hazard index analysis suggested that selected elements (particularly As) accumulation in edible tissues of benthic invertebrates could pose potential health risks to local populations, especially fishermen. Given that wild aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and bivalves) constitute the diet of local populations as popular food/protein choices, further investigations are needed to better elucidate human health risks from metal and metalloid exposure via edible freshwater organisms.

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  8. The evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassiper) control program in Rawapening Lake, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, N.; Soeprobowati, T. R.; Helmi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of water hyacinths and other aquatic plants have been a major concern in Rawapening Lake for many years. Nutrient input from water catchment area and fish feed residues suspected to leads eutrophication, a condition that induces uncontrolled growth of aquatic plants. In dry season, aquatic plants cover almost 70% of lake area. This problem should be handled properly due to wide range of lake function such as water resources, fish farming, power plants, flood control, irrigation and many other important things. In 2011, Rawapening Lake was appointed as pilot project of Save Indonesian Lake Movement: the Indonesian movement for lakes ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation. This project consists of 6 super priority programs and 11 priority programs. This paper will evaluate the first super priority program which aims to control water hyacinth bloom. Result show that the three indicators in water hyacinth control program was not achieved. The coverage area of Water hyacinth was not reduced, tend to increase during period 2012 to 2016. We suggesting better coordination should be performed in order to avoid policies misinterpretation and to clarify the authority from each institution. We also give a support to the establishment of lake zonation plan and keep using all the three methods of cleaning water hyacinth with a maximum population remained at 20%.

  9. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. 1991 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; McDowell, A.C.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th

  10. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

  11. A comparative study of the N metabolism of phytoplankton and periphyton communities in oligotrophic lakes. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.R.

    1982-08-01

    Limnological research at Castle Lake, CA, and Lake Tahoe, CA-NEV, USA, during the period 1977-1982 has emphasized the effects of nutrient enrichment and deficiency on primary producers. The low ambient pools of nitrogenous nutrients and their low rates of transformation have necessitated the use of isotope tracer methods ( 14 C, 15 N, 13 N). These techniques have been used in concert with physiological assays, growth bio-assays, and whole-ecosystem nitrogen enrichments. Our most significant results, to date, include: (1) Delineation of 5 algal communities which are spatially distinct yet occur in the same lake and which differ with regard to their principal sources of N; (2) Determination of the relative affinities of the above communities for the various sources of N; (3) Demonstration of the importance of internally regenerated N to phytoplankton productivity; (4) Development of sensitive methodology to utilize the short-lived radioisotope 13 N (t1/2=10 mins) for studies of denitrification and nitrate uptake in aquatic ecosystems; (5) Comparisons of a variety of physiological assays for N-deficiency in aquatic microorganisms, involving short-term and long-term experiments in containers and in an N-enriched lake. The controlled ecosystem manipulations were intended to simulate the effects of watershed disturbance on nitrogen loading in order to more accurately evaluate their potential impacts on inorganic carbon and nitrogen assimilation by natural algal communities. Our research is an experimental approach for contrasting the strategies of planktonic and benthic algae living in the same lake but differing with regard to their principal sources of nitrogen

  12. Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fent, Karl; Zenker, Armin; Rapp, Maja

    2010-01-01

    We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 μg/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 μg/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. - Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.

  13. Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.c [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Zenker, Armin [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Rapp, Maja [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 mug/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 mug/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. - Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.

  14. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water, sediment and macrophyte ( Lemna minor) collected from Anchar Lake, Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showqi, Irfana; Lone, Farooq Ahmad; Naikoo, Mehrajuddin

    2018-06-01

    Water samples, sediments and free floating macrophytic plant, Lemna minor specimens were collected from five designated sites in Anchar lake (Srinagar, J&K, India) to assess its heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) load and changes on seasonal basis. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Most of the samples were found within limits of maximum permissible concentrations as recommended by WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality, pp 491-493, 2006). During all the seasons, highest concentration of all heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was recorded at highly polluted sites of the lake viz. near agricultural fields (S1), near settlements (S3) and SKIMS (S4). These sites received huge agrochemical run-off from the surrounding agricultural fields, solid and liquid wastes from the nearby catchment areas and effluents from Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) compared to control site lake centre (S5). Furthermore, most of the metals in water and sediment were found with highest concentration during autumn (Viz., Cu-1.5 ppm; Zn-0.38 ppm; Ni-1.89 ppm; Pb-0.84 ppm in water and Cu-26.9 ppm; Zn-13.6 ppm; Pb-4.33 ppm in sediment) and summer (Viz., Cr-0.68 ppm in water and Ni-4.8 ppm; Cd-2.6 ppm; Cr-8.01 ppm in sediment) seasons. Also in Lemna minor plant highest concentration was observed during summer season (Cu-29.09 ppm; Zn-19.11 ppm; Ni-5.7 ppm; Cd-1.34 ppm; Cr-9.18 ppm and Pb-9.77 ppm). From these observations, it was found that the sources of heavy metals in Anchar lake were both natural and anthropogenic ones. This study recommended that continuous monitoring of heavy metals (Viz; Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in water, sediment and other aquatic biota of Anchar lake should be directed to protection of ecological status of the lake and its surrounding area.

  15. Cycling of modern autochthonous organic matter dominates carbon flow in lakes of north central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, M.; Striegl, R. G.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Kuhn, C.; Dornblaser, M.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and subarctic regions of the world are warming faster than anywhere else on earth, and undergoing rapid climatic and hydrologic changes. Much of this landscape is underlain by organic carbon (OC)-rich permafrost, and it is hypothesized that climate-induced environmental changes could positively reinforce climatic shifts via an increased delivery of terrestrial OC to aquatic networks. Increased OC terrestrial OC export could potentially result in greater aquatic OC mineralization and greenhouse gas production. Currently, a lack of ecosystem-level data precludes our understanding of aquatic OC processing for the vast majority of this remote northern area. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified whole-lake metabolism, limnological-, and hydrological characteristics across multiple seasons in a diverse set of lakes in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska. Intense gross primary production (GPP) and autotrophic net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP - respiration [R]) was common across lakes in spring, followed by a spatially synchronous shift toward heterotrophy (NEP origin, suggesting shifts in NEP were fueled by the recently fixed, lake OC. By scaling our metabolic estimates to the entire YRB, we found mineralization of terrestrial OC in lakes likely accounts for < 1% of terrestrial net primary production on an annual scale. We conclude that flows of autochthonous OC drive C cycling in most YRB lakes, that ancient permafrost-OC currently contributes little to heterotrophic processes in YRB lakes, and that the lakes play little role in remineralizing terrestrial organic material at the whole-catchment scale.

  16. Controlling internal phosphorus loading in lakes by physical methods to reduce cyanobacterial blooms: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bormans, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Jančula, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-422 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : internal P loading * cyanobacterial control * physical in-lake restoration methods * adverse impacts on biota Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2016

  17. Protecting marine parks and sanctuaries from aquatic nuisance species releases from ballast during emergency response events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A. Green

    2011-01-01

    Commercial shipping activities that release aquatic invasive species are recognized globally as a dominant transport vector for marine invasions. Aquatic nuisance species (ANS) introductions have resulted in billions of dollars of damages and immeasurable biological devastation within the Great Lakes. National Park Service managers are working with United States...

  18. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was

  19. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  20. Subcatchment deltas and upland features influence multiscale aquatic ecosystem recovery in damaged landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielstra, Brian W; Arnott, Shelley E; Gunn, John M

    2017-12-01

    Assessing biological recovery in damaged aquatic environments requires the consideration of multiple spatial and temporal scales. Past research has focused on assessing lake recovery from atmospheric or catchment disturbance at regional or catchment levels. Studies have also rarely considered the influences of adjacent terrestrial characteristics on within-lake habitats, such as subcatchment delta confluences. We used Hyalella azteca, a ubiquitous freshwater amphipod, as a sensitive indicator to assess the importance of local subcatchment scale factors in the context of multiscale lake recovery within the metal mining region of Sudbury, Canada following a period of major reductions in atmospheric pollution. At the regional scale, data from repeated surveys of 40 lakes showed higher probabilities of H. azteca occurrence with higher lake water conductivity, alkalinity, and pH and lower metal concentrations. The importance of metals decreased through time and the importance of higher conductivity, alkalinity, and pH increased. At the subcatchment scale, a subset of six lakes sampled across a colonization gradient revealed higher H. azteca abundances at subcatchment delta sites than non-delta sites in early colonization stages, and that abundance at delta sites was correlated with both within-lake habitat and terrestrial subcatchment characteristics. For example, wetland cover reduced the strength of positive associations between H. azteca abundance and macrophyte density. A single lake from this subset also revealed higher abundances at delta sites associated with higher concentrations of terrestrial organic matter and larger subcatchments. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting recovery can change with the scale of study, and that managing terrestrial-aquatic linkages is important for facilitating recovery processes within damaged lake ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  2. Investigating Pathways of Nutrient and Energy Flows Through Aquatic Food Webs Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadwen, W. L.; Bunn, S. E. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can provide valuable insights into pathways of nutrient and energy flows in aquatic ecosystems. Carbon stable isotopes are principally used to trace pathways of organic matter transfer through aquatic food webs, particularly with regard to identifying the dominant sources of nutrition for aquatic biota. Stable isotopes of carbon have been widely used to answer one of the most pressing questions in aquatic food web ecology - to what degree do in-stream (autochthonous) and riparian (allochthonous) sources of energy fuel riverine food webs? In conjunction with carbon stable isotopes, nitrogen stable isotopes have been used to determine the trophic position of consumers and to identify the number of trophic levels in aquatic food webs. More recently, stable nitrogen isotopes have been recommended as indicators of anthropogenic disturbances. Specifically, agricultural land uses and/or sewage effluent discharge have been shown to significantly increase {delta}{sup 15}N signatures in primary producers and higher order consumers in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Together, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can be used to examine natural food web functions as well as the degree to which human modifications to catchments and aquatic environments can influence aquatic ecosystem function. (author)

  3. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  4. Laboratory studies on the retention and release of some radioisotopes by clay minerals and fresh water stream biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, M.Y.; Abdel-Gawad, A.S.; Misak, N.Z.; Abdelmalik, W.E.; Mitry, E.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of long-lived radioactive waste disposal and its implications on human environment is of prime importance. The disposal of liquid waste into ground or surface water constitutes one of the main approaches to this subject. The present survey comprises two main parts. The first one deals with the sorption of long-lived radioactive waste by some clays collected from localities in the vicinity of Cairo, the Reactor Centre at Inshas and Borg El-Arab site. The second part describes the behaviour of some long-lived radioelements in aquaria containing bottom sediments of Ismailia Canal, Canal water and aquatic biota. (author)

  5. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation distribution in Taihu Lake using an improved classification tree with modified thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dehua; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Tangwu; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2012-03-01

    Classification trees (CT) have been used successfully in the past to classify aquatic vegetation from spectral indices (SI) obtained from remotely-sensed images. However, applying CT models developed for certain image dates to other time periods within the same year or among different years can reduce the classification accuracy. In this study, we developed CT models with modified thresholds using extreme SI values (CT(m)) to improve the stability of the models when applying them to different time periods. A total of 903 ground-truth samples were obtained in September of 2009 and 2010 and classified as emergent, floating-leaf, or submerged vegetation or other cover types. Classification trees were developed for 2009 (Model-09) and 2010 (Model-10) using field samples and a combination of two images from winter and summer. Overall accuracies of these models were 92.8% and 94.9%, respectively, which confirmed the ability of CT analysis to map aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake. However, Model-10 had only 58.9-71.6% classification accuracy and 31.1-58.3% agreement (i.e., pixels classified the same in the two maps) for aquatic vegetation when it was applied to image pairs from both a different time period in 2010 and a similar time period in 2009. We developed a method to estimate the effects of extrinsic (EF) and intrinsic (IF) factors on model uncertainty using Modis images. Results indicated that 71.1% of the instability in classification between time periods was due to EF, which might include changes in atmospheric conditions, sun-view angle and water quality. The remainder was due to IF, such as phenological and growth status differences between time periods. The modified version of Model-10 (i.e. CT(m)) performed better than traditional CT with different image dates. When applied to 2009 images, the CT(m) version of Model-10 had very similar thresholds and performance as Model-09, with overall accuracies of 92.8% and 90.5% for Model-09 and the CT(m) version of Model

  6. Sources and distribution of organic compounds using passive samplers in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, and their implications for potential effects on aquatic biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Alvarez, David A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2009-01-01

    Th e delineation of lateral and vertical gradients of organic contaminants in lakes is hampered by low concentrations and nondetection of many organic compounds in water. Passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices [SPMDs] and polar organic chemical integrative samplers [POCIS]) are well suited for assessing gradients because they can detect synthetic organic

  7. Accumulation and hazard assessment of mercury to waterbirds at Lake Chapala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Zaria; Mora, Miguel A; Taylor, Robert J; Alvarez-Bernal, Dioselina; Buelna, Hector R; Hyodo, Ayumi

    2014-06-03

    Lake Chapala is the largest tropical lake in Mexico. The objectives of this study were to determine bioaccumulation of Hg in fish and to evaluate the potential impacts of Hg in the diet of aquatic birds, particularly the American white pelican (AWPE), in Lake Chapala. Hg concentrations in three fish species ranged from 0.021 to 0.568 μg/g wet weight. Mercury in fish was positively and significantly correlated with total fish length (R2=0.44, Pbird feathers were not significantly different between years, among locations, or among species. Hg concentrations in fish from Lake Chapala were within values reported in many parts of the world. The Hg (mean range of 2.75 to 4.54 μg/g dw) and δD (mean range of -62‰ to -11‰) values in bird feathers suggested a wide pattern of exposure for highly migratory AWPE and egrets, although birds with lower δD values in feathers appeared to have greater concentrations of Hg than those with higher δD values. Contaminant exposure in aquatic birds in Chapala during the breeding season should be monitored next to better determine the potential effects of Hg on resident aquatic birds.

  8. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy S; Toft, Jason D; Cordell, Jeffery R; Dethier, Megan N; Adams, Jeffrey W; Kelly, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic-terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness) from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  9. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Streams - Wadeable Streams Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  10. The aquatic optics of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Theodore John

    The causes of visual clarity decline and variability in Lake Tahoe, USA, were investigated within the framework of hydrologic optics theory. Ultra-oligotrophic subalpine (1898 m elevation) Lake Tahoe is among the world's clearest, deepest (499 m) and largest (500 km2), representing a unique environmental and economic resource. University of California Davis has documented a ˜0.3 m y-1 trend of decreasing Secchi depth, with ˜3 m interannual variations. Previous work strongly suggested two seasonal modes due to independent processes: A June minimum is due primarily to tributary sediment discharge during snowmelt. A December minimum is due to the deepening mixed layer bringing up phytoplankton and other particles that form a deep particle maximum (DCM) well below the summer mixed layer and Secchi depth stratum. SEM and elemental analysis confirmed as much as 60 percent of near-surface suspended particles were of terrestrial inorganic origin in summer, with inorganic particles minimal (˜20 percent) in winter. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption in Tahoe is extremely low, comparable to pelagic marine waters, and plays a minor role in clarity loss in Tahoe. However, CDOM reduces ultraviolet light penetration. Mean absorption is 0.040 +/- 0.003 m-1 at 400 nm with 0.023 +/- 0.004 nm-1 exponential slope. The CDOM appears to be autochthonous (phytoplankton), rather than allocthonous (terrestrial humic substances). Chlorophyll-specific particulate absorption is similar to that found for temperate oceans, implying that ocean color models can be successfully applied to Lake Tahoe. Chlorophyll-specific diffuse attenuation along with increased scattering by sediments has caused an upward shift of the DCM from 60--90 m (early 1970s) to 40--70 m recently. Increased attenuation will reduce benthic relative to pelagic primary production. Since measurements in 1971, the lake's color has shifted slightly from blue towards green, though more seasonal

  11. Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Arribere, Maria; Bubach, Debora; Vigliano, Pablo; Rizzo, Andrea; Alonso, Marcelo; Sanchez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by 210 Pb and 137 Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as suspended load collected from three sites of lake Nahuel Huapi. The biota studied were the native mussel Diplodon chilensis (digestive gland and total soft tissues pooled samples) and five species of fish, two native and three introduced (liver and muscle pooled samples). Ag contents were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The upper layers of the sediment cores sampled in lake Nahuel Huapi were enriched in Ag contents compared to deep layers in accumulation periods corresponding to the second half of the 20th century, but this enrichment was neither observed in the reference lake Traful, nor in lakes Espejo Chico and Escondido. Ag was enriched over background level (0.1 μg g -1 ) also in suspended load collected in lake Nahuel Huapi. Ag fluxes to sediments were computed for suspended load and enriched sediment core layers. Highest Ag fluxes, from 350 to 470 μg m -2 year -1 , were measured in Nahuel Huapi near the site where the liquid effluents of the Bariloche city sewage treatment plant are released to the lake. The spatial distribution of the other Ag fluxes suggests that this is the main source of Ag to lake Nahuel Huapi and lateral transport occurs within the water body. Ag concentrations on biota samples were consistent with these conclusions. Mussels collected in lake Nahuel Huapi showed higher Ag concentrations than in the other lakes, especially when compared to lake Traful. Ag contents in mussels were strongly associated with sediment intake, but enriched probably due to sediment grain size sorting during the intake processes. Evidence of food

  12. Light attenuation in estuarine mangrove lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankovich, Thomas A.; Rudnick, David T.; Fourqurean, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) cover has declined in brackish lakes in the southern Everglades characterized by low water transparencies, emphasizing the need to evaluate the suitability of the aquatic medium for SAV growth and to identify the light attenuating components that contribute most to light attenuation. Underwater attenuation of downwards irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was determined over a three year period at 42 sites in shallow (freshwater flow into these areas may dilute CDOM concentrations and improve the salinity and light climate for SAV communities.

  13. Catchment-fed cyanobacterial blooms in brownified temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, O.; Creed, I. F.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most significant impacts of global atmospheric change is the alteration of hydrological regimes and the associated disruption of hydrological connectivity within watersheds. We show how changes in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of hydrological connectivity and disconnectivity is compromising the capacity of forest soils to store organic carbon, and increasing its export to both aquatic and atmospheric systems. Increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) loads from forested landscapes to aquatic systems and the shift of the DOM pool to a more refractory mixture of organic compounds, a process known as brownification, alters the physical and chemical characteristics of lake environments. Furthermore, by characterizing the stages of brownification (from low to high concentrations of refractory DOM), we show a shift in the limiting factors for phytoplankton growth from macronutrients (nitrogen -N- and phosphorus -P) to micronutrients (iron -Fe) and light availability. This shift is driven by the low concentrations of DOM supplying N and P in early stages of brownification, to the strong Fe-binding capacity of refractory DOM in brownified lakes. As lakes undergo brownification, cyanobacteria adapted to scavenge Fe from DOM-Fe complexes have a competitive advantage leading to the formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Our findings provide evidence that brownification is a driving force leading to cyanobacterial blooms in lakes on forested landscapes, with expected cascading consequences to lake food webs.

  14. Assessment of lake hydromorphological status within the French territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Argillier, Christine; Reynaud, Nathalie; Nicolas, Delphine; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-01

    In France, in accordance with the expectations of the European Water Framework Directive, the biological and physico-chemical status of lakes have been assessed thanks to the use of different indicators and threshold values (Argillier et al., 2013; Roubeix et al., 2016). However, the hydromorphological conditions have not been included in the final evaluation of the lakes ecological status yet, due to i) a lack of indicators to evaluate these conditions, ii) a lack of knowledge on the combined impact of hydromorphological changes on the biota, and iii) the difficulties in defining reference conditions for the hydromorphology of lakes. Recently, the LAKe HYdromorphological Conditions tool (LAKHYC tool, Gay et al., in prep) has been developed to overcome this lack and assess the hydromorphological conditions of lakes in Europe. The tool is successfully applied on the 201 French lakes for which accurate data are available, and which represents 42% of the total number of lakes in France with an area greater than 50ha. The first results indicate that the obtained LAKHYC values cover the entire range of possible values (between 0 and 1). The values are then grouped into 5 classes according to quintile thresholds to highlight lakes presenting a very bad/very high hydromorphological status. No sign of particular geographical distribution patterns is found. This first application of the LAKHYC tool represents an important step in the final evaluation of the ecological status of French lakes considering the biological, the physico-chemical and the hydromorphological compartments altogether. It will certainly help stakeholders to define priority lakes for financial support to implement conservation or restoration practices. As perspectives to this work, the forthcoming detailed level fluctuations data will ensure a finer and more robust estimation of the lakes hydromorphological quality. Moreover, further investigations on the link between hydromorphological degradation and

  15. Lake-0: A model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to enter the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to outflow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the bottom sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree 21 minute N, 03 degree 00 minute W at 65 m. asl.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (54 degree 21 minute 5'N, 03 degree, 18 minute W at 230 m. asl.)

  16. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs

  17. A three-dimensional water quality modeling approach for exploring the eutrophication responses to load reduction scenarios in Lake Yilong (China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuzhao; Zou, Rui; He, Bin; Zhu, Xiang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Junsong; Zhu, Yongguan

    2013-01-01

    Lake Yilong in Southwestern China has been under serious eutrophication threat during the past decades; however, the lake water remained clear until sudden sharp increase in Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and turbidity in 2009 without apparent change in external loading levels. To investigate the causes as well as examining the underlying mechanism, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed, simulating the flow circulation, pollutant fate and transport, and the interactions between nutrients, phytoplankton and macrophytes. The calibrated and validated model was used to conduct three sets of scenarios for understanding the water quality responses to various load reduction intensities and ecological restoration measures. The results showed that (a) even if the nutrient loads is reduced by as much as 77%, the Chl a concentration decreased only by 50%; and (b) aquatic vegetation has strong interaction with phytoplankton, therefore requiring combined watershed and in-lake management for lake restoration. -- Highlights: ► We quantitatively investigated the non-linear lake responses to load reduction. ► The aquatic ecological condition had a great impact on algal blooms. ► Only water quality improvement cannot ensure the aquatic ecology restoration. -- The lake water quality responds to watershed load reduction in a nonlinear way, which requires combined watershed and in-lake management for lake restoration

  18. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMG

    The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal ... The distribution of plant and animal hydrobionts in water ecosystems of a lake ... inhabitants of the town as a beach. ... phytoplankton in accordance with the general principles of the techniques. ..... Influence on mycotal species diversity by different stem ...

  19. PCB Food Web Dynamics Quantify Nutrient and Energy Flow in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-11-03

    Measuring in situ nutrient and energy flows in spatially and temporally complex aquatic ecosystems represents a major ecological challenge. Food web structure, energy and nutrient budgets are difficult to measure, and it is becoming more important to quantify both energy and nutrient flow to determine how food web processes and structure are being modified by multiple stressors. We propose that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners represent an ideal tracer to quantify in situ energy and nutrient flow between trophic levels. Here, we demonstrate how an understanding of PCB congener bioaccumulation dynamics provides multiple direct measurements of energy and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. To demonstrate this novel approach, we quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and caloric turnover rates for Lake Huron lake trout, and reveal how these processes are regulated by both growth rate and fish life history. Although minimal nutrient recycling was observed in young growing fish, slow growing, older lake trout (>5 yr) recycled an average of 482 Tonnes·yr(-1) of N, 45 Tonnes·yr(-1) of P and assimilated 22 TJ yr(-1) of energy. Compared to total P loading rates of 590 Tonnes·yr(-1), the recycling of primarily bioavailable nutrients by fish plays an important role regulating the nutrient states of oligotrophic lakes.

  20. Radiation dose to human and non-human biota in the republic of Korea resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes the radiation doses to human and non-human biota in the Republic of Korea, as a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident. By using the measured airborne activity and ground deposition, the effective and thyroid doses of five human age groups (infant, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult) were estimated by the ECOSYS code, and the whole body absorbed dose rate of the eight Korean reference animals and plants (RAPs) was estimated by the K-BIOTA (the Korean computer code to assess the risk of radioactivity to wildlife). The first-year effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 5.7E-5 mSv in the infant group to 2.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 5.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.4E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The life-time (70 years) effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 1.5E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 6.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.5E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The estimated maximum whole body absorbed dose rate to the Korean RAPs was 6.7E-7 mGy/d for a snake living in soil (terrestrial biota), and 2.0E-5 mGy/d for freshwater fish (aquatic biota), both of which were far less than the generic dose criteria to protect biota from ionizing radiation. Also, the screening level assessment for ERICA's (Environmental Risks from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessments and management) limiting organisms showed that the risk quotient (RQ) for the estimated maximum soil and water activity was significantly less than unity for both the terrestrial and freshwater organisms. Conclusively, the radiological risk of the radioactivity released into the environment by the Fukushima nuclear accident to the public and the non-human biota in the republic of Korea is considered negligible.

  1. Evaluating MERIS-Based Aquatic Vegetation Mapping in Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheruiyot, E.K.; Mito, C.; Menenti, M.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Koenders, R.; Akdim, N.

    2014-01-01

    Delineation of aquatic plants and estimation of its surface extent are crucial to the efficient control of its proliferation, and this information can be derived accurately with fine resolution remote sensing products. However, small swath and low observation frequency associated with them may be

  2. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titi_aladesanmi

    In Nigeria major cities face serious water pollution crises, in which lack of environmental control of ... stocks are at the upper end of the food chains and are vital food supplies to local ... massive fish kills and loss of aquatic life and habitats in.

  3. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  4. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  5. Part 7: Monitoring of biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present state of the biota, in respect to the previous state and in respect to the development after the realised technical measures on both sides, was evaluated according to the data included in the Slovak-Hungarian joint monitoring covering the period from 1992 to 1996. The river branch water supply on the Slovak side was introduced in May 1993 through the intake structure at Dobrohost. On the Hungarian side the water supply is accomplished by the underwater weir put into operation in June 1995. The biological monitoring on the Slovak side was performed at six monitoring areas, where all the groups agreed in the joint monitoring were monitored. On the Hungarian side each group were monitored on different monitoring sites. The water supply introduced on the Hungarian side by the underwater weir operation has no impact on the Slovak side. Similar impact as it is now observed on the Hungarian side has been observed on the Slovak side since introduction of water supply in 1993. The increased amount of water discharged to the Danube was reflected by changes of the habitat of aquatic communities. The water supply on the Hungarian side was accomplished by the construction of the underwater weir and therefore a connection of the river branch system with the Danube at two factors have had very significant influence on the bio-tops existing in the river branch system and subsequently to the fauna and flora. Generally large amount of water became available, which was reflected in change of stagnant or slowly flowing water into water flow with higher velocity or in increase of the water surface. In some locations the water level returned to the state before damming, in others new bio-tops were created, and in some locations the previous bio-tops disappeared. To these changed conditions the aquatic fauna reacted the most rapidly.The terrestrial communities prove the necessity of flooding and raising of ground water level on some of the inundation areas, because in spite

  6. Detection of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan using bioassays and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Pei-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine active substances, including naturally occurring hormones and various synthetic chemicals have received much concern owing to their endocrine disrupting potencies. It is essential to monitor their environmental occurrence since these compounds may pose potential threats to biota and human health. In this study, yeast-based reporter assays were carried out to investigate the presence of (anti-)androgenic, (anti-)estrogenic, and (anti-)thyroid compounds in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was also used to measure the environmental concentrations of selected endocrine active substances for assessing potential ecological risks and characterizing contributions to the endocrine disrupting activities. Bioassay results showed that anti-androgenic (ND-7489 μg L(-1) flutamide equivalent), estrogenic (ND-347 ng L(-1) 17β-estradiol equivalent), and anti-thyroid activities were detected in the dissolved and particulate phases of river water samples, while anti-estrogenic activities (ND-10 μg L(-1) 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent) were less often found. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants, such as bisphenol A, triclosan, and estrone were frequently detected in Taiwanese rivers. In addition, their risk quotient values were often higher than 1, suggesting that they may pose an ecological risk to the aquatic biota. Further identification of unknown anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants in Taiwanese rivers may be necessary to protect Taiwan's aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  8. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P; He, Zhongqi; Song, Lirong; Fan, Mingle

    2016-04-01

    Debris from aquatic macrophytes and algae are important recycling sources of phosphorus (P), which can result in continuing blooms of algae by recycling bioavailable P in the eutrophic lakes. However, knowledge of forms of P in aquatic macrophytes and algae and their contribution to internal loads of P in lakes is limited. Without such knowledge, it is difficult to develop appropriate strategies to remediate and or restore aquatic ecosystems that have become eutrophic. Therefore, in this work, P was extracted from six types of aquatic macrophytes and algae collected from Tai Lake of China and characterized by use of solution (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When extracted by 0.5 M NaOH-25 mM EDTA, extraction recovery of total P(TP) and organic P(Po) exceeded 90 %. Concentrations of Po in algae and aquatic macrophytes were 5552 mg kg(-1) and 1005 mg kg(-1) and accounted for 56.0 and 47.2 % of TP, respectively. When Po, including condensed P, was characterized by solution (31)P-NMR Po in algae included orthophosphate monoesters (79.8 %), pyrophosphate (18.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (2.0 %), and Po in aquatic macrophytes included orthophosphate monoesters (90.3 %), pyrophosphate (4.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (5.5 %). Additionally, orthophosphate monoesters in algal debris mainly included β-glycerophosphate (44.1 %), α-glycerophosphate (13.5 %), and glucose 6-phosphate (13.5 %). Orthophosphate monoesters in aquatic macrophytes mainly included β-glycerophosphate (27.9 %), α-glycerophosphate (24.6 %), and adenosine 5' monophosphate (8.2 %). Results derived from this study will be useful in better understanding nutrient cycling, relevant eutrophication processes, and pollution control for freshwater lakes.

  9. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  10. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-11-01

    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plutonium in biota from an east Tennessee floodplain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    239 240 Pu concentrations were measured in biota from a 30-year-old contaminated floodplain forest in Tennessee. Concentration ratios relative to soil, for plutonium in litter, invertebrate cryptozoans, herbaceous ground vegetation, orthoptera and small mammals were approximately 10 -1 , 10 -2 , 10 -3 , and 10 -4 , respectively. Concentration ratios (CR) for plutonium in biota from the floodplain forest are less than CR values from other contaminated ecosystems in the USA. Presumably, this is due to humid conditions and greater rainfall which minimize resuspension as a physical transport mechanism to biota. Plutonium and radiocesium concentrations are correlated in biota from the forest at Oak Ridge and also from Mortandad Canyon in New Mexico. The cause of the covariance between concentrations of these elements is unknown. Nevertheless, the existence of these relationships suggests that it is possible to predict plutonium in biota from radiocesium concentrations when both nuclides have a common origin and occur together in a contaminated terrestrial environment. (author)

  12. Persistence of bacterial proteolytic enzymes in lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztyn, Bartosz; Siuda, Waldemar; Chróst, Ryszard J

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzes proteolytic enzyme persistence and the role of dead (or metabolically inactive) aquatic bacteria in organic matter cycling. Samples from four lakes of different trophic status were used. Irrespective of the trophic status of the examined lakes, bacterial aminopeptidases remained active even 72 h after the death of the bacteria that produced them. The total pool of proteolytic enzymes in natural lake water samples was also stable. We found that the rates of amino acid enzymatic release from proteinaceous matter added to preserved lake water sample were constant for at least 96 h (r(2)  = 0.99, n = 17, P ≤ 0.0001, V(max)  = 84.6 nM h(-1) ). We also observed that proteases built into bacterial cell debris fragments remained active for a long time, even after the total destruction of cells. Moreover, during 24 h of incubation time, about 20% of these enzymatically active fragments adsorbed onto natural seston particles, becoming a part of the 'attached enzymes system' that is regarded as the 'hot-spot' of protein degradation in aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    -term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. These observations were made in detailed studies on the larvae of the freshwater insects Chironomus plumosus and Ephemera danica which both can be very abundant in lake and stream sediments......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...... not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further...

  14. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  15. A novel approach to analysing the regimes of temporary streams in relation to their controls on the composition and structure of aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, F.; Prat, N.; García-Roger, E. M.; Latron, J.; Rieradevall, M.; Llorens, P.; Barberá, G. G.; Brito, D.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Lo Porto, A.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S.; Neves, R.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Perrin, J. L.; Querner, E. P.; Quiñonero, J. M.; Tournoud, M. G.; Tzoraki, O.; Skoulikidis, N.; Gómez, R.; Sánchez-Montoya, M. M.; Froebrich, J.

    2012-09-01

    Temporary streams are those water courses that undergo the recurrent cessation of flow or the complete drying of their channel. The structure and composition of biological communities in temporary stream reaches are strongly dependent on the temporal changes of the aquatic habitats determined by the hydrological conditions. Therefore, the structural and functional characteristics of aquatic fauna to assess the ecological quality of a temporary stream reach cannot be used without taking into account the controls imposed by the hydrological regime. This paper develops methods for analysing temporary streams' aquatic regimes, based on the definition of six aquatic states that summarize the transient sets of mesohabitats occurring on a given reach at a particular moment, depending on the hydrological conditions: Hyperrheic, Eurheic, Oligorheic, Arheic, Hyporheic and Edaphic. When the hydrological conditions lead to a change in the aquatic state, the structure and composition of the aquatic community changes according to the new set of available habitats. We used the water discharge records from gauging stations or simulations with rainfall-runoff models to infer the temporal patterns of occurrence of these states in the Aquatic States Frequency Graph we developed. The visual analysis of this graph is complemented by the development of two metrics which describe the permanence of flow and the seasonal predictability of zero flow periods. Finally, a classification of temporary streams in four aquatic regimes in terms of their influence over the development of aquatic life is updated from the existing classifications, with stream aquatic regimes defined as Permanent, Temporary-pools, Temporary-dry and Episodic. While aquatic regimes describe the long-term overall variability of the hydrological conditions of the river section and have been used for many years by hydrologists and ecologists, aquatic states describe the availability of mesohabitats in given periods that

  16. The role of groundwater transport in aquatic mercury cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Babiarz, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    Mercury, which is transported globally by atmospheric pathways to remote aquatic environments, is a ubiquitous contaminant at very low (nanograms Hg per liter) aqueous concentrations. Until recently, however, analytical and sampling techniques were not available for freshwater systems to quantify the actual levels of mercury concentrations without introducing significant contamination artifacts. Four different sampling strategies were used to evaluate ground water flow as a mercury source and transport mechanism within aquatic systems. The sampling strategies employ ultraclean techniques to determine mercury concentrations in groundwater and pore water near Pallette Lake, Wisconsin. Ambient groundwater concentrations are about 2–4 ng Hg L−1, whereas pore waters near the sediment/water interface average about 12 ng Hg L−1, emphasizing the importance of biogeochemical processes near the interface. Overall, the groundwater system removes about twice as much mercury (1.5 g yr−1) as it contributes (0.7 g yr−1) to Pallette Lake. About three fourths of the groundwater mercury load is recycled, thought to be derived from the water column.

  17. High-mountain lakes provide a seasonal niche for migrant American dippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Garwood; K. L. Pope; R. M. Bourque; M. D. Larson

    2009-01-01

    We studied summer use of high elevation lakes by American Dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) in the Trinity Alps Wilderness, California by conducting repeated point-count surveys at 16 study lakes coupled with a 5-year detailed survey of all available aquatic habitats in a single basin. We observed American Dippers during 36% of the point-count surveys...

  18. Ecosystem services of soil biota: In what context is a focus on soil biota meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe C.

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few years, the topic of the ecosystem services of soils has attracted considerable attention, in particular among researchers working on soil biota. A direct link is established explicitly in numerous articles between soil biota and specific ecosystem services, or between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. A careful review of the literature indicates however that these links are, more often than not, strictly axiomatic, rather than based on actual observations. In fact, there are still at the moment virtually no measurements of ecosystem services of soils at any scale, measurements that would be required to establish such links. Furthermore, at a conceptual level, it is not clear to what extent the effect of soil biota in the delivery of ecosystem services can be separated from the contribution of other components of soil systems. Soil microorganisms, in particular, proliferate and are metabolically active in a pore space whose characteristics and dynamics could in principle have a profound effect on their activity. So also could the composition and spatial distribution of soil organic matter, or the spatial pattern of plant root propagation. By emphasizing the role of soil biota, at the exclusion of other aspects of soil systems, there is a risk that important features of the provision of ecosystem services by soils will be missed. In this talk (based in part on a workshop organized recently in France, and of a follow-up review article), an analysis of this general problem will be presented, as well as suggestions of how to avoid it by promoting truly interdisciplinary research involving not only soil ecologists but also physicists, hydrologists, and chemists.

  19. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs.

  20. Overview of the EMRAS biota dosimetry working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Isao; Doi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Current principle of radiation protection systems is protection of human, because the human is assumed as the most sensitive organism. Protection framework of human is also believed to be effective for protection of non-human species. On the other hand, it is recently attracting the international interests how sustainability of the ecological services is influenced by environmental disturbances such as chemicals and radiation. Therefore, international concern about protection framework of nonhuman biota has arisen. By the international concern, European and American countries were respectively developed models to evaluate effects of radiation to biota. However, the models are based on their own assumptions, so that the international validity has not been confirmed. Therefore, in IAEA, biota dosimetry working group (BWG) was established in Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) program, which aimed to intercompare the models to validate their assumptions and estimations. This paper reports summary of the activity in EMRAS biota dosimetry working group. (author)

  1. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  2. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC 50 and 96-h LC 50 values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China

  3. Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to the Bauman Park Lake, Cherry Valley, Winnebago County, Illinois, May 1996-April 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Trugestaad, Aaron

    1998-01-01

    The Bauman Park Lake occupies a former sand and gravel quarry in the Village of Cherry Valley, Illinois. The lake is eutrophic, and nuisance growths of algae and aquatic macrophytes are supported by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) that are derived primarily from ground-water inflow, the main source of water for the lake. The lake has an average depth of about 18 feet, a maximum depth of about 28 feet, and a volume of 466 acre-feet at a stage of about 717 feet above sea level. The lake also is subject to thermal stratification, and although most of the lake is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the lake bottom during part of the summer of 1996. 4,648 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the Bauman Park Lake from May 1996 through April 1997. Phosphorus compounds were derived primarily from inflow from ground water (68.7 percent), sediments derived from shoreline erosion (15.6 percent), internal regeneration (11.7 percent), waterfowl excrement (1.6 percent), direct precipitation and overland runoff (1.2 percent), and particulate matter deposited from the atmosphere (1.2 percent). Nitrogen compounds were derived from inflow from ground water (62.1 percent), internal regeneration (19.6 percent), direct precipitation and overland runoff (10.1 percent), particulate matter deposited from the atmosphere (3.5 percent), sediments derived from shoreline erosion (4.4 percent), and waterfowl excrement (0.3 percent). About 13 pounds of phosphorus and 318 pounds of nitrogen compounds flow out of the lake to ground water. About 28 pounds of nitrogen is removed by denitrification. Algae and aquatic macrophytes utilize nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and dissolved phosphorus. The availability of dissolved phosphorus in the lake water controls algal growth. Uptake of the nutrients, by aquatic macrophytes and algae, temporarily removes nutrients from the water column but not from the lake basin. Because the amount of nutrients entering the lake greatly exceeds

  4. Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Arribere, Maria; Bubach, Debora; Vigliano, Pablo; Rizzo, Andrea; Alonso, Marcelo; Sanchez, Ricardo

    2005-01-05

    The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as suspended load collected from three sites of lake Nahuel Huapi. The biota studied were the native mussel Diplodon chilensis (digestive gland and total soft tissues pooled samples) and five species of fish, two native and three introduced (liver and muscle pooled samples). Ag contents were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The upper layers of the sediment cores sampled in lake Nahuel Huapi were enriched in Ag contents compared to deep layers in accumulation periods corresponding to the second half of the 20th century, but this enrichment was neither observed in the reference lake Traful, nor in lakes Espejo Chico and Escondido. Ag was enriched over background level (0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}) also in suspended load collected in lake Nahuel Huapi. Ag fluxes to sediments were computed for suspended load and enriched sediment core layers. Highest Ag fluxes, from 350 to 470 {mu}g m{sup -2} year{sup -1}, were measured in Nahuel Huapi near the site where the liquid effluents of the Bariloche city sewage treatment plant are released to the lake. The spatial distribution of the other Ag fluxes suggests that this is the main source of Ag to lake Nahuel Huapi and lateral transport occurs within the water body. Ag concentrations on biota samples were consistent with these conclusions. Mussels collected in lake Nahuel Huapi showed higher Ag concentrations than in the other lakes, especially when compared to lake Traful. Ag contents in mussels were strongly associated with sediment intake, but enriched probably due to sediment grain size sorting during the intake

  5. Doses from aquatic pathways in CSA-N288.1: deterministic and stochastic predictions compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, S.L.; Davis, P

    2002-04-01

    The conservatism and uncertainty in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) model for calculating derived release limits (DRLs) for aquatic emissions of radionuclides from nuclear facilities was investigated. The model was run deterministically using the recommended default values for its parameters, and its predictions were compared with the distributed doses obtained by running the model stochastically. Probability density functions (PDFs) for the model parameters for the stochastic runs were constructed using data reported in the literature and results from experimental work done by AECL. The default values recommended for the CSA model for some parameters were found to be lower than the central values of the PDFs in about half of the cases. Doses (ingestion, groundshine and immersion) calculated as the median of 400 stochastic runs were higher than the deterministic doses predicted using the CSA default values of the parameters for more than half (85 out of the 163) of the cases. Thus, the CSA model is not conservative for calculating DRLs for aquatic radionuclide emissions, as it was intended to be. The output of the stochastic runs was used to determine the uncertainty in the CSA model predictions. The uncertainty in the total dose was high, with the 95% confidence interval exceeding an order of magnitude for all radionuclides. A sensitivity study revealed that total ingestion doses to adults predicted by the CSA model are sensitive primarily to water intake rates, bioaccumulation factors for fish and marine biota, dietary intakes of fish and marine biota, the fraction of consumed food arising from contaminated sources, the irrigation rate, occupancy factors and the sediment solid/liquid distribution coefficient. To improve DRL models, further research into aquatic exposure pathways should concentrate on reducing the uncertainty in these parameters. The PDFs given here can he used by other modellers to test and improve their models and to ensure that DRLs

  6. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Gibson, Polly P.; Walters, David M.; Mills, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems.However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI,USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r2> 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged acrossall years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa lesseffective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1–9. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  7. Assessment of water-quality data from Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota--2008 through 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    averaged approximately 1,750 milligrams per liter, and ranged from 117 to 39,700 milligrams per liter. Twelve of the 14 trace metals detected in the water samples had established North Dakota water-quality standards for aquatic life, and only aluminum and copper consistently exceeded these criteria. Aluminum is considered harmful to aquatic biota in acidic (pH less than 5.5) systems and most of the copper standard exceedances were collected from highly concentrated waters because of evaporation and seasonally low water levels. Concentrations for various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus generally were similar to reported regional values. Specific conductance of Long Lake varied seasonally and annually both within and among management units, with values ranging from less than 500 to nearly 40,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Long Lake was characterized by consistent seasonal patterns of increasing specific conductance from spring (March and April) to fall (September and October), with levels stabilizing through the end of the sampling season (November). These seasonal patterns in specific conductance were associated with decreasing water levels throughout the summer due primarily to evaporation and continuous water releases through the Unit 1 outlet structure, which resulted in the concentration of salts. Specific conductance of each unit, along with water levels, also varied among years. Overall, specific conductance levels were greatest during the drier year of 2008 when water levels were low. Specific conductance levels were lowest during the spring of 2009 following above-average volumes of fresh water from snowmelt runoff. Comparisons of specific conductance among sample sites that were spatially distributed within each management unit suggested that spatial variability within units was low except for areas associated with local inflows. Data collected during this study revealed consistent seasonal patterns and low within-unit spatial variability

  8. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  9. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  10. Application of Biota Dose Assessment Committee Methodology to Assess Radiological Risk to Salmonids in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, Ted M.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Protective guidance for biota in the U.S. Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota is based on population level protection guides of 10 or 1 mGy.d-1, respectively. Several 'ecologically significant units' of Pacific salmon are listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Middle Columbia Steelhead unit is endangered and the adult steelhead spawn in the reach. The reach also supports one of the largest spawning populations of fall chinook salmon in the Northwest. The existence of the major spawning areas in the Hanford Reach has focused considerable attention on their ecological health by the U.S. Department of Energy, other federal and state regulatory agencies, and special interest groups. Dose assessments for developing salmonid embryos were performed for the hypothetical exposure to tritium, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes at specific sites on the Hanford Reach. These early life stages are potentially exposed in some areas of the Hanford Reach to radiological contaminants that enter the river via shoreline seeps and upwelling through the river substrate. At the screening level, one site approached the dose guideline of 10 mGy.d-1 established with the RAD-BCG methodology and exceeded a precautionary benchmark of 2.5 mGy.d-1. Special status of listed species affords these populations more consideration when assessing potential impacts of exposure to radionuclides and other contaminants associated with the Hanford Site operations. The evolution of dose benchmarks for aquatic organisms and consideration of precautionary principal and cumulative impacts are discussed in this paper.

  11. The Aquatic Macrophyte Seed Bank in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarland, D

    1998-01-01

    .... americana have made a partial recovery. While the production of vegetative propagules may largely account for increases in populations of both species, the extent to which seed production may contribute to their expansion in the lake is unknown...

  12. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    , various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... temporal and geographical range. Bioaccumulation is also assessed for regulation of chemicals of environmental concern whereby mainly data from laboratory studies on fish bioaccumulation are used. Field data can, however, provide additional important information for regulators. Strategies...... for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved...

  13. Spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions among hydrology and geomorphology create shifting mosaics of aquatic habitat patches in large river floodplains (e.g., main and side channels, floodplain lakes, and shallow backwater areas) and the connectivity among these habitat patches underpins high levels of biotic diversity and productivity. However, the diversity and connectivity among the habitats of most floodplain rivers have been negatively impacted by hydrologic and structural modifications that support commercial navigation and control flooding. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the rate of increase in patch richness (# of types) with increasing scale reflects anthropogenic modifications to habitat diversity and connectivity in a large floodplain river, the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). To do this, we calculated the number of aquatic habitat patch types within neighborhoods surrounding each of the ≈19 million 5-m aquatic pixels of the UMR for multiple neighborhood sizes (1–100 ha). For all of the 87 river-reach focal areas we examined, changes in habitat richness (R) with increasing neighborhood length (L, # pixels) were characterized by a fractal-like power function R = Lz (R2 > 0.92 (P z) measures the rate of increase in habitat richness with neighborhood size and is related to a fractal dimension. Variation in z reflected fundamental changes to spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in this river system. With only a few exceptions, z exceeded the river-wide average of 0.18 in focal areas where side channels, contiguous floodplain lakes, and contiguous shallow-water areas exceeded 5%, 5%, and 10% of the floodplain respectively. In contrast, z was always less than 0.18 for focal areas where impounded water exceeded 40% of floodplain area. Our results suggest that rehabilitation efforts that target areas with <5% of the floodplain in side channels, <5% in floodplain lakes, and/or <10% in shallow-water areas could improve habitat diversity across multiple scales in the UMR.

  14. Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by Fukushima coastal biota - Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by marine biota: application to Fukushima assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Radiological assessments to non-human marine biota are usually carried out by assuming that the activity concentration in an organism is proportional to the activity concentration in an adjacent volume of water, via a concentration factor (CF). It is also assumed that radionuclides in the water are in isotopic equilibrium with the sediments via a sediment distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). These assumptions are not valid in accidental situations where the biota and the sediments react with a time delay to large variations of activity concentration in seawater. A simple dynamic model was developed to factorise the dynamics of radionuclide uptake and turnover in biota and sediments, as determined by a balance between the residence time of radionuclides in seawater/sediments and the biological half-life of elimination in the biota. The model calculates activity concentration of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in seabed sediment, fish, crustaceans, molluscs and macro-algae from surrounding activity concentrations in seawater, with which to derive internal and external dose rates. A central element of this new model is the inclusion of sediment processes in dynamic transfer modelling. The model is adapted to include depletion of radionuclides adsorbed onto suspended particulates (particle scavenging), molecular diffusion, pore water mixing and bioturbation (modelled effectively as a diffusive process) represented by a simple set of differential equations that is coupled with the biological uptake/turnover processes. In this way, the model is capable of reproducing activity concentration in sediment to give a more realistic calculation of the external dose to biota compared with the simpler approach based on CF and K{sub d} values used in previous assessments. The model is applied to the assessment of the radiological impact of the Fukushima accident on marine biota in the early phase of the accident. It is shown that previous assessment of the

  15. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  16. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  17. An Assessment of Cs-137, R-226 and Pa-239, 240 doses for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, P.; Suplinska, M.; Rosiak, I.

    2004-01-01

    The doses assessment for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms was performed, based on the methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Four organism types and their corresponding dose limits were used, and the principal exposure pathways were considered for aquatic animal, riparian animal, terrestrial plant, and terrestrial animal organism types respectively. Terrestrial rodent (apodemus flavicollis), Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to special consideration. In the first screening approach the annual doses from 137Cs and 239Pu (bomb-tests-fallout and Czarnobyl origin) and 226Ra (natural radionuclide) to biota were calculated at average, minimum and maximum concentrations of these radionuclides observed in soil, water, and sediment using the default bioaccumulation factors as well as lumped parameters values recommended by DOE Standard. The concentrations of 137Cs measured in the most contaminated region in Poland (Stare Olesno 380 Bqxkg-1 d.w.) and the concentrations of 226Ra for Southern regions of Poland with elevated levels of 226Ra in soil (100 B kg-1 d.w.) were taken in the dose assessment for terrestrial animals. The concentrations of 137Cs and 239Pu and 226Ra determined in see water and bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) were used in the dose assessment for aquatic biota. In the second ''site specific'' approach the average empirically measured concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues were used. At the first approach the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial plants were less then one percent of the recommended dose limits ( 3600 mGyxy-1 ) and items for seawater organisms did not exceed a 40% of this limit whereas the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial animal were close to the recommended dose limit (360 mGyxy-1). It prompted to start supplementary site-specific biota dose assessment through site

  18. Building a reference inventory of Great Lakes aquatic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the existence of numerous publications and web-pages that address aspects of species composition and distribution in the Great Lakes, there is at present no single resource that brings all this information together. This poster describes our progress towards generating a ...

  19. Cyanobacteria enhance methylmercury production: a hypothesis tested in the periphyton of two lakes in the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Guimarães, Jean Remy D; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Da Silva, Carolina J; Díez, Sergi

    2013-07-01

    The toxic potential of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems is due to the presence and production of methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies in tropical floodplain environments showed that periphyton associated with the roots of aquatic macrophytes produce MeHg. Periphyton communities are the first link in the food chain and one of the main MeHg sources in aquatic environments. The aim of this work was to test the hypotheses that the algal community structure affects potential methylation, and ecologically distinct communities with different algal and bacterial densities directly affect the formation of MeHg in the roots of macrophytes. To evaluate these, net MeHg production in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes in relation to the taxonomic structure of associated periphytic algae was evaluated. Macrophyte root samples were collected in the dry and flood season from two floodplain lakes in the Pantanal (Brazil). These lakes have different ecological conditions as a function of their lateral hydrological connectivity with the Paraguay River that is different during times of drought. Results indicated that MeHg production was higher in the flood season than in the dry season. MeHg production rates were higher in the disconnected lake in comparison to the connected lake during the dry season. MeHg production exhibited a strong positive co-variation with cyanobacteria abundance (R(2)=0.78; pcyanobacteria are associated with higher rates of methylation in aquatic systems. This suggests that cyanobacteria could be a proxy for sites of MeHg production in some natural aquatic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracking Organic Carbon Transport From the Stordalen Mire to Glacial Lake Tornetrask, Abisko, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M. A.; Hamilton, B. T.; Spry, E.; Johnson, J. E.; Palace, M. W.; McCalley, C. K.; Varner, R. K.; Bothner, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subarctic regions, labile organic carbon from thawing permafrost and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation are sources of carbon to lake sediments. Methane is produced in lake sediments from the decomposition of organic carbon at rates affected by vegetation presence and type as well as sediment temperature. Recent research in the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has suggested that labile organic carbon sources in young, shallow lake sediments yield the highest in situ sediment methane concentrations. Ebullition (or bubbling) of this methane is predominantly controlled by seasonal warming. In this project we sampled stream, glacial and post-glacial lake sediments along a drainage transect through the Stordalen Mire into the large glacial Lake Torneträsk. Our results indicate that the highest methane and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were observed in lake and stream sediments in the upper 25 centimeters, consistent with previous studies. C/N ratios range from 8 to 32, and suggest that a mix of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation sources dominate the sedimentary record. Although water transport occurs throughout the mire, major depositional centers for sediments and organic carbon occur within the lakes and prohibit young, labile TOC from entering the larger glacial Lake Torneträsk. The lack of an observed sediment fan at the outlet of the Mire to the lake is consistent with this observation. Our results suggest that carbon produced in the mire stays in the mire, allowing methane production to be greater in the mire bound lakes and streams than in the larger adjacent glacial lake.

  1. Development and evaluation of the Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index (LMII for the China’s second largest interior lake (Dongting Lake was developed to assess the water quality status using algal and macroinvertebrate metrics. Algae and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 10 sections across 3 subregions of Dongting Lake. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics and selected ten for the LMII: Pampean diatom index, diatom quotient, trophic diatom index, relative abundance diatoms, Margalef index of algae, percent sensitive diatoms, % facultative individuals, % Chironomidae individuals, % predators individuals, and total number of macroinvertebrate taxa. We then tested the accuracy and feasibility of the LMII by comparing the correlation with physical-chemical parameters. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired sections and was strongly related to the major chemical and physical stressors (r = 0.766, P<0.001. The re-scored results from the 10 sections showed that the water quality of western Dongting Lake was good, while that of southern Dongting Lake was relatively good and whereas that of eastern Dongting Lake was poor. The discriminatory biocriteria of the LMII are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake. Additionally, more metrics belonging to habitat, hydrology, physics and chemistry should be considered into the LMII, so as to establish comprehensive assessment system which can reflect the community structure of aquatic organisms, physical and chemical characteristics of water environment, human activities, and so on.

  2. Pre-operational monitoring and assessment of aquatic biota in environmental impact assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an ideal anticipatory mechanism which establishes quantitative values for parameters indicating the quality of the environment before, during and after the proposed developmental activity, thus allowing measures that ensure environmental compatibility in developmental process. EIA studies have been made mandatory in India by MoEF, GOI for expansion/modernization of any activity or development of new project. Biological assessment, under aquatic environment, is one of the major components of EIA and it requires systematic way of data collection. Generation of substantial baseline data can then be used for formulation of subsequent stages of EIA, viz. prediction, evaluation, impact statements and environmental management plan (EMP). However, a definite approach towards biological studies under EIA during pre-operational stage has not been outlined in available guidelines. (author)

  3. Pre-operational monitoring and assessment of aquatic biota in environmental impact assessment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, T K [Ecotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

    2001-06-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an ideal anticipatory mechanism which establishes quantitative values for parameters indicating the quality of the environment before, during and after the proposed developmental activity, thus allowing measures that ensure environmental compatibility in developmental process. EIA studies have been made mandatory in India by MoEF, GOI for expansion/modernization of any activity or development of new project. Biological assessment, under aquatic environment, is one of the major components of EIA and it requires systematic way of data collection. Generation of substantial baseline data can then be used for formulation of subsequent stages of EIA, viz. prediction, evaluation, impact statements and environmental management plan (EMP). However, a definite approach towards biological studies under EIA during pre-operational stage has not been outlined in available guidelines. (author)

  4. Aquatic macrophyte composition of some tropical tin-mined ponds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of aquatic macrophytes was conducted for nine tin-mined lakes located around Jos in September 1998 and February 1999 to coincide with the wet and dry season conditions. A total of 48 species were found in all ponds, 46 species classified into 14 families for the wet season and 24 species classified into 11 ...

  5. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS

  6. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  8. Influence of three aquatic macrophytes on mitigation of nitrogen species from agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff containing nitrogen fertilizer is a major contributor to eutrophication in aquatic systems. One method of lowering amounts of nitrogen entering rivers or lakes is the transport of runoff through vegetated drainage ditches. Drainage ditch vegetation can enhance the mitigation of...

  9. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  10. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Integrative Sampler (CNIS) for passive sampling of nanosilver in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Fischer, Jillian; Martin, Jonathan; Hoque, Md Ehsanul; Telgmann, Lena; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D; Yargeau, Viviane

    2016-11-01

    Nanomaterials such as nanosilver (AgNP) can be released into the aquatic environment through production, usage, and disposal. Sensitive and cost-effective methods are needed to monitor AgNPs in the environment. This work is hampered by a lack of sensitive methods to detect nanomaterials in environmental matrixes. The present study focused on the development, calibration and application of a passive sampling technique for detecting AgNPs in aquatic matrixes. A Carbon Nanotube Integrative Sampler (CNIS) was developed using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the sorbent for accumulating AgNPs and other Ag species from water. Sampling rates were determined in the laboratory for different sampler configurations and in different aquatic matrixes. The sampler was field tested at the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada, in lake water dosed with AgNPs. For a configuration of the CNIS consisting of CNTs bound to carbon fiber (i.e. CNT veil) placed in Chemcatcher® housing, the time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of silver estimated from deployments of the sampler in lake mesocosms dosed with AgNPs were similar to the measured concentrations of "colloidal silver" (i.e. <0.22μm in size) in the water column. For a configuration of CNIS consisting of CNTs in loose powder form placed in a custom made housing that were deployed in a whole lake dosed with AgNPs, the estimated TWA concentrations of "CNIS-labile Ag" were similar to the concentrations of total silver measured in the epilimnion of the lake. However, sampling rates for the CNIS in various matrixes are relatively low (i.e. 1-20mL/day), so deployment periods of several weeks are required to detect AgNPs at environmentally relevant concentrations, which can allow biofilms to develop on the sampler and could affect the sampling rates. With further development, this novel sampler may provide a simple and sensitive method for screening for the presence of AgNPs in surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Parton, William J.

    1994-01-01

    We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m−2 y−1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.

  13. Development of fauna, micro flora and aquatic organisms database at the vicinity of Gamma Green House in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Mohd Zaidan Kandar; Phua Choo Kwai Hoe

    2012-01-01

    The biodiversity database of non-human biota which consisted of flora, fauna, aquatic organisms and micro flora at the vicinity of Gamma Greenhouse (GGH) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency is under development. In 2011, a workshop on biodiversity and sampling of flora and fauna by local experts had been conducted in BAB to expose the necessary knowledge to all those involved in this study. Since then, several field surveys had been successfully being carried out covering terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in order to observe species distribution pattern and to collect the non-human biota samples. The surveys had been conducted according to standard survey procedures and the samples collected were preserved and identified using appropriate techniques. In this paper, the work on fauna, micro flora and aquatic organisms was presented. The fauna and micro flora specimens were kept in Biodiversity Laboratory in Block 44. Based on those field surveys several species of terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate organisms were spotted. A diverse group of mushroom was found to be present at the study site. The presence of several aquatic zooplankton for example Cyclops, Nauplius; phytoplankton and bacteria for example Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp and others in the pond nearby proved that the pond ecosystem is in good condition. Through this study, the preliminary biodiversity list of fauna at the vicinity of the nuclear facility, GGH had been developed and the work will continue for complete baseline data development. Besides that, many principles and methodologies used in ecological survey had been learnt and applied but the skills involved still need to be polished through workshops, collaboration and consultation from local experts. Thus far, several agencies had been approached to gain collaboration and consultation such as Institut Perikanan Malaysia, UKM, UPM and UMT. (author)

  14. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  15. Seed dynamics and control of Pistia stratiotes in two aquatic systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruiting and seed dynamics of the alien invasive aquatic species Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce; Araceae) was investigated in the seasonally flooded Selinda Canal and Zibadianja Lake of the Kwando–Linyanti River system and in the perennial Chobe River, Botswana, in 1999–2003. The mean number of 30.3 seeds ...

  16. Shifts in alpine lakes' ecosystems in Japan driven by increasing Asian dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugeki, N. K.; Tani, Y.; Ueda, S.; Agusa, T.; Toyoda, K.; Kuwae, M.; Oda, H.; Tanabe, S.; Urabe, J.

    2011-12-01

    Recently in East Asia the amount of fossil fuel combustion have increased with economic growth. It has caused a problem of trans-boundary air pollution in the whole of eastern Asia. Furthermore, Asian dust storms contribute episodically to the global aerosol load. However, the effects of increased Asian dusts on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. If biologically important nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are transported via air dust, the atmospheric deposition of the dust may have serious impacts on recipient aquatic ecosystems because the biological production is limited by these nutrient elements. A previous report using sedimentary records has evaluated that atmospheric P inputs to the alpine lakes in the United States increased fivefold following the increased western settlement to this country during the nineteenth century. Since P is the most deficient nutrient for production in many lakes increase in P loading through atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically-derived dust might greatly affect the lake ecosystems. We examined fossil pigments and zooplankton remains from Pb-dated sediments taken from a high mountain lake of Hourai-Numa, located in the Towada-Hachimantai National Park of Japan, to uncover historical changes in the phyto- and zooplankton community over the past 100 years. Simultaneously, we measured the biogeochemical variables of TOC, TN, TP, δ13C, δ15N, and 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb in the sediments to identify environmental factors causing such changes. As a result, despite little anthropogenic activities in the watersheds, alpine lakes in Japan Islands increased algal and herbivore plankton biomasses by 3-6 folds for recent years depending on terrestrial the surrounded vegetations and landscape conditions. Biological and biogeochemical proxies recorded in the lake sediments indicate that this eutrophication occurred after the 1990s when P deposition increased due to atmospheric loading transported from Asian

  17. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  18. Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid–SCOPSCO Workshop Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Trajanovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary Lake Ohrid between Albania and Macedonia (SE Europe, Fig. 1 is considered to be the oldest continuously existing lake in Europe with a likely age of three to five million years. The lake has a surface area of 360 km2 and is 289 m deep. An extraordinarily high degree of endemism, including more than 210 described endemic species (Fig. 2, makes the lake a unique aquatic ecosystem of worldwide importance. Due to its old age, Lake Ohrid is one of the very few lakes in the world representing a hot spot of evolution and a potential evolutionary reservoir enabling the survival of relict species (Albrecht and Wilke, 2008. Its importance was emphasized when the lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.

  19. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  1. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-04-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC{sub 50} and 96-h LC{sub 50} values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China.

  2. Population Dynamics of Biota on the Roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ETIKAWATI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla was a special fern that their associations with Anabaena azollae able to fix free nitrogen from air, to produce protein. Although by the ages, biota diversity those habits on the roots of Azolla increased and effected to protein concentration. The research was to find out population dynamics of biota on the roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss and the growth peak. This study used Completely Randomized Design with 10 kinds of biota, i.e. bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa, Alga, Crustacean, Rotifers, Coelenterate, Insect and Molluscs, and it was used 3 replications. Research was conducted within 4 weeks and the populations of biota were observed every week. Data were statistically analyzed using Analysis Variant and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The population dynamics of biota on the roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss were influenced on its quantity and composition, and the growth peak is done in 2nd week.

  3. Appearance of new taxa: invertebrates, phytoplankton and bacteria in an alkaline, saline, meteorite crater lake, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available of purple sulphur bacteria in the lake. The absence of submerged and emergent aquatic macrophytes in the lake limits habitat diversity for attached diatoms in the littoral regions. Both the numbers of families and the density of the benthic invertebrates...

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of exposure to microplastics on fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Carolyn J; Feiner, Zachary S; Malinich, Timothy D; Höök, Tomas O

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics are present in aquatic ecosystems the world over and may influence the feeding, growth, reproduction, and survival of freshwater and marine biota; however, the extent and magnitude of potential effects of microplastics on aquatic organisms is poorly understood. In the current study, we conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to examine impacts of exposure to microplastics on consumption (and feeding), growth, reproduction, and survival of fish and aquatic invertebrates. While we did observe within-taxa negative effects for all four categories of responses, many of the effects summarized in our study were neutral, indicating that the effects of exposure to microplastics are highly variable across taxa. The most consistent effect was a reduction in consumption of natural prey when microplastics were present. For some taxa, negative effects on growth, reproduction and even survival were also evident. Organisms that serve as prey to larger predators, e.g., zooplankton, may be particularly susceptible to negative impacts of exposure to microplastic pollution, with potential for ramifications throughout the food web. Future work should focus on whether microplastics may be affecting aquatic organisms more subtly, e.g., by influencing exposure to contaminants and pathogens, or by acting at a molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity to acidification of subalpine ponds and lakes in north-western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.H.; Muths, E.; Turk, J.T.; Corn, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although acidifying deposition in western North America is lower than in many parts of the world, many high-elevation ecosystems there are extremely sensitive to acidification. Previous studies determined that the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area (MZWA) has the most acidic snowpack and aquatic ecosystems that are among the most sensitive in the region. In this study, spatial and temporal variability of ponds and lakes in and near the MZWA were examined to determine their sensitivity to acidification and the effects of acidic deposition during and after snowmelt. Within the areas identified as sensitive to acidification based on bedrock types, there was substantial variability in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), which was related to differences in hydrological flowpaths that control delivery of weathering products to surface waters. Geological and topographic maps were of limited use in predicting acid sensitivity because their spatial resolution was not fine enough to capture the variability of these attributes for lakes and ponds with small catchment areas. Many of the lakes are sensitive to acidification (summer and autumn ANC pH value was 5·4, and pH generally remained less than 6·0 throughout early summer in the most sensitive ponds, indicating that biological effects of acidification are possible at levels of atmospheric deposition that occurred during the study. The aquatic chemistry of lakes was dominated by atmospheric deposition and biogeochemical processes in soils and shallow ground water, whereas the aquatic chemistry of ponds was also affected by organic acids and biogeochemical processes in the water column and at the sediment–water interface. These results indicate that conceptual and mechanistic acidification models that have been developed for lakes and streams may be inadequate for predicting acidification in less-understood systems such as ponds.

  6. Limnological reconnaissance of a Nova Scotian brown-water lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M W

    1961-01-01

    Summer hydrography and biota of a Nova Scotian brown-water lake are described. A bloom of a dinoflagellate was noted. Zooplankton was plentiful. With a range in pH of 4.3 to 4.8, mollusks were absent. Chaoborus dominated in the poor bottom fauna. Standing crop of fish was low at 19 kg per ha. Yellow perch were most numerous, exhibiting a decline in growth rate to age III, then increasing when the fish reached a size to be piscivorous. Fish-cultural implications are briefly discussed.

  7. The distance that contaminated aquatic subsidies extend into lake riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of emergent aquatic insects by terrestrial invertebrates is a poorly resolved, but potentially important, mechanism of contaminant flux across ecosystem borders leading to contaminant exposure in terrestrial invertevores. We characterized the spatial extent and magnit...

  8. Levels and distribution of cobalt and nickel in the aquatic macrophytes found in Skadar Lake, Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastratović, Vlatko; Bigović, Miljan; Jaćimović, Željko; Kosović, Milica; Đurović, Dijana; Krivokapić, Slađana

    2018-02-06

    Macrophytes react to changes in the quality of the environment in which they live (water/sediment), and they are good bioindicators of surface water conditions. In the present study, the content of the metals cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) was determined in the sediment, the water, and different organs of macrophytes from six localities around Lake Skadar, across four different seasons of year. The aquatic macrophytes that have been used as bioindicator species in this study are Phragmites australis (an emerged species), Ceratophyllum demersum (a submerged species), and Lemna minor (a floating species). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of metals in macrophyte tissues and also to discover the degree of bioaccumulation of the investigated metals, depending both on the location and on the season. The content of Co and Ni in the examined parts of the macrophytes was in the range of 0.04-8.78 and 0.30-28.5 ppm, respectively. The greatest content of the investigated metal in the organs of P. australis and C. demersum was recorded at the beginning of and during the growing season. Greater concentrations of metals in the tissue of L. minor were observed at the end of the growing season.

  9. Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, M.D.; Neale, P.J.; Arp, C.D.; De Senerpont Domis, L. N.; Fang, X.; Gal, G.; Jo, K.D.; Kirillin, G.; Lenters, J.D.; Litchman, E.; MacIntyre, S.; Marsh, P.; Melack, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Peeters, F.; Quesada, A.; Schladow, S.G.; Schmid, M.; Spence, C.; Stokes, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling studies examining the effect of lakes on regional and global climate, as well as studies on the influence of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, are surveyed. Fully coupled atmosphere-land surface-lake climate models that could be used for both of these types of study simultaneously do not presently exist, though there are many applications that would benefit from such models. It is argued here that current understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in freshwater systems is sufficient to begin to construct such models, and a path forward is proposed. The largest impediment to fully representing lakes in the climate system lies in the handling of lakes that are too small to be explicitly resolved by the climate model, and that make up the majority of the lake-covered area at the resolutions currently used by global and regional climate models. Ongoing development within the hydrological sciences community and continual improvements in model resolution should help ameliorate this issue.

  10. Long-term changes in the flora and vegetation of Lake Mikołajskie (Poland as a result of its eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Solińska-Górnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in littoral flora as well as aquatic and swamp vegetation were analysed with increasing eutrophication of the mesotrophic Lake Mikołajskie. Over 30 years the habitat conditions of the lake deteriorated and the phy-tolittoral was reduced from a zone 6 metres wide to one of only 2 metres. In addition, the number of submerged macrophyte species decreased by 50% and the frequency of most of the remaining species declined severalfold. No new species were encountered. Species retreating from the lake littoral included all Chara species, Potamogeton obtusifolius, P. natans and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. A significant lowering of the phytosociological diversity and species richness of aquatic and swamp communities was observed. By 1994, six of the 12 associations identified in 1964 and representing the submerged and floating-leaved vegetation (e.g. Nitellopsidetum ubtusae, Charetum asperae and Potamogetonetum compressi were no longer present. In turn, 6 swamp communities from among the original 14 identified in the lake were lacking (e.g. Typhetum angustifoliae, Sugittario-Sparganietum emersi and Eleocharitetum palustris. At the same time, two new aquatic and swamp communities appeared (Ranunculetum circinuti, Myriophylletum spicati, Caricetum acutiformis and Caricetum distichae. In contrast there was an increase in the species richness of reedswamp communities due to an influx of marshland species. While the 1990s witnessed a distinct decrease in concentrations of nutrients in Lake Mikołajskie, the consequent increase in water transparency was not associated with an increase in the area of submerged macrophytes, or the species richness of aquatic vegetation.

  11. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Gibson, Polly P; Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A

    2017-05-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI, USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r 2  > 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged across all years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa less effective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1278-1286. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in

  12. The role of solar UV radiation in the ecology of alpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommaruga, R

    2001-09-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) is a crucial environmental factor in alpine lakes because of the natural increase of the UVR flux with elevation and the high water transparency of these ecosystems. The ecological importance of UVR, however, has only recently been recognized. This review, examines the general features of alpine lakes regarding UVR, summarizes what is known about the role of solar UVR in the ecology of alpine lakes, and identifies future research directions. Unlike the pattern observed in most lowland lakes, variability of UV attenuation in alpine lakes is poorly explained by differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and depends mainly on optical characteristics (absorption) of the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the water column of lakes with low DOC concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg l(-1)), UV attenuation is influenced by phytoplankton whose development at depth (i.e. the deep chlorophyll maximum) causes important changes in UV attenuation. Alpine aquatic organisms have developed a number of strategies to minimize UV damage. The widespread synthesis or bioaccumulation of different compounds that directly or indirectly absorb UV energy is one such strategy. Although most benthic and planktonic primary producers and crustacean zooplankton are well adapted to high intensities of solar radiation, heterotrophic protists, bacteria, and viruses seem to be particularly sensitive to UVR. Understanding the overall impact of UVR on alpine lakes would need to consider synergistic and antagonistic processes resulting from the pronounced climatic warming, which have the potential to modify the UV underwater climate and consequently the stress on aquatic organisms.

  13. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  14. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  15. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  16. A Study on the Evaluation Techniques of Pollutant Transport in Aquatic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Ki Chel; Park, Geon Hyeong

    2010-06-01

    A study on the numerical modeling has been performed to evaluate the characteristics of hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in aquatic environment such as river, lake, estuary and coastal areas. A EFDC among the lots of codes was selected to analyze the characteristics of code and the applications. A EFDC is a general-purpose modeling package for simulating three-dimensional flow, transport, and biogeochemical processes in surface water systems including rivers, lakes, estuaries, reservoirs, wetlands and coastal regions. The structure of the EFDC model includes four major modules: a hydrodynamic model, a water quality model, a sediment transport model, and a toxic model. This report was described the characteristics of the EFDC model and examples of application in lake, river, estuary and ocean

  17. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherine, Arnaud; Selma, Maloufi; Mouillot, David; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R"2 = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  18. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: arnocat@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: maloufi@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: david.mouillot@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: troussel@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: cbernard@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R{sup 2} = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  19. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of catfish from Asejire Lake (located at the outskirt of Ibadan, a major city in Oyo State of South-West Nigeria) was carried out to assess the level of contamination due to effluents from various industries in Ibadan, Oyo State particularly the Nigerian Bottling Company, Plc (NBC). The industrial site is located close to ...

  20. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  1. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  2. Hydrology and water quality of Park Lake, south-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Park Lake extends to the northeast from the village of Pardeeville in Columbia County (fig. 1). Local residents perceive water-quality problems in the lake that include excessive algae and aquatic plant growth. Algae and plant growth in a lake are controlled, in part, by the availability of phosphorus in the water. However, no measurements of phosphorus enter- ing the lake or of other factors that affect lake-water quality had been made, and available data on water quality were limited to 2 years of measurements at one site in the lake in 1986- 87. To obtain the data and in- formation needed to address the water-quality problems at Park Lake and to develop a management plan that would limit the input of phosphorus to the lake, the U.S. Geologi- cal Survey, in cooperation with the Park Lake Management District, studied the hydrology of the lake and collected data needed to determine sources and amount of phosphorus en- tering the lake. This Fact Sheet summarizes the results of that study. Data collected during the study were published in a separate report (Holmstrom and others, 1994, p. 70-85).

  3. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Sikka, S.; Kamath, B.; Preslan, J.; Agrawal, K.; Rege, A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to identify heavy metals and organic contaminants of concern which could impact on the biota in the Louisiana wetlands by assessment of uptake and bioaccumulation of contaminants and their effects on reproductive processes as biomarkers of exposure. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, and mercury) have been demonstrated to have toxic effects on reproduction in mammals and several aquatic species. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an persistent environmental contaminant which has been measured in human serum, fat, semen, and follicular fluid. HCB has been shown to be a reproductive toxin in rats and primates. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are prevalent chlorinated hydrocarbons currently contaminating our environment. PCBs resist degradation and are insoluble in water; however, they bioaccumulate in aquatic species. Disturbances of the reproductive systems are not only sensitive indicators of toxicity but threatens the propagation of a species

  4. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice of Data...), proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life in lakes and flowing waters within... will consider the comments received before finalizing the proposed rule, ``Water Quality Standards for...

  5. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Paula-Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  6. BATHYMETRIC STUDY OF WADI EL-RAYAN LAKES, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Gad Elrab ABD ELLAH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry is a technique of measuring depths to determine the morphometry of water bodies. The derivation of bathymetry from the surveys is one of the basic researches of the aquatic environment, which has several practical implications to on the lake environment and it's monitoring. Wadi El-Rayan, as Ramsar site, is a very important wetland, in Egypt, as a reservoir for agricultural drainage water, fisheries and tourism. The Lakes are man-made basins in the Fayoum depression. Wadi El-Rayan Lakes are two reservoirs (upper Lake and Lower Lake, at different elevations. The Upper Lake is classified as open basin, while the Lower Lake is a closed basin, with no significant obvious water outflow. During recent decades, human impact on Wadi El-Rayan Lakes has increased due to intensification of agriculture and fish farming. Analyses of bathyemtric plans from 1996, 2010 and 2016 showed, the differences between morphometric parameters of the Upper Lake were generally small, while the Lower Lake changes are obvious at the three periods. The small fluctuate, in the features of Upper Lake is due to the water balance between the water inflow and water. The Lower Lake has faced extreme water loss through last twenty years is due to the agricultural lands and fish farms extended in the depression. The Upper Lake is rich in Lakeshores macrophyets, while decline the water plants in the Lower Lake. With low water levels, in the Lower Lake, the future continuity of the Lake system is in jeopardy

  7. Contribution of GIS to evaluate surface water pollution by heavy metals: Case of Ichkeul Lake (Northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Amira; Saidi, Salwa; Ben Mbarek, Nabiha; Darragi, Fadila

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of nutrients and heavy elements in the surface water of the lake Ichkeul, main wadis which feed directly and thermal springs that flow into the lake, are measured to evaluate these chemical elements. There are used to highlight the interactions between these different aquatic compartments of Ichkeul. All metal concentrations in lake water, except Cu, were lower than the maximum permitted concentration for the protection of aquatic life. The results show that the highest concentrations are located in the eastern and south-eastern part of the lake where the polluted water comes from the lagoon of Bizerte through the wadi Tinja as well as from the city of Mateur through the wadi Joumine. The pollution indices and especially the heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) show high pollution specially located at the mouths of wadis and an increase of heavy metal concentrations, as a result of uncontrolled releases of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  8. Fish community responses to submerged aquatic vegetation in Maumee Bay, Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Kocovsky, Patrick; Wiegmann, Daniel; Miner, Jeffery G.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in clearwater systems simultaneously provides habitat for invertebrate prey and acts as refugia for small fishes. Many fishes in Lake Erie rely on shallow, heavily vegetated bays as spawning grounds and the loss or absence of which is known to reduce recruitment in other systems. The Maumee River and Maumee Bay, which once had abundant macrophyte beds, have experienced a decline of SAV and an increase in suspended solids (turbidity) over the last century due to numerous causes. To compare fish communities in open‐water (turbid) and in SAV (clearer water) habitats in this region, which is designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an Area of Concern, and to indicate community changes that could occur with expansion of SAV habitat, we sampled a 300‐ha sector of northern Maumee Bay that contained both habitats. Using towed neuston nets through patches of each habitat, we determined that areas of SAV contained more species and a different species complex (based on the Jaccard index and the wetland fish index), than did the open‐water habitat (averaging 8.6 versus 5 species per net trawl). The SAV habitat was dominated by centrarchids, namely Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and Black Crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Open‐water habitat was dominated by Spottail Shiner Notropis hudsonius, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, and White Perch Morone americana, an invasive species. These results indicate that restoration efforts aimed at decreasing turbidity and increasing the distribution of SAV could cause substantive shifts in the fish community and address important metrics for assessing the beneficial use impairments in this Area of Concern.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF FRESHWATER LAKES IN TRANSYLVANIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan FODOREAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lakes appear under more forms and dimensions and include lots of features that constitute important advantages in defining them as a class of objects that need to be studied. They have very well defined limits and there are open systems that receive water, solar energy and chemical substances from outside the system. The foreign specialty literature provides special attention to the study of the lakes and the swampy fields of their neighbourhood, as well as to the numerous interactions that come out from the existence of these water units. In this purpose, proper paradigms of the study of aquatic systems have been drawn: the paradigm of lakes as microcosmos or integrated ecosystems, paradigm of lakes as experimental systems, paradigm of lakes as chronicles of natural history etc.

  10. A Worldwide Web-portal for Aquatic Mesocosm Facilities: WWW.MESOCOSM.EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, S. A.; Nejstgaard, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Experimental mesocosms are valuable tools to fill the gap between highly controlled/replicated lab experiments and uncontrolled/non-replicated natural environments such as rivers, lakes and oceans. WWW.MESOCOSM.EU is an open web-portal for leading aquatic mesocosm facilities around the world. It was created within the FP7 EU-project MESOAQUA (A network of leading MESOcosm facilities to advance the studies of future AQUAtic ecosystems from the Arctic to the Mediterranean). The goal of the portal is to increase international knowledge about existing mesocosm facilities, including information on locations, environment, equipment, contacts, research opportunities and mesocosm-based publications. MESOCOSM.EU specifically aims to be a tool to enhance the quality of research by facilitating international cooperative network building, announcement of new research initiatives, transfer of best practice, and dissemination of knowledge, public information and press releases. As an open platform for all aquatic ecosystem scale science (marine and freshwater), MESOCOSM.EU aims to fill the lack of a centralized, coordinating virtual infrastructure for international aquatic mesocosm research, from the mountains to the ocean and from polar to tropical regions.

  11. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  12. Characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of colloids in eutrophic shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Xu, Mengwen; Li, Yani; Liu, Xin; Guo, Laodong; Jiang, Helong

    2018-05-31

    Stability of colloidal particles contributes to the turbidity in the water column, which significantly influences water quality and ecological functions in aquatic environments especially shallow lakes. Here we report characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of aquatic colloids, including natural colloidal particles (NCPs) and total inorganic colloidal particles (TICPs), in a highly turbid shallow lake, via field observations, simulation experiments, ultrafiltration, spectral and microscopic, and light scattering techniques. The colloidal particles were characterized with various shapes (spherical, polygonal and elliptical) and aluminum-, silicon-, and ferric-containing mineralogical structures, with a size range of 20-200 nm. The process of sediment re-suspension under environmentally relevant conditions contributed 78-80% of TICPs and 54-55% of NCPs in Lake Taihu, representing an important source of colloids in the water column. Both mono- and divalent electrolytes enhanced colloidal aggregation, while a reverse trend was observed in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The influence of NOM on colloidal stability was highly related to molecular weight (MW) properties with the high MW fraction exhibiting higher stability efficiency than the low MW counterparts. However, the MW-dependent aggregation behavior for NCPs was less significant than that for TICPs, implying that previous results on colloidal behavior using model inorganic colloids alone should be reevaluated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mobility/stability and transformation of aquatic colloids and their role in governing the fate and transport of pollutants in natural waters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project

    2011-12-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader

  14. Contrasting responses to long-term climate change of carbon flows to benthic consumers in two different sized lakes in the Baltic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Freiberg, Rene; Poska, Anneli; Agasild, Helen; Alliksaar, Tiiu; Tõnno, Ilmar

    2018-05-01

    The study of lake sediments and archived biological remains is a promising approach to better understand the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. Small lakes have been shown to be strongly sensitive to past climate change, but similar information is lacking for large lakes. By identifying responses to climate change of carbon flows through benthic food web in two different sized lakes, we aimed to understand how lake morphometry can mediate the effects of climate change. We reconstructed the dynamics of phytoplankton community composition and carbon resources sustaining chironomid biomass during the Holocene from the combined analysis of sedimentary pigment quantification and carbon stable isotopic composition of subfossil chironomid head capsules (δ13CHC) in a large lake in the Baltic area (Estonia). Our results showed that chironomid biomass in the large lake was mainly sustained by phytoplankton, with no significant relationship between δ13CHC values and temperature fluctuations. We suggest that lake morphometry (including distance of the sampling zone to the shoreline, and lake volume for primary producers) mediates the effects of climate change, making large lakes less sensitive to climate change. Complementary studies are needed to better understand differences in organic matter dynamics in different sized lakes and to characterize the response of the aquatic carbon cycle to past climate change.

  15. Bioaccumulation of newly deposited mercury by fish and invertebrates : an enclosure study using stable mercury isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, M.J.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Podemski, C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Sandilands, K.A. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Hintelmann, H.H.; Ogrinc, N. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Gilmour, C.C. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States); Harris, R. [Tetra Tech Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) are elevated in fish from North American lakes, which has resulted in the closure of fisheries and the issuance of consumption advisories in many areas. This study investigated the utility of using stable isotopes of enriched stable mercury (Hg) to examine Hg accumulation in aquatic communities. Enriched stable HG isotopes were added to 4 10 m diameter enclosures in an experimental lake to increase inorganic Hg loading. The objective of the study was to trace low-level additions of isotope-enriched Hg through the biogeochemical cycle and into the food web; and to determine the relative contribution of the newly deposited Hg to MeHg accumulation by fish and other biota. The experiment was conducted over 2 summers with a variety of enriched Hg isotopes being added each year. Data suggested that changes in deposition of inorganic Hg will result in changes in MeHg accumulation by fish and other biota. Results showed that within 1 month, spikes of Hg were detected in water, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates as MeHg, and in fish as total Hg. In 2001, concentrations in water of inorganic spike Hg added in 2000 were near detection limits. Concentrations of 2000 spike MeHg in water and biota remained unchanged or greater. The accumulation of ambient, non-spike MeHg predominated in all organisms despite comparatively large increases in inorganic Hg loading. It was concluded that although long-term changes in Hg deposition may result in changes in MeHg accumulation by biota, it may take upwards of a decade for steady-state conditions to be achieved. Further research is needed to determine to what extent data from the enclosures can be applied to natural lakes. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Could Methane Oxidation in Lakes Be Enhanced by Eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grinsven, S.; Villanueva, L.; Harrison, J.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and eutrophication both affect aquatic ecosystems. Eutrophication is caused by high nutrient inputs, leading to algal blooms, oxygen depletion and disturbances of the natural balances in aquatic systems. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas produced biologically by anaerobic degradation of organic matter, is often released from the sediments of lakes and marine systems to overlying water and the atmosphere. Methane oxidation, a microbial methane consumption process, can limit methane emission from lakes and reservoirs by 50-80%. Here, we studied methane oxidation in a seasonally stratified reservoir: Lacamas Lake in Washington, USA. We found this lake has a large summer storage capacity of methane in its deep water layer, with a very active microbial community capable of oxidizing exceptionally high amounts of methane. The natural presence of terminal electron acceptors is, however, too low to support these high potential rates. Addition of eutrophication-related nutrients such as nitrate and sulfate increased the methane removal rates by 4 to 7-fold. The microbial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and preliminary results indicate the presence of a relatively unknown facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer of the genus Methylomonas, capable of using nitrate as an electron donor. Experiments in which anoxic and oxic conditions were rapidly interchanged showed this facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer has an impressive flexibility towards large, rapid changes in environmental conditions and this feature might be key to the unexpectedly high methane removal rates in eutrophied and anoxic watersheds.

  17. Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1 virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viseth Srey Horm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Very little is known regarding the persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses in aquatic environments in tropical countries, although environmental materials have been suggested to play a role as reservoirs and sources of transmission for H5N1 viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The survival of HPAI H5N1 viruses in experimental aquatic biotopes (water, mud, aquatic flora and fauna relevant to field conditions in Cambodia was investigated. Artificial aquatic biotopes, including simple ones containing only mud and water, and complex biotopes involving the presence of aquatic flora and fauna, were set up. They were experimentally contaminated with H5N1 virus. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 virus (local avian and human isolates was determined by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and by real-time reverse-polymerase chain reaction. Persistence of infectious virus did not exceed 4 days, and was only identified in rain water. No infectious virus particles were detected in pond and lake water or mud even when high inoculum doses were used. However, viral RNA persisted up to 20 days in rain water and 7 days in pond or lake water. Viral RNA was also detected in mud samples, up to 14 days post-contamination in several cases. Infectious virus and viral RNA was detected in few cases in the aquatic fauna and flora, especially in bivalves and labyrinth fish, although these organisms seemed to be mostly passive carriers of the virus rather than host allowing virus replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although several factors for the survival and persistence of HPAI viruses in the environment are still to be elucidated, and are particularly hard to control in laboratory conditions, our results, along with previous data, support the idea that environmental surveillance is of major relevance for avian influenza control programs.

  18. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  19. The application of the lake ecosystem index in multi-attribute decision analysis in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakanson, Lars; Gallego, Eduardo; Rios-Insua, Sixto

    2000-01-01

    This work gives a summary of multi-attribute analysis (MAA) and its use in decision support systems for radiological and environmental contamination problems and presents a modification of the lake ecosystem index (LEI) as a tool to give an holistic account for the environmental (and not just radiological) consequences of chemical remedial measures (lake and wet land liming, potash treatment and lake fertilisation) carried out to reduce radionuclide levels in water, sediments and biota. The first step in determining a LEI-value is to set normal or initial values of two important limnological state variables, pH and total-P. The second step involves predicting state indices describing the abundance of key functional groups (the fish yield and biomasses of phytoplankton and bottom fauna). The next step concerns the definition of a lake ecosystem index based on the state indices. The final step is the derivation of the utility function to be used in the multi-attribute analysis to compare environmental, economical and social attributes of different dimensions (ECU, kg, Bq/kg, etc.). The ecosystem index characterises the entire lake over longer periods of time (months), and not specific sites in lakes or specific sampling events

  20. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants along a high-altitude aquatic food chain in the Tibetan Plateau: Processes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiruo; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic. The composition profiles of POPs in the fish were different from that in the water, but similar to their food. DDEs, DDDs, PCB 138, 153 and 180 displayed significant positive correlations with trophic levels, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged between 1.5 and 4.2, implying these chemicals can undergo final biomagnification along food chain. A fugacity-based dynamic bioaccumulation model was applied to the fish with localized parameters, by which the simulated concentrations were comparable to the measured data. Modeling results showed that most compounds underwent net gill loss and net gut uptake; only when the net result of the combined gut and gill fluxes would be positive, bioaccumulation could eventually occur. The net accumulation flux increased with fish age, which was caused by the continuous increase of gut uptake by aged fish. Due to the oligotrophic condition, efficient food absorption is likely the key factor that influences the gut POPs uptake. Long residence times with half-lives up to two decades were found for the higher chlorinated PCBs in Gymnocypris namensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    the edges of backwaters, flood basins, lagoons, lakes, ponds, rivers and wadis. Recent research suggests that at least some Aquatic Warblers may actually winter further south than the present data suggest, in countries such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana...

  2. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica. Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Fishing for compliments : man-made lake exceeds expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the unexpected benefits of the first man-made lake created to compensate for loss of habitat resulting from the construction of an oilsands mine. Wapan Sakahikan Lake appears to be diverting birds from a tailings pond in the vicinity, and more fish species than expected are showing up in the lake. Canadian Natural Resources Limited diverted and dammed the Tar River to make way for an oilsands mine. About 30 people were involved in the design and construction of the lake, which encompasses 80 hectares and is 19 feet deep, with shallower areas to facilitate spawning and the maturation of juvenile fish. Small islands, gravel beds, and an underwater trench for small fish to take shelter were also constructed. Special culverts help keep fish in the lake. A metre-deep layer of clay lines the lake to help prevent mercury contamination. With the aid of the spring melt, it took only three days to fill the lake. Nearby First Nations were consulted regarding the location and fish species to stock. Other oilsands companies are now creating compensation lakes, and what was learned in the creation of Wapan Sakahikan will be shared via the Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  4. TiO2 nanoparticles for the remediation of eutrophic shallow freshwater systems: Efficiency and impacts on aquatic biota under a microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa da Silva, Márcia; Abrantes, Nelson; Nogueira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    The application of nanomaterials (NMs) in the remediation of eutrophic waters, particularly in the control of internal loading of nutrients, has been started, but limited investigations evaluated the effectiveness of these new treatment approaches and of their potential impacts on species from shallow freshwater lakes. The present work investigated, under a microcosm experiment, the application of a TiO2 nanomaterial both for reducing nutrient (mainly phosphorus and nitrogen forms) desorption and release from sediments (preventive treatment-PT) and for eliminating algal blooms (remediation treatment-RT). Furthermore, we also intended to assess the potential impacts of nano-TiO2 application on key freshwater species. The results showed the effectiveness of nano-TiO2 in controlling the release of phosphates from surface sediment and the subsequent reduction of total phosphorus in the water column. A reduction in total nitrogen was also observed. Such changes in nutrient dynamics contributed to a progressive inhibition of development of algae after the application of the NM in PT microcosms. Concerning the ability of nano-TiO2 to interact with algal cells, this interaction has likely occurred, mainly in RT, enhancing the formation of aggregates and their rapid settlement, thus reducing the algal bloom. Both treatments caused deleterious effects on freshwater species. In PT, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor showed a significant inhibition of several endpoints. Conversely, no inhibitory effect on the growth of Chironomus riparius was recorded. In opposite, C. riparius was the most affected species in RT microcosms. Such difference was probably caused by the formation of larger TiO2-algae aggregates in RT, under a high algal density, that rapidly settled in the sediment, becoming less available for pelagic species. In summary, despite the effectiveness of both treatments in controlling internal nutrient loading and in the mitigating algal bloom episodes, their negative

  5. Contamination of the Aquatic Environment with Neonicotinoids and its Implication for Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sánchez-Bayo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides in agriculture results first in contamination of the soil of the treated crops, and secondly in the transfer of residues to the aquatic environment. The high toxicity of these insecticides to aquatic insects and other arthropods has been recognized, but there is little awareness of the impacts these chemicals have on aquatic environments and the ecosystem at large. Recent monitoring studies in several countries, however, have revealed a world-wide contamination of creeks, rivers and lakes with these insecticides, with residue levels in the low μg/L (ppb range. The current extent of aquatic contamination by neonicotinoids is reviewed first, and the findings contrasted with the known acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to various aquatic organisms. Impacts on populations and aquatic communities, mostly using mesocosms, are reviewed next to identify the communities most at risk from those that undergo little or no impact. Finally, the ecological links between aquatic and terrestrial organisms are considered. The consequences for terrestrial vertebrate species that depend mainly on this food source are discussed together with impacts on ecosystem function. Gaps in knowledge stem from difficulties in obtaining long-term experimental data that relates the effects on individual organisms to impacts on populations and ecosystems. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and the implications they have for the larger ecosystem.

  6. Stormwater and fire as sources of black carbon nanoparticles to Lake Tahoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiaux, Marion M; Edwards, Ross; Heyvaert, Alan C; Thomas, James M; Fitzgerald, Brian; Susfalk, Richard B; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Thaw, Melissa

    2011-03-15

    Emitted to the atmosphere through fire and fossil fuel combustion, refractory black carbon nanoparticles (rBC) impact human health, climate, and the carbon cycle. Eventually these particles enter aquatic environments, where they may affect the fate of other pollutants. While ubiquitous, the particles are still poorly characterized in freshwater systems. Here we present the results of a study determining rBC in waters of the Lake Tahoe watershed in the western United States from 2007 to 2009. The study period spanned a large fire within the Tahoe basin, seasonal snowmelt, and a number of storm events, which resulted in pulses of urban runoff into the lake with rBC concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than midlake concentrations. The results show that rBC pulses from both the fire and urban runoff were rapidly attenuated suggesting unexpected aggregation or degradation of the particles. We find that those processes prevent rBC concentrations from build