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Sample records for lack adequate health

  1. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  2. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  3. Assuring Adequate Health Insurance for Children With Special Health Care Needs: Progress From 2001 to 2009-2010.

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    Ghandour, Reem M; Comeau, Meg; Tobias, Carol; Dworetzky, Beth; Hamershock, Rose; Honberg, Lynda; Mann, Marie Y; Bachman, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    To report on coverage and adequacy of health insurance for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in 2009-2010 and assess changes since 2001. Data were from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), a random-digit telephone survey with 40,243 (2009-2010) and 38,866 (2001) completed interviews. Consistency and adequacy of insurance was measured by: 1) coverage status, 2) gaps in coverage, 3) coverage of needed services, 4) reasonableness of uncovered costs, and 5) ability to see needed providers, as reported by parents. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with adequate insurance coverage in 2009-2010. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence estimates were examined to identify changes in the type of insurance coverage and the proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage by insurance type. The proportion of CSHCN with private coverage decreased from 64.7% to 50.7% between 2001 and 2009-2010, while public coverage increased from 21.7% to 34.7%; the proportion of CSHCN without any insurance declined from 5.2% to 3.5%. The proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage varied over time and by insurance type: among privately covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate coverage declined (62.6% to 59.6%), while among publicly covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate insurance increased (63.0% to 70.7%). Publicly insured CSHCN experienced improvements in each of the 3 adequacy components. There has been a continued shift from private to public coverage, which is more affordable, offers benefits that are more likely to meet CSHCN needs, and allowed CSHCN to see necessary providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

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    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  5. Are community-level financial data adequate to assess population health investments?

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    Casper, Tim; Kindig, David A

    2012-01-01

    The variation in health outcomes among communities results largely from different levels of financial and nonfinancial policy investments over time; these natural experiments should offer investment and policy guidance for a business model on population health. However, little such guidance exists. We examined the availability of data in a sample of Wisconsin counties for expenditures in selected categories of health care, public health, human services, income support, job development, and education. We found, as predicted by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics in 2002, that availability is often limited by the challenges of difficulty in locating useable data, a lack of resources among public agencies to upgrade information technology systems for making data more usable and accessible to the public, and a lack of enterprise-wide coordination and geographic detail in data collection efforts. These challenges must be overcome to provide policy-relevant information for optimal population health resource allocation.

  6. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

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    Lund, Patricia M; Taylor, Julie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male) boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection strategies. Changes in

  7. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Julie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection

  8. Are trainee teachers being adequately prepared to promote the health and well-being of school children? A survey of current practice.

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    Dewhirst, Sue; Pickett, Karen; Speller, Viv; Shepherd, Jonathan; Byrne, Jenny; Almond, Palo; Grace, Marcus; Hartwell, Debbie; Roderick, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Teachers are a key part of the wider public health workforce in England. We conducted a survey to find out how they are trained for this role during their initial teacher education (ITE). Between 2011 and 2012, we sent an online questionnaire to 220 ITE course managers and conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 19 course managers to explore issues in more depth. The response rate to the questionnaire was 34% (n = 74). Although most of the course managers felt inclusion of health and well-being training in ITE was important, provision across courses was variable. Topics which are public health priorities [e.g. sex and relationships education (SRE) and drugs, alcohol and tobacco] were covered by fewer courses than other topics (e.g. child protection, emotional health and anti-bullying). Perceived barriers to training included lack of time and a belief that health and well-being were low priorities in educational policy. Not all of tomorrow's teachers are being adequately prepared for their role in helping to address public health priorities. Educational policy does not appear to be supporting the priorities of public health policy, and this is a key barrier to health promotion training in ITE. Keywords children, educational settings, health promotion. © Crown copyright 2013.

  9. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent ...

  10. Five reasons for the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health.

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    Kudo, Yasushi; Hayashi, Sachiko; Yoshimura, Emiko; Tsunoda, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2013-11-01

    Prevention is better than cure. Public health plays an important role in promoting prevent medicine. To obtain the abilities to provide appropriate nursing services, learning public health is necessary for students who want to become registered nurses. When teachers teach public health to nursing students, it is important to motivate them to learn it. Therefore, we investigated the reasons for the lack of motivation to learn public health by conducting a questionnaire survey. The subjects were female nursing students in 29 vocational schools in Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures of Japan that allow graduation after a 3-year study period. We asked the students whether or not they had completed the subject of public health and analyzed those students who answered affirmatively. We analyzed 1,553 respondents whose average age was 22.6 ± 5.2 years (range, 18 to 45). Using factor analysis, we discovered the 5 reasons that lead to the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health: "Difficulties acquiring knowledge of public health," "Inappropriate attitudes of public health teachers," "Thinking lightly about the national examination in the field of public health," "Lack of understanding the importance of learning public health," and "Future plans that do not specialize in public health." Using multiple linear regression analysis, these 5 reasons were significant predictors for the lack of students' motivation. Older students also had significantly less motivation to learn public health than did younger students. When teachers instruct their students, they should teach public health better with the present knowledge.

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the required...

  12. The association between insured male expatriates' knowledge of health insurance benefits and lack of access to health care in Saudi Arabia.

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    Alkhamis, Abdulwahab A

    2018-03-15

    Insufficient knowledge of health insurance benefits could be associated with lack of access to health care, particularly for minority populations. This study aims to assess the association between expatriates' knowledge of health insurance benefits and lack of access to health care. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 among 3398 insured male expatriates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The dependent variable was binary and expresses access or lack of access to health care. Independent variables included perceived and validated knowledge of health insurance benefits and other variables. Data were summarized by computing frequencies and percentage of all quantities of variables. To evaluate variations in knowledge, personal and job characteristics with lack of access to health care, the Chi square test was used. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were recorded for each independent variable. Multiple logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression were performed and adjusted ORs were extracted. Descriptive analysis showed that 15% of participants lacked access to health care. The majority of these were unskilled laborers, usually with no education (17.5%), who had been working for less than 3 years (28.1%) in Saudi Arabia. A total of 23.3% worked for companies with less than 50 employees and 16.5% earned less than 4500 Saudi Riyals monthly ($1200). Many (20.3%) were young (English (16.7%) and lacked previous knowledge of health insurance (18%). For perceived knowledge of health insurance, 55.2% scored 1 or 0 from total of 3. For validated knowledge, 16.9% scored 1 or 0 from total score of 4. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only perceived knowledge of health insurance had significant associations with lack of access to health care ((OR) = 0.393, (CI) = 0.335-0.461), but the result was insignificant for validated knowledge. Stepwise logistic regression gave similar findings. Our results

  13. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

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    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  14. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

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    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

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    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility shall...

  16. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

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    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Promoting Health and Safety in San Francisco's Chinatown Restaurants: Findings and Lessons Learned from a Pilot Observational Checklist

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    Gaydos, Megan; Bhatia, Rajiv; Morales, Alvaro; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Krause, Niklas; Minkler, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Noncompliance with labor and occupational health and safety laws contributes to economic and health inequities. Environmental health agencies are well positioned to monitor workplace conditions in many industries and support enhanced enforcement by responsible regulatory agencies. In collaboration with university and community partners, the San Francisco Department of Public Health used an observational checklist to assess preventable occupational injury hazards and compliance with employee notification requirements in 106 restaurants in San Francisco's Chinatown. Sixty-five percent of restaurants had not posted required minimum wage, paid sick leave, or workers' compensation notifications; 82% of restaurants lacked fully stocked first-aid kits; 52% lacked antislip mats; 37% lacked adequate ventilation; and 28% lacked adequate lighting. Supported by a larger community-based participatory research process, this pilot project helped to spur additional innovative health department collaborations to promote healthier workplaces. PMID:21836739

  18. Evidence-Based Health Promotion in Nursing Homes: A Pilot Intervention to Improve Oral Health

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    Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…

  19. [The current state of health education in France: cause or consequence of the lack of political commitment?].

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    Demeulemeester, René

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the limited resources allocated to health education in France were due to a lack of legitimacy compounded by a lack of professional recognition, in addition to a lack of research and a state of methodological anarchy. A national health education program was launched in 2001 to address this issue. However, the program was only partially implemented. Recent reforms have strengthened the national structure and promoted health communication campaigns. Therapeutic patient education has also been legally recognized. However, the resources allocated to community health education have steadily declined, despite efforts to promote training, quality improvement and rationalization. Health promotion--without which health education activities cannot be developed--is still struggling to gain recognition. Investments in health promotion have not increased as a result of the demonstrable effectiveness and professionalization of the sector and of the quality of its services. Indeed, the reverse may be true. In other words, investments in this area may promote the development of research, assessment and quality, while also highlighting the impact on the determinants of health and well-being. Ultimately, there is evidence to suggest that investments in this area can help to reduce premature mortality rates and the number of preventable deaths.

  20. The promotion of oral health within Health Promoting Schools in KwaZulu-Natal

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    M Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. Theimportance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA. Although oral health strategiesinclude integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated intopractice and whether these programmes have been evaluated.Objective. To assess the efficiency and sustainability of the toothbrushing programme implemented at health-promoting schools inKwaZulu-Natal Province, SA.Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study, conducted at 23 health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal using focusgroup discussions. Triangulation was used for evaluation.Results. The intervention implemented had created awareness of oral health for learners, educators and parents. Findings in this studyindicate that although there were benefits obtained from this school-based intervention, many challenges, such as time constraints, largeclasses and a lack of adequate resources and funding, affected the sustainability of the programme.Conclusion.The school setting has the potential to deliver integrated preventive and promotive programmes provided they are supportedby adequate funding and resources.

  1. Confidence in the Knowledge Base of English Language Learners Studying Science: Using Agency to Compensate for the Lack of Adequate Linguistic Identity

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    Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity—that is, English proficiency and science background knowledge, was examined in this study. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and with university lecturers. The analysis suggested three conceptual themes of (1) reliance on science knowledge, (2) the auxiliary role of professional language and (3) adequacy of student learning strategies, demonstrating what subjective meanings the participants ascribe to the interplay between science knowledge and linguistic ability. The findings suggest that despite the lack of adequate linguistic attributes, the students are still able to successfully learn science in the context of language change. It is also implied that through strategically utilising their academic background in science, students preserve their identity as successful learners from school through to university. We conclude that agency plays a separate role in transition and is not a sole function of identity. We also contest the idea of language as a necessary attribute of one's identity as it was perceived by our participants to be an advantage and an auxiliary tool rather than a requirement.

  2. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; findings from the longitudinal SMILE study.

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    Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Eijk, Jacques T M

    2008-07-17

    More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE) were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32) and mental (OR = 2.12) dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the precise mechanisms underlying these effects.

  3. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  4. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

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    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the Health of Irish Workers adequately protected from the effects Radon Gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heery Mary

    2006-08-01

    prosecuted for failing to comply with this legislation. Hence, the health of Irish workers is not being adequately protected from the effects of this silent killer, radon gas

  6. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; Findings from the longitudinal SMILE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempen Gertrudis IJM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. Results The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32 and mental (OR = 2.12 dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Conclusion Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to

  7. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater...

  8. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; Findings from the longitudinal SMILE study

    OpenAIRE

    Groffen, Daniëlle AI; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Eijk, Jacques TM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the r...

  9. Mental health risks among nurses under abusive supervision: the moderating roles of job role ambiguity and patients' lack of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Haiwan; Han, Zhuo Rachel; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    While the nursing profession has been associated with mental health problems and the research into the antecedents of mental health has steadily grown, the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health issues of anxiety and depression remains largely unknown. This study aims to examine the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health problems. And we also aim to investigate whether this relationship is moderated by role ambiguity and the patients' lack of reciprocity. A total of 227 frontline nurses from two public hospitals completed the survey questionnaire. (1) Abusive supervision was positively associated with poor mental health; (2) the positive relationship was moderated by nurses' perceived role ambiguity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when the perceived role ambiguity is high; (3) the positive relationship was moderated by the patients' lack of reciprocity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when patients' lack of reciprocity was high. To conclude, the present study showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with mental health problems of anxiety and depression among samples of Chinese nurses. Findings of this study also highlighted that this relationship was contingent upon perceived role ambiguity and patients' reciprocity.

  10. From intermediate to final behavioral endpoints : Modeling cognitions in (cost-)effectiveness analyses in health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are considered an increasingly important tool in health promotion and psychology. In health promotion adequate effectiveness data of innovative interventions are often lacking. In case of many promising interventions the available data are inadequate for CEAs due

  11. [Lack of access to information on oral health problems among adults: an approach based on the theoretical model for literacy in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Luana Leal; Noronha, Daniele Durães; Souza, Taiane Oliveira; Miranda, Ellen Janayne Primo; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista De; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Haikal, Desirée Sant'ana

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to investigate factors associated with the lack of access to information on oral health among adults. It is a cross-sectional study, carried out among 831 adults (35-44 years of age). The dependent variable was access to information on how to avoid oral problems, and the independent variables were gathered into subgroups according to the theoretical model for literacy in health. Binary logistic regression was carried out, and results were corrected by the design effect. It was observed that 37.5% had no access to information about dental problems. The lack of access was higher among adults who had lower per capita income, were dissatisfied with the dental services provided, did not use dental floss, had unsatisfactory physical control of the quality of life, and self-perceived their oral health as fair/poor/very poor. The likelihood of not having access to information about dental problems among those dissatisfied with the dental services used was 3.28 times higher than for those satisfied with the dental services used. Thus, decreased access to information was related to unfavorable conditions among adults. Health services should ensure appropriate information to their users in order to increase health literacy levels and improve satisfaction and equity.

  12. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K. McClanahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  13. Holistic health: does it really include mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-03-14

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  14. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology: a pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India.

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik, PK; Kallakuri, S; Devarapalli, S; Vadlamani, VK; Jha, V; Patel, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 25% of the Indian population experience common mental disorders (CMD) but only 15-25% of them receive any mental health care. Stigma, lack of adequate mental health professionals and mental health services account for this treatment gap, which is worse in rural areas. Our project evaluated task shifting and mobile-technology based electronic decision support systems to enhance the ability of primary care health workers to provide evidence-based mental health care for stress,...

  15. Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit: is it an adequate public health response to addressing the issue of caregiver burden in end-of-life care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison M; Eby, Jeanette A; Crooks, Valorie A; Stajduhar, Kelli; Giesbrecht, Melissa; Vuksan, Mirjana; Cohen, S Robin; Brazil, Kevin; Allan, Diane

    2011-05-18

    An increasingly significant public health issue in Canada, and elsewhere throughout the developed world, pertains to the provision of adequate palliative/end-of-life (P/EOL) care. Informal caregivers who take on the responsibility of providing P/EOL care often experience negative physical, mental, emotional, social and economic consequences. In this article, we specifically examine how Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB)--a contributory benefits social program aimed at informal P/EOL caregivers--operates as a public health response in sustaining informal caregivers providing P/EOL care, and whether or not it adequately addresses known aspects of caregiver burden that are addressed within the population health promotion (PHP) model. As part of a national evaluation of Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit, 57 telephone interviews were conducted with Canadian informal P/EOL caregivers in 5 different provinces, pertaining to the strengths and weaknesses of the CCB and the general caregiving experience. Interview data was coded with Nvivo software and emerging themes were identified by the research team, with such findings published elsewhere. The purpose of the present analysis was identified after comparing the findings to the literature specific to caregiver burden and public health, after which data was analyzed using the PHP model as a guiding framework. Informal caregivers spoke to several of the determinants of health outlined in the PHP model that are implicated in their burden experience: gender, income and social status, working conditions, health and social services, social support network, and personal health practises and coping strategies. They recognized the need for improving the CCB to better address these determinants. This study, from the perspective of family caregivers, demonstrates that the CCB is not living up to its full potential in sustaining informal P/EOL caregivers. Effort is required to transform the CCB so that it may fulfill the

  16. The lack of eye care preventive services in public health leads to an increase of progressive blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes CARVALHO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a serious public health problem. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 1 million 100 thousandblind and about four million visually impaired, 80% of blindness in the world are predictable causes and / or treatable.Considering the epidemiological importance of eye diseases and magnitude of blindness in Brazil, saw the need for aliterature review in order to understand the problem for future interventions. The survey results showed that: the maincauses of blindness are diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and an alarming number ofchildhood blindness due to various causes, the progressive increase of blindness is attributed to several factors, inparticular, the lack eye care, lack of infrastructure, organization, financial resources, which are aggravated by poverty,misinformation, inequality of the population and the absence / lack of educational efforts, despite the alarming statisticsand the gradual increase in blindness, has no effective measure to control it. The model of care in ophthalmologycurative until then, highlights the need for urgent action to ensure eye care in primary health care, thus allowing toensure the completeness, quality, equity in service of disease prevention, promotion, recovery and rehabilitation of eyehealth .

  17. The health care Titanic: women and children first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, S; Peterson, K

    1993-01-01

    The plight of people who lack access to health care has captured national attention and led to a number of proposals to remedy the problem. The authors look at three types of proposals being advanced--"pro-competition" plans, "pay-or-play" plans, and a national health care system--and find that they fail to address adequately the pressing needs of two groups of the poor: women of childbearing age and elderly women.

  18. Economy may be harmed by lack of LLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A study released by Organizations United for Responsible Low-Level Radioactive Waste Solutions warns that the substantial benefits of using radioactive materials are threatened by the lack of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. The main point of the study is the threat to the American economy posed by insufficient facilities for disposal of the 1.7 billion ft 3 of LLW produced by the use of radioactive materials every year only 34.8 percent of which comes from nuclear power plants. open-quotes Thirty years of experience have provided the technical knowledge to design waste disposal facilities that protect the public and environment. But an impending lack of adequate disposal facilities jeopardizes our continued use of radioactive materials,close quotes according to the study

  19. Health of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.

  20. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents

  1. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been...

  2. Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.

  3. Pre-Feedback Risk Expectancies and Reception of Low-Risk Health Feedback: Absolute and Comparative Lack of Reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamp, Martina; Renner, Britta

    2016-11-01

    Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news. In two studies (N = 187, N = 565), after assessing pre-feedback risk expectancies, participants received low-risk personalised feedback about their own risk of developing (the fictitious) Tucson Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (TCFS). Study 2 also included peer TCFS risk status feedback. Afterwards, self- and peer-related risk perception for TCFS was assessed. In both studies, participants who expected to be at high risk but received good news (unexpected low-risk feedback) showed absolute lack of reassurance. Specifically, they felt at significantly greater TCFS risk than participants who received expected good news. Moreover, the unexpected low-risk group even believed that their risk was as high as (Study 1) or higher (Study 2) than that of their peers (comparative lack of reassurance). Results support the notion that high pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate absolute and comparative reassuring effects of good news. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  5. Campus Health Centers' Lack of Information Regarding Providers: A Content Analysis of Division-I Campus Health Centers' Provider Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K

    2018-07-01

    Campus health centers are a convenient, and usually affordable, location for college students to obtain health care. Staffed by licensed and trained professionals, these providers can generally offer similar levels of care that providers at off-campus clinics can deliver. Yet, previous research finds students may forgo this convenient, on-campus option partially because of a lack of knowledge regarding the quality of providers at these campus clinics. This study sought to examine where this information deficit may come from by analyzing campus health centers' online provider information. All Division-I colleges or universities with an on-campus health center, which had information on their websites about their providers (n = 294), had their providers' online information analyzed (n = 2,127 providers). Results revealed that schools commonly offer professional information (e.g., provider specialties, education), but very little about their providers outside of the medical context (e.g., hobbies) that would allow a prospective student patient to more easily relate. While 181 different kinds of credentials were provided next to providers' names (e.g., MD, PA-C, FNP-BC), only nine schools offered information to help students understand what these different credentials meant. Most schools had information about their providers within one-click of the homepage. Recommendations for improving online information about campus health center providers are offered.

  6. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  7. The contracting round: achieving health gain or financial balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1998-12-01

    In the 1991 National Health Service reforms, health authorities became responsible for the health of their resident population, and they contract for health services from NHS providers - trusts and primary care services. A case study in Camden and Islington, an inner London health district, during 1996-1997 shows that contracting was directed more towards achieving financial balance than health objectives. Reasons include the inflationary effect of competition within an internal market, the power of administrators in decision-making within the health authority, and lack of adequate financial accounting in the NHS to relate costs to health outcomes. The introduction of programme budgets for districts would provide more cost-effective use of the nation's resources.

  8. Advancing health equity for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people through sexual health education and LGBT-affirming health care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.

  9. Quasi-adequate semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1987-11-01

    The least fundamental adequate good congruence on an arbitrary type W semigroup S is described as well as the largest superabundant full subsemigroup of S and the largest full subsemigroup of S which is a band of cancellative monoids. Weak type W semigroups are defined by replacing the idempotent-connected property in type W by one of its consequences and a structure theorem is obtained for such semigroups. (author). 12 refs

  10. Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donckt, van der.

    1976-01-01

    The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)

  11. An E-Learning Module to Improve Nongenetic Health Professionals' Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Genetic Risk: Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten Freya Lea; Aalfs, Cora M.; Dekker, Evelien; Tanis, Pieter J.; Smets, Ellen M.

    2017-01-01

    Nongenetic health providers may lack the relevant knowledge, experience, and communication skills to adequately detect familial colorectal cancer (CRC), despite a positive attitude toward the assessment of history of cancer in a family. Specific training may enable them to more optimally refer

  12. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  13. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention.

  14. Funding an 'Adequate' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. political process has been used to define an "adequate" education, in terms of resources, procedures, content, or outcomes. The marketplace also allows individuals to define adequacy through various voucher arrangements. Both mechanisms should be used, based on whether public or private interests are paramount in a particular…

  15. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  16. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  17. Patients struggle to access effective health care due to ongoing violence, distance, costs and health service performance in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Carthaigh, Niamh; De Gryse, Benoit; Esmati, Abdul Sattar; Nizar, Barak; Van Overloop, Catherine; Fricke, Renzo; Bseiso, Jehan; Baker, Corinne; Decroo, Tom; Philips, Mit

    2015-05-01

    The Afghan population suffers from a long standing armed conflict. We investigated patients' experiences of their access to and use of the health services. Data were collected in four clinics from different provinces. Mixed methods were applied. The questions focused on access obstacles during the current health problem and health seeking behaviour during a previous illness episode of a household member. To access the health facilities 71.8% (545/759) of patients experienced obstacles. The combination of long distances, high costs and the conflict deprived people of life-saving healthcare. The closest public clinics were underused due to perceptions regarding their lack of availability or quality of staff, services or medicines. For one in five people, a lack of access to health care had resulted in death among family members or close friends within the last year. Violence continues to affect daily life and access to healthcare in Afghanistan. Moreover, healthcare provision is not adequately geared to meet medical and emergency needs. Impartial healthcare tailored to the context will be vital to increase access to basic and life-saving healthcare. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Expert perspectives on Western European prison health services: do ageing prisoners receive equivalent care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison.

  19. Process Evaluation of Communitisation Programme in Public Sector Health Facilities, Mokokchung District, Nagaland, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushi, Aonungdok; Kaur, Prabhdeep

    2017-01-01

    Public sector health facilities were poorly managed due to a history of conflict in Nagaland, India. Government of Nagaland introduced "Nagaland Communitisation of Public Institutions and Services Act" in 2002. Main objectives of the evaluation were to review the functioning of Health Center Managing Committees (HCMCs), deliver health services in the institutions managed by HCMC, identify strengths as well as challenges perceived by HCMC members in the rural areas of Mokokchung district, Nagaland. The evaluation was made using input, process and output indicators. A doctor, the HCMC Chairman and one member from each of the three community health centers (CHC) and four primary health centers (PHC) were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide. Proportions for quantitative data were computed and key themes from the same were identified. Overall; the infrastructure, equipment and outpatient/inpatient service availability was satisfactory. There was a lack of funds and shortage of doctors, drugs as well as laboratory facilities. HCMCs were in place and carried out administrative activities. HCMCs felt ownership, mobilized community contributions and managed human resources. HCMC members had inadequate funds for their transport and training. They faced challenges in service delivery due to political interference and lack of adequate human, material, financial resources. Communitisation program was operational in the district. HCMC members felt the ownership of health facilities. Administrative, political support and adequate funds from the government are needed for effective functioning of HCMCs and optimal service delivery in public sector facilities.

  20. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of health insurance on physical functioning among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Richardson, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance have been viewed as significant contributors to health disparities in the United States. However, few studies have examined their impact on physical functioning over time, especially in later life. The current study investigated the impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance on individuals' growth trajectories in physical functioning, as measured by activities of daily living. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (1994-2006) were used for this study, 6519 black and white adults who provided in-depth information about health, socioeconomic, financial and health insurance information were analysed. Latent growth curve modelling was used to estimate the initial level of physical functioning and its rate of change over time. Results showed that higher level of income and assets and having private health insurance significantly predicted better physical functioning. In particular, decline in physical functioning was slower among those who had private health insurance. Interestingly, changes in economic status, such as decreases in income and assets, had a greater impact on women's physical functioning than on men's. Black adults did not suffer more rapid declines in physical functioning than white adults after controlling for socioeconomic status. The current longitudinal study suggested that anti-poverty and health insurance policies should be enhanced to reduce the negative impact of socioeconomic inequalities on physical functioning throughout an individual's life course. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Stress, burnout and health in the clinical period of dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, K; Jonas, I; Ruf, S; Harzer, W

    2005-05-01

    The study examined the extent of stress, burnout and health problems experienced by fourth and fifth year dental students from the three universities of Dresden, Freiburg and Bern. The objectives of the study were to: (i) identify frequent sources of stress and to report the prevalence rates of burnout and health problems in dental students, (ii) determine the rate of students suffering from severe burnout symptoms and (iii) identify stress factors related to the burnout symptoms of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. A total of 161 dental students from Dresden, Freiburg and Bern participated in the study. They completed the Psychosocial Stress Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Health Survey Questionnaire. Frequent sources of stress were limitation of leisure time, examination anxiety and the transition stress that was related to the adaptation to the demands of the clinical phase of dental education. Few differences existed between the students of the fourth and the fifth study year. Study-related stress was lowest in Bern and considerably higher in Dresden. Differences of mean levels of burnout symptoms were found only for the burnout dimension of emotional exhaustion. Students from Dresden and Freiburg were more emotionally exhausted than students from Bern, students from Dresden also reported more health problems than students from Bern or Freiburg. Ten per cent of the dental students suffered from severe emotional exhaustion, 17% complained about a severe lack of accomplishment and 28% reported severe depersonalization symptoms. Forty-four per cent of the variance of emotional exhaustion was explained by study-related factors such as lack of leisure time, examination anxiety and transition stress. The only predictor of depersonalization was a lack of social integration, accounting for 3% of the variance. A lack of social integration may be an indicator of low social competence which may cause difficulties in dealing with patients

  2. Barriers to implementing infection prevention and control guidelines during crises: experiences of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timen, Aura; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Rust, Laura; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Akkermans, Reinier P; Grol, Richard P T M; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-11-01

    Communicable disease crises can endanger the health care system and often require special guidelines. Understanding reasons for nonadherence to crisis guidelines is needed to improve crisis management. We identified and measured barriers and conditions for optimal adherence as perceived by 4 categories of health care professionals. In-depth interviews were performed (n = 26) to develop a questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey of microbiologists (100% response), infection preventionists (74% response), public health physicians (96% response), and public health nurses (82% response). The groups were asked to appraise barriers encountered during 4 outbreaks (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Clostridium difficile ribotype 027, rubella, and avian influenza) according to a 5-point Likert scale. When at least 33% of the participants responded "strongly agree," "agree," or "rather agree than disagree," a barrier was defined as "often experienced." The common ("generic") barriers were included in a univariate and multivariate model. Barriers specific to the various groups were studied as well. Crisis guidelines were found to have 4 generic barriers to adherence: (1) lack of imperative or precise wording, (2) lack of easily identifiable instructions specific to each profession, (3) lack of concrete performance targets, and (4) lack of timely and adequate guidance on personal protective equipment and other safety measures. The cross-sectional study also yielded profession-specific sets of often-experienced barriers. To improve adherence to crisis guidelines, the generic barriers should be addressed when developing guidelines, irrespective of the infectious agent. Profession-specific barriers require profession-specific strategies to change attitudes, ensure organizational facilities, and provide an adequate setting for crisis management. Copyright © 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  4. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  5. Federal employees health program experiences lack of competition in some areas, raising cost concerns for exchange plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Barker, Abigail R; Pollack, Lisa M; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith J

    2012-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for creation of health insurance exchanges designed to provide private health insurance plan choices. The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program is a national model that to some extent resembles the planned exchanges. Both offer plans at the state level but are also overseen by the federal government. We examined the availability of plans and enrollment levels in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program throughout the United States in 2010. We found that although plans were widely available, enrollment was concentrated in plans owned by just a few organizations, typically Blue Cross/Blue Shield plans. Enrollment was more concentrated in rural areas, which may reflect historical patterns of enrollment or lack of provider networks. Average biweekly premiums for an individual were lowest ($58.48) in counties where competition was extremely high, rising to $65.13 where competition was extremely low. To make certain that coverage sold through exchanges is affordable, policy makers may need to pay attention to areas where there is little plan competition and take steps through risk-adjustment policies or other measures to narrow differences in premiums and out-of-pocket expenses for consumers.

  6. Lived experience of involuntary transport under mental health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne; Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John; Stasa, Helen

    2017-12-01

    Police have historically been responsible for transporting people during a mental health crisis in Australia. A major change to the New South Wales (NSW) Mental Health Act (MHA) in 2007 expanded the range of coercive transportation agencies to include NSW Ambulance (paramedics) and NSW Health (mental health nurses). Anecdotal reports, however, describe a lack of clarity around how these changes should be implemented in practice. This research aims to explore this lack of clarity through qualitative analysis of interviews with people with the lived experience of involuntary transport under the MHA. Sixteen interviews were conducted; most (n = 14) interviews in northern NSW regions: six with people who had been transported (consumers), four with carers, and six with service providers (two police, one paramedic, and three mental health nurses). For consumers and carers, the police response was often perceived as too intense, particularly if the person was not violent. Carers were often conflicted by having to call for emergency intervention. Service providers were frustrated by a lack of a coordinated interagency response, resourcing issues, delays at emergency departments, and lack of adequate training. A central theme across all groups was the importance of communication styles. As one participant (consumer) said: 'Everybody needs a lesson in kindness'. All groups agreed that high-risk situations necessitate police involvement. However, invocation of the MHA during a high-risk situation is fraught with stress and difficulties, leaving little room for empathetic communications. Effective and diverse, evidence-based, early intervention strategies - both consensual and non-consensual - are necessary to reduce the requirement for police involvement in mental health transports. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in health insurance adequacy and consistency among children: Evidence from the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay G. Soylu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance of disparities in healthcare insurance, services and quality of care among children are critical for properly serving the medical/healthcare needs of underserved populations. The purpose of this study was to assess racial/ethnic differences in children’s (0 to 17 years old health insurance adequacy and consistency (child has insurance coverage for the last 12 months. Design and methods: We used data from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (n=79,474. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the distribution and influence of several sociodemographic/family related factors on insurance adequacy and consistency across different racial/ethnic groups. Results: Stratified analyses by race/ethnicity revealed that white and black children living in households at or below 299% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL were approximately 29 to 42% less likely to have adequate insurance compared to children living in families of higher income levels. Regardless of race/ethnicity, we found that children with public health insurance were more likely to have adequate insurance than their privately insured counterparts, while adolescents were at greater risk of inadequate coverage. Hispanic and black children were more likely to lack consistent insurance coverage. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that racial/ethnic differences in adequate and consistent health insurance exists with both white and minority children being affected adversely by poverty. Establishing outreach programs for low income families, and cross-cultural education for healthcare providers may help increase health insurance adequacy and consistency within certain underserved populations.

  8. Toward a Better Understanding of Patient Health Literacy: A Focus on the Skills Patients Need to Find Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Donovan, Erin E

    2017-07-01

    While many health literacy assessments exist, this area of research lacks an instrument that isolates and reflects the four components driving this concept (abilities to find, understand, use, and communicate about health information). The purpose of this study was to determine what abilities comprise the first component, how a patient finds health information. Low ( n = 13) and adequate ( n = 14) health literacy patients, and health professionals ( n = 10) described their experiences when looking for health information and the skills they employed to complete these tasks. Major skills/themes elicited included knowing when to search, credibility assessments, finding text and numerical information, interpersonal seeking, technology and online search, and spatial navigation. Findings from this study suggest that each of the dimensions included in the definition of health literacy warrants specific attention and assessment. Given identification of the skills comprising each dimension, interventions targeting deficits across health literacy dimensions could be developed to improve patient health.

  9. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  10. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  11. THE ADDED VALUE OF INTEGRATE-HTA GUIDANCE IN THE WORK PROCESSES OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AGENCIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Kievit, Wietske; Oortwijn, Wija

    2017-01-01

    A central idea underlying the INTEGRATE-HTA project is that many of the interventions that are being used in health care are quite complex. By this, we mean that the relation between the delivery of the intervention on the one hand, and the onset of (desired and undesired) changes may be less straightforward than hoped for. There may be all sorts of reasons for this, varying from a lack of resources, lack of skills, perverse incentives, organizational problems, etc. Not identifying such factors and their potential impact may seriously compromise the policy relevance of a health technology assessment (HTA) (1). However, current approaches and methods in HTA do not seem to be adequately geared to deal with this complexity.

  12. Information needs of the 'frontline' public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, J D; Smith, A M

    2010-11-01

    To explore the information needs of the 'frontline' public health workforce, whether needs are being met and barriers to meeting needs. A qualitative research study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. A qualitative study, comprising eight semi-structured interviews, was conducted with one representative of each of eight categories of frontline public health professional (children's centre manager, community development worker, community midwife, district nurse, health visitor, community pharmacist, practice nurse and school nurse) to determine their public health role, information needs and barriers to meeting needs. Interviews were tape-recorded and data were analysed to identify themes for each category and common themes. Respondents expressed similar needs, some of which could be met by a dedicated library and knowledge service, given adequate funding, and some of which need input from management. The library could supply: news bulletins and up-to-date information, especially local information; targeted local websites and databases; training in literature-searching skills, basic information technology (IT) skills and critical appraisal; course and work support, with access to local library facilities; a literature search support service; signposting, with a named library contact; and access to information for patients. Management input is required to remedy basic structural barriers, including: lack of IT equipment and training; lack of time to access information; lack of funding for courses and professional development; and lack of communication of information from higher levels. Some information needs can be met by improvements and widening of access to library services, which may need increased funding. However, some barriers to meeting information needs require action elsewhere in the public health management structure. Changes need to be made in communication of public health strategy, and engagement needs to be improved between higher managerial

  13. Health literacy, health information seeking behaviors and internet use among patients attending a private and public clinic in the same geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Natalia; Kindratt, Tiffany B; Pagels, Patti; Foster, Barbara; Gimpel, Nora E

    2014-02-01

    Despite the growing body of health information available online, patients with limited health literacy may lack either internet access or skills necessary to utilize this information. Nonetheless, patients at all health literacy levels may prefer other primary sources to obtain health information. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure health literacy of patients attending two clinics in Dallas, TX and determine associations between health literacy, health information access and internet usage before and after controlling for confounders. Patients from both clinics (county N = 265; private N = 233) completed a brief survey which included sociodemographics, internet patterns, confidence in filling out medical forms and a self-administered Newest Vital Sign to measure health literacy. In the county clinic, most patients (61.5 %) were Hispanic, had low income (literacy (68.5 %). In the private clinic, participants were mostly black (40.4 %) or white (38.6 %), had higher incomes (≥$46,000), higher education (technical college or college) and adequate health literacy (75.1 %). The primary source of obtaining health information in both clinics was their health care professional (50.6 % county; 40.1 % private). In multivariate analyses to determine differences by health literacy level, there were no statistically significant differences between patients with limited and adequate health literacy and their primary information source. Regardless of health literacy, patients rely on their health care providers to obtain health information. These results showcase the importance of providers' effective communication with patients to make shared decisions about their health regardless of other factors.

  14. Challenges to implementing a National Health Information System in Cameroon: perspectives of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ngwakongnwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early 90s, the Cameroon Ministry of Health implemented a National Health Information System (NHIS based on a bottom- up approach of manually collecting and reporting health data. Little is known about the implementation and functioning of the NHIS. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of the NHIS by documenting experiences of individual stakeholders, and to suggest recommendations for improvement. We reviewed relevant documents and conducted face-to-face interviews (N=4 with individuals directly involved with data gathering, reporting and storage. Content analysis was used to analyze textual data. We found a stalled and inefficient NHIS characterized by general lack of personnel, a labor-intensive process, delay in reporting data, much reliance on field staff, and lack of incentives. A move to an electronic health information system without involving all stakeholders and adequately addressing the issues plaguing the current system is premature.

  15. Transgender Health Care for Nurses: An Innovative Approach to Diversifying Nursing Curricula to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alex; Bower, Kelly M

    2016-08-01

    Transgender people experience high rates of discrimination in health care settings, which is linked to decreases in physical and mental wellness. By increasing the number of nurses who are trained to deliver high-quality care to transgender patients, health inequities associated with provider discrimination can be mitigated. At present, baccalaureate nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to care for transgender people, which is a shortcoming that has been attributed to limited teaching time and lack of guidance regarding new topics. We developed transgender health content for students in a baccalaureate nursing program and used a student-faculty partnership model to integrate new content into the curriculum. We incorporated new transgender health content into five required courses over three semesters. We mitigated common barriers to developing and integrating new, diversity-related topics into a baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Added transgender health content was well received by students and faculty. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):476-479.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The link between the West African Ebola outbreak and health systems in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoman, Haitham; Karafillakis, Emilie; Rawaf, Salman

    2017-01-04

    An Ebola outbreak started in December 2013 in Guinea and spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014. The health systems in place in the three countries lacked the infrastructure and the preparation to respond to the outbreak quickly and the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern on August 8 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of health systems' organisation and performance on the West African Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and lessons learned. The WHO health system building blocks were used to evaluate the performance of the health systems in these countries. A systematic review of articles published from inception until July 2015 was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Global Health, and the Cochrane library were searched for relevant literature. Grey literature was also searched through Google Scholar and Scopus. Articles were exported and selected based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was then extracted into a spreadsheet and a descriptive analysis was performed. Each study was critically appraised using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. The review was supplemented with expert interviews where participants were identified from reference lists and using the snowball method. Thirteen articles were included in the study and six experts from different organisations were interviewed. Findings were analysed based on the WHO health system building blocks. Shortage of health workforce had an important effect on the control of Ebola but also suffered the most from the outbreak. This was followed by information and research, medical products and technologies, health financing and leadership and governance. Poor surveillance and lack of proper communication also contributed to the outbreak. Lack of available funds jeopardised payments and purchase of essential resources and medicines. Leadership and

  17. Process evaluation of communitisation programme in public sector health facilities, Mokokchung district, Nagaland, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aonungdok Tushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public sector health facilities were poorly managed due to a history of conflict in Nagaland, India. Government of Nagaland introduced “Nagaland Communitisation of Public Institutions and Services Act” in 2002. Main objectives of the evaluation were to review the functioning of Health Center Managing Committees (HCMCs, deliver health services in the institutions managed by HCMC, identify strengths as well as challenges perceived by HCMC members in the rural areas of Mokokchung district, Nagaland. Materials and Methods: The evaluation was made using input, process and output indicators. A doctor, the HCMC Chairman and one member from each of the three community health centers (CHC and four primary health centers (PHC were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide. Proportions for quantitative data were computed and key themes from the same were identified. Results: Overall; the infrastructure, equipment and outpatient/inpatient service availability was satisfactory. There was a lack of funds and shortage of doctors, drugs as well as laboratory facilities. HCMCs were in place and carried out administrative activities. HCMCs felt ownership, mobilized community contributions and managed human resources. HCMC members had inadequate funds for their transport and training. They faced challenges in service delivery due to political interference and lack of adequate human, material, financial resources. Conclusions: Communitisation program was operational in the district. HCMC members felt the ownership of health facilities. Administrative, political support and adequate funds from the government are needed for effective functioning of HCMCs and optimal service delivery in public sector facilities.

  18. Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozano, Kim; Simkhada, Padam; Thann, Khem; Khatri, Rose

    2018-01-06

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives. Qualitative methodology was used to capture the experiences of CHWs in Kratie and Mondulkiri provinces. Two participatory focus groups with CHWs in Mondulkiri and ten semi-structured interviews in Kratie were conducted. Results from both studies were used to identify common themes. Participants were CHWs, male and female, from rural Khmer and Muslim communities and linked with seven different district health centres. Findings identify that CHWs regularly deliver health promotion to communities. However, systemic, personal and community engagement challenges hinder their ability to function effectively. These include minimal leadership and support from local government, irregular training which focuses on verticalised health programmes, inadequate resources, a lack of professional identity and challenges to achieving behaviour change of community members. In addition, the CHW programme is delivered in a fragmented way that is largely influenced by external aid objectives. When consulted, however, CHWs demonstrate their ability to develop realistic practical solutions to challenges and barriers. The fragmented delivery of the CHW programme in Cambodia means that government ownership is minimal. This, coupled with the lack of defined core training programme or adequate resources, prevents CHWs from reaching their potential. CHWs have positive and realistic ideas on how to improve their role and, subsequently

  19. Factors that hinder community participation in developing and implementing comprehensive council health plans in Manyoni District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Kilewo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decentralization of public health planning is proposed to facilitate public participation in health issues. Health Sector Reform in Tanzania places emphasis on the participation of lower level health facilities and community in health planning process. Despite availability of policies, guidelines, and community representative organs, actual implementation of decentralization strategies is poorly achieved. This study intended to find out factors that hinder community participation in developing and implementing Comprehensive Council Health Plan (CCHP. Materials and methods: A qualitative approach was conducted in this study with key informants from Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGC, Council Health Service Board (CHSB, and Council Health Management Team (CHMT. Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Data generated were analyzed for themes and patterns. Results: Factors that hindered community participation included lack of awareness on the CCHP among HFGC members, poor communication and information sharing between CHMT and HFGC, unstipulated roles and responsibilities of HFGC, lack of management capacity among HFGC members, and lack of financial resources for implementing HFGC activities. Conclusions: The identified challenges call for policy makers to revisit the decentralization by devolution policy by ensuring that local governance structures have adequate resources as well as autonomy to participate in planning and managing CCHP in general and health facility plans in particular.

  20. [Marketing in health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The gradual emergence of marketing activities in public health demonstrates an increased interest in this discipline, despite the lack of an adequate and universally recognized theoretical model. For a correct approach to marketing techniques, it is opportune to start from the health service, meant as a service rendered. This leads to the need to analyse the salient features of the services. The former is the intangibility, or rather the ex ante difficulty of making the patient understand the true nature of the performance carried out by the health care worker. Another characteristic of all the services is the extreme importance of the regulator, which means who performs the service (in our case, the health care professional). Indeed the operator is of crucial importance in health care: being one of the key issues, he becomes a part of the service itself. Each service is different because the people who deliver it are different, furthermore there are many variables that can affect the performance. Hence it arises the difficulty in measuring the services quality as well as in establishing reference standards.

  1. Lack of diversity in behavioral healthcare leadership reflected in services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2008-04-01

    America's rapidly changing demographics present an enormous challenge for today's healthcare leaders to redesign the organization and delivery of care to accommodate people who now represent every language, culture and religious belief in the world. So will mental health and addictions services in this country be ready to address the unique needs of these multicultural patients? A survey of the present landscape in 2008 tells us that we have a long, long way to go. Not only are mental health and addictions fields lacking in cultural competency, but there is little diversity in our leadership ranks. Top administrators and executives in behavioral health today are overwhelmingly non-Hispanic whites. This lack of cultural diversity among our leaders will lead to an ever-widening gap in the current chasm of racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare.

  2. Nutrition training improves health workers' nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-24

    Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers' nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers' child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.

  3. Health Literacy and Communication Quality in Health Care Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K.; Osborn, Chandra Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between limited health literacy and poor health may be due to poor communication quality within health care delivery organizations. We explored the relationship between health literacy status and receiving patient-centered communication in clinics and hospitals serving communication-vulnerable patient populations. Thirteen health care organizations nationwide distributed a survey to 5,929 patients. All patients completed seven items assessing patient-centered communication. One third also completed three items assessing health literacy. The majority of patients had self-reported health literacy challenges, reporting problems learning about their medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information (53%), a lack of confidence in completing medical forms by themselves (61%), and needing someone to help them read hospital/clinic materials (57%). Logistic regression models showed that, after adjustment for patient demographic characteristics and health care organization type, patients with limited health literacy were 28–79% less likely than those with adequate health literacy to report their health care organization “always” provides patient-centered communication across seven communication items. Using a scaled composite of these items, limited health literacy remained associated with lower reported communication quality. These results suggest that improving communication quality in health care organizations might help to address the challenges facing patients with limited health literacy. They also highlight that efforts to address the needs of patients with limited health literacy should be sensitive to the range of communication challenges confronting these patients and their caregivers. PMID:20845197

  4. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

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    Toni Meier

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10% of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR. This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1; salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3 and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion. Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  5. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  6. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

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    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  7. Building an evidence base for community health: a review of the quality of program evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Gwyn M; Lawless, Angela P; Baum, Fran E; Hurley, Catherine J; Fry, Denise

    2007-11-01

    An assessment of the quality of program evaluations conducted in South Australian community health services investigated how effective evaluation reporting is in producing an evidence base for community health. Evaluation reports were assessed by a team of reviewers. Practitioner workshops allowed an understanding of the uses of evaluation and what promotes or acts as a barrier to undertaking evaluations. Community health services do undertake a good deal of evaluation. However, reports were not generally explicit in dealing with the principles that underpin community health. Few engaged with program theory or rationale. Typically, reports were of short-term projects with uncertain futures so there may seem little point in considering issues of long-term health outcomes and transferability to other settings. The most important issue from our study is the lack of investment in applied health services research of the sort that will be required to produce the evidence for practice that policy makers desire. The current lack of evidence for community health reflects failure of the system to invest in research and evaluation that is adequately resourced and designed for complex community settings.

  8. Children's Lack of Playtime Seen as Troubling Health, School Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Teachers and parents are frequently warned that students in the United States are lacking the academic skills they need for the 21st century. But a growing contingent of educators, psychologists, and other professionals are voicing worries that today's children are also growing up without the chance to play. Test preparation in kindergarten,…

  9. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  10. The vocational education setting for health promotion: a survey of students' health risk behaviours and preferences for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Paul, Christine; Walsh, Raoul

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a time of risky health behaviour initiation and experimentation. Smoking, risky drinking, poor nutrition and physical activity, and a lack of sun protection behaviour, often become established in early adulthood. Levels of health risk behaviours occurring amongst tertiary education and training students and their preferences for types of on-campus health promotion programs were examined. A cross-sectional pen-and-paper classroom survey was conducted at one Sydney-based TAFE New South Wales Institute campus in May 2010. The survey assessed demographics, smoking, alcohol use, sun protection, nutrition, physical activity and health promotion program preferences. Two hundred and twenty-four students participated (97% consent); the majority were aged 16-24 years (59%) and female (51%). Current smoking (35%), risky drinking (49%) and inadequate physical activity (88%) rates were high. Adequate vegetable intake (3.6%) and sun protection behaviours (5.4%) were low and 33% of students were overweight or obese. Popular health promotion programs included food and activity subsidies, practical skills classes and social outings. Participation in health risk behaviours among this sample was high. The setting of tertiary education and workplace training represents an opportunity for early intervention into risky health behaviours among young people. SO WHAT?: This study is the first to provide information on the prevalence of health risk behaviours and preferences for types of health promoting programs among students of an Australian community college. The results show that young adults regularly participate in multiple health risk behaviours, such as smoking, drinking, poor nutrition, physical activity and lack of sun protection.

  11. Implementation of selective prevention for cardiometabolic diseases; are Dutch general practices adequately prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stol, Daphne M; Hollander, Monika; Nielen, Markus M J; Badenbroek, Ilse F; Schellevis, François G; de Wit, Niek J

    2018-03-01

    Current guidelines acknowledge the need for cardiometabolic disease (CMD) prevention and recommend five-yearly screening of a targeted population. In recent years programs for selective CMD-prevention have been developed, but implementation is challenging. The question arises if general practices are adequately prepared. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the organizational preparedness of Dutch general practices and the facilitators and barriers for performing CMD-prevention in practices currently implementing selective CMD-prevention. Observational study. Dutch primary care. General practices. Organizational characteristics. General practices implementing selective CMD-prevention are more often organized as a group practice (49% vs. 19%, p = .000) and are better organized regarding chronic disease management compared to reference practices. They are motivated for performing CMD-prevention and can be considered as 'frontrunners' of Dutch general practices with respect to their practice organization. The most important reported barriers are a limited availability of staff (59%) and inadequate funding (41%). The organizational infrastructure of Dutch general practices is considered adequate for performing most steps of selective CMD-prevention. Implementation of prevention programs including easily accessible lifestyle interventions needs attention. All stakeholders involved share the responsibility to realize structural funding for programmed CMD-prevention. Aforementioned conditions should be taken into account with respect to future implementation of selective CMD-prevention. Key Points   There is need for adequate CMD prevention. Little is known about the organization of selective CMD prevention in general practices.   • The organizational infrastructure of Dutch general practices is adequate for performing most steps of selective CMD prevention.   • Implementation of selective CMD prevention programs including easily accessible

  12. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen’s Lack of Compliance with the United States’ Emission Standards

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    Lifang Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx. We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA’s Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles’ lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S. population.

  13. [Lack of neonatologists: vocational crisis or mistaken policies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justich, Pablo R

    2012-10-01

    In Argentina, the difficulty in covering neonatologist's positions represent an increasing problem. The absence of a coordinated and organized health system on one hand, and the lack of adaptation of the neonatologist's role to the current situation of the maternal and child care on the other, prevent the correct assistential coverage. The inadequate work conditions, the professional risks, the wide amount of time devoted to formation and studying, and the lack of knowledge of the professionals necessities and difficulties have a negative impact when it comes to incorporate new specialists. A global approach of the problem is essential to reach enduring answers.

  14. E-mentoring in public health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F

    2008-09-01

    Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency isolation, and busy schedules.

  15. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for NMVC...

  16. Health Literacy and Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented links between low health literacy, low rates of health insurance coverage, and poor health outcomes, there has been almost no research on the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported access to care. This study analyzed a large, nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults ages 50 and older to estimate the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported difficulty obtaining care. We found that individuals with low health literacy were significantly more likely than individuals with adequate health literacy to delay or forego needed care or to report difficulty finding a provider, even after controlling for other factors including health insurance coverage, employment, race/ethnicity, poverty, and general cognitive function. They were also more likely to lack a usual source of care, although this result was only marginally significant after controlling for other factors. The results show that in addition to any obstacles that low health literacy creates within the context of the clinical encounter, low health literacy also reduces the probability that people get in the door of the health care system in a timely way. PMID:27043757

  17. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

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    Peipins Lucy A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.

  18. Improving children's access to health care: the role of decategorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D C; Halfon, N; Brindis, C D; Newacheck, P W

    1996-01-01

    Far too many children in this country are unable to obtain the health care they need because of barriers that prohibit easy access. Among the most significant obstacles are financial barriers, including lack of adequate health insurance and inadequate funding of programs for low-income children and those with special health-care needs. Another set of "non-financial" barriers are related to the categorical nature of addressing children's health-care needs, which impedes access by increasing the complexity and burden of seeking care and discourages providers from providing care. Decategorization represents an appealing partial remedy to these problems because it can lead to fundamental and lasting changes in financing and delivering health services. The greatest appeal of decategorization is its potential to improve access to care with the expenditure of little or no new funds. Decategorization also holds considerable risk. Depending on how it is designed and implemented, decategorization may lead to diminished access to care by serving as a foil for budget cuts or by undermining essential standards of care. However, these risks do not negate the value of exploring decategorization as an approach that can be taken today to better organize services and ensure that existing resources adequately meet children's needs. In this report we examine the role of decategorization as a mechanism for removing the barriers to care that are created by categorical funding of health programs.

  19. Constitutional guarantees generate negative externalities for the brazilian health system

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    Sandra Mara Campos Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in 27 Brazilian courts of law. We aimed to know the legal demands on health and the arguments made by the patient, the defense, and the judge in judicial hearings. For this, we used the method of case law research. The research unit was Brazilian judicial processes with the material object of health demands, decided between 2012 and 2013. The results showed reliance on constitutional arguments for both the request and the decision, while the defense was based on diverse and obsolete legal points. It was concluded that judges have decided questions about health using purely legal arguments and reproducing points made by the patient. The defense of the Brazilian health system is fragile due to the lack of an adequate legal rationale.

  20. A cross-sectional study of parental awareness of and reasons for lack of health insurance among minority children, and the impact on health, access to care, and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Lin, Hua; Walker, Candy; Lee, Michael; Portillo, Alberto; Henry, Monica; Fierro, Marco; Massey, Kenneth

    2016-03-22

    Minority children have the highest US uninsurance rates; Latino and African-American children account for 53 % of uninsured American children, despite comprising only 48 % of the total US child population. The study aim was to examine parental awareness of and the reasons for lacking health insurance in Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children, and the impact of the children's uninsurance on health, access to care, unmet needs, and family financial burden. For this cross-sectional study, a consecutive series of uninsured, Medicaid/CHIP-eligible Latino and African-American children was recruited at 97 urban Texas community sites, including supermarkets, health fairs, and schools. Measures/outcomes were assessed using validated instruments, and included sociodemographic characteristics, uninsurance duration, reasons for the child being uninsured, health status, special healthcare needs, access to medical and dental care, unmet needs, use of health services, quality of care, satisfaction with care, out-of-pocket costs of care, and financial burden. The mean time uninsured for the 267 participants was 14 months; 5 % had never been insured. The most common reason for insurance loss was expired and never reapplied (30 %), and for never being insured, high insurance costs. Only 49 % of parents were aware that their uninsured child was Medicaid/CHIP eligible. Thirty-eight percent of children had suboptimal health, and 2/3 had special healthcare needs, but 64 % have no primary-care provider; 83 % of parents worry about their child's health more than others. Unmet healthcare needs include: healthcare, 73 %; mental healthcare, 70 %; mobility aids/devices, 67 %; dental, 61 %; specialty care, 57 %; and vision, 46 %. Due to the child's health, 35 % of parents had financial problems, 23 % cut work hours, and 10 % ceased work. Higher proportions of Latinos lack primary-care providers, and higher proportions of African-Americans experience family financial burden. Half of parents

  1. Nurses' knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorwe-Sungani, G

    2013-09-01

    Nurses are the majority of health-care professionals who frequently come in contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, most health workers such as nurses lack competence and confidence in dealing with the mental health problems (MHPs) of their clients in Malawi. The study aimed at exploring nurses' levels of knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to PLWHA. The study used a descriptive quantitative survey design. Ethical approval and permission were granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. A convenient sample of 109 nurses was used. They gave written consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics namely: means, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse data. The findings suggest that nurses who care for PLWHA lack knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs of these people. Many participants (53.2%, n = 58) lacked knowledge and skills to care for PLWHA who have MHPs. Nurses are potentially essential human resource for dealing with MHPs of PLWHA in Malawi. Unfortunately, some nurses lack the necessary knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs. Nurses must be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills so that they are able to deal with MHPs of PLWHA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  3. Hypochondriasis between health and psychosis

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    Starčević Vladan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lack of clarity in the conceptualisation of hypochondriasis, it is not surprising that the concept is quite heterogeneous and that there are dilemmas in terms of what is encompassed by hypochondriasis and where its boundaries are. Therefore, the aim of this review paper was to contribute towards a more coherent view on hypochondriasis, which would also allow its more adequate classification. The essential features of hypochondriasis were identified as an overvalued idea about the presence of disease, fear that the person has already become seriously ill, reassurance-seeking and other forms of health checking, and disturbances in the perception of bodily sensations and symptoms. These four aspects of hypochondriasis can be assessed dimensionally to ascertain to what extent they characterise each patient. Suggestions have been made to delineate more precisely hypochondriasis from health anxiety, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, other somatoform disorders, personality disorders, depression, and delusional disorder with disease-related delusions. In the absence of better alternatives, hypochondriasis should continue to be classified among the somatoform disorders. In order to improve communication between clinicians and reduce conceptual heterogeneity, the term 'hypochondriasis' should be used to refer only to primary hypochondriasis. The pressure to abandon this term should be resisted until an adequate substitution for it has been found.

  4. Mental health work in school health services and school nurses' involvement and attitudes, in a Norwegian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skundberg-Kletthagen, Hege; Moen, Øyfrid Larsen

    2017-12-01

    To explore school nurses' experiences with and attitudes towards working with young people with mental health problem in the school health services. Worldwide, 10%-20% of children and adolescents are affected by mental health problems. When these occur during youth, they constitute a considerable burden and are one of the main causes of disability among adolescents. School nurses are at the forefront of care for children and adolescents, identifying pupils struggling with physical, mental, psychosocial or emotional issues. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on open-ended questions in a cross-sectional study of 284 school nurses in Norway. Inclusion criteria were as follows: working as a school nurse in the school health services with children and adolescents between the ages of 11-18 years. A qualitative inductive content analysis was conducted. Three generic categories emerged: perception of their role and experiences with mental health: the school nurses acknowledge their important role in work with adolescents focusing on their mental health. Perception of their professional competence: the school nurses described a lack of confidence and unmet training needs concerning mental health problems. Experiences with collaboration: the school nurses requested more knowledge about inter- and multidisciplinary cooperation regarding follow-up of pupils with mental health problems. The school nurses lacked knowledge and confidence in respect of working with children and adolescents suffering from mental health problems. This may be a barrier to giving pupils adequate aid. Nurses need to acquire more knowledge about mental health problems among children and adolescents as this is a growing public health issue. Educational programmes for school nurses need to be revised to achieve this. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Being active supports client control over health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Barb; Nay, Rhonda

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how healthcare clients achieve and maintain a sense of control over their health. The literature review conducted refers to: (i) key definitions of control, (ii) locus of control, and (iii) control and wellbeing. Participants with a range of acute and chronic health conditions and who had been hospitalised at some point were selected for the study. Symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) and modified grounded theory of Strauss & Corbin (1998) provided the frameworks for this study. During the six month study period, data were collected from sixty participants and included interviews, participant observation, reviewing participants' records (nursing care plans, nursing notes and case histories), the nursing units' philosophy, organisational charts, policies and procedures, annual reports, consumer brochures and any other relevant information sources. Findings from the study indicated that participants moved from feeling vulnerable to having a sense of control through to being purposefully active. Vulnerability was associated with: (i) having limited choices in respect to their health, (ii) lacking adequate health information to make choices, (iii) being ignored by health providers with respect to their needs, and (iv) lacking friend/family supports. Purposefully activating was associated with three major categories: (i) reflecting, (ii) being self-determiningly involved and (iii) normalising. Findings from this study could be used by health care clients who want a sense of control over their health care, and also by health care providers who wish to support clients in the healthcare process.

  6. Facilitators of and Barriers to mHealth Adoption in Older Adults With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Hodgson, Nancy A; Lam, Katherine Wai; Yoo, Sera; Han, Hae-Ra

    2018-05-04

    The purpose of this descriptive, exploratory study was to assess the perceptions of older adults with heart failure regarding the use of mobile technology and to identify potential facilitators of and barriers to mHealth adoption. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that older adults do not base their intention to use mHealth solely on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, as outlined in the Technology Acceptance Model. The following themes emerged from the content analysis: facilitators included previous experience with mobile technology, willingness to learn mHealth, ease of use, presence of useful features, adequate training, free equipment, and doctor's recommendation; barriers included lack of knowledge regarding how to use mHealth, decreased sensory perception, lack of need for technology, poorly designed interface, cost of technology, and limited/fixed income. Overall, the findings suggest that older adults are willing to use mobile health technology, albeit with reservations. Future researchers who seek to implement mHealth-based interventions should address person-related, technology-related, and contextual barriers, and simultaneously capitalize on the influence of potential facilitators, such as a physician's recommendation, to promote mHealth adoption.

  7. Lack of adequate appreciation of physical exercise's complexities can pre-empt appropriate design and interpretation in scientific discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F W; Laye, M J

    2009-01-01

    Two major issues are presented. First, a challenge is made by us that a misunderstanding of physiology has led to incomplete or wrong functional designations of genes in some cases. Normal physiological processes are dynamic, integrated and periodic, and, therefore, it is difficult to define normal physiological function by looking at a single time point or single process in a non-stressed subject. The ability of the organism to successfully respond to homeostatic disruptions defines normal physiology. Genes were selected for survival and to appropriately respond to stresses, such as physical activity. Omitting gene functions by restricting them to non-stressful conditions could lead to less than optimal primary preventions, treatments and cures for diseases. Physical exercise, as a stressor, should be used to better demonstrate the complete functional classifications of some genes. Second, the challenge from others of an ‘exercise pill’ as a mimetic of natural physical activity will be shown to be lacking a scientific basis. The concept of an ‘exercise pill’/‘exercise mimetic’ demonstrates an inadequate appreciation of the complexities in integrating cell, tissue, organ and systems during both acute disruptions in homeostasis by a single bout of exercise, and longer-term chronic adaptations to different types of exercise such as resistance and endurance. It is our opinion that those promoting drugs targeting a single or few molecules should not redefine the term ‘exercise’ and exercise concepts in an attempt to sensationalize findings. Additionally, the scientific criteria that the authors demand to be met to legitimately use the terms ‘exercise pill’ and ‘exercise mimetic’ are presented. PMID:19723782

  8. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  9. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  10. Perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers and their families: implications for health, safety and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable group due to their low socioeconomic status, risk of occupational exposures and injury, lack of social mobility, lack of adequate access to health services and dependency on employer for provided housing. Previous reports have documented migrant farmworker housing conditions to be variable, but poor overall. This paper explores the perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in rural North Carolina, and develops an understanding of potential impacts of their housing on health and safety. This study used qualitative descriptive data and directed content analysis to analyse semi-structured interviews and photographs that were data elements of a larger community-based participatory research study designed to document housing quality and health among North Carolina farmworkers. Many of the study participants described poor housing conditions that were reflected in the photographic analysis of the houses and camps. Specific problems described by the participants include exposure to pesticides, safety issues, pests, water supply and air quality, temperature and moisture. This study describes migrant farmworkers' perceptions of housing quality and numerous potential impacts on health and safety. Research, social policy and practice-based implications derived from this research could serve to improve the health status of these individuals and their families. This study suggests there is much room for sustained advocacy and action, given that many of the farmworkers' descriptions and photographs depicted housing conditions below accepted standards of living. Access to adequate and safe employer-provided housing for migrant farmworkers should be considered a basic human right.

  11. Implementation of information and communication technologies for health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheik Mohammed Shariful; Tabassum, Reshman

    2015-11-01

    Bangladesh has yet to develop a fully integrated health information system infrastructure that is critical to guiding policy development and planning. Initial pilot telemedicine and eHealth programmes were not coordinated at national level. However, in 2011, a national eHealth policy was implemented. Bangladesh has made substantial improvements to its health system. However, the country still faces public health challenges with limited and inequitable access to health services and lack of adequate resources to meet the demands of the population. In 2008, eHealth services were introduced, including computerization of health facilities at sub-district levels, internet connections, internet servers and an mHealth service for communicating with health-care providers. Health facilities at sub-district levels were provided with internet connections and servers. In 482 upazila health complexes and district hospitals, an mHealth service was set-up where an on-duty doctor is available for patients at all hours to provide consultations by mobile phone. A government operated telemedicine service was initiated and by 2014, 43 fully equipped centres were in service. These centres provide medical consultations by qualified physicians to patients visiting rural and remote community clinics and union health centres. Despite early pilot interventions and successful implementation, progress in adopting eHealth strategies in Bangladesh has been slow. There is a lack of common standards on information technology for health, which causes difficulties in data management and sharing among different databases. Limited internet bandwidth and the high cost of infrastructure and software development are barriers to adoption of these technologies.

  12. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  13. What is eHealth (6)? Development of a Conceptual Model for eHealth: Qualitative Study with Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Tim; McGregor, Deborah; Brunner, Melissa; Keep, Melanie; Janssen, Anna; Barnet, Stewart

    2017-10-24

    Despite rapid growth in eHealth research, there remains a lack of consistency in defining and using terms related to eHealth. More widely cited definitions provide broad understanding of eHealth but lack sufficient conceptual clarity to operationalize eHealth and enable its implementation in health care practice, research, education, and policy. Definitions that are more detailed are often context or discipline specific, limiting ease of translation of these definitions across the breadth of eHealth perspectives and situations. A conceptual model of eHealth that adequately captures its complexity and potential overlaps is required. This model must also be sufficiently detailed to enable eHealth operationalization and hypothesis testing. This study aimed to develop a conceptual practice-based model of eHealth to support health professionals in applying eHealth to their particular professional or discipline contexts. We conducted semistructured interviews with key informants (N=25) from organizations involved in health care delivery, research, education, practice, governance, and policy to explore their perspectives on and experiences with eHealth. We used purposeful sampling for maximum diversity. Interviews were coded and thematically analyzed for emergent domains. Thematic analyses revealed 3 prominent but overlapping domains of eHealth: (1) health in our hands (using eHealth technologies to monitor, track, and inform health), (2) interacting for health (using digital technologies to enable health communication among practitioners and between health professionals and clients or patients), and (3) data enabling health (collecting, managing, and using health data). These domains formed a model of eHealth that addresses the need for clear definitions and a taxonomy of eHealth while acknowledging the fluidity of this area and the strengths of initiatives that span multiple eHealth domains. This model extends current understanding of eHealth by providing clearly

  14. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Zobel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5 of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems.

  15. Reforming "developing" health systems: Tanzania, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Martinez, Gabriel; Aguilera, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Tanzania, Mexico, and the United States are at vastly different points on the economic development scale. Yet, their health systems can be classified as "developing": they do not live up to their potential, considering the resources available to them. The three, representing many others, share a common structural deficiency: a segregated health care system that cannot achieve its basic goals, the optimal health of its people, and their possible satisfaction with the system. Segregation follows and signifies first and foremost the lack of financial integration in the system that prevents it from serving its goals through the objectives of equity, cost containment and sustainability, efficient production of care and health, and choice. The chapter contrasts the nature of the developing health care system with the common goals', objectives, and principles of the Emerging Paradigm (EP) in developed, integrated--yet decentralized--systems. In this context, the developing health care system is defined by its structural deficiencies, and reform proposals are outlined. In spite of the vast differences amongst the three countries, their health care systems share strikingly similar features. At least 50% of their total funding sources are private. The systems comprise exclusive vertically integrated, yet segregated, "silos" that handle all systemic functions. These reflect and promote wide variations in health insurance coverage and levels of benefits--substantial portions of their populations are without adequate coverage altogether; a considerable lack of income protection from medical spending; an inability to formalize and follow a coherent health policy; a lack of financial discipline that threatens sustainability and overall efficiency; inefficient production of care and health; and an dissatisfied population. These features are often promoted by the state, using tax money, and donors. The situation can be rectified by (a) "centralizing"--at any level of development

  16. Ohio study shows that insurance coverage is critical for children with special health care needs as they transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C

    2011-12-01

    Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.

  17. Satisfaction of health-care providers with electronic health records and perceived barriers to its implementation in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Issa, Wegdan; Al Yateem, Nabeel; Al Makhzoomy, Ibtihal Khalaf; Ibrahim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The integration of electronic health records (EHRs) has shown promise in improving health-care quality. In the United Arab Emirates, EHRs have been recently adopted to improve the quality and safety of patient care. A cross-sectional survey of 680 health-care providers (HCPs) was conducted to assess the satisfaction of HCPs in the United Arab Emirates with EHRs' impact on access/viewing, documentation and medication administration and to explore the barriers encountered in their use. Data were collected over 6 months from April to September 2014. High overall satisfaction with EHRs was reported by HCPs, suggesting their acceptance. Physicians reported the greatest overall satisfaction with EHRs, although nurses showed significantly higher satisfaction with the impact on medication administration compared with other HCPs. The most significant barriers reported by nurses were lack of belief in the value of EHRs for patients and lack of adequate computer skills. Given the large investment in technology, additional research is necessary to promote the full utilization of EHRs. Nurses need to be aware of the value of EHRs for patient care and be involved in all stages of EHR implementations to maximize its meaningful use for better clinical outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Recruitment and retention of mental health workers in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jack

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. METHODS: We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. RESULTS: Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1 desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2 positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3 intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4 good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1 lack of resources at the hospital, 2 a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3 lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4 few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work

  19. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Hastrup, Janice L; Bauer, Joseph E; Bansal, Maansi A

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed smokers' beliefs about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of smoking filtered and low-tar cigarettes, and their awareness of and interest in trying so-called reduced-risk tobacco products. Results were based on a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult (aged 18 years or older) current cigarette smokers. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and use of nicotine medications, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, content of smoke and design features of cigarettes, and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. In addition, respondents were asked about their interest in and perceived ability to stop smoking and about their desire for more information about the health risks of smoking. Smokers were least knowledgeable about low-tar and filter cigarettes (65% of responses were incorrect or "don't know") and most knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking (39% of responses were incorrect or "don't know"). The smokers' characteristics most commonly associated with misinformation when all six indices were combined into a summary index were as follows: those aged 45 years or older, smokers of ultralight cigarettes, smokers who believe they will stop smoking before they experience a serious health problem caused by smoking, smokers who have never used a stop-smoking medication, and smokers with a lower education level. Those who believed they would stop smoking in the next year were more knowledgeable about smoking. Some 77% of respondents reported a desire for additional information from tobacco companies on the health dangers of smoking. The present findings demonstrate that smokers are misinformed about many aspects of the cigarettes they smoke and stop-smoking medications and that they want more information about ways to reduce their health risks.

  20. Exploring barriers to and enablers of adequate healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer: a scoping review drawing on evidence from Australia, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Jessica; Reilly, Rachel; Yerrell, Paul; Stajic, Janet; Micklem, Jasmine; Morey, Kim; Brown, Alex

    International frameworks supported by national principles in Australia stipulate that prisoners should be provided with health services equivalent to those provided in the general community. However, a number of barriers unique to the prison system may hinder the provision of equitable healthcare for this population. In Australia, Indigenous people carry a greater burden of cancer mortality, which the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) project is seeking to address. During the course of recruiting participants to the CanDAD study, Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer emerged as an important, under-researched but difficult to access sub-group. This scoping review sought to identify barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer in Australia. This review demonstrated a lack of research and, as such, the scoping review was extended to prisoners with cancer in Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada. This approach was taken in order to summarise the existing body of evidence regarding the barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for those who are incarcerated and suffering from cancer, and highlight areas that may require further investigation. Eight studies or commentaries were found to meet the inclusion criteria. This limited set of findings pointed to a range of possible barriers faced by prisoners with cancer, including a tension between the prisons' concern with security versus the need for timely access to medical care. Findings identified here offer potential starting points for research and policy development. Further research is needed to better elucidate how barriers to adequate cancer care for prisoners may be identified and overcome, in Australia and internationally. Furthermore, given Indigenous Australians' over-burden of cancer mortality and over-representation in the prison system, further research is needed to

  1. Oral Health Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Pregnancy Gingivitis and Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Ma, K N; Wong, Y S; So, Y; Lee, P C; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries remain prevalent in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge and beliefs related to pregnancy gingivitis and children's oral health. An outreach survey was carried out in a clinic that provided antenatal examination. A written oral health questionnaire related to pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries was administered to pregnant women. Of the 106 pregnant women who enrolled in the study, 100 completed the questionnaires. Among the 100 subjects, only 39% correctly identified that hormonal changes contribute to pregnancy gingivitis. Only 36% identified red and swollen gums as signs of gingivitis. Furthermore, 53% of the surveyed pregnant women were not sure about the amount of toothpaste to administer to a child aged 18 months to 5 years. Almost 50% assumed that a replanted avulsed tooth would probably not survive within a short extra-alveolar period of less than 60 minutes. Prenatal women generally lack knowledge of a common oral disease that occurs during pregnancy and of what constitutes adequate oral health care for children. Oral health care education should be implemented as part of a prenatal care program.

  2. [Team cohesiveness: opinions of a group of primary health care professionals from Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F J; de Cabo, A; Morán, M J; Manzano, J M

    1993-04-01

    To assess the view of a group of Primary care professionals on their level of perception of group cohesiveness in their teams' work dynamic. A descriptive and sectional study. Four urban health centres in Salamanca with a recognised teaching activity. Both health professionals and those outside the Health Service, working in Primary Care, who had been members of their teams for more than a year (N = 90). Descriptive statistics and "Chi squared" tests were employed. 72%. A high level of agreement on the need for team work (95.23%). They perceived their group cohesiveness as being very low (84.21% affirmed that they encounter problems of cohesiveness). The main statements concerning this lack of cohesiveness were: "lack of common objectives" (25.5%), "intolerance between workers" (20.13%), "work not shared" (19.46%) and "the taking of decisions individually" (19.44%). The main causes given were: lack of support from Management (23.74%) and too little training for team work (21.58%). There is a high degree of conviction that the team work model is the most efficacious way of developing Primary Care. However in three of the four teams questioned, there were serious problems preventing the teams' reaching an adequate level of group cohesiveness.

  3. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  4. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145

  5. Political priority of global oral health: an analysis of reasons for international neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Hobdell, Martin; Holmgren, Christopher; Yee, Robert; Monse, Bella; Barnard, Johannes T; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2011-06-01

    Global Oral Health suffers from a lack of political attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper analyses the reasons for this political neglect through the lens of four areas of political power: the power of the ideas, the power of the issue, the power of the actors, and the power of the political context (using a modified Political Power Framework by Shiffman and Smith. Lancet370 [2007] 1370). The analysis reveals that political priority for global oral health is low, resulting from a set of complex issues deeply rooted in the current global oral health sector, its stakeholders and their remit, the lack of coherence and coalescence; as well as the lack of agreement on the problem, its portrayal and possible solutions. The shortcomings and weaknesses demonstrated in the analysis range from rather basic matters, such as defining the issue in an agreed way, to complex and multi-levelled issues concerning appropriate data collection and agreement on adequate solutions. The political priority of Global Oral Health can only be improved by addressing the underlying reasons that resulted in the wide disconnection between the international health discourse and the small sector of Global Oral Health. We hope that this analysis may serve as a starting point for a long overdue, broad and candid international analysis of political, social, cultural, communication, financial and other factors related to better prioritisation of oral health. Without such an analysis and the resulting concerted action the inequities in Global Oral Health will grow and increasingly impact on health systems, development and, most importantly, human lives. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Circumpolar Inuit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Leanna; O'Keeffe, Annmaree

    2013-01-01

    collection. Despite the variations in the health systems as well as national, political and economic approaches, none is adequately addressing Inuit health needs. All Inuit populations still have significant gaps between their health status and those of broader national populations. Meaningful measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of the respective health systems is severely hindered by the lack of relevant, Inuit-specific health data. The inadequacy, and in a number of cases absence of relevant data, hinders the design and development of a better and potentially more effective approach to delivering health services to Inuit.

  7. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-15

    Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  8. Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  9. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Tejaswi, B; Kalavathi, M; Vatsala, G M; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    patient and doctors' perspectives regarding GH screening. The results from our study indicate several issues during screening of gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. These included low awareness levels among doctors, lack of standard operating procedures and lack of adequate care and attention provided to pregnant women. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors within public health facilities can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning and preparation of the patient prior to the tests can help ensure successful completion of the tests. The findings of the study are comparable with the practices of public health hospitals in India.

  10. Women's health: beyond reproductive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Ananya Ray

    2011-01-01

    With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care.

  11. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis and its associated factors in the rural school students of Kalaleh, in the academic year 1392-93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Noori

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Pediculosis is still a public health problem in communities with poor life and health facilities. High prevalence of this issue among school students may be linked to factors such as lack of health educators in school and lack of adequate attention to personal hygiene.

  12. Reports on boys', youth's and men's health in Canadian newspapers: Now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Margareth Santos; Byam, Aaron Andrew; Solomon, Donna; Jalili, Katayoon; Haag, Carlos; Tallarico, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background: This media content analysis explored the Canadian newspapers reporting on men's health, and their contribution to public understanding of the social determinants of men's health and lifestyles. Methods: A media content analysis of 44 news articles on boys', youth's and men's health,published from 2010 to 2014 by three national newspapers (The Globe and Mail, National Post,and Metro News). Results: Data indicated that the predominant discourse consists of informative and awareness messages, mostly about men's prostate and sexual health. Very little health news content referred to working conditions, education and income, all of which are significant social determinants of health (SDH). This may reflect the current state of health research, which does not adequately incorporate the effects of these determinants. It may also indicate a reproduction of dominant health knowledge and understanding of masculinity. Little content was found on policy solutions to other publicized health issues, such as limited access to health services or inter-sectoral collaborations; this reflects a lack of government action and a lack of citizen engagement toward the creation of a concerted men's health policy. Conclusion: Despite the acknowledged importance of the media in promoting access to health information and indirectly contributing to improve the general public's level of health literacy, it is also necessary to remember that there must be a greater attention to the structural constraints imposed by socioeconomic inequalities. Future studies should explore media discourses about men's unequal access to health care services and citizens' awareness of ways to overcome those inequalities shortcomings.

  13. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the Adequate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information to make their input in the patient's management.[1]. Some errors in ... to insufficient, and/or illegible clinical information provided ... Adequate Completion of Laboratory Test Request. Forms at a ..... the system prior to the posttest.

  14. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-02-15

    Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  15. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Zarami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries.

  16. Microeconomic principles in the health sector: The demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health has become a dominant economic and political issue over the past years, where many nations experience rapid rises in health care spending. The main reason why the health care sector does not operate entirely in accordance with economic market principles is the fact that inequalities in health and access to health care are understood as the lack of humanity and justice. Health care demands might seem as quite inelastic, but because of the health insurance, it shows a certain degree of price, income, cross - price and time elasticity. The subject of this study was the demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia in order to assess the ability of the public sector to meet the demand for providing these services. The underlying assumption was that public health can not adequately meet the needs of citizens due to insufficient investment in the sector and inefficient allocation of resources. To confirm this assumption, basic characteristics of health care market and the factors affecting the supply and demand for health services were discussed. Based on the analysis of investment in the health sector, the existing capacity and organization of health services, our research has shown that the public health system in the Republic of Serbia is not able to adequately meet the demand for health services. In the current economic situation in the Republic of Serbia, which already spends a significant portion of its GDP on health, there is no realistic possibility of increased spending on public health care system, although it can be expected that there will be increasing demand for health services and increase of costs. The health sector is not, and does not have the ability to be a perfectly competitive market, and the questions of its financing, rational and efficient organization is extremely delicate. However, health care economists and experts in health economics should give a significantly higher contribution in organizing health sector

  17. Are breast biopsies adequately funded? A process cost and revenue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, M.; Fischbach, E.; Fehm, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether the various breast biopsy procedures specified in the S 3 guidelines are sensibly represented within the current German health system as considered from a cost evaluation perspective. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed multicenter study analyzed 221 breast biopsies at 7 institutions from 04/2006 to 01/2007. Core needle biopsies, vacuum-assisted biopsies and surgical open biopsies under sonographic or mammographic guidance were evaluated. During an analysis of process costs, the individual process steps were recorded in diagrammatic form and assigned to the true consumption of resources. The actual resource consumption costs were entered. A process-related breakeven analysis was conducted to check whether the reimbursement of individual biopsy types covers the costs. Results: Only sonographically guided core needle biopsy and surgical open biopsy are adequately reimbursed in the current German health system. All other breast biopsies indicate a negative profit margin. The principal reasons for underfunding are found in the area of reimbursement of investment and non-personnel costs. Conclusion: The reimbursement of breast biopsies must be improved in order to guarantee nationwide care of the population using the breast biopsy methods recommended in the S 3 guidelines and to avoid disincentives with respect to breast biopsy indications. (orig.)

  18. Environmental conditions in health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries: Coverage and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage. Data from monitoring reports and peer-reviewed literature were systematically compiled; and information on conditions, service levels, and inequalities tabulated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with low coverage. Data for 21 indicators of environmental conditions and standard precaution items were compiled from 78 LMICs which were representative of 129,557 HCFs. 50% of HCFs lack piped water, 33% lack improved sanitation, 39% lack handwashing soap, 39% lack adequate infectious waste disposal, 73% lack sterilization equipment, and 59% lack reliable energy services. Using nationally representative data from six countries, 2% of HCFs provide all four of water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management services. Statistically significant inequalities in coverage exist between HCFs by: urban-rural setting, managing authority, facility type, and sub-national administrative unit. We identified important, previously undocumented inequalities and environmental health challenges faced by HCFs in LMICs. The information and analyses provide evidence for those engaged in improving HCF conditions to develop evidence-based policies and efficient programs, enhance service delivery systems, and make better use of available resources. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. "It makes us really look inferior to outsiders": Coping with psychosocial experiences associated with the lack of access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2017-11-09

    This paper explores daily experiences and coping resources related to the lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya. A qualitative approach that involved 10 focus group discussions and 9 key informant interviews with community leaders, volunteers and professionals was used to explore the research objectives. Data were collected from June to August 2013. Daily practices and experiences around water and sanitation, such as water collection, open defecation and shared toilets, were a major concern to residents. In the absence of safe water, residents used social networks and support, financial resources and the nearby Lake Victoria as coping resources. Findings from this study are important for mobilizing resources in vulnerable settings as a first step towards designing community-based interventions. For public health practice, practitioners must work with - and collaborate across - sectors to enhance and strengthen social networks and cohesion, and protect the natural environment while working toward addressing water-related challenges in deprived settings.

  20. Workforce capacity to address obesity: a Western Australian cross-sectional study identifies the gap between health priority and human resources needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Andrea; Pollard, Christina Mary

    2016-08-25

    The disease burden due to poor nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity is high and increasing. An adequately sized and skilled workforce is required to respond to this issue. This study describes the public health nutrition and physical activity (NAPA) practice priorities and explores health managers and practitioner's beliefs regarding workforce capacity to deliver on these priorities. A workforce audit was conducted including a telephone survey of all managers and a postal survey of practitioners working in the area of NAPA promotion in Western Australia in 2004. Managers gave their perspective on workforce priorities, current competencies and future needs, with a 70 % response rate. Practitioners reported on public health workforce priorities, qualifications and needs, with a 56 % response rate. The top practice priorities for managers were diabetes (35 %), alcohol and other drugs (33 %), and cardiovascular disease (27 %). Obesity (19 %), poor nutrition (15 %) and inadequate physical activity (10 %) were of lower priority. For nutrition, managers identified lack of staff (60.4 %), organisational and management factors (39.5 %) and insufficient financial resources (30.2 %) as the major barriers to adequate service delivery. For physical activity services, insufficient financial resources (41.7 %) and staffing (35.4 %) and a lack of specific physical activity service specifications (25.0 %) were the main barriers. Practitioners identified inadequate staffing as the main barrier to service delivery for nutrition (42.3 %) and physical activity (23.3 %). Ideally, managers said they required 152 % more specialist nutritionists in the workforce and 131 % specialists for physical activity services to meet health outcomes in addition to other generalist staff. Human and financial resources and organisational factors were the main barriers to meeting obesity, and public health nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Services were being delivered by

  1. Child malnutrition and mortality among families not utilizing adequately iodized salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Hess, Sonja Y; Sun, Kai; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-02-01

    Salt iodization is the main strategy for reducing iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. Characteristics of families not using iodized salt need to be known to expand coverage. The objective was to determine whether families who do not use iodized salt have a higher prevalence of child malnutrition and mortality and to identify factors associated with not using iodized salt. Use of adequately iodized salt (>or =30 ppm), measured by rapid test kits, was assessed between January 1999 and September 2003 in 145 522 and 445 546 families in urban slums and rural areas, respectively, in Indonesia. Adequately iodized salt was used by 66.6% and 67.2% of families from urban slums and rural areas, respectively. Among families who used adequately iodized salt, mortality in neonates, infants, and children aged urban slums; among families who did not use adequately iodized salt, the respective values were 4.2% compared with 6.3%, 7.1% compared with 11.2%, and 8.5% compared with 13.3% (P rural areas. Families not using adequately iodized salt were more likely to have children who were stunted, underweight, and wasted. In multivariate analyses that controlled for potential confounders, low maternal education was the strongest factor associated with not using adequately iodized salt. In Indonesia, nonuse of adequately iodized salt is associated with a higher prevalence of child malnutrition and mortality in neonates, infants, and children aged <5 y. Stronger efforts are needed to expand salt iodization in Indonesia.

  2. Can the research community respond adequately to the health risks of vaping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Vaping of substances, primarily tobacco and cannabis at present, is increasing. The tobacco industry has committed billions of dollars into the development of vaporizing techniques. Can the international public health research community improve the coordination of scientific and timely research for policy development to address vaping?

  3. Circumpolar Inuit health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna Ellsworth

    2013-08-01

    comparison in terms of methodology and timing of the available data collection. Conclusions . Despite the variations in the health systems as well as national, political and economic approaches, none is adequately addressing Inuit health needs. All Inuit populations still have significant gaps between their health status and those of broader national populations. Meaningful measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of the respective health systems is severely hindered by the lack of relevant, Inuit-specific health data. The inadequacy, and in a number of cases absence of relevant data, hinders the design and development of a better and potentially more effective approach to delivering health services to Inuit.

  4. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods: Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results: Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions: In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  5. [Endorsement of risk management and patient safety by certification of conformity in health care quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waßmuth, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Certification of conformity in health care should provide assurance of compliance with quality standards. This also includes risk management and patient safety. Based on a comprehensive definition of quality, beneficial effects on the management of risks and the enhancement of patient safety can be expected from certification of conformity. While these effects have strong face validity, they are currently not sufficiently supported by evidence from health care research. Whether this relates to a lack of evidence or a lack of investigation remains open. Advancing safety culture and "climate", as well as learning from adverse events rely in part on quality management and are at least in part reflected in the certification of healthcare quality. However, again, evidence of the effectiveness of such measures is limited. Moreover, additional factors related to personality, attitude and proactive action of healthcare professionals are crucial factors in advancing risk management and patient safety which are currently not adequately reflected in certification of conformity programs.

  6. Reports on boys’, youth’s and men’s health in Canadian newspapers: Now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Santos Zanchetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This media content analysis explored the Canadian newspapers reporting on men's health, and their contribution to public understanding of the social determinants of men’s health and lifestyles. Methods: A media content analysis of 44 news articles on boys’, youth’s and men’s health,published from 2010 to 2014 by three national newspapers (The Globe and Mail, National Post,and Metro News. Results: Data indicated that the predominant discourse consists of informative and awareness messages, mostly about men’s prostate and sexual health. Very little health news content referred to working conditions, education and income, all of which are significant social determinants of health (SDH. This may reflect the current state of health research, which does not adequately incorporate the effects of these determinants. It may also indicate a reproduction of dominant health knowledge and understanding of masculinity. Little content was found on policy solutions to other publicized health issues, such as limited access to health services or inter-sectoral collaborations; this reflects a lack of government action and a lack of citizen engagement toward the creation of a concerted men’s health policy. Conclusion: Despite the acknowledged importance of the media in promoting access to health information and indirectly contributing to improve the general public’s level of health literacy, it is also necessary to remember that there must be a greater attention to the structural constraints imposed by socioeconomic inequalities. Future studies should explore media discourses about men’s unequal access to health care services and citizens’ awareness of ways to overcome those inequalities shortcomings.

  7. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  8. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirali Vora

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30 completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  9. The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mr.dr. Bart F.W. Wernaart

    2013-01-01

    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this

  10. One Health in food safety and security education: A curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, J; Arens, A; Johnson, H; Cadriel, J; Osburn, B

    2016-02-01

    The challenges of producing and distributing the food necessary to feed an anticipated 9 billion people in developed and developing societies by 2050 without destroying Earth's finite soil and water resources present extremely complex problems that lack simple solutions. The ability of modern societies to adequately address these and other food-related problems will require an educated workforce trained not only in traditional food safety, security, and public health, but also in other areas including food production, sustainable practices, and ecosystem health. To help address the need for such an educated workforce, a curricular framework was developed to assist those tasked with designing education and training for future food systems workers. One sentence summary: A curricular framework for education and training in food safety and security was developed that incorporates One Health concepts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  12. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  13. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  14. Personalized Health Monitoring System for Managing Well-Being in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedungadi, Prema; Jayakumar, Akshay; Raman, Raghu

    2017-12-14

    Rural India lacks easy access to health practitioners and medical centers, depending instead on community health workers. In these areas, common ailments that are easy to manage with medicines, often lead to medical escalations and even fatalities due to lack of awareness and delayed diagnosis. The introduction of wearable health devices has made it easier to monitor health conditions and to connect doctors and patients in urban areas. However, existing initiatives have not succeeded in providing adequate health monitoring to rural and low-literate patients, as current methods are expensive, require consistent connectivity and expect literate users. Our design considerations address these concerns by providing low-cost medical devices connected to a low-cost health platform, along with personalized guidance based on patient physiological parameters in local languages, and alerts to medical practitioners in case of emergencies. This patient-centric integrated healthcare system is designed to manage the overall health of villagers with real-time health monitoring of patients, to offer guidance on preventive care, and to increase health awareness and self-monitoring at an affordable price. This personalized health monitoring system addresses the health-related needs in remote and rural areas by (1) empowering health workers in monitoring of basic health conditions for rural patients in order to prevent escalations, (2) personalized feedback regarding nutrition, exercise, diet, preventive Ayurveda care and yoga postures based on vital parameters and (3) reporting of patient data to the patient's health center with emergency alerts to doctor and patient. The system supports community health workers in the diagnostic procedure, management, and reporting of rural patients, and functions well even with only intermittent access to Internet.

  15. [Does public health insurance improve health care? The case of prenatal care for adolescents in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Avendaño, Biani; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Serván-Mori, Edson

    2016-01-01

    To test the association between public health insurance and adequate prenatal care among female adolescents in Mexico. Cross-sectional study, using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2000, 2006, and 2012.We included 3 978 (N=4 522 296) adolescent (12-19) women who reported a live birth.We used logistic regression models to test the association of insurance and adequate (timeliness, frequency and content) prenatal care. The multivariable predicted probability of timely and frequent prenatal care improved over time, from 0.60 (IC95%:0.56;0.64) in 2000 to 0.71 (IC95%:0.66;0.76) in 2012. In 2012, the probability of adequate prenatal care was 0.54 (IC95%:0.49;0.58); women with Social Security had higher probability than women with Seguro Popular and without health insurance. Having Social Security is associated with receipt of adequate prenatal care among adolescents in Mexico.

  16. How adequate policies can push renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S.T.; Lucon, Oswaldo

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in the establishment of a minimum share of renewable sources in the world energy matrix, after the Johannesburg's World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD), has raised the question about the means for such new technologies to compete with the traditional ones. The Brazilian experience in the last 25 years with ethanol as a replacement for gasoline can illustrate this possibility. Moreover, recent policies introduced by the Federal government for a minimum share of new renewable sources - wind, modern biomass and small hydro - in the Brazilian electricity matrix reinforces the country's commitment to utilize adequate policies for achieving sustainable development

  17. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  18. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. ... plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but ...... governance in their business practices, to provide a tool for a.

  19. Health policy and integrated mental health care in the SADC region: strategic clarification using the Rainbow Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, André Janse; Fourie, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    , information and resource management. Normative integration (a common frame of reference) included collective attitude, sense of urgency, and linking cultures, though aspects such as conflict management, quality features of the informal collaboration, and trust were largely lacking. Most countries stressed the importance of integrating mental health on primary healthcare level, though an absence of supporting strategies could prove to bar implementation. Inter-service collaboration emerged as a significant goal, though a lack of (especially) normative integration dimensions could prove to be a key omission. Despite the usefulness of the Rainbow Model, it failed to adequately frame regional governance aspects of integration, as the SADC Secretariat could play an important role in coordinating and supporting the development and strengthening of better mental health systems.

  20. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  1. Lack of Reality: Positive Self-Perceptions of Health in the Presence of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Dalbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if adults in Central Queensland have accurate self-perceptions of health. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289. Overweight/obesity is considered a health disorder and was determined using body mass index. Disease states were determined by asking respondents if they have: heart disease, high/low blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, thyroid disorder, diabetes, and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Self-perceptions of health were assessed by asking, “Would you say that in general your health is” poor, fair, good, very good, excellent, don’t know, and no response. An accurate health perception occurred if: (1 A respondent with a disease/health disorder reported that their health was poor/fair or (2 A respondent without a disease/health disorder reported that their health was good/very good/excellent. The proportions of people with an accurate health perception by disease/health disorder were compared using a χ2 test. A proportion ratio (PR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated for each disease/health disorder. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each disease/health disorder and health perception using gender, age, education, physical activity level, and smoking status as covariates. More than 50% of residents with each disease/health disorder reported their health to be good/very good/excellent. Residents with each disease/health disorder were less likely to have an accurate health perception than those without the corresponding disease/health disorder prior to (p < 0.001 and following adjustment of the covariates (p < 0.001. Our results suggest that overweight/obesity and prevalence of disease are not being recognized as unhealthy, which contradicts established definitions of health.

  2. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  3. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  4. Emerging practices of faith-based organisations addressing human resources for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, M.A.; Hilhorst, Thea; Utrera, Jose; Olivier, J; Wodon, Q

    2012-01-01

    Adequate health system performance and achieving the Millennium Development Goals for health, requires that qualified health care providers are available and can perform adequately. However, there is a critical shortage of health care providers in sub-Saharan Africa, and this crisis is hitting

  5. A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO POVERTY REDUCTION: THE ROLE OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO MEDICINE AS AN ELEMENT OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannelize Strauss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1 of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2 prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2, in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has explicitly included the provision of essential drugs as a component of the right to health care, thereby emphasising the causal link between the lack of access to essential medicines and the non-fulfilment of the right of access to health care. As with all socio-economic rights, the resource implications of the realisation of the right to health has the result that states cannot be expected to immediately comply with its obligations in respect thereof. Instead, article 2(1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the General Comments of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights place obligations on states to take

  6. Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Srithamrongsawat, S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy.

  7. Region 6: Texas Austin Adequate Letter (11/23/2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter approves the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets contained in the latest revision to Dallas/Fort Worth 2008 8-hour Ozone State Implementation Plan, finding them adequate for transportation conformity purposes to be announced in the Federal Register.

  8. Study Concerning Exercising an Adequate Professional Reasoning in Developing the Evaluation and Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vârteiu Daniel Petru

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are regulations which clearly specify the way in which an evaluation process, respectively an adequate audit process must take place, for a good management of encountered situations and difficulties, the evaluator, respectively the auditor must exercise an adequate professional reasoning.

  9. The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoprotection messages and ‘SunSmart’ programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

  10. Lack of supportive leadership behavior predicts suboptimal self-rated health independent of job strain after 10 years of follow-up: findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Herr, Raphael M; Jarczok, Marc N; Baumert, Jens; Lukaschek, Karoline; Emeny, Rebecca T; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-04-23

    Emerging cross-sectional research has identified lack of supportive leadership behavior (SLB) as a risk factor for workforce health. However, prospective evidence is hitherto lacking. SLB denotes support in difficult situations, recognition and feedback on work tasks. This study aims to determine the effect of SLB on suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) after 10 years considering potential moderators such as ages, sex, occupation and job strain. The sample included 884 employed participants drawn from the population-based prospective MONICA/KORA Study. SLB, SRH, as well as job strain were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of SLB at baseline on suboptimal SRH at follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle (alcohol, smoking, physical activity), socioeconomic status as well as for SRH and job strain at baseline. Lack of SLB was associated with suboptimal SRH at baseline [OR 2.00, (95% CI 1.19-3.46)] and at follow-up [OR 2.33, (95% CI 1.40-3.89)]. Additional adjustment for job strain did not substantially alter this association [OR 2.06, (95% CI 1.20-3.52)]. However, interactions between SLB and job strain as well as gender became evident, indicating moderating influences on the association between SLB and SRH. Lack of supportive leadership was associated with suboptimal SRH at 10 years' follow-up in men, even if SRH at baseline and other risk factors were taken into account. This effect is likely to be moderated by job strain.

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an...

  12. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  13. Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…

  14. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  15. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... the security and privacy of such records. (5) The disposal and destruction of identifiable personal....14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200...

  16. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  17. IoT based mobile health hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diljo; Vineeth, V. L.; Siddharth, P. G.; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    Technological innovations have a great influence on bio medical field. Even in this advanced era people are struggling due to lack of medical attention or delay in arranging adequate health care. Most of the hospitals have emergency vehicle facility and they are successful in providing emergency response to the needy patient. But the delay in arranging medical attention in hospital is still a big issue. One solution to the above problem is to provide a channel of communication between the emergency vehicle and hospital such that the patient information along with the vitals can be made available to the hospital prior to the arrival of emergency vehicle. This paper proposes such a system where the patient information and vitals are measured and uploaded to a cloud facility. This information helps the doctor to arrange quick medical response.

  18. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45);…

  19. Consumer participation and organizational development in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Clemens B; Nowak, Peter

    2011-07-01

    To provide an overview of published data on user participation in Health Care. Active and passive involvement of consumers into agendas associated with Health Care is still an exception. Data on the success of user participation projects in various areas of Health Care are lacking. Systematic literature review using public databases. We identified 467 studies including five systematic reviews describing various participation projects, among them workshops, citizens' panels, focus groups, citizens' juries, and consultation meetings. A general trend favoring a specific method was not observed. The categorization of evaluable studies according to Health Care area (n = 331) yielded the following results: general medicine/preventive medicine (n = 5), internal medicine/oncology (n = 132), obstetrics and gynecology (n = 2), surgery (n = 1), neurology/psychiatry (n = 2), social medicine (n = 16), health worker training (n = 38), and research agenda setting (n = 135). Predefined qualitative parameters were extracted from 69/467 (15%) studies. Sixty one of 69 studies (88%) were retrospective analyses without control groups and without outcome assessment. Six studies had outcome assessment, three judged the outcome as successful, two as negative, and one multi-project study reported 'very successful' project assessments in 24% of the projects. In 18 studies, the level of consumer participation was described as 'informed' in 2/18, 'advisory' in 14/18, and 'decision-making' in 2/18. The following factors associated with project success were identified: adequate financing, partnerships with well institutionalized consumer organizations, advanced project logistics, small-scale projects, and adequate internal and external communication. Most consumer participation projects were performed in research agenda setting, internal medicine/oncology, and health worker training. Various methods have been used in the projects, the level of consumer participation was low, and the success

  20. Factors influencing deliveries at health facilities in a rural Maasai Community in Magadi sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Sarah; Gichuki, Richard; Igunza, Patrick; Muhula, Samuel; Ofware, Peter; Lesiamon, Josephine; Leshore, Lepantas; Kyomuhangi-Igbodipe, Lenny Bazira; Nyagero, Josephat; Binkin, Nancy; Ojakaa, David

    2018-01-03

    living near a health facility were positively associated with health facility delivery. Gender inequity and cultural practices such as lack of birth preparedness should be addressed. Transport mechanisms need to be established to avoid delay in reaching a health facility. The health systems also need to be functional with adequate supplies and motivated staff.

  1. How are health professionals earning their living in Malawi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseko Fresier C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of health professionals from southern Africa to developed nations is negatively affecting the delivery of health care services in the source countries. Oftentimes however, it is the reasons for the out-migration that have been described in the literature. The work and domestic situations of those health professionals continuing to serve in their posts have not been adequately studied. Methods The present study utilized a qualitative data collection and analysis method. This was achieved through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health professionals and administrators to determine the challenges they face and the coping systems they resort to and the perceptions towards those coping methods. Results Health professionals identified the following as some of the challenges there faced: inequitable and poor remuneration, overwhelming responsibilities with limited resources, lack of a stimulating work environment, inadequate supervision, poor access to continued professionals training, limited career progression, lack of transparent recruitment and discriminatory remuneration. When asked what kept them still working in Malawi when the pressures to emigrate were there, the following were some of the ways the health professionals mentioned as useful for earning extra income to support their families: working in rural areas where life was perceived to be cheaper, working closer to home village so as to run farms, stealing drugs from health facilities, having more than one job, running small to medium scale businesses. Health professionals would also minimize expenditure by missing meals and walking to work. Conclusion Many health professionals in Malawi experience overly challenging environments. In order to survive some are involved in ethically and legally questionable activities such as receiving "gifts" from patients and pilfering drugs. The efforts by the Malawi government and the international

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the security and privacy of personal data. (4) The disposal and disposition of identifiable personal... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records....114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114...

  3. Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eBendik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to

  4. Primary Care Practices’ Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Dorr, David A.; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C. Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Hall, Jennifer D.; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I.; McConnell, K. John; Nichols, Len M.; Nease, Donald E.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Wu, Winfred Y.; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N.; Phillips, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Duffy, F. Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.

    2018-01-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports—but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures. PMID:29608365

  5. Primary Care Practices' Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J; Dorr, David A; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I; McConnell, K John; Nichols, Len M; Nease, Donald E; Edwards, Samuel T; Wu, Winfred Y; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N; Phillips, Robert L; Rasmussen, Luke V; Duffy, F Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2018-04-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports-but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures.

  6. Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Zile

    2013-04-01

    It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food

  7. Need for Adequate Funding in the Administration of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  8. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  9. Nonprofit to for-profit conversions by hospitals, health insurers, and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, J

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.

  10. Developments in health care in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, D C; Garfield, R

    1982-08-05

    The 4 year war that resulted in the overthrow of Nicaragua's Somoza dictatorship cost 50,000 lives. In 1972 an earthquake killed 20,000 with 10,000 injured. Under Somoza health conditions had been worse than in neighboring countries with 35% of the urban and 95% of the rural population lacking access to potable water and only about 10% of the population receiving adequate medical care. 1/3 of the people contracted malaria at least once in their lives and 46-83% of the children were malnourished. Life expectancy at the time of the revolution was 52.9 years, infant mortality was between 120-140/1000. Since July 1979, however, about 70% of the people have regular medical care and health care education campaigns are widespread. Public health programs have administered vaccinations to thousands of children and literacy programs have incorporated elementary health principles into their curricula. However, despite these efforts malaria continued to rise from 4.4 people/1000 in 1978 to 9.4/1000 in 1980. After an antimalarial drug campaign in 1981, a 98% decline was noted in new cases of malaria. Poliomyelitis and tuberculosis prevention campaigns are likewise effective and oral rehydration centers have been set up to combat infant diarrhea. Having recently experienced a baby boom, a campaign to disseminate family planning information is being planned. Technical and professional health training has been expanded as well with a second medical school opening in Managua in 1981 along with growth in the amount of nursing school students. International aid has been crucial in health care with more than 24 countries sending medical supplies and personnel. Lack of equipment and facilities is holding back medical advances and there is a dilemma concerning physicians' time spent at public versus their private practices. Drugs remain the largest health import for the country even though their pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased production. 5 new hospitals are being built with

  11. Lack of focus on cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga

    2012-01-01

    Research into cardiovascular disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by lack of funding and expertise. However, hospital- and community-based data reveal high economic and social costs of these diseases to the national health services and the communities, with the region facing a mixed burden of diseases related to poverty and infections, emergence of risk factors and diseases of affluence, as well as new cardiovascular problems caused by the HIV/AIDS epidemics. The availability of ec...

  12. Evaluation of printed health education materials for use by low-education families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lesa; Logsdon, M Cynthia; McGill, Sarah; Stikes, Reetta; Senior, Barbara; Helinger, Bridget; Small, Beth; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-07-01

    Millions of adults lack adequate reading skills and many written patient education materials do not reflect national guidelines for readability and suitability of materials, resulting in barriers to patients being partners in their own health care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate commonly used printed health materials for readability and suitability for patients with limited general or health literacy skills, while providing easy recommendations to health care providers for how to improve the materials. Materials (N = 97) from three clinical areas that represented excellence in nursing care in our organization (stroke, cancer, and maternal-child) were reviewed for a composite reading grade level and a Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) score. Twenty-eight percent of the materials were at a 9th grade or higher reading level, and only 23% were 5th grade or below. The SAM ratings for not suitable, adequate, and superior were 11%, 58%, and 31%, respectively. Few materials were superior on both scales. The SAM scale was easy to use and required little training of reviewers to achieve interrater reliability. Improving outcomes and reducing health disparities are increasingly important, and patients must be partners in their care for this to occur. One step to increasing patient understanding of written instructions is improving the quality of the materials in the instruction for all patients and their families, especially those with limited literacy skills. Using materials that are written in a manner that facilitates the uptake and use of patient education content has great potential to improve the ability of patients and families to be partners in care and to improve outcomes, especially for those patients and families with limited general literacy or health literacy skills. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.

  14. Improving musculoskeletal health: global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Girish M; Brooks, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are among the leading reasons why patients consult a family or primary health practitioner, take time off work and become disabled. Many of the MSK disorders are more common in the elderly. Thus, as the proportion of the elderly increases all over the world, MSK disorders will make a greater contribution to the global burden of disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the spectrum of MSK disorders in developing countries is similar to that seen in industrialised countries, but the burden of disease tends to be higher due to a delay in diagnosis or lack of access to adequate health-care facilities for effective treatment. Musculoskeletal pain is very common in the community while fibromyalgia is being recognised as part of a continuum of chronic widespread pain rather than a narrowly defined entity. This will allow research to improve our understanding of pain in a variety of diffuse pain syndromes. The availability of newer more effective therapies has resulted in efforts to initiate therapy at an earlier stage of diseases. The new criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and the diagnosis of axial and peripheral involvement in spondyloarthritis, permit an earlier diagnosis without having to wait for radiological changes. One of the major health challenges is the global shortage of health workers, and based on current training of health workers and traditional models of care for service delivery, the global situation is unlikely to change in the near future. Thus, new models of care and strategies to train community health-care workers and primary health-care practitioners to detect and initiate the management of patients with MSK disorders at an earlier stage are required. There is also a need for prevention strategies with campaigns to educate and raise awareness among the entire population. Lifestyle interventions such as maintaining an ideal body weight to prevent obesity, regular exercises, avoidance of smoking and alcohol

  15. Enhancing access to health information in Africa: a librarian's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathoni, Nasra

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, tremendous progress has been made toward providing health information in Africa, in part because of technological advancements. Nevertheless, ensuring that information is accessible, comprehensible, and usable remains problematic, and there remain needs in many settings to address issues such as computer skills, literacy, and the infrastructure to access information. To determine how librarians might play a more strategic role in meeting information needs of health professionals in Africa, the author reviewed key components of information systems pertinent to knowledge management for the health sector, including access to global online resources, capacity to use computer technology for information retrieval, information literacy, and the potential for professional networks to play a role in improving access to and use of information. The author concluded that, in regions that lack adequate information systems, librarians could apply their knowledge and skills to facilitate access and use by information seekers. Ensuring access to and use of health information can also be achieved by engaging organizations and associations working to enhance access to health information, such as the Association for Health Information and Libraries in Africa. These groups can provide assistance through training, dissemination, information repackaging, and other approaches known to improve information literacy.

  16. Department of Energy's safety and health program for enrichment plant workers is not adequately implemented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) program to protect the safety and health of employees at its contractor-operated uranium enrichment plants has not been fully implemented by DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office. Appraisals and inspections of plant conditions are not as frequent and/or as thorough as required. Instead of independently investigating employee complaints, DOE has delegated this responsibility to the contractor. It is recommended that the Secretary of Energy make sure that Oak Ridge properly conducts inspections and appraisals and investigates and follows up on all employee complaints. He should also take steps to provide increased independence and objectivity in the Oak Ridge Operations Office's safety and health program. Furthermore, the Congress should authorize the Secretary of Energy to institute a program of non-reimbursable penalties and fines for violations of safety and health standards and procedures

  17. Child oral health concerns amongst parents and primary care givers in a Sure Start local programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, B; Clarke, W; McEvoy, W; Periam, K; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-09-01

    To conduct an oral health promotion needs assessment amongst parents and primary care givers of pre-school children in a South East London Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP). To explore the oral health concerns and oral health literacy with regard to children's oral health amongst parents and primary care givers in a South East London SSLP. A qualitative study using four in-depth focus groups with a purposive sample of 20 participants. Data were analysed using the framework method. The SSLP was identified as an important source of information, support and social interaction for participants. Participants rated the informal networks of the programme as equally authoritative as other formal sources of information. Oral health concerns included: introducing healthy eating, establishing tooth brushing, teething and access to dental care. While participants had adequate knowledge of how to prevent oral disease they cited many barriers to acting on their knowledge which included: parents' tiredness, lack of confidence in parenting skills, confusing information, widespread availability of sugary foods and drinks, and lack of local child friendly dentists. Parenting skills and the social support provided by the SSLP appeared to be integral to the introduction of positive oral health behaviours. SSLPs were seen as a trusted source of support and information for carers of pre-school children. Integration of oral health promotion into SSLPs has the potential to tap into early interventions which tackle the wider support needs of carers of pre-school children while also supporting the development of positive oral health behaviours.

  18. Community-based health care is an essential component of a resilient health system: evidence from Ebola outbreak in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Siekmans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trained community health workers (CHW enhance access to essential primary health care services in contexts where the health system lacks capacity to adequately deliver them. In Liberia, the Ebola outbreak further disrupted health system function. The objective of this study is to examine the value of a community-based health system in ensuring continued treatment of child illnesses during the outbreak and the role that CHWs had in Ebola prevention activities. Methods A descriptive observational study design used mixed methods to collect data from CHWs (structured survey, n = 60; focus group discussions, n = 16, government health facility workers and project staff. Monthly data on child diarrhea and pneumonia treatment were gathered from CHW case registers and local health facility records. Results Coverage for community-based treatment of child diarrhea and pneumonia continued throughout the outbreak in project areas. A slight decrease in cases treated during the height of the outbreak, from 50 to 28% of registers with at least one treatment per month, was attributed to directives not to touch others, lack of essential medicines and fear of contracting Ebola. In a climate of distrust, where health workers were reluctant to treat patients, sick people were afraid to self-identify and caregivers were afraid to take children to the clinic, CHWs were a trusted source of advice and Ebola prevention education. These findings reaffirm the value of recruiting and training local workers who are trusted by the community and understand the social and cultural complexities of this relationship. “No touch” integrated community case management (iCCM guidelines distributed at the height of the outbreak gave CHWs renewed confidence in assessing and treating sick children. Conclusions Investments in community-based health service delivery contributed to continued access to lifesaving treatment for child pneumonia and diarrhea

  19. Community-based health care is an essential component of a resilient health system: evidence from Ebola outbreak in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmans, Kendra; Sohani, Salim; Boima, Tamba; Koffa, Florence; Basil, Luay; Laaziz, Saïd

    2017-01-17

    Trained community health workers (CHW) enhance access to essential primary health care services in contexts where the health system lacks capacity to adequately deliver them. In Liberia, the Ebola outbreak further disrupted health system function. The objective of this study is to examine the value of a community-based health system in ensuring continued treatment of child illnesses during the outbreak and the role that CHWs had in Ebola prevention activities. A descriptive observational study design used mixed methods to collect data from CHWs (structured survey, n = 60; focus group discussions, n = 16), government health facility workers and project staff. Monthly data on child diarrhea and pneumonia treatment were gathered from CHW case registers and local health facility records. Coverage for community-based treatment of child diarrhea and pneumonia continued throughout the outbreak in project areas. A slight decrease in cases treated during the height of the outbreak, from 50 to 28% of registers with at least one treatment per month, was attributed to directives not to touch others, lack of essential medicines and fear of contracting Ebola. In a climate of distrust, where health workers were reluctant to treat patients, sick people were afraid to self-identify and caregivers were afraid to take children to the clinic, CHWs were a trusted source of advice and Ebola prevention education. These findings reaffirm the value of recruiting and training local workers who are trusted by the community and understand the social and cultural complexities of this relationship. "No touch" integrated community case management (iCCM) guidelines distributed at the height of the outbreak gave CHWs renewed confidence in assessing and treating sick children. Investments in community-based health service delivery contributed to continued access to lifesaving treatment for child pneumonia and diarrhea during the Ebola outbreak, making communities more resilient when

  20. HEALTH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human needs are of great interest to different scientific fields: sociology, anthropology, psychology, medicine, economy… Malinowski, Maslow, Adler and From have largely contributed to studying the needs. While trying to define the need concept, not only one definition is acceptable. In psychology, need is defined as a lack or disorder, i.e. the necessity to dislodge this lack. It was Maslow who gave the fullest classification and explanation of human needs. If we start from the fact that need represents the lack or deficit of something, in this context health needs would indicate the lack of health, and the measurement of health needs would be the same as the measurement of health. Therefore, almost all human needs can be enumerated as health needs, i.e. those which, after being satisfied, can lead to physical, psychical and social welfare. According to WHO, health needs can be defined as scientifically settled evasions from health which require preventive, curative and probably regulative and eradicative measurements. According to the medical method used by the health service while regarding the needs, the emphasis is on morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence, inability, etc. Usually, when we have very low level of health culture, and the responsibility for personal health is in most of the cases unacceptable, for the health service user the curative services will have priority over preventive ones. The measurement of health needs is a complex task. The needs can be regarded through medical documentation and by perception of the needs by people in the community.

  1. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  2. Eco-health in the rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-harris, J

    1993-04-01

    The rural population in India is exposed to working and living conditions: drinking supply, sanitation, fuel wood shortages, maternal mortality, alcoholism among males, pesticide use, environmental degradation, migrant workers, sickness and injury compensation in natural resource based industry, and mechanization in the workplace. Good health is dependent on a supportive home environment which physically provides protection, has access to safe potable drinking water and sanitary facilities, and reinforces health habits and behavior. One of the greatest health hazards is the lack of safe drinking water. The result is increases in water-related diseases such as dysentery, cholera, diarrhea, and hepatitis among men, women, children, and fetuses. Today only 30% of the total population has access to sufficient, safe drinking water. Personal hygiene is also affected by inadequate supplies. Another hazard is waste disposal, which if improperly managed, results in hookworm and ascarias infestations. Barefoot people are particularly affected. In 1982, 8790 villages were found to be without latrines, or with only bucket latrines. The firewood fuel shortages impact directly on women through food habit changes and excessive labor in acquiring adequate supplies. Women are also affected by high rates of anemia which are a by-product of environmental and social conditions. There are a number of psychosocial conditions that impact on the health of women. In Himachal Pradesh women complain that their husbands drink too much alcohol, which increases acts of domestic violence. Male migration for work places women in stressful work conditions managing the land and child care, and exposing women to sexually transmitted diseases. The workplace also had hazards. Agricultural workers have little bargaining power and few organizations representing their interests. A brief description is given of conditions among plantation workers in Assam and Darjeeling. There are hazards due to unskilled

  3. Discriminatory attitudes and practices by health workers toward patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Reis

    2005-08-01

    /AIDS. Providers who reported less adequate training in HIV treatment and ethics were also more likely to report negative attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS. There was no consistent pattern of differences in negative attitudes and practices across the different health specialties surveyed.While most health-care professionals surveyed reported being in compliance with their ethical obligations despite the lack of resources, discriminatory behavior and attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS exist among a significant proportion of health-care professionals in the surveyed states. Inadequate education about HIV/AIDS and a lack of protective and treatment materials appear to contribute to these practices and attitudes.

  4. Discriminatory attitudes and practices by health workers toward patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    restrictive policies toward people with HIV/AIDS. Providers who reported less adequate training in HIV treatment and ethics were also more likely to report negative attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS. There was no consistent pattern of differences in negative attitudes and practices across the different health specialties surveyed. CONCLUSION: While most health-care professionals surveyed reported being in compliance with their ethical obligations despite the lack of resources, discriminatory behavior and attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS exist among a significant proportion of health-care professionals in the surveyed states. Inadequate education about HIV/AIDS and a lack of protective and treatment materials appear to contribute to these practices and attitudes.

  5. Revisiting the Housing-Health Relationship for HIV-Positive Persons: Qualitative Evidence From the Lower Manya Krobo District, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kau, Mabel; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Adjei, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between housing and HIV infection is complex. On one hand, poor housing arrangements may affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). On the other hand, PLWHAs may be more likely to live in substandard homes because of their health. We used qualitative in-depth individual interviews of 38 PLWHAs attending voluntary counseling services at two government hospitals in the Lower Manya Krobo District (LMKD) in the Eastern region of Ghana to examine their housing and health outcomes. Results show that the majority of PLWHAs lived in homes that lacked basic amenities, were overcrowded, had structural deficiencies, and were noisy and dirty. They suffered from poor housing conditions mainly because of their HIV serostatus, as this affected their ability to finance adequate homes, while HIV-related stigmatization led to eviction from either family homes or rented facilities.

  6. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott Gordon J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE. Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health

  7. Psychosocial impacts of the lack of access to water and sanitation in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2017-02-01

    The lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation has implications for the psychosocial well-being of individuals and households. To review the literature on psychosocial impacts, we completed a scoping review of the published literature using Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Of the included studies, six were conducted in India, one in Nepal, one in Mexico, one in Bolivia, two in Ethiopia, one in Zimbabwe, one in South Africa, and two in Kenya. Four interrelated groups of stressors emerged from the review: physical stressors, financial stressors, social stressors, and stressors related to (perceived) inequities. Further, gender differences were observed, with women carrying a disproportionate psychosocial burden. We argue that failure to incorporate psychosocial stressors when estimating the burden or benefits of safe water and sanitation may mask an important driver of health and well-being for many households in low- and middle-income countries. We propose further research on water-related stressors with particular attention to unique cultural norms around water and sanitation, short and long term psychosocial outcomes, and individual and collective coping strategies. These may help practitioners better understand cumulative impacts and mechanisms for addressing water and sanitation challenges.

  8. [Fundamentally new electromagnetic pollution and the lack of adequate regulatory framework--on the risk assessment (analysis of modern domestic and foreign data)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, Yu G

    2014-01-01

    On the base of the study of the numerous experimental and epidemiological studies electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of mobile communications were found to adversely affect on the health of the population. Analysis of the influence of radio frequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones (MPs) on the brain of users showed that this organ body is most exposed to this radiation, especially in children. As a result of the performed research there were recorded functional changes in children--MPs users: undue fatiguability (39.7%), decreased performance in the school and at home (50.7%), weakening of the stability of voluntary attention (productivity--14.3%, accuracy 19.4%) and semantic memory (accuracy--19.4% increase in the time--30.1%). In addition, a marked change in the rate of auditory- motor response (55.5%), and disturbances of phonemic perception have been noted. The existing legal framework on the influence of EMR on human health was shown not fully to meet the hygiene requirements in connection with the absence of her normative parameters which determine the impact of complicately modulated radiation from MPs and base stations. The need for additional research on the influence of the modulated RF EMR on the human body and creation of a regulatory framework taking into account the sum of biological effects, especially on the critical organ of human--brain is substantiated by the author. When creating a regulatory framework it must be taken into account the scientific beliefs on the possible development of long-term brain pathologies under the combined effect of EMF, especially in children.

  9. [Cross-cultural aspects of interaction and communication in mental health care. Barriers and recommendations for action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Schouler-Ocak, M; Heinz, A; Kluge, U

    2012-09-01

    Mental health care for migrants is often impaired by a lack of policies and provisions in the respective institutions. This article focuses on "communication barriers" in psychosocial and psychotherapeutic settings, where personal communication is of great importance. Barriers that prevent migrants from using health care institutions include translation problems but also more complex misunderstandings based on divergent explanations regarding the causes, course, and adequate treatment of different disorders. The widely recommended intercultural opening of medical and psychosocial institutions involves using interpreters as cultural experts, reflecting on and mediating between divergent explanatory models, and avoiding cultural and ethnic stereotyping as well as encouraging an open, curious, and reflective professional attitude. With respect to institutional settings, rules for the financing of interpreters are as important as tackling barriers that limit migrants' access to medical and psychosocial institutions.

  10. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  11. Developing a model for the adequate description of electronic communication in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboor, Samrend; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2011-01-01

    Adequate information and communication systems (ICT) can help to improve the communication in hospitals. Changes to the ICT-infrastructure of hospitals must be planed carefully. In order to support a comprehensive planning, we presented a classification of 81 common errors of the electronic communication on the MIE 2008 congress. Our objective now was to develop a data model that defines specific requirements for an adequate description of electronic communication processes We first applied the method of explicating qualitative content analysis on the error categorization in order to determine the essential process details. After this, we applied the method of subsuming qualitative content analysis on the results of the first step. A data model for the adequate description of electronic communication. This model comprises 61 entities and 91 relationships. The data model comprises and organizes all details that are necessary for the detection of the respective errors. It can be for either used to extend the capabilities of existing modeling methods or as a basis for the development of a new approach.

  12. Nutrition in care homes and home care: How to implement adequate strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitakis, M.; Beck, Anne Marie; Coppens, P.

    2008-01-01

    are various: medical, social, environmental, organizational and financial. Lack of alertness of individuals, their relatives and health-care professionals play an important role. Undernutrition enhances the risk of infection, hospitalization, mortality and alter the quality of life. Moreover, undernutrition...... related-disease is an economic burden in most countries. Nutritional assessment should be part of routine global management. Nutritional support combined with physical training and an improved ambiance during meats is mandatory. Awareness, information and collaboration with all the stakeholders should...... facilitate implementation of nutritional strategies. Conclusions: Undernutrition in home care and care home settings is a considerable problem and measures should be taken to prevent and treat it. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved....

  13. Understanding the health and wellbeing challenges of the food banking system: A qualitative study of food bank users, providers and referrers in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C; Smith, D; Cummins, S

    2018-05-16

    In the UK, food poverty has been associated with conditions such as obesity, malnutrition, hypertension, iron deficiency, and impaired liver function. Food banks, the primary response to food poverty on the ground, typically rely on community referral and distribution systems that involve health and social care professionals and local authority public health teams. The perspectives of these key stakeholders remain underexplored. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the health and wellbeing challenges of food poverty and food banking in London. An ethnographic investigation of food bank staff and users was carried out alongside a series of healthcare stakeholder interviews. A total of 42 participants were interviewed. A Critical Grounded Theory (CGT) analysis revealed that contemporary lived experiences of food poverty are embedded within and symptomatic of extreme marginalisation, which in turn impacts upon health. Specifically, food poverty was conceptualised by participants to: firstly, be a barrier to providing adequate care and nutrition for young children; secondly, be exacerbated by lack of access to adequate fresh food, food storage and cooking facilities; and thirdly, amplify existing health and social problems. Further investigation of the local government structures and professional roles that both rely upon and serve to further embed the food banking system is necessary in order to understand the politics of changing welfare landscapes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45); and (c) decoding, fluency, and comprehension (DFC; n = 45). These students received measures of phonological awareness, listening comprehension, rap...

  15. Lack of Quality Primary Health Services: The Problems of the Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel A.

    1978-01-01

    Major political and economic forces, which affect the provision of primary health services, particularly to underserved populations, are reviewed. Technological, professional, governmental, fiscal, and societal solutions are proposed. (GC)

  16. Antigenicity of Leishmania-Activated C-Kinase Antigen (LACK in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Protective Effect of Prime-Boost Vaccination With pCI-neo-LACK Plus Attenuated LACK-Expressing Vaccinia Viruses in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania-activated C-kinase antigen (LACK is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65 expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas. However, whether LACK is capable to trigger cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients cured of CL due to Leishmania infantum (L. infantum or induce protection in L. infantum-infected hamsters [visceral leishmaniasis (VL model], has not yet been analyzed. The present work examines the ex vivo immunogenicity of LACK in cured VL and CL patients, and asymptomatic subjects from an L. infantum area. It also evaluates the vaccine potential of LACK against L. infantum infection in hamsters, in a protocol of priming with plasmid pCI-neo-LACK (DNA-LACK followed by a booster with the poxvirus vectors MVA-LACK or M65-LACK. LACK-stimulated PBMC from both asymptomatic and cured subjects responded by producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B (Th1-type response. Further, 78% of PBMC samples that responded to soluble Leishmania antigen showed IFN-γ secretion following stimulation with LACK. In hamsters, the protocol of DNA-LACK prime/MVA-LACK or M65-LACK virus boost vaccination significantly reduced the amount of Leishmania DNA in the liver and bone marrow, with no differences recorded between the use of MVA or M65 virus vector options. In summary, the Th1-type and cytotoxic responses elicited by LACK in PBMC from human subjects infected with L. infantum, and the parasite protective effect of prime/boost vaccination in hamsters with DNA-LACK/MVA-LACK

  17. Disaster-related exposures and health effects among US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Thomas, Dana L; Chen, Ligong; Funk, Renée; McKibben, Jodi; Dayton, Melburn R

    2014-08-01

    Disaster responders work among poorly characterized physical and psychological hazards with little understood regarding health consequences of their work. A survey administered to 2834 US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provided data on exposures and health effects. Prevalence odds ratios (PORs) evaluated associations between baseline characteristics, missions, exposures, and health effects. Most frequent exposures were animal/insect vector (n = 1309; 46%) and floodwater (n = 817; 29%). Most frequent health effects were sunburn (n = 1119; 39%) and heat stress (n = 810; 30%). Significant positive associations were for mold exposure and sinus infection (POR = 10.39); carbon monoxide and confusion (POR = 6.27); lack of sleep and slips, trips, falls (POR = 3.34) and depression (POR = 3.01); being a Gulf-state responder and depression (POR = 3.22). Increasing protection for disaster responders requires provisions for adequate sleep, personal protective equipment, and access to medical and psychological support.

  18. 12 CFR 1229.5 - Capital distributions for adequately capitalized Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalized Banks. 1229.5 Section 1229.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.5 Capital... classification of adequately capitalized. A Bank may not make a capital distribution if such distribution would...

  19. How to bring issues of health and safety closer to young workers during their work training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mesarič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data collected by the European Community indicates that the young, economically active population, aged from 18 to 24 years, is more likely to suffer from occupational injuries and occupational diseases in comparison with the rest of the working population, due to the lack of experience and knowledge about health and safety in the workplace, and insufficient training for safe and healthy work practices. Employers must establish an adequate system to ensure workplace health and safety, with an emphasis on providing safety training for pupils and students undergoing apprenticeship and the newly-employed young people. The Ministry of Labour, Family, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities runs a series of projects aiming to promote health and safety culture among young people in Slovenia. The goal of the national programme for introducing occupational health and safety into the education process is offering a variety of tools and devices for educators and teachers, which can be employed to introduce the issues of occupational health and safety to young people in an exciting and engaging manner.

  20. Migrating from user fees to social health insurance: exploring the prospects and challenges for hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinga, Roger A; Mensah, Sylvester A; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Adjei, Francis-Xavier Andoh

    2012-06-22

    In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana's ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Study's findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation.

  1. Using GIS to assess priorities of infrastructure and health needs of colonias along the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, J.W.; Humberson, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border setdements in the United. States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for themselves and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with several Federal and Texas state agencies has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report: generator can be tailored, to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. CHIPS is publicly available on the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative website at http://borderhealth.cr. usgs.gov.

  2. Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Yemen: Role of adequate childcare provided by adults under conditions of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen.

  3. Wealth and the nation's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C

    1993-07-01

    Social and economic prosperity to a great extent depend on a healthy population; similarly good health depends on adequate income, writes Clare Blackburn. The government strategy for health promotion outlined most recently in The health of the nation, fails to acknowledge this. Nevertheless health visitors and school nurses cannot ignore the links between health and wealth.

  4. Keeping health facilities safe: one way of strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2010-12-01

    The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide

  5. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Understanding Your Teen's Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthMental Health: Keeping Your Emotional HealthPersistent ... Not caring about people and things. Lack of motivation. Fatigue, loss of energy, and lack of interest ...

  7. Mental health outcomes among adults in Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Gros, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna L; Resnick, Heidi S; Morgan, Mark; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2012-03-01

      To examine the mental health effects of Hurricane Ike, the third costliest hurricane in US history, which devastated the upper Texas coast in September 2008.   Structured telephone interviews assessing immediate effects of Hurricane Ike (damage, loss, displacement) and mental health diagnoses were administered via random digit-dial methods to a household probability sample of 255 Hurricane Ike-affected adults in Galveston and Chambers counties.   Three-fourths of respondents evacuated the area because of Hurricane Ike and nearly 40% were displaced for at least one week. Postdisaster mental health prevalence estimates were 5.9% for posttraumatic stress disorder, 4.5% for major depressive episode, and 9.3% for generalized anxiety disorder. Bivariate analyses suggested that peritraumatic indicators of hurricane exposure severity-such as lack of adequate clean clothing, electricity, food, money, transportation, or water for at least one week-were most consistently associated with mental health problems.   The significant contribution of factors such as loss of housing, financial means, clothing, food, and water to the development and/or maintenance of negative mental health consequences highlights the importance of systemic postdisaster intervention resources targeted to meet basic needs in the postdisaster period.

  8. Region 10: Idaho Northern Ada County Adequate Letter (6/21/2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA approves motor vehicle emissions budget in the Northern Ada County PM10 State Implementation Plan, Maintenance Plan: Ten-Year Update for PM10 national ambient air quality standard, adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  9. Concepts in health promotion: the notion of relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, E

    1989-01-01

    'Health promotion' is a new and powerful concept. By some professionals in the field as well as by actors in the policy making spheres, though, the notion may be received with considerable scepticism. We have attributed this scepticism, as well as barriers to include notions of health promotion in day-to-day work, to a lack of knowledge of essential concepts in the health promotion context. In this article we first explore the quintessential nature of 'health' (a capacity of people, rather than an end product of medical care) before we set out to analyze some crucial components of health promotion: integral-ness, intersectorality, holism, and ecology. Integral intervention mixes appear to have synergetic, and therefore cost-effective, results. An intersectoral approach will be necessary to address all determinants of health in an adequate way. Alas, neither integral, nor intersectoral health programs have been documented in depth. The notions of holism and ecology seem to suffer from obscurantism and esoteric elitism, though commendable in their scope. Here, we introduce 'relativism' to combine various valuable approaches into one more comprehensive scheme. Moreover, a 'relativist' approach to health promotion might induce better and more fruitful cooperation among professions. Finally, some research gaps have been identified. Policy development studies remain to have top priority in development of health promotion. Better documentation of efforts in this field will be of crucial importance. Further development of, and research on how to apply relativist approaches may be recommended. Cooperation, and opening up a dialogue between different professions and actors is of great importance in this field.

  10. Health literacy of an urban business community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara H; Hayes, Sandra C; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Wheeler, Primus; Ford, D'Arcy M

    2012-02-01

    The impact of community-based organizations on the delivery of health care knowledge is well documented. Little research has focused on the importance of health literacy in the dissemination of health care information by minority small business owners. This study sampled 38 business owners within a local business district to assess their level of health literacy. Although adequate health literacy is not required to serve as a community resource, it may be necessary to understand the health literacy level of local business owners as gatekeepers in order to develop appropriate training/educational programs. The results of this descriptive cross-sectional study indicate that for sample of business owners, health literacy levels are adequate. The findings suggest the feasibility of using local business owners as disseminators of health-related materials to the communities in which they operate their businesses.

  11. [Advances in mechanisms of health benefits of exercise and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Mu-Qing; Liu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Adequate physical activity/exercise and nutrition are the footstone for health, and primary components of healthy life style and prevention and treatment of life style-related diseases. Here we briefly review the recent advances in mechanisms of health benefits of regular physical activity/exercise and adequate nutrition, mitochondrial nutrients, and so on.

  12. The lack of theoretical support for using person trade-offs in QALY-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    -adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper discusses the theoretical support for the use of person trade-offs in QALY-type measurement of (changes in) population health. It argues that measures of this type based on such quality-adjustment factors almost always violate the Pareto principle, and so lack normative...

  13. Health evaluations in Africa – A review of the health strand held at the 7th Biennial Conference of the African Evaluation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Berhane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Africa has made significant progress in public health over the past several decades, it still faces a very high burden of disease compared to the rest of the world. This overwhelming disease burden is further aggravated by a lack of adequate financial and human resources for health, inequitable distribution of health services, and other social, economic and political factors. Given these constraints, it has become critical for African countries to ensure that health interventions are selected based on evidence and implemented efficiently and effectively to ensure desired outcomes and impact. This has led to an increasing appreciation for monitoring and evaluation as an integral element of programme planning, implementation and scale-up. The importance of M&E within the health sector was recently reflected in the fact that the health evaluation strand was the largest at AfrEA’s 7th Biennial International Conference, held over 3 days in March 2014 in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The health strand, which had nine sub-themes, was sponsored, managed, and supported by the USAID-funded AfricanStrategies for Health (ASH project. This review summarises the health strand presentations, and panel and roundtable discussions. The evaluations featured in the strand were diverse interms of health area focus, evaluation methodology, language and authors’ affiliation. More than 21 African countries from all regions of sub-Saharan Africa were represented. Among thekey recurrent messages highlighted during the conference were the importance of: data use for planning and improving health programmes, data quality, well-functioning M&E systems and identifying and sharing best/good practices.

  14. 48 CFR 52.216-29 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. 52.216-29... Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition (FEB 2007) (a) The... Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  15. Antiretroviral therapy related adverse effects: Can sub-Saharan Africa cope with the new "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2017-02-15

    Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future. Indeed, ART is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, prediabetes and overt diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis. The prevalence of these disorders is already high in SSA, and the situation will be exacerbated by the implementation of the new WHO recommendations. Most SSA countries are characterized by (extreme) poverty, very weak health systems, inadequate and low quality of health services, inaccessibility to existing health facilities, lack of (qualified) health personnel, lack of adequate equipment, inaccessibility and unaffordability of medicines, and heavy workload in a context of a double burden of disease. Additionally, there is dearth of data on the incidence and predictive factors of ART-related adverse effects in SSA, to anticipate on strategies that should be put in place to prevent the occurrence of these conditions or properly estimate the upcoming burden and prepare an adequate response plan. These are required if we are to anticipate and effectively prevent this upcoming burden. While SSA would be the first region to experience the huge benefits of implementing the "test and treat" policy of the WHO, the region is not yet prepared to manage the consequential increased burden of ART

  16. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  17. Nudging for Prevention in Occupational Health and Safety in South Africa Using Fiscal Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Pieter; Rees, David; Kisting, Sophia; Kgalamono, Spo; Ndaba, Mpume; Stacey, Nicolas; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in some countries occupational health and safety policy and practice have a bias toward secondary prevention and workers' compensation rather than primary prevention. Particularly, in emerging economies, research has not adequately contributed to effective interventions and improvements in workers' health. This article, using South Africa as a case study, describes a methodology for identifying candidate fiscal policy interventions and describes the policy interventions selected for occupational health and safety. It is argued that fiscal policies are well placed to deal with complex intersectoral health problems and to focus efforts on primary prevention. A major challenge is the lack of empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of fiscal policies in improving workers' health. A second challenge is the underprioritization of occupational health and safety partly due to the relatively small burden of disease attributed to occupational exposures. Both challenges can and should be overcome by (i) conducting policy-relevant research to fill the empirical gaps and (ii) reconceptualizing, both for policy and research purposes, the role of work as a determinant of population health. Fiscal policies to prevent exposure to hazards at work have face validity and are thus appealing, not as a replacement for other efforts to improve health, but as part of a comprehensive effort toward prevention.

  18. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deficient crisis-probing practices and taken-for-granted assumptions in health organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V.; Adhikari, Ashmita; Cordery, Thomas; Giguère-Simmonds, Philippe; Huang, Jessica; Nguyen, Helen; Watson, Michael; Yang, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The practice of crisis-probing in proactive organisations involves meticulous and sustained investigation into operational processes and management structures for potential weaknesses and flaws before they become difficult to resolve. In health organisations, crisis probing is a necessary part of preparing to manage emerging health threats. This study examined the degree of pre-emptive probing in health organisations and the type of crisis training provided to determine whether or not they are prepared in this area. This evidence-based study draws on cross-sectional responses provided by executives from chiropractic, physiotherapy, and podiatry practices; dental and medical clinics; pharmacies; aged care facilities; and hospitals. The data show a marked lack of mandatory probing and a generalised failure to reward crisis reporting. Crisis prevention training is poor in all organisations except hospitals and aged care facilities where it occurs at an adequate frequency. However this training focuses primarily on natural disasters, fails to address most other crisis types, is mostly reactive and not designed to probe for and uncover key taken-for-granted assumptions. Crisis-probing in health organisations is inadequate, and improvements in this area may well translate into measurable improvements in preparedness and response outcomes. PMID:24149030

  20. Deficient crisis-probing practices and taken-for-granted assumptions in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V; Adhikari, Ashmita; Cordery, Thomas; Giguère-Simmonds, Philippe; Huang, Jessica; Nguyen, Helen; Watson, Michael; Yang, Daniel

    2011-04-18

    The practice of crisis-probing in proactive organisations involves meticulous and sustained investigation into operational processes and management structures for potential weaknesses and flaws before they become difficult to resolve. In health organisations, crisis probing is a necessary part of preparing to manage emerging health threats. This study examined the degree of pre-emptive probing in health organisations and the type of crisis training provided to determine whether or not they are prepared in this area. This evidence-based study draws on cross-sectional responses provided by executives from chiropractic, physiotherapy, and podiatry practices; dental and medical clinics; pharmacies; aged care facilities; and hospitals. The data show a marked lack of mandatory probing and a generalised failure to reward crisis reporting. Crisis prevention training is poor in all organisations except hospitals and aged care facilities where it occurs at an adequate frequency. However this training focuses primarily on natural disasters, fails to address most other crisis types, is mostly reactive and not designed to probe for and uncover key taken-for-granted assumptions. Crisis-probing in health organisations is inadequate, and improvements in this area may well translate into measurable improvements in preparedness and response outcomes.

  1. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads ( n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria ( p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed ( p = 0.007), promotion ( p = 0.017), location of food outlets ( p = 0.027), and price ( p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  2. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  3. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  4. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  6. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  7. Telemedicine: The legal framework (or the lack of it) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of European law telemedicine is, simultaneously, a health service and an information service, therefore, both regulations apply. In what concerns healthcare and the practice of medicine there are no uniform regulations at the European level. Concerning health services the most relevant achievement to regulate this domain is Directive 2011/24/EU. In what regards information and telecommunications we must have in consideration Directive 95/46/EU, Directive 2000/31/EC and Directive 2002/58/EC. However, many issues still lack uniform regulation, mainly the domain of medical liability and of medical leges artis. Probably such standardization will never take place, since the European Union does not have, until now, a common set of norms regarding tort and criminal liability, much less specific legal norms on medical liability. These gaps may jeopardize a truly European internal market in health services and hamper the development of telemedicine in the European zone.

  8. Stakeholders' perception on the organization of chronic care: a SWOT analysis to draft avenues for health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Thérèse; Macq, Jean; Anthierens, Sibyl; Symons, Linda; Schmitz, Olivier; Paulus, Dominique; Van den Heede, Koen; Remmen, Roy

    2014-04-18

    Adequate care for individuals living with chronic illnesses calls for a healthcare system redesign, moving from acute, disease-centered to patient-centered models. The aim of this study was to identify Belgian stakeholders' perceptions on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the healthcare system for people with chronic diseases in Belgium. Four focus groups were held with stakeholders from the micro and meso level, in addition to two interviews with stakeholders who could not attend the focus group sessions. Data collection and the discussion were based on the Chronic Care model. Thematic analysis of the transcripts allowed for the identification of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current health care system with focus on chronic care. Informants stressed the overall good quality of the acute health care system and the level of reimbursement of care as an important strength of the current system. In contrast, the lack of integration of care was identified as one of the biggest weaknesses of today's health care system, along with the unclear definitions of the roles and functions of health professionals involved in care processes. Patient education to support self-management exists for patients with diabetes and/or terminal kidney failure but not for those living with other or multiple chronic conditions. The current overall fee-for-service system is a barrier to integrated care, as are the lack of incentives for integrated care. Attending multidisciplinary meetings, for example, is underfinanced to date. Finally, clinical information systems lack interoperability, which further impedes the information flow across settings and disciplines. Our study's methods allowed for the identification of problematic domains in the health system for people living with chronic conditions. These findings provided useful insights surrounding perceived priorities. This methodology may inspire other countries faced with the challenge of

  9. Water scarcity, quality and its impact on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqi, S.K.; Kausar, R.; Anwar, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The scarcity of water has become an established factor now and the intensity of problem is increasing day by day. Human use of natural water, particularly of fresh water resources, has increased steadily over the centuries. It is unlikely that this trend will change given the continued growth of population and the ever-widening utilization of water for agricultural, industrial 'and recreational purposes. This situation has given rise to growing concerns over the availability of adequate water supplies to accommodate the future needs of the populations. Surface-water resources are already being used to their maximum capacity in various regions of the world (Encarta Year Book, February, 2000). One billion people lack access to safe affordable water and over two billion people lack adequate sanitation. Water related diseases are largest cause of death in the world. As the world's population grows and demands for water increases, the UN predicts that two out of three people will be living with serious water shortage by 2025. (author)

  10. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  11. Working together for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, V W

    2000-01-01

    The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined.

  12. Patient-provider communication and reproductive health among HIV-positive women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Monica; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Garcia, Thais; Pacheco, Diego; Bastos, Francisco I

    2010-12-01

    To qualitatively assess the influence of patient-provider communication on contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in the context of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) access. Focus group discussions (FGD; n=3), in-depth (IDI; n=15) and freelist interviews (FLI; n=36) were conducted with HIV-positive women aged 18-40 years recruited from public health units in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Of 70 participants, 49 used ART and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 6 years (range: 1-18). The majority of participants (71.4%) reported some degree of dissatisfaction with their health providers (usually lack of open dialogue) and a few reported experiences of stigma/prejudice during appointments. Intra, interpersonal and social factors modulated behaviors and reproductive health decisions, and those issues were rarely addressed by providers during HIV clinical care. Despite dramatic increases in survival and life quality after universal ART implementation in Brazil, reproductive health issues are neglected by multiple cadres of HIV health providers. Communication on reproductive health issues remains fragmented and potentially contradictory, compromising care in these settings. Adequate provider training to address reproductive health-related issues in a comprehensive, culturally sensitive manner and improved integration of HIV and reproductive health care are urgently needed in this setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  14. Adequate Prenatal Care Reduces the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with History of Infertility: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Methods Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Results Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Conclusions Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility. PMID:24358347

  15. Biomedical Engineering and its Relevance to Total Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To highlight the importance of biomedical engineering, with respect to the many basic amenities including adequate water supply, electricity, drugs and medical equipment necessary for the proper functioning of medical doctors which are totally lacking in most developing countries. Method: Review of biomedical ...

  16. Health behavior-related indicator of lifestyle: application in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria-da-Conceição C; Alvim, Sheila; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-05-01

    Various behaviors are considered health enhancing. Nevertheless, according to the current scientific literature, four health behaviors are considered particularly risky in view of their association with a group of chronic diseases: 1) smoking; 2) excessive alcohol consumption; 3) poor diet; and 4) lack of physical activity. Theoretically, it should be possible to make improvements to one's health by maximizing the number of healthy behaviors and minimizing the unhealthy ones. However, in reality, the different behaviors interconnect to create more complex lifestyles. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the construction of a lifestyle indicator based on health behaviors selected in the ELSA-Brazil study. This indicator revealed two lifestyles: less healthy and healthier lifestyles. The model proved adequate and was confirmed using latent class analysis (LCA). Agreement was 83.2 between the indicator and the LCA results, with a kappa coefficient of 0.65. Women were more likely to have a healthier lifestyle than men, reinforcing the scientific consistency of the indicator, since this finding is in agreement with data from the scientific literature. The indicator created to define lifestyle was found to have scientific consistency and validity; therefore, its use can be recommended for future population-based studies concerning the promotion of health and healthy lifestyles.

  17. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1 97 Hg and 203 Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of 198 Au and 75 Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g -1 . (author)

  18. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  19. Migrating from user fees to social health insurance: exploring the prospects and challenges for hospital management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. Methods A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana’s ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. Results The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Conclusion Study’s findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation. PMID:22726666

  20. Migrating from user fees to social health insurance: exploring the prospects and challenges for hospital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atinga Roger A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. Methods A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana’s ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. Results The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Conclusion Study’s findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation.

  1. Immunological and Biochemical Markers in Oral Carcinogenesis: The Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunali Khanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is an integral component of general health and well being and a basic human right. Dental public health is probably the most challenging specialty of dentistry. Because of the lack of adequate resources among other factors, many people are likely to suffer from dental diseases. Despite great improvements in the oral health status of populations across the world, the burden and impact of dental diseases are still high. This is particularly true among underprivileged groups in both developed and developing communities. Oral diseases and conditions, including oral cancer, oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, dental trauma, craniofacial anomalies, and noma, all have broad impacts on health and well-being. Oral cancer, the sixth most common cancer worldwide continues to be most prevalent cancer related to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other carcinogenic products. Nevertheless, significant reduction in mortality can be achieved by advances in early diagnosis and implementation of multidisciplinary treatment programs leading to improvement of survivorship and better quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunologic and biochemical markers in oral carcinogenesis using circulating immune complexes (CIC, copper, iron, and selenium concentrations as assessment endpoints. Study results indicated an increase in CIC and copper levels, and a decrease in iron and selenium concentrations in oral cancer patients compared to controls. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  2. Barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a risk factor for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Gary; Rozmovits, Linda; Giambrone, Broden

    2011-06-29

    Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps to address the health risks posed by poverty. The consistent

  3. Unattended Deliveries and Perinatal Outcome: A Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Despite adequate health facilities and governmental financial support, lack of health education and initiative on the part of the patients might be a major contributing factor to the high level of unattended deliveries with the associated adverse outcome. Intensive health education with emphasis on the need for ...

  4. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  5. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lewis, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  6. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Saulat; Al-Saigul, Abdullah M; Alharbi, Ali M; Abdelgadir, Muzamil H

    2014-09-01

    Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into "superior," "adequate" and "not suitable." Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3%) brochures were evaluated as "adequate," 34 (30.9%) as "not suitable" and 2 (1.8%) as "superior." "Cultural appropriateness" was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6%) brochures falling into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. With regard to "content," 88 (80.0%) brochures fell into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2%) brochures were rated in this factor as "not suitable." Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered "adequate," the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the quality of health education brochures.

  7. A Performance Analysis of Public Expenditure on Maternal Health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Nigenda, Gustavo; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relationship between public expenditure, coverage of adequate ANC (including timing, frequent and content), and the maternal mortality ratio--adjusted by coverage of adequate ANC--observed in Mexico in 2012 at the State level. Additionally, we examine the inequalities and concentration of public expenditure between populations with and without Social Security. Results suggest that in the 2003-2011 period, the public expenditure gap between women with and without Social Security decreased 74%, however, the distribution is less equitable among women without Social Security, across the States. Despite high levels of coverage on each dimension of ANC explored, coverage of adequate ANC was lower among Social Security than non-Social Security women. This variability results in differences up to 1.5 times in State-adjusted maternal mortality rate at the same level of expense and maternal mortality rate, respectively. The increase in the economic resources is only a necessary condition for achieving improved health outcomes. Providing adequate health services and achieving efficient, effective and transparent use of resources in health, are critical elements for health systems performance. The attainment of universal effective coverage of maternal health and reducing maternal mortality in Mexico, requires the adjustment of policy innovations including the rules of allocation and execution of health resources. Health policies should be designed on a more holistic view promoting a balance between accessibility, effective implementation and rigorous stewardship.

  8. How to characterize the public health workforce based on essential public health operations? environmental public health workers in the Netherlands as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.; van Honschooten, R.; Doosje, J.; Stronks, K.; Essink-Bot, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Public health workforce planning and policy development require adequate data on the public health workforce and the services provided. If existing data sources do not contain the necessary information, or apply to part of the workforce only, primary data collection is required. The aim of this

  9. Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Joko, Walburga Yvonne A; Obama, Joel Marie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2013-01-01

    For the last two decades, promoted by many governments and international number in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2005 in Cameroon, there were only 60 Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes nationwide, covering less than 1% of the population. In 2006, the Cameroon government adopted a national strategy aimed at creating at least one CBHI scheme in each health district and covering at least 40% of the population with CBHI schemes by 2015. Unfortunately, there is almost no published data on the awareness and the implementation of CBHI schemes in Cameroon. Structured interviews were conducted in January 2010 with 160 informal sectors workers in the Bonassama health district (BHD) of Douala, aiming at evaluating their knowledge, concern and preferences on CBHI schemes and their financial plan to cover health costs. The awareness on the existence of CHBI schemes was poor awareness schemes among these informal workers. Awareness of CBHI schemes was significantly associated with a high level of education (p = 0.0001). Only 4.4% of respondents had health insurance, and specifically 1.2% were involved in a CBHI scheme. However, 128 (86.2%) respondents thought that belonging to a CBHI scheme could facilitate their access to adequate health care, and were thus willing to be involved in CBHI schemes. Our respondents would have preferred CBHI schemes run by missionaries to CBHI schemes run by the government or people of the same ethnic group (p). There is a very low participation in CBHI schemes among the informal sector workers of the BHD. This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity based community associations to which the vast majority of this target population belong are prime areas for sensitization on CBHI schemes. Hence these associations could possibly federalize to create CBHI schemes.

  10. Civil society participation in the health system: the case of Brazil's Health Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Martha Gabriela; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2016-10-26

    Brazil created Health Councils to bring together civil society groups, heath professionals, and government officials in the discussion of health policies and health system resource allocation. However, several studies have concluded that Health Councils are not very influential on healthcare policy. This study probes this issue further by providing a descriptive account of some of the challenges civil society face within Brazil's Health Councils. Forty semi-structured interviews with Health Council Members at the municipal, state and national levels were conducted in June and July of 2013 and May of 2014. The geographical location of the interviewees covered all five regions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, South) for a total of 5 different municipal Health Councils, 8 different state Health Councils, and the national Health Council in Brasilia. Interview data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Health Councils are limited by a lack of legal authority, which limits their ability to hold the government accountable for its health service performance, and thus hinders their ability to fulfill their mandate. Equally important, their membership guidelines create a limited level of inclusivity that seems to benefit only well-organized civil society groups. There is a reported lack of support and recognition from the relevant government that negatively affects the degree to which Health Council deliberations are implemented. Other deficiencies include an insufficient amount of resources for Health Council operations, and a lack of training for Health Council members. Lastly, strong individual interests among Health Council members tend to influence how members participate in Health Council discussions. Brazil's Health Councils fall short in providing an effective forum through which civil society can actively participate in health policy and resource allocation decision-making processes. Restrictive membership guidelines, a lack of autonomy from the

  11. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  12. Motivation of human resources for health: a case study at rural district level in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnen, Véronique; Paul, Elisabeth; Mwisongo, Aziza; Nyato, Daniel; Robert, Annie

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies explore the association between financial and non-financial incentives and the retention of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to empirical evidence on human resource for health motivation factors to assist policy makers in promoting effective and realistic interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Tanzanian districts to explore staff stability and health workers' motivation. Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative techniques, covering all levels and types of health facilities. Stability of staff was found to be quite high. Public institutions remained very attractive with better job security, salary and retirement benefits. Satisfaction over working conditions was very low owing to inadequate working equipment, work overload, lack of services, difficult environment, favouritism and 'empty promotions'. Positive incentives mentioned were support for career development and supportive supervision. Attracting new staff in rural areas appeared to be more difficult than retaining staff in place. The study concluded that strategies to better motivate health personnel should focus on adequate remuneration, positive working and living environment and supportive management. However, by multiplying health facilities, the latest Tanzanian human resource for health plan could jeopardize current positive results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  14. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress

  15. The inverse primary care law in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative study of the views of migrant health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Wojczewski, Silvia; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Poppe, Annelien; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Peersman, Wim; Willcox, Merlin; Derese, Anselme; Mant, David

    2014-06-01

    Many low-income and middle-income countries globally are now pursuing ambitious plans for universal primary care, but are failing to deliver adequate care quality because of intractable human resource problems. To understand why migrant nurses and doctors from sub-Saharan Africa did not wish to take up available posts in primary and first-contact care in their home countries. Qualitative study of migrant health workers to Europe (UK, Belgium, and Austria) or southern Africa (Botswana and South Africa) from sub-Saharan Africa. Semi-structured interviews with 66 health workers (24 nurses and 42 doctors) from 18 countries between July 2011 and April 2012. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a framework approach. The reasons given for choosing not to work in primary care were grouped into three main analytic streams: poor working environment, difficult living experiences, and poor career path. Responders described a lack of basic medicines and equipment, an unmanageable workload, and lack of professional support. Many had concerns about personal security, living conditions (such as education for children), and poor income. Primary care was seen as lower status than hospital medicine, with lack of specialist training opportunities and more exposure to corruption. Clinicians are reluctant to work in the conditions they currently experience in primary care in sub-Saharan Africa and these conditions tend to get worse as poverty and need for primary care increases. This inverse primary care law undermines achievement of universal health coverage. Policy experience from countries outside Africa shows that it is not immutable. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  16. Health care needs assessment among adolescents in correctional institutions in Zambia: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Maureen; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2017-08-22

    While health care needs assessments have been conducted among juveniles or adolescents by researchers in developed countries, assessments using an ethics framework particularly in developing countries are lacking. We analysed the health care needs among adolescents at the Nakambala Correctional Institution in Zambia, using the Beauchamp and Childress ethics framework. The ethics approach facilitated analysis of moral injustices or dilemmas triggered by health care needs at the individual (adolescent) level. The research team utilized 35 in-depth interviews with juveniles, 6 key informant interviews and 2 focus group discussions to collect data. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The use of three sources of data facilitated triangulation of data. Common health problems included HIV/AIDS, STIs, flu, diarrhoea, rashes, and malaria. Although there are some health promotion strategies at the Nakambala Approved School, the respondents classified the health care system as inadequate. The unfavourable social context which included clouded rooms and lack of adolescent health friendly services unfairly exposed adolescents to several health risks and behaviours thus undermining the ethics principle of social justice. In addition, the limited prioritisation of adolescent centres by the stakeholders and erratic funding also worsened injustices by weakening the health care system. Whereas the inadequate medical and drug supplies, shortage of health workers in the nearby health facilities and weak referral systems excluded the juveniles from enjoying maximum health benefits thus undermining adolescents' wellbeing or beneficence. Inadequate medical and drug supplies as well as non-availability of adolescent friendly health services at the nearest health facility did not only affect social justice and beneficence ethics principles but also threatened juveniles' privacy, liberty and confidentiality as well as autonomy with regard to health service utilisation

  17. Use of Mental Health Care and Unmet Needs for Health Care Among Lesbian and Bisexual Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Chiao, Christine; Valentine, Anne; Lê Cook, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    This study examined associations between sexual orientation of Asian-American women and receipt of mental health care and unmet need for health care. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with 701 unmarried Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-American women ages 18 to 35. Multivariate regression models examined whether lesbian and bisexual participants differed from exclusively heterosexual participants in use of mental health care and unmet need for health care. After the analyses controlled for mental health status and other covariates, lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to have received any past-year mental health services and reported a greater unmet need for health care. Sexual-minority women were no more likely to have received minimally adequate care. Given the high rates of mental health problems among Asian-American sexual-minority women, efforts are needed to identify and overcome barriers to receipt of adequate mental health care and minimize unmet health care needs.

  18. Making ecological models adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David

    2018-01-01

    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  19. Self-perceived attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education among different health care professionals in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Sebastian Felix Nepomuk; Giesler, Marianne; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krüger, Marcus; Straub, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is the basis for interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in health care systems. It has beneficial effects for both patients and health care professionals. IPC is paramount for adequate care of patients and their families, especially in pediatrics. To determine the attitudes of medical doctors (n=121), nurses (n=15), psychologists (n=14), and social workers (n=19) toward IPE and IPC in a tertiary pediatric university teaching hospital, as well as the inpatient and outpatient settings in pediatrics, we developed a questionnaire with 21 items in four categories based on established questionnaires. All participants worked as part of interprofessional teams, and the overwhelming majority valued IPC highly. Most competencies important for IPC were acquired on the job. There was a substantial lack of interprofessional education, especially for medical doctors and psychologists. IPE still needs to be established as part of the undergraduate curriculum at German universities.

  20. Assessment of Change of Knowledge Through on the Job Training of Health Workers (Female in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Gupta

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care infrastructure of our country lacks in effective, bulitin system of on the job training or continuing education for different level of workers. This ad­versely affects the work performance particularly of those working at peripheral level. It is, therefore, aptly mentioned in “curricula for training of staff of PHC” (1980' that ‘job assigned to the workers can be carried out effectively and efficiei tly only when they are given adequate training for the purpose, wnether as part of their basic professional training or as inservice orieotation training followed by refresher courses and on the job continuing edu­cation.’ Against this background, an action study was planned and conductedin 3 PHCs of Varanasi, with the objective, to assess the change in the Level of know­ledge of health worker (females alout MCH care, through short term inservice orientation Training programme.

  1. Fiscal Year 2011 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund Projects Are Behind Schedule and Lack Adequate Sustainment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    International Security Assistance Force Dr . S. Ken Yamashita USAID Mission Director for Afghanistan This report discusses the results of the Office...committees, in addition to AIF, Congress noted that State planned to fund AIP projects by reprogramming existing foreign assistance resources to...availability by up to 25-27 megawatts (MW)22 and extended availability to two previously underserved areas of Kandahar City in the west and southeast

  2. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: caroline.perez@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1{sup 97}Hg and {sup 203}Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of {sup 198}Au and {sup 75}Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Liu, Yingying; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Evans, Tim; Evans, David; Kurowski, Christoph; Tandon, Ajay; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Jager, De Pieter; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia E.; Faro, Andre; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Masiye, Felix; Meier, Toni; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Osman, Abdalla Sidahmed; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Salama, Joseph; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shrime, Mark G.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this

  4. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  5. Business continuity and pandemic preparedness: US health care versus non-health care agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Wang, Jing; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; delRosario, John Leon

    2013-04-01

    Only limited data are available on US business continuity activities related to biologic events. A questionnaire was administered to human resource professionals during May-July 2011 to assess business continuity related to biologic events, incentives businesses are providing to maximize worker surge capacity, and seasonal influenza vaccination policy. Linear regressions were used to describe factors associated with higher business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores. The χ(2) and Fisher exact tests compared health care versus non-health care businesses on preparedness indicators. Possible business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0.5 to 27 and 0 to 15, with average resulting scores among participants at 13.2 and 7.3, respectively. Determinants of business continuity and pandemic preparedness were (1) business size (larger businesses were more prepared), (2) type of business (health care more prepared), (3) having human resource professional as company disaster planning committee member, and (4) risk perception of a pandemic in the next year. Most businesses (63.3%, n = 298) encourage staff influenza vaccination; 2.1% (n = 10) mandate it. Only 10% of businesses (11.0%, n = 52) provide employee incentives, and fewer than half (41.0%, n = 193) stockpile personal protective equipment. Despite the recent H1N1 pandemic, many US businesses lack adequate pandemic plans. It is critical that businesses of all sizes and types become better prepared for a biologic event. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Barriers to the widespread adoption of health data standards: an exploratory qualitative study in tertiary healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Although health data standards are perceived to be the essential solution for interoperability barriers within medical IT systems, the level of adoption of those standards still remains frustratingly low. Little is known about the barriers facing their adoption within the healthcare organizations context. In addressing this gap in the literature, based on IT related standards adoption theories such as Diffusion of Innovation Theory and the theories surrounding the Economics of Standards, a qualitative multiple-case study was undertaken in Saudi Arabia to investigate those barriers. The results exposed that few standards were adopted because of four broad reasons, managerial, technical, educational and governmental. While some of the findings can be rooted to those related standards theories, others can be underpinned through the normative literature. Core barriers are the lack of a national regulator and a data exchange plan, and the lack of an adequate policy regarding medical IT systems and information management and national healthcare system; also important are technical barriers and the switching costs to the standards. The outcome of this study can be used in forming effective interventions when planning to use health data standards and, in particular those in developing countries.

  7. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M; Svendsen, Kristin V H

    2015-12-01

    Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  8. Predictors of Timely Prenatal Care Initiation and Adequate Utilization in a Sample of Late Adolescent Texas Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar; Kehoe, Priscilla; Heilemann, MarySue V

    2018-03-01

    Little is known of late adolescent Texas Latinas' prenatal care perceptions or how these perceptions predict timely prenatal care initiation or adequate utilization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to describe and compare these perceptions between participants with timely versus late prenatal care initiation and adequate, intermediate, and inadequate prenatal care utilization; and to determine predictors of timely prenatal care initiation and adequate utilization. Fifty-four postpartum Latinas were recruited through social media. Eligibility criteria were 18 to 21 years old, Texas-born, primiparous, uncomplicated pregnancy/delivery, and English literate. Prenatal care perceptions were measured with the Revised Better Babies Survey and Access Barriers to Care Index. Participants had favorable views of prenatal care benefits; however, not living with the baby's father predicted inadequate prenatal care, Wald χ 2 (1) = 4.93, p = .026. Perceived benefits of timely and adequate prenatal care predicted timely prenatal care initiation, χ 2 (1) = 7.47, p = .006. Self-reported depression during pregnancy predicted timely entry into prenatal care, χ 2 (1) = 4.73, p = .03. Participants' positive prenatal care perceptions did not predict adequate prenatal care utilization, indicating that barriers serve as powerful obstacles in late adolescent Texas Latinas.

  9. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulat Jahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into "superior," "adequate" and "not suitable." Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. Results: We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3% brochures were evaluated as "adequate," 34 (30.9% as "not suitable" and 2 (1.8% as "superior." "Cultural appropriateness" was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6% brochures falling into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. With regard to "content," 88 (80.0% brochures fell into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2% brochures were rated in this factor as "not suitable." Conclusions: Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered "adequate," the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the quality of health education brochures.

  10. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-02-11

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  12. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  13. Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…

  14. Health System Competency for Maternal Health Services in Balasore District and Jaleswar Block, Balasore, Odisha, India: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-08-01

    A competent health system is of paramount importance in delivering the desired health services in a particular community. The broad objective of this study was to assess the health system competency for the maternal health services in Balasore District and Jaleswar block of Balasore district, Odisha, India. A mixed method approach was adopted in order to understand the health system competency for maternal health services in the study area. There was poor accessibility through road, poor electricity connection and piped water for the health care centers in the district. Even, existing Primary Health Centres (PHCs) lack ECG and X-Ray machines for proper diagnostic services which jeopardize the catering of health services. Community Health Centres (CHC) lack basic diagnostic and ambulance services making the tribal pockets inaccessible. The tribal dominated Jaleswar block shows poor performance in terms of total registered Antenatal Checkups (ANC) (only 77%). A gradual decrease in the rate of ANC, from first to fourthcheckup, was observed in the district. Lack of public health infrastructure in general and non-compliance to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) in particular, affect the health of tribal women resulting in lack of interest in availing the institutional delivery services and other pertinent maternal health services.

  15. Exploring the drivers of health and healthcare access in Zambian prisons: a health systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Stephanie M; Moonga, Clement N; Luo, Nkandu; Kaingu, Michael; Chileshe, Chisela; Magwende, George; Heymann, S Jody; Henostroza, German

    2016-11-01

    Prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experience a high burden of disease and poor access to health care. Although it is generally understood that environmental conditions are dire and contribute to disease spread, evidence of how environmental conditions interact with facility-level social and institutional factors is lacking. This study aimed to unpack the nature of interactions and their influence on health and healthcare access in the Zambian prison setting. We conducted in-depth interviews of a clustered random sample of 79 male prisoners across four prisons, as well as 32 prison officers, policy makers and health care workers. Largely inductive thematic analysis was guided by the concepts of dynamic interaction and emergent behaviour, drawn from the theory of complex adaptive systems. A majority of inmates, as well as facility-based officers reported anxiety linked to overcrowding, sanitation, infectious disease transmission, nutrition and coercion. Due in part to differential wealth of inmates and their support networks on entering prison, and in part to the accumulation of authority and material wealth within prison, we found enormous inequity in the standard of living among prisoners at each site. In the context of such inequities, failure of the Zambian prison system to provide basic necessities (including adequate and appropriate forms of nutrition, or access to quality health care) contributed to high rates of inmate-led and officer-led coercion with direct implications for health and access to healthcare. This systems-oriented analysis provides a more comprehensive picture of the way resource shortages and human interactions within Zambian prisons interact and affect inmate and officer health. While not a panacea, our findings highlight some strategic entry-points for important upstream and downstream reforms including urgent improvement in the availability of human resources for health; strengthening of facility-based health services systems

  16. Ramifications of Dental Policy and its Impact on Public Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant MC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral health care system is to promote, maintain and prevent oral disease. It also aims at adequate treatment to arrest the disease at an early stage .There is a lack of clearly stated objectives and many a time lack of implementation. There are around 300 plus colleges(2in India today. Opening up of private sector to dental college has both a positive and negative impact. Today dental treatment is available in many rural parts of India and there is an increased awareness as compared to before. Technology and infrastructure is widely available. The question is are the department and infrastructure used .Definitely not to the optimumas the are not performing for what they are designed. For example Community dentistry department has been used only to increase number of patients to dental colleges. It is seen as an advertisement agency for these colleges. Role of Community dentist has become that of is of a referring body. Other subjects relating to dental public health like fluoridation of drinking water, Commercial mouthwashes have also been a cause for concern, with some studies linking them to an increased risk of oral cancer(3, 4, 5, 6 has taken a back seat. The maximum permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water in India is 1.2 mg/L7. There are programs on tobacco awareness but its use in India does not show significant decline in users. Most of these programs are not involving dentist actively

  17. Crisis Management in the Health Sector: Qualities and characteristics of health crisis managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manwlidou Zacharoula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly evolving nature of today’s health systems and the need to adapt to modern demands,require that these systems are staffed with skilled health crisis managers. Based on that scenario, crisis managerswith good knowledge and training, adequate experience, as well as virtues of excellent organizational skills,operational planning, mental power and social sensitivity, can play a key role in dealing successfully with crisesin the health sector.

  18. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  19. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J. A.; Sial, M. A.; Hassan, Z. U.; Rajpar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  20. Parental lack of care and overprotection. Longitudinal associations with DSM-III-R disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Have, Margreet; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2007-02-01

    This study served to replicate and extend the findings from the National Comorbidity Survey [Enns MW, Cox BJ, Clara I (2002) Psychol Med 32:997-1008], in examining associations between recalled parental bonding and the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in adulthood. Data were used from 4,796 adults aged 18-64, who had participated in three waves (i.e., 1996, 1997, and 1999) of a large-scale Dutch epidemiological study. Parental lack of care and overprotection were significantly associated with both prevalence and incidence of DSM-III-R disorders. However, the impact of parental bonding was modest, explaining only 1-5% of the variance in the occurrence and onset of psychopathology. Chi-square tests demonstrated there were no differences between the impact of paternal and maternal rearing behaviors on mental disorders, or between lack of care and overprotection in the prediction of mental disorders. Overall, individuals' recollections of parental lack of care and overprotection appear to be non-specifically, modestly related to the prevalence and incidence of DSM-III-R disorders in adults from the general population. Future research may examine indirect or mediated links between parental bonding and (clinical diagnoses of) mental health problems.

  1. Health system preparedness for integration of mental health services in rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaikolo, Wilfred S; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cooper, Janice L

    2017-07-27

    There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history. Both events have immediate and lasting mental health effects. A mixed-methods approach was employed, consisting of qualitative interviews with 22 key informants and six focus group discussions. Additional qualitative data as well as quantitative data were collected through semi-structured assessments of 19 rural primary care health facilities. Data were collected from March 2013 to March 2014. Potential barriers to development and uptake of mental health services included lack of mental health knowledge among primary health care staff; high workload for primary health care workers precluding addition of mental health responsibilities; lack of mental health drugs; poor physical infrastructure of health facilities including lack of space for confidential consultation; poor communication support including lack of electricity and mobile phone networks that prevent referrals and phone consultation with supervisors; absence of transportation for patients to facilitate referrals; negative attitudes and stigma towards people with severe mental disorders and their family members; and stigma against mental health workers. To develop and facilitate effective primary care mental health services in a post-conflict, low resource setting will require (1) addressing the knowledge and clinical skills gap in the primary care workforce; (2) improving physical

  2. eHealth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chetty, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available and the development of a National Health Insurance. However, Dr Aaron Motsoaledi, Minister of Health, has expressed his concern about the prevalence of manual health information systems in the public sector as well as the challenge regarding the lack...

  3. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years

  4. Public health in community pharmacy: a systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-07-21

    The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public

  5. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  6. Health | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers with the Africa Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) have uncovered ways to strengthen health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Weak health systems cause a high burden of preventable and treatable illnesses, especially for those living in rural areas. Strong health systems are needed to provide adequate access ...

  7. Racism and Mental Health: An Exploration of the Racist's Illness and the Victim's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Benjamin P.

    The field of mental health has had difficulty in developing an adequate conceptualization of racism as a mental health problem. Based on conventional classifications of mental illness, racism might be described as a functional disorder. The racist, however, appears quite normal except for a paranoid disorder in the area of racial relations. The…

  8. Oral Health Status, Treatment Needs and Knowledge, Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...

  9. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  10. To promote adoption of household health technologies, think beyond health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Warner, Christina; Platt, Lauren; Slaski, Alexander; Gupta, Rajesh; Miller, Grant

    2013-10-01

    Health risks from poor malaria control, unsafe water, and indoor air pollution are responsible for an important share of the global disease burden-and they can be addressed by efficacious household health technologies that have existed for decades. However, coverage rates of these products among populations at risk remain disappointingly low. We conducted a review of the medical and public health literatures and found that health considerations alone are rarely sufficient motivation for households to adopt and use these technologies. In light of these findings, we argue that health education and persuasion campaigns by themselves are unlikely to be adequate. Instead, health policymakers and professionals must understand what users value beyond health and possibly reengineer health technologies with these concerns in mind.

  11. Inequity and health. Is malnutrition really caused by poor nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, F Y

    2000-08-01

    To look at inequities leading to malnutrition and from the wider picture to find root causes and deal with them in order to alleviate malnutrition. Literature review. The health of the population is adversely affected by the inequities in the country. Women and children being most vulnerable are worst affected. The prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition (P.E.M.) in children under five years of age is 51 percent. Such a magnitude of malnutrition in a country, where availability of food per capita is more than adequate, points towards the fact that the inequities within the country are at the root of the problem. Poor income is not the only predictor of malnutrition, gender, urban-rural differences in access, utilization and quality of health care also influence health. In addition, there are some underlying factors such as illiteracy, unawareness of the mother about healthy behaviors, lack of decision-making power of women, along with deep-rooted cultural values of a patriarchal system. Malnutrition is caused by a multitude of factors, some of which are biological, others are environmental, cultural or social. Education of the invisible half of the population, who actually look after the children and the family, is an important strategy to alleviate this problem.

  12. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  13. Mothers' health services utilization and health care seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: data from different studies showed health care behaviour and estimated per capita health care expenditure for the general population, but the specific data for infants at different levels of care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe mothers' health service utilization during pregnancy and ...

  14. Relationship between performance barriers and pharmacist competency towards the implementation of an expanded public health pharmacy role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, Amuthaganesh; Nagalinggam, Preesha; Mathialagan, Saravanabavan; Kirby, Brian P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between performance barriers and competency, and implementation of an expanded public health role for community pharmacists. A validated questionnaire was utilised for this study whereby three variables of the study (performance barriers, competency and public health role) were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to target respondents of registered community pharmacies in five states (Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak and Penang) in Malaysia. The data were analysed utilising the principles of structural equation modelling. There were 191 completed and usable responses received, which represented a 66.7% response rate. This study showed perceived competency had a direct relationship with delivering a general public health role. A perceived lack of competency was shown to be a barrier to fulfilling a public health role. However, other factors, such as design of premises, IT infrastructure and pay, were not viewed as barriers to carrying out a public health role. Perceived competency is an obstacle for community pharmacists to undertake a public health role in Malaysia. Adequate training programmes in pharmaceutical public health have to be put in place to address this concern and this should therefore be a priority. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Analysis of factors influencing the outpatient workload at Chinese health centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Ping

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the community health service system is now established in China, the utilisation of the community health service institutions is low due to the lack of a gate-keeping role of the primary health service providers and referrals among the three-tiered health service institutions. In addition to this, patients who can afford to pay, often seek best services in big hospitals to guarantee the quality of care. Thus, the need of guiding the patients to the community health services and increasing the utilisation of the community health service institutions is becoming an urgent problem, which hinders the future development of community health services. This study focuses on the question of how to increase the utilisation of Chinese community health centres (HCs. Methods A cross-sectional Base-line Survey of Chinese City Community Health Service System Building using the multi-staged cluster sampling was conducted to collect data from all HCs in 28 key contact cities. Relevant indicators of totally 1790 HCs were analysed. The statistical methods included ANONVA and logistic regression. Results and Conclusions The analysis suggested several key factors for increasing the outpatient workload (OW at the HCs: establishing an adequate referral system among the different levels of the health system; enhancing the qualification of health personnel and increasing the compensation by the health insurance for services provided at HCs. Other key factors with a positive effect on the OW included: the government ownership of the HCs, the scale of the institutions, the medical equipment used, the mix of health services provided, and the women in childbearing age in the residence.

  16. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of "digital health", we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a "uberization" of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all.

  17. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  18. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, Rainer; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% ± 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% ± 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% ± 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% ± 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% ± 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% ± 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender

  19. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  20. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  1. Barriers in using cardiometabolic risk information among consumers with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; Bogaerts, Nina M M; van Dongen, Diana; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2016-02-01

    To identify the barriers from the perspective of consumers with low health literacy in using risk information as provided in cardiometabolic risk assessments. A qualitative thematic approach using cognitive interviews was employed. We performed interviews with 23 people with low health literacy/health numeracy, who were recruited through (1) several organisations and snowball sampling and (2) an online access panel. Participants completed the risk test of the Dutch national cardiometabolic risk assessment and viewed the personalized information about their risk. They were asked to answer probing questions about different parts of the information. The qualitative data were analysed by identifying main themes related to barriers in using the information, using a descriptive thematic approach. The four main themes identified were as follows: (1) People did not fully accept the risk message, partly because numerical information had ambiguous meaning; (2) people lacked an adequate framework for understanding their risk; (3) the purpose and setting of the risk assessment was unclear; and (4) current information tells nothing new: A need for more specific risk information. The main barriers were that the current presentation seemed to provoke undervaluation of the risk number and that texts throughout the test, for example about cardiometabolic diseases, did not match people's existing knowledge, failing to provide an adequate framework for understanding cardiometabolic risk. Our findings have implications for the design of disease risk information, for example that alternative forms of communication should be explored that provide more intuitive meaning of the risk in terms of good versus bad. What is already known on this subject? Online disease risk assessments have become widely available internationally. People with low SES and health literacy tend to participate less in health screening. Risk information is difficult to understand, yet little research has been

  2. Leveraging Existing Laboratory Capacity towards Universal Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequately equipped clinical laboratories should provide early warning signals of health risks. The Assessment categorized the laboratories at three levels relating to the type of facility, these being hospital, health center and health post. This study used results from the SARA to determine the ability to make timely diagnosis ...

  3. Factors Affecting the Presence of Adequately Iodized Salt at Home in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia: Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumma, Wondimagegn Paulos; Haji, Yusuf; Abdurahmen, Junayde; Mehretie Adinew, Yohannes

    2018-01-01

    Universal use of iodized salt is a simple and inexpensive method to prevent and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders like mental retardation. However, little is known about the level of adequately iodized salt consumption in the study area. Therefore, the study was aimed at assessing the proportion of households having adequately iodized salt and associated factors in Wolaita Sodo town and its peripheries, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 10 to 20, 2016, in 441 households in Sodo town and its peripheries. Samples were selected using the systematic sampling technique. An iodometric titration method (AOAC, 2000) was used to analyze the iodine content of the salt samples. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16, respectively. The female to male ratio of the respondents was 219. The mean age of the respondents was 30.2 (±7.3 SD). The proportion of households having adequately iodized salt was 37.7%, with 95% CI of 33.2% to 42.2%. Not exposing salt to sunlight with [OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.14, 6.57], higher monthly income [OR: 3.71; 95% CI: 1.97-7.01], and formal education of respondents with [OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.70] were found associated with the presence of adequately iodized salt at home. This study revealed low levels of households having adequately iodized salt in Wolaita Sodo town and its peripheries. The evidence here shows that there is a need to increase the supply of adequately iodized salt to meet the goal for monitoring progress towards sustainable elimination of IDD.

  4. Do health systems delay the treatment of poor children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Helle; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Mbuyita, Selemani Said

    2013-01-01

    Child mortality remains one of the major public-health problems in Tanzania. Delays in receiving and accessing adequate care contribute to these high rates. The literature on public health often focuses on the role of mothers in delaying treatment, suggesting that they contact the health system too...... late and that they prefer to treat their children at home, a perspective often echoed by health workers. Using the three-delay methodology, this study focus on the third phase of the model, exploring the delays experienced in receiving adequate care when mothers with a sick child contact a health......-care facility. The overall objective is to analyse specific structural factors embedded in everyday practices at health facilities in a district in Tanzania which cause delays in the treatment of poor children and to discuss possible changes to institutions and social technologies....

  5. Health Libraries and Information Services in Tanzania: A Strategic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D; Detlefsen, Ellen G

    The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers, and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and universities from both government and nongovernment entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, and low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of

  6. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.

    2014-04-01

    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  7. Systematic Review of Integrative Health Care Research: Randomized Control Trials, Clinical Controlled Trials, and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Khorsan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to assess the level of evidence for integrative health care research. We searched PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED, BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, the entire Cochrane Library, MANTIS, Social SciSearch, SciSearch Cited Ref Sci, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and NCCAM grantee publications listings, from database inception to May 2009, as well as searches of the “gray literature.” Available studies published in English language were included. Three independent reviewers rated each article and assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 50. Our search yielded 11,891 total citations but 6 clinical studies, including 4 randomized, met our inclusion criteria. There are no available systematic reviews/meta-analyses published that met our inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed independently using quality checklists of the SIGN 50. Only a small number of RCTs and CCTs with a limited number of patients and lack of adequate control groups assessing integrative health care research are available. These studies provide limited evidence of effective integrative health care on some modalities. However, integrative health care regimen appears to be generally safe.

  8. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  9. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  10. Health workers' perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to institutional delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay; San Sebastian, Miguel; Edin, Kerstin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2014-04-10

    Evidence shows that the three delays, delay in 1) deciding to seek medical care, 2) reaching health facilities and 3) receiving adequate obstetric care, are still contributing to maternal deaths in low-income countries. Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers with a maternal mortality ratio of 676 per 100,000 live births. The Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched a community-based health-care system in 2003, the Health Extension Programme (HEP), to tackle maternal mortality. Despite strong efforts, universal access to services remains limited, particularly skilled delivery attendance. With the help of 'the three delays' framework, this study explores health-service providers' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the utilization of institutional delivery in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia. Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out with eight health extension workers (HEWs) and four midwives. Each interview lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. Data were analysed through a thematic analysis approach. Three themes emerged from the analysis: the struggle between tradition and newly acquired knowledge, community willingness to deal with geographical barriers, and striving to do a good job with insufficient resources. These themes represent the three steps in the path towards receiving adequate institutional delivery care at a health facility. Of the themes, 'increased community awareness', 'organization of the community' and 'hospital with specialized staff' were recognized as facilitators. On the other hand, 'delivery as a natural event', 'cultural tradition and rituals', 'inaccessible transport', 'unmet community expectation' and 'shortage of skilled human resources' were represented as barriers to institutional delivery. The participants in this study gave emphasis to the major barriers to institutional delivery that are closely connected with the three delays model. Despite the initiatives being implemented by the Tigray

  11. The impact of urban gardens on adequate and healthy food: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariana T; Ribeiro, Silvana M; Germani, Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves; Bógus, Cláudia M

    2018-02-01

    To examine the impacts on food and nutrition-related outcomes resulting from participation in urban gardens, especially on healthy food practices, healthy food access, and healthy food beliefs, knowledge and attitudes. The systematic review identified studies by searching the PubMed, ERIC, LILACS, Web of Science and Embase databases. An assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies was carried out and a narrative summary was produced. Studies published as original articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals in English, Spanish or Portuguese between 2005 and 2015 were included. The studies included were based on data from adult participants in urban gardens. Twenty-four studies were initially selected based on the eligibility criteria, twelve of which were included. There was important heterogeneity of settings, population and assessment methods. Assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies revealed the need for greater methodological rigour. Most studies investigated community gardens and employed a qualitative approach. The following were reported: greater fruit and vegetable consumption, better access to healthy foods, greater valuing of cooking, harvest sharing with family and friends, enhanced importance of organic production, and valuing of adequate and healthy food. Thematic patterns related to adequate and healthy food associated with participation in urban gardens were identified, revealing a positive impact on practices of adequate and healthy food and mainly on food perceptions.

  12. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinéia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Teófilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil.

  13. Eating in a time of “crisis”: New health and dietary contexts in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Gracia-Arnaiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the reasons why food insecurity in Spain must increasingly be understood as lack of access to sufficient food resources to guarantee the survival and wellbeing of part of the population. Using data collected in an ongoing research project, two possible causes for this are explored. First, it is argued that certain positive developments that seemed firmly established, such as recognition of the right to an adequate diet and the leveling out of social differences in food consumption, are now being reversed by the current economic crisis. Second, the analysis focuses on strategies people in precarious circumstances use to obtain food, their relationship to health, and the need to take social inequality into consideration as an explanatory variable in accounting for different ways of procuring daily sustenance.

  14. The Effects of Lack of Joint Goal Planning on Divorce over 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Judith; Almeida, David M; Martire, Lynn M

    Given the negative consequences of divorce on health and well-being, it is important to try to identify its predictors. In the current study we used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development (N = 2801) to examine the longitudinal effects of lack of joint goal planning with a romantic relationship partner on divorce over a 10-year period. Multilevel regression analyses showed that lack of joint planning with the relationship partner was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of divorce, even when controlling for various demographic (i.e., age, gender, relationship length, number of children in the household), individual (i.e., neuroticism, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, planning), and relationship (i.e., marital empathy, partner strain, partner disagreement, marital satisfaction, commitment). These results demonstrate the importance of considering one's partner when making decisions and plans for the future, given that it has clear implications for relationship dissolution.

  15. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  16. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003 AAR PM MeetingParticulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human HealthLACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  18. Stakeholders’ perception on the organization of chronic care: a SWOT analysis to draft avenues for health care reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate care for individuals living with chronic illnesses calls for a healthcare system redesign, moving from acute, disease-centered to patient-centered models. The aim of this study was to identify Belgian stakeholders’ perceptions on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the healthcare system for people with chronic diseases in Belgium. Methods Four focus groups were held with stakeholders from the micro and meso level, in addition to two interviews with stakeholders who could not attend the focus group sessions. Data collection and the discussion were based on the Chronic Care model. Thematic analysis of the transcripts allowed for the identification of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current health care system with focus on chronic care. Results Informants stressed the overall good quality of the acute health care system and the level of reimbursement of care as an important strength of the current system. In contrast, the lack of integration of care was identified as one of the biggest weaknesses of today’s health care system, along with the unclear definitions of the roles and functions of health professionals involved in care processes. Patient education to support self-management exists for patients with diabetes and/or terminal kidney failure but not for those living with other or multiple chronic conditions. The current overall fee-for-service system is a barrier to integrated care, as are the lack of incentives for integrated care. Attending multidisciplinary meetings, for example, is underfinanced to date. Finally, clinical information systems lack interoperability, which further impedes the information flow across settings and disciplines. Conclusion Our study’s methods allowed for the identification of problematic domains in the health system for people living with chronic conditions. These findings provided useful insights surrounding perceived priorities. This methodology may inspire

  19. Factors Affecting the Presence of Adequately Iodized Salt at Home in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia: Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondimagegn Paulos Kumma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Universal use of iodized salt is a simple and inexpensive method to prevent and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders like mental retardation. However, little is known about the level of adequately iodized salt consumption in the study area. Therefore, the study was aimed at assessing the proportion of households having adequately iodized salt and associated factors in Wolaita Sodo town and its peripheries, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 10 to 20, 2016, in 441 households in Sodo town and its peripheries. Samples were selected using the systematic sampling technique. An iodometric titration method (AOAC, 2000 was used to analyze the iodine content of the salt samples. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16, respectively. Result. The female to male ratio of the respondents was 219. The mean age of the respondents was 30.2 (±7.3 SD. The proportion of households having adequately iodized salt was 37.7%, with 95% CI of 33.2% to 42.2%. Not exposing salt to sunlight with [OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.14, 6.57], higher monthly income [OR: 3.71; 95% CI: 1.97–7.01], and formal education of respondents with [OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.70] were found associated with the presence of adequately iodized salt at home. Conclusion. This study revealed low levels of households having adequately iodized salt in Wolaita Sodo town and its peripheries. The evidence here shows that there is a need to increase the supply of adequately iodized salt to meet the goal for monitoring progress towards sustainable elimination of IDD.

  20. A Survey of Women's Awareness of and Reasons for Lack of Postfracture Osteoporotic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Denise M; Yu, Onchee; Balasubramanian, Akhila; Wirtz, Heidi; Grauer, Andreas; Crittenden, Daria B; Scholes, Delia

    2017-08-01

    To identify women's beliefs and other factors associated with lack of osteoporosis (OP) pharmacotherapy (OP-RX) during the 6 months after a fragility fracture, including the woman's perspective on fracture risk, OP, and treatment. Cross-sectional. Group Health Cooperative, a mixed-model delivery system. Female Group Health Cooperative enrollees aged 55 and older with an OP-related fracture according to diagnostic and procedure codes from January 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014 (N = 985). OP-RX and participant characteristics were ascertained from electronic health records including medications dispensed. A mailed survey was used to obtain data on health behaviors; OP-related history; concern about, knowledge of, and perceived risk of future fracture; beliefs about OP-RX; sources of information on OP; postfracture discussions with providers; and provider recommendations. The response rate was 73%. Of 634 eligible respondents, 84% did not undergo OP-RX during the 6 months after fracture. Fewer than 20% of women thought that OP caused their fracture, 52% did not think they were at risk of future fracture, and 75% did not think or know whether OP-RX reduces risk of fracture. Knowledge about OP and the benefits of treatment was higher in the 16% of women who underwent OP-RX after their fracture. Women reported low levels of engagement with their healthcare providers regarding OP and fracture risk management. These findings suggest low awareness about OP and its contribution to fracture risk, lack of understanding about the benefits of pharmacotherapy, and limited discussion about OP with primary care physicians. Information about individual's beliefs and knowledge gaps can help design targeted patient and provider education to improve treatment rates. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...

  2. Health systems as defences against the consequences of poverty: equity in health as social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, F M

    1983-01-01

    The main development problems in the Third World are known to be gross socioeconomic inequality, widespread poor health status accompanied by high fertility and infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, mass illiteracy and mass poverty. In most of these countries governments invest a great deal of scarce resources toward the consequences of poverty rather than it causes. The paucity of resources for such social services is exacerbated by continuously increasing demands and needs which have to be satisfied. Unmet needs tend to cause apathy in the population. For purposes of controlling poverty and its consequences, these must be clearly formulated and relevant policies, a commitment to implement such policies, adequate administrative capacity and reasonably adequate resources. In the case of the health services system, the same requirements apply. Above all, the health system has to be directed toward the greatest needs of the population. This must involve policy makers, implementors and the consumer community. This paper argues that health systems cannot be an effective weapon against the consequences of poverty unless the above kinds of policy exist and are implemented.

  3. Beyond word recognition: understanding pediatric oral health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Julia Anne; Huebner, Colleen E; Leggott, Penelope J; Mouradian, Wendy E; Mancl, Lloyd A

    2011-01-01

    Parental oral health literacy is proposed to be an indicator of children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to test if word recognition, commonly used to assess health literacy, is an adequate measure of pediatric oral health literacy. This study evaluated 3 aspects of oral health literacy and parent-reported child oral health. A 3-part pediatric oral health literacy inventory was created to assess parents' word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension of 35 terms used in pediatric dentistry. The inventory was administered to 45 English-speaking parents of children enrolled in Head Start. Parents' ability to read dental terms was not associated with vocabulary knowledge (r=0.29, P.06) of the terms. Vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with comprehension (r=0.80, PParent-reported child oral health status was not associated with word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, or comprehension; however parents reporting either excellent or fair/poor ratings had higher scores on all components of the inventory. Word recognition is an inadequate indicator of comprehension of pediatric oral health concepts; pediatric oral health literacy is a multifaceted construct. Parents with adequate reading ability may have difficulty understanding oral health information.

  4. An investigation on the effect of Health Belief Model-based education on refusal skills in high risk situations among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Shabani, Fatemeh; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

    2012-03-01

    Various studies show an association between lack of social skills in adolescents and the future incidence of behavioral disorders. If girls, as future mothers, lack adequate health, awareness, self confidence and social skills, they may act as a source of many social problems. Therefore, the present study has tried to educate this group on one of the most essential social skills, refusal skill in high risk situation. This is a field quasi experimental study conducted on 145 female students in middle schools in Arak, Iran in 2010-2011. The schools were randomly selected. The subjects were selected through systematic random sampling from the schools' log book. The data were collected by questionnaires containing personal and familial characteristics, three health belief model structures, and behavioral intention in high risk situations. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests (frequency distribution, mean, SD) and inferential tests of repetitive variance analysis and T-test through SPSS. In the present study, repetitive variance analysis showed that education by use of a health belief model had a positive effect on refusal skills in high risk situations as well as perceived barriers (p = 0.007), self-efficacy (p = 0.015), behavioral intention (p = 0.048) after educational intervention in the study group, but not on perceived benefits (p = 0.180). The results showed that education significantly increased refusal skills in high risk situations in the study group through the health belief model. With regard to the results, it is essential to equip the students with preventive behaviors to guarantee their physical, emotional and social health.

  5. Improving collection and use of interprofessional health workforce data: Progress and peril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Brunell, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers and other stakeholders need robust data to understand how health care system changes affect the health care workforce and the care it provides, evaluate the effectiveness of health care finance and delivery innovations, and build an adequate supply of nurses and other health professionals to care for an aging and diverse population of patients. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine released a report that called for the creation of an infrastructure to collect and analyze interprofessional health workforce data and issued specific recommendations to reach that overarching goal. This paper examines progress toward each of the main data-related recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Future of Nursing, and identifies strategies that can achieve further gains in health workforce data collection. Multiple documents and websites were reviewed to identify the extent to which each of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations have been implemented. There has been little progress toward the Institute of Medicine recommendations regarding data collection, with a few exceptions related to improvements in national data on ambulatory care. This can largely be attributed to a lack of funding. Although there are active and strong collaborative relationships across many key stakeholders, there have not been sufficient resources dedicated to ensuring that new programs advance. More leadership, advocacy, and resources will be needed to build the robust data infrastructure called for by the Institute of Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; Al-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.

  7. Department of Geography, Kwara State Po

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-24

    May 24, 2016 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 9(4): 389 – 404, 2016. ... to ensure adequate monitoring of effluent discharge from industries and abattoirs as well ... human health associated with the lack of.

  8. Public health engineering education in India: current scenario, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Public health engineering can play an important and significant role in solving environmental health issues. In order to confront public health challenges emerging out of environmental problems we need adequately trained public health engineers / environmental engineers. Considering the current burden of disease attributable to environmental factors and expansion in scope of applications of public health / environmental engineering science, it is essential to understand the present scenario of teaching, training and capacity building programs in these areas. Against this background the present research was carried out to know the current teaching and training programs in public health engineering and related disciplines in India and to understand the potential opportunities and challenges available. A systematic, predefined approach was used to collect and assemble the data related to various teaching and training programs in public health engineering / environmental engineering in India. Public health engineering / environmental engineering education and training in the country is mainly offered through engineering institutions, as pre-service and in-service training. Pre-service programs include diploma, degree (graduate) and post-graduate courses affiliated to various state technical boards, institutes and universities, whereas in-service training is mainly provided by Government of India recognized engineering and public health training institutes. Though trainees of these programs acquire skills related to engineering sciences, they significantly lack in public health skills. The teaching and training of public health engineering / environmental engineering is limited as a part of public health programs (MD Community Medicine, MPH, DPH) in India. There is need for developing teaching and training of public health engineering or environmental engineering as an interdisciplinary subject. Public health institutes can play an important and significant role in this

  9. Nutrition advice during pregnancy: do women receive it and can health professionals provide it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Catherine; Charlton, Karen E; Yeatman, Heather

    2014-12-01

    A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for normal growth and development of the foetus. Pregnant women may obtain nutrition information from a number of sources but evidence regarding the adequacy and extent of this information is sparse. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify sources of nutrition information accessed by pregnant women, their perceived needs for nutrition education, the perceptions of healthcare providers about nutrition education in pregnancy, and to assess the effectiveness of public health programs that aim to improve nutritional practices. The Scopus data base was searched during January, 2013 and in February 2014 to access both qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2002 and 2014 which focused on healthy pregnant women and their healthcare providers in developed countries. Articles were excluded if they focused on the needs of women with medical conditions, including obesity, gestational diabetes or malnutrition. Of 506 articles identified by the search terms, 25 articles were deemed to be eligible for inclusion. Generally, women were not receiving adequate nutrition education during pregnancy. Although healthcare practitioners perceived nutrition education to be important, barriers to providing education to clients included lack of time, lack of resources and lack of relevant training. Further well designed studies are needed to identify the most effective nutrition education strategies to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviours for women during antenatal care.

  10. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (r s  = 0.5052, p LGBTQ patients.

  11. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  12. The Right to Mental Health in the Digital Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kokabisaghi (Fatemeh); I. Bakx (Iris); B. Zenelaj (Blerta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPeople with mental illness usually experience higher rates of disability and mortality. Often, health care systems do not adequately respond to the burden of mental disorders worldwide. The number of health care providers dealing with mental health care is insufficient in many countries.

  13. Is the world supply of omega-3 fatty acids adequate for optimal human nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Norman; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    To delineate the available sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for human consumption and to determine if the available supply is capable of supplying the nutrient levels recommended by expert bodies. There are converging opinions among experts, professional organizations and health professionals that a recommendation for a daily individual consumption of 500 mg of EPA/DHA would provide health benefits, and this translates to an annual human consumption of 1.3 million metric tons. Current human consumption of EPA/DHA is estimated to be only a small fraction of this amount and many people may suffer from suboptimal health as a result of low intake. EPA and DHA originate in the phytoplankton and are made available in the human food chain mainly through fish and other seafood. The fish catch is not elastic and in fact has long since reached a plateau. Aquaculture has grown rapidly, but most of the fish oil produced is currently being used to support aquaculture feed and so this would appear to limit aquaculture growth - or at least the growth in availability of fish sources of EPA/DHA. Vegetable oil-derived alpha-linolenic acid, though relatively plentiful, is converted only at a trace level in humans to DHA and not very efficiently to EPA, and so cannot fill this gap. Microbial EPA/DHA production can in the future be increased, although this oil is likely to remain more expensive than fish oil. Plant sources of EPA and DHA have now been produced in the laboratory via transgenic means and will eventually clear regulatory hurdles for commercialization, but societal acceptance remains in question. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various sources of omega-3 fatty acids within the context of the potential world demand for these nutrients. In summary, it is concluded that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be adequate to meet future needs, but that algal oil and terrestrial plants modified genetically to produce EPA and DHA

  14. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    -sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  15. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  16. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  17. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  18. Working Towards Open and Inclusive Support of Mental Health in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Mental health issues among academics have historically been dismissed as being inherent to the academic culture. While this culture is starting to shift toward more open recognition of these issues, progress toward addressing them lags. I will share a graduate student-focused perspective on some causes and effects of mental health issues in academia, and offer some actionable ideas for improvement. The stereotypical graduate school experience is conducive to the development of mental health issues. Financial stresses, balancing research, teaching, and degree commitments, and managing significant non-academic life events can be detrimental to student health without an adequate system of support. The limited recognition of and support for mental health issues in academia comes at great cost not only to individual health, but to the scientific community. Who do we exclude when we do not fully support individuals with mental health concerns? There are many anecdotes of scientists leaving academia for the sake of their mental health; it is plausible that many, anticipating potential mental health concerns or the factors that drive them, do not pursue academia at all. How can we support those in academia who experience mental health concerns? We can start by ensuring that everyone in our community has access to appropriate resources. This may look like providing new community members with clear information about the mental health services and resources that are available to the community, or advocating for better resources where they are lacking. It is important, however, to address the potential causes of mental health issues as well as the symptoms. While exact factors depend strongly on individuals, we should work to establish more flexible community standards and protocols that can accommodate the various life circumstances that we may encounter. Such actions would help to drive a broader culture shift toward recognizing and destigmatizing mental health issues.

  19. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Health Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Hunt, Rachel S; Tabak, Ying P; Proctor, Deborah D; Makrauer, Frederick L

    2016-12-01

    Interest in global health (GH) education is increasing across disciplines. To assess exposure to and perception of GH training among gastroenterology fellows and program directors across the USA. Design: Electronic survey study. The questionnaire was circulated to accredited US gastroenterology fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology program directors and fellows. The questionnaire was returned by 127 respondents (47 program directors, 78 fellows) from 55 training programs (36 % of all training programs). 61 % of respondents had prior experience in GH. 17 % of programs offered GH curriculum with international elective (13 %), didactic (9 %), and research activity (7 %) being the most common. Fellows had adequate experience managing hepatitis B (93 %), cholangiocarcinoma (84 %), and intrahepatic duct stones (84 %). 74, 69 and 68 % reported having little to no experience managing hepatitis E, tuberculosis mesenteritis, or epidemic infectious enteritis, respectively. Most fellows would participate in an elective in an underserved area locally (81 %) or a 4-week elective abroad (71 %), if available. 44 % of fellows planned on working or volunteering abroad after fellowship. Barriers to establishing GH curriculum included funding (94 %), scheduling (88 %), and a lack of standardized objectives (78 %). Lack of interest, however, was not a concern. Fellows (49 %), more than faculty (29 %) (χ 2  = 21.9; p = 0.03), believed that GH education should be included in fellowship curriculum. Program directors and trainees recognize the importance of GH education. However, only 17 % of ACGME-approved fellowship programs offer the opportunity. Global health curriculum may enhance gastroenterology training.

  1. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.

  2. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the

  3. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors' diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex-gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the

  4. [Intersubjectivity in Mental Health care: narratives of nursing technicians at a Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rosana Onocko; Baccari, Ivana Preto

    2011-04-01

    Psychosocial Care Centers (Caps) were established as a result of the demand for Mental Health care and were an attempt to update psychiatric treatment for those afflicted with severe mental disorders. This article seeks to analyze subjective repercussions of work conducted in Caps on mid-level professionals and to contribute to healthcare planning. Two focal groups were conducted with workers of a Caps III. The methodology applied to the analysis was based on the critical hermeneutical approach proposed by Ricoeur and espoused by Gadamerian philosophy. Lack of appreciation in the workplace was revealed as being the main cause of suffering. Several themes stood out including the difficulty of obtaining the cooperation of users'; relatives, the tenuous interconnection between Caps and the health network, the attribution of responsibility for the night shift, controversies regarding overnight-stay patients and an excessive workload. Adequate structural planning and institutional organization is proposed when opening new Caps in order to reduce the workload of technicians and improve the clinical performance of the team.

  5. Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers in Sub- Saharan Africa. ... their pregnancies were normal during antenatal care visits, hostile attitude of health workers, poverty and mode of payment. Majority of the PHCs provided antenatal, normal delivery, and post natal services. Rural mothers lacked ...

  6. Stress hormones in health and illness: the roles of work and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-11-01

    Two neuroendocrine systems are of specific interest in the study of stress and health; the sympathetic adrenomedullary system with the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system with the secretion of cortisol. These hormones have often been used as objective indicators of stress in the individual. However, through their bodily effects, they are also a link between the psychosocial environment and various health outcomes. From a series of studies of women and men, it was concluded that gender roles and psychological factors are more important than biological factors for the sex differences in stress responses. The stress responses have been important for human and animal survival and for protection of the body. However, in modern society, some of these bodily responses may cause harm rather than protection. The catecholamines have been linked to cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke, cortisol to cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, reduced immune function and cognitive impairment. An adequate balance between catabolic (mobilization of energy) and anabolic processes (growth, healing) is considered necessary for long term health and survival. In modern society, which is characterized by a rapid pace of life, high demands, efficiency and competitiveness in a global economy, it is likely that lack of rest, recovery and restitution is a greater health problem than the absolute level of stress.

  7. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  8. Occupational health policies on risk assessment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Seichi

    2010-09-01

    Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.

  9. Occupational Health Policies on Risk Assessment in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seichi Horie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law of Japan requires abnormalities identifi ed in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording “employers shall endeavor.” Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifi es criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer signifi cant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, fi nancial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.

  10. Both obesity and lack of physical activity are associated with a less favorable health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T C

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among obesity, physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in Hong Kong Chinese adults. A cross-sectional study involving 876 subjects (32.9% men and 67.1% women, mean age: 34.8 +/- 7.9 years) from a nonmanual working population. The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36, Chinese version) was used for health-related QOL. Level of physical activity was assessed with self-reported questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2. 31% of men and 9% of women were obese (overall 16.0%). Obese subjects had lower scores on some of the SF-36 subscales. As the level of physical activity decreased, mean scores on most SF-36 subscales also progressively decreased. Obese women who had no regular physical activity had lower scores on some QOL subscales than obese women who had some regular physical activity. Among this Hong Kong Chinese sample, both obesity and lack of physical activity are associated with lower scores on QOL.

  11. HSQC-1,n-ADEQUATE: a new approach to long-range 13C-13C correlation by covariance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E; Hilton, Bruce D; Willcott, M Robert; Blinov, Kirill A

    2011-10-01

    Long-range, two-dimensional heteronuclear shift correlation NMR methods play a pivotal role in the assembly of novel molecular structures. The well-established GHMBC method is a high-sensitivity mainstay technique, affording connectivity information via (n)J(CH) coupling pathways. Unfortunately, there is no simple way of determining the value of n and hence no way of differentiating two-bond from three- and occasionally four-bond correlations. Three-bond correlations, however, generally predominate. Recent work has shown that the unsymmetrical indirect covariance or generalized indirect covariance processing of multiplicity edited GHSQC and 1,1-ADEQUATE spectra provides high-sensitivity access to a (13)C-(13) C connectivity map in the form of an HSQC-1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum. Covariance processing of these data allows the 1,1-ADEQUATE connectivity information to be exploited with the inherent sensitivity of the GHSQC spectrum rather than the intrinsically lower sensitivity of the 1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum itself. Data acquisition times and/or sample size can be substantially reduced when covariance processing is to be employed. In an extension of that work, 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra can likewise be subjected to covariance processing to afford high-sensitivity access to the equivalent of (4)J(CH) GHMBC connectivity information. The method is illustrated using strychnine as a model compound. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [The use of anthropologic methods for studying the causes of lack of vaccination. The case of Nativitas, Xochimilco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda-López, G; Orozco-Núñez, E

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the socio-cultural characteristics of a population and their participation in immunization programs is described in this paper. An anthropological approach was utilized to study the reasons why certain population groups do not participate in the immunization programs or do so inadequately. The study was undertaken in a community south of Mexico City. The paper contains the description of the community's contextual elements, the organization of the medical care services and the participation of the population in the immunization programs. It was found that a wide millieu of socio-cultural factors are related with people's behavior toward vaccination, such as: lack of information about diseases and vaccines, lack of trust on modern health services, and the strong influence of traditional medicine. Clear implications can be derived from the analysis with regards to the need for revision and modification of strategies of the health education programs, in order to promote a wider participation in immunization programs.

  13. DoD Actions Were Not Adequate to Reduce Improper Travel Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    vouchers in near real time and identifies duplicate or incorrect payments. DoD Components developed corrective actions that did not include steps to...causes of improper payments. In addition, many of the payment errors were not preventable through real - time or post-payment automated validation checks...H 1 0 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-060 DoD Actions Were Not Adequate to Reduce Improper Travel Payments Mission Our mission is to provide

  14. [Psychosocial functioning in non-psychiatric acute and chronic inpatients: depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Marcelo; Behar, Rosa; Marín, Sofía; Inzunza, Nicolás; Madrid, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Depression, alexithymia, and lack of assertiveness interfere with individual psychosocial functioning and may result in longer hospitalization stay and poorer therapeutic results. To analyze the psychosocial functioning in acute and chronic patients and its association with psychological, clinical and sociodemographic variables. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 80 inpatients of both sexes with organic pathology, aged between 18 to 70 years old, without any current psychiatric disorder. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected from a semi-structured interview and hospital records. Beck Depression Inventory-IA, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale were administered. Fifty five percent of patients had some degree of depression, 33% alexithymia and 34% lack of assertiveness. The levels of depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness in chronic patients were significantly higher than those observed in acute patients. Women and participants older than 60 years exhibited the highest degrees of depression. Alexithymia and lack of assertiveness were associated with a lower educational level. A negative significant correlation between alexithymia and assertiveness scores was observed among acute patients. Participants with chronic diseases had a lower psychosocial functioning. Less educated patients showed more alexithymic and less assertive features. We emphasized the need of a better management of these aspects by the health team, since social functioning might interfere with the outcome of physical illnesses.

  15. Pakistan: the new target of terrorism. Are Karachi's emergency medical response systems adequately prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Jawad, Ahmed; Minhas, Saeed; Ansari, Asma; Siddiqui, Afrah; Mehtab, Sana

    2009-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and preparedness of the pre-hospital and hospital emergency medical systems and post graduate trainees in the city to deal with a massive terrorist strike. A cross-sectional survey of postgraduate trainees was conducted at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center and Civil Hospital Karachi from 21st July 2007 to 24th July 2007, to evaluate the preparedness and self identified deficiencies of doctors involved in massive trauma casualty management. To assess the pre-hospital care in Karachi, structured telephonic interviews were conducted of administrators of two private run charity based ambulance services. Out of the 90 respondents questioned regarding a self assessment of their training, only 3 (3.3%) of them were confident about their management of bomb blast victims. Eighty-seven (96.6%) of the respondents felt they required some further training (44.4%) or comprehensive training (52.2%). No simulated drills or courses had been conducted for disaster management in the emergency department of the surveyed Hospitals. Most of the ambulance drivers had no paramedic training. Ambulances are equipped with a stretcher and an oxygen cylinder only. No resuscitation measures are available in the ambulances. With an increasing number of terrorist attacks in the country, massive influx of casualties in a relatively short time span has become a regular feature of the Pakistani hospital system. Lack of adequate training at pre-hospital and in hospital levels may translate into increasing morbidities and mortalities. It is imperative that training of junior doctors and paramedical staff be conducted regularly and an effective regional communication base established for efficient interdepartmental coordination.

  16. Strengthening human resources for health through information, coordination and accountability mechanisms: the case of the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Elsheikh; Mohamed, Nazar A; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Bile, Khalif Mohamud

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. A "country coordination and facilitation" process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders' coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage.

  17. Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria

  18. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  19. Barriers to health education in adolescents: health care providers' perspectives compared to high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2015-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.

  20. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  1. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of “digital health”, we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a “uberization” of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all. PMID:28894741

  2. Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working In a Surgery Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of work demands, particularly excessive workload, time pressure, and lack of staff can lead to prevention of burnout and reduced job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs, and contribute to better quality of patient care.

  3. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care.

  4. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  5. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the adductor muscles of the thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M; Kawano, K; Yamamoto, T

    2018-03-01

    Rocuronium can prevent the obturator jerk during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. We investigated the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh adductor muscles, and its correlation with individual responses of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium. Eleven patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumors under general anesthesia were investigated. After general anesthesia induction, neuromuscular monitoring of the adductor pollicis muscle and ultrasonography-guided stimulation of the obturator nerve was commenced. Rocuronium, 0.15 mg/kg, was repeatedly administered intravenously. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, defined as the cumulative dose of rocuronium administered until that time, and its correlation with the first twitch response of the adductor pollicis muscle on train-of-four stimulation after initial rocuronium administration was analyzed. The rocuronium dose found adequate for complete block of the thigh muscles was 0.30 mg/kg in seven patients and 0.45 mg/kg in the remaining four patients, which did not correlate with the first twitch response. At the time of complete block of the thigh muscles, the neuromuscular blockade level of the adductor pollicis muscle varied greatly, although the level was never more profound than a post-tetanic count of 1. Although the response of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium cannot be used to determine the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, intense blockade, with maintenance of post-tetanic count at ≤ 1 in the adductor pollicis muscle is essential to prevent the obturator jerk. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Just health care (II): Is equality too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, L M

    1989-12-01

    In a previous essay I criticized Engelhardt's libertarian conception of justice, which grounds the view that society's obligation to assure access to adequate health care for all is a matter of beneficence. Beneficence fails to capture the moral stringency associated with many claims for access to health care. In the present paper I argue that these claims are really matters of justice proper, where justice is conceived along moderate egalitarian lines, such as those suggested by Rawls and Daniels, rather than strong egalitarian lines. Further, given the empirical complexity associated with the distribution of contemporary health care, I argue that what we really need to address the relevant policy issues adequately is a theory of health care justice, as opposed to an all-purpose conception of justice. Daniels has made an important start toward that goal, though there are some large policy areas which I discuss that his account of health care justice does not really speak to. Finally, practical matters of health care justice really need to be addressed in a 'non-ideal' mode, a framework in which philosophers have done little.

  7. Can action research strengthen district health management and improve health workforce performance? A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T

    2013-08-30

    The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, 'bundles' of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts' budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Different challenges were faced during the development of

  8. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits.

  9. The joint action on health workforce planning and forecasting: results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Hoegaerden, M. van; Batenburg, R.

    2017-01-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and

  10. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the...

  11. Does Current Army Physical Fitness Training Doctrine Adequately Prepare Soldiers for War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    longer 7 adequate to sustain the activity. Anaerobic activities include sprinting, soccer , and basketball. Balance: The ability to maintain...deep muscles, and joint articulations. The common push-up requires the interaction of 21 different muscles to execute one repetition. The overhead press...aerobically break down glycogen, carbohydrates , and fats to produce energy. The more regularly the individual conducts cardio-respiratory training

  12. A student's perspective: are medical students adequately trained in BLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Oyewole,1 Folashade Oyewole2 1University of Liverpool – The School of Medicine, Liverpool, 2Imperial College London, London, UK We read with great interest the article by Lami et al regarding improving basic life support (BLS training for medical students.1 We agree that BLS skills are vital for junior doctors. The days of trial by fire have long gone away, and junior doctors and medical students need to feel that they are adequately trained to handle emergency situations they may face in hospital.  Read the original article

  13. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  15. Nursing domain of CI governance: recommendations for health IT adoption and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Alexander, Dana; Moss, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    There is a lack of recommended models for clinical informatics (CI) governance that can facilitate successful health information technology implementation. To understand existing CI governance structures and provide a model with recommended roles, partnerships, and councils based on perspectives of nursing informatics leaders. We conducted a cross-sectional study through administering a survey via telephone to facilitate semistructured interviews from June 2012 through November 2012. We interviewed 12 nursing informatics leaders, across the United States, currently serving in executive- or director-level CI roles at integrated health care systems that have pioneered electronic health records implementation projects. We found the following 4 themes emerge: (1) Interprofessional partnerships are essential. (2) Critical role-based levels of practice and competencies need to be defined. (3) Integration into existing clinical infrastructure facilitates success. (4) CI governance is an evolving process. We described specific lessons learned and a model of CI governance with recommended roles, partnerships, and councils from the perspective of nursing informatics leaders. Applied CI work is highly interprofessional with patient safety implications that heighten the need for best practice models for governance structures, adequate resource allocation, and role-based competencies. Overall, there is a notable lack of a centralized CI group comprised of formally trained informaticians to provide expertise and promote adherence to informatics principles within EHR implementation governance structures. Our model of the nursing domain of CI governance with recommended roles, partnerships, and councils provides a starting point that should be further explored and validated. Not only can the model be used to understand, shape, and standardize roles, competencies, and structures within CI practice for nursing, it can be used within other clinical domains and by other informaticians

  16. Use of health care claims data to study patients with ophthalmologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua D; Lum, Flora; Lee, Paul P; Rich, William L; Coleman, Anne L

    2014-05-01

    To describe what information is or is not included in health care claims data, provide an overview of the main advantages and limitations of performing analyses using health care claims data, and offer general guidance on how to report and interpret findings of ophthalmology-related claims data analyses. Systematic review. Not applicable. A literature review and synthesis of methods for claims-based data analyses. Not applicable. Some advantages of using claims data for analyses include large, diverse sample sizes, longitudinal follow-up, lack of selection bias, and potential for complex, multivariable modeling. The disadvantages include (a) the inherent limitations of claims data, such as incomplete, inaccurate, or missing data, or the lack of specific billing codes for some conditions; and (b) the inability, in some circumstances, to adequately evaluate the appropriateness of care. In general, reports of claims data analyses should include clear descriptions of the following methodological elements: the data source, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the specific billing codes used, and the potential confounding factors incorporated in the multivariable models. The use of claims data for research is expected to increase with the enhanced availability of data from Medicare and other sources. The use of claims data to evaluate resource use and efficiency and to determine the basis for supplementary payment methods for physicians is anticipated. Thus, it will be increasingly important for eye care providers to use accurate and descriptive codes for billing. Adherence to general guidance on the reporting of claims data analyses, as outlined in this article, is important to enhance the credibility and applicability of findings. Guidance on optimal ways to conduct and report ophthalmology-related investigations using claims data will likely continue to evolve as health services researchers refine the metrics to analyze large administrative data sets. Copyright

  17. Mental Health Consumer Experiences and Strategies When Seeking Physical Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie B. Ewart; Julia Bocking; Brenda Happell; Chris Platania-Phung; Robert Stanton

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness have higher rates of physical health problems and consequently live significantly shorter lives. This issue is not yet viewed as a national health priority and research about mental health consumer views on accessing physical health care is lacking. The aim of this study is to explore the experience of mental health consumers in utilizing health services for physical health needs. Qualitative exploratory design was utilized. Semistructured focus groups were held wit...

  18. Electronic Health Records and US Public Health: Current Realities and Future Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. Gibson; Ross, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) could contribute to improving population health in the United States. Realizing this potential will require understanding what EHRs can realistically offer to efforts to improve population health, the requirements for obtaining useful information from EHRs, and a plan for addressing these requirements. Potential contributions of EHRs to improving population health include better understanding of the level and distribution of disease, function, and well-being within populations. Requirements are improved population coverage of EHRs, standardized EHR content and reporting methods, and adequate legal authority for using EHRs, particularly for population health. A collaborative national effort to address the most pressing prerequisites for and barriers to the use of EHRs for improving population health is needed to realize the EHR’s potential. PMID:23865646

  19. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli K. Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in influencing health outcomes and are integral to achieving the One Health, One World vision. International trade, for example, opens markets not only to life-saving products such as vaccines, medicines, and medical equipment, but also to life-threatening products such as tobacco and asbestos. If strengthened and enforced, environmental law can decrease air and water pollution, major causes of death and disability. World hunger has been exacerbated by the global economic crisis and climate change, increasing the urgency for international law to enhance food security. Humanitarian law must similarly be strengthened to protect civilians adequately as the nature of warfare continues to change. Refugee law plays a pivotal role in protecting the health of deeply vulnerable people who lack food, shelter, and social stability. Higher standards and more effective compliance are necessary for international law to realize its full potential to safeguard the world's population.

  20. Integration of community health workers into health systems in developing countries: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Otieno Asweto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries have the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved populations marginalized by the country’s health care systems by way of community health workers (CHWs. It is imperative that health care systems focus on improving access to quality continuous primary care through the use of CHWs while paying attention to the factors that impact on CHWs and their effectiveness. Objective: To explore the possible opportunities and challenges of integrating CHWs into the health care systems of developing countries. Methods: Six databases were examined for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that included the integration of CHWs, their motivation and supervision, and CHW policy making and implementation in developing countries. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were double read to extract data relevant to the context of CHW programs. Thematic coding was conducted and evidence on the main categories of contextual factors influencing integration of CHWs into the health system was synthesized. Results: CHWs are an effective and appropriate element of a health care team and can assist in addressing health disparities and social determinants of health. Important facilitators of integration of CHWs into health care teams are support from other health workers and inclusion of CHWs in case management meetings. Sustainable integration of CHWs into the health care system requires the formulation and implementation of polices that support their work, as well as financial and nonfinancial incentives, motivation, collaborative and supportive supervision, and a manageable workload. Conclusions: For sustainable integration of CHWs into health care systems, high-performing health systems with sound governance, adequate financing, well-organized service delivery, and adequate supplies and equipment are essential. Similarly, competent communities could contribute to better CHW performance through sound

  1. Improving health in the community: a role for performance monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durch, Jane; Bailey, Linda A; Stoto, Michael A

    How do communities protect and improve the health of their populations? Health care is part of the answer but so are environmental protections, social and educational services, adequate nutrition, and a host of other activities...

  2. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... claim may make reference to physical activity. (4) The claim may include information on the number of.... Adequate calcium as part of a healthful diet, along with physical activity, may reduce the risk of..., provided that: (A) The claim makes clear the importance of adequate calcium intake, or when appropriate...

  3. Towards 31Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stachura, M.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Chatzichristos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional 25Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field 31Mg- β-NMR measurements of 31Mg+ ions implanted...

  4. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible considering

  5. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Patel

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08 data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and

  6. The occupational safety and health scorecard--a business case example for strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köper, Birgit; Möller, Klaus; Zwetsloot, Gerard

    2009-12-01

    Human resources and health issues are crucial in terms of corporate competitiveness. However, systematic, continuous and strategically aligned occupational safety and health (OSH) management is scarcely applied in companies. One major reason for this could be the lack of generally accepted and standardised OSH control methods. Our objective was thus to conceptualize a method by which qualitative factors such as human resources and OSH aspects contribute to the performance or value-added layer of an organization. We developed a business case based on the well-known and accepted Balanced Scorecard approach, which we adapted and applied to the management of OSH issues. The concept was implemented in the course of a comprehensive case study at a German automobile manufacturer. We gathered health as well as finance data in order to test which health-related indicators had an impact on financial performance. The demonstration of, and reporting on, how the promotion of workplace health contributes strategically to the organization is crucial for both health and human resource managers. Based on multivariate regression analyses, our main finding was that the Balanced Scorecard approach is an adequate means to control OSH issues in terms of strategic health management. Our analyses demonstrated that health-related interventions contribute significantly to performance aspects such as quality, productivity, absenteeism, and cost reduction. Therefore, the financial impact of health-related aspects / interventions could be demonstrated by means of the OSH scorecard. The availability and quality of health data within the context of overall corporate performance data needs to be improved in order to bridge OSH-related and performance issues of an organization.

  7. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  8. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  9. How family carers engage with technical health procedures in the home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2015-07-06

    To explore the experiences of family carers who manage technical health procedures at home and describe their learning process. A qualitative study using grounded theory. New Zealand family carers (21 women, 5 men) who managed technical health procedures such as enteral feeding, peritoneal dialysis, tracheostomy care, a central venous line or urinary catheter. In addition, 15 health professionals involved in teaching carers were interviewed. Semistructured interviews were coded soon after completion and preliminary analysis influenced subsequent interviews. Additional data were compared with existing material and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was described. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The response of carers to the role of managing technical health procedures in the home is presented in terms of five dispositions: (1) Embracing care, (2) Resisting, (3) Reluctant acceptance, (4) Relinquishing and (5) Being overwhelmed. These dispositions were not static and carers commonly changed between them. Embracing care included cognitive understanding of the purpose and benefits of a procedure; accepting a 'technical' solution; practical management; and an emotional response. Accepting embrace is primarily motivated by perceived benefits for the recipient. It may also be driven by a lack of alternatives. Resisting or reluctant acceptance results from a lack of understanding about the procedure or willingness to manage it. Carers need adequate support to avoid becoming overwhelmed, and there are times when it is appropriate to encourage them to relinquish care for the sake of their own needs. The concept of embracing care encourages health professionals to extend their attention beyond simply the practical aspects of technical procedures to assessing and addressing carers' emotional and behavioural responses to health technology during the training process

  10. Factors influencing the migration of West African health professionals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The West African health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers and specialized skills. Among the contributory factors to this lack of human resource for health workforce include but not limited to the migration of health professionals. Methods: This cross-sectional survey targeted ...

  11. Health Applications for Corporate Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigner, Guido; Doarn, Charles R; Schütte, Michael; Matusiewicz, David; Thielscher, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Many corporate organizations around the world are looking at new ways to improve the health and well-being of their employees. Many have begun to use m-health approaches and unique applications (apps) to provide assistance. In Germany, both m-health and occupational health management (OHM) are growing quickly. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination-apps usage in OHM-is growing as well. We studied the usage of health apps in large corporations for health management of employed individuals. To understand the environment in Germany, a two-part study was conducted. First, an extensive literature search was done and second, interviews were conducted with 12 of the 20 biggest companies' health management representatives. Using key search terms, 5,445 peer-reviewed journal articles traced with German databases and on PubMed were reviewed. Interestingly and somewhat surprising to the authors, none of them covered our specific topic. Interviews were conducted with 60% of the companies indicated. Only 3 out of 12 companies use apps. Four companies are piloting apps. With one exception, apps cover well-known areas such as food coaching, physical motion, smoking cessation, stress prevention, and other health-related subjects. One app used sensors in work clothing to prevent unhealthy motion. With a few exceptions, there has been no evaluation of the utility and utilization of apps. Current app usage in corporate health management in Germany is surprisingly low. Apps need to be better evaluated. Main obstacles-which could be resolved in the future-are legal restrictions (especially on data security), the lack of company-owned smart phones, misfit of apps and corporate health strategy, a lack of app evaluation, and high app prices.

  12. Lack of recruitment in Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata: a case of safe-site limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ana M.; Peco, Begoña

    2007-01-01

    Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata regeneration depends exclusively on the establishment of new individuals. Seed availability and seedling emergence and survival are therefore critical life stages and processes for species regeneration. In this study, seedling emergence and survival was monitored for two years in the scrub, both in clearings and adjacent to adult plants, and the surrounding perennial grassland, at 1, 3 and 5 m from the scrub. Soil seed bank spatial distribution was also studied for one year in the same two habitats, using the same sampling design. Soil seed availability in the scrub is high regardless of the distance from the adult individuals. On the contrary, the adjacent grassland shows a drastic fall in seed density, and almost no seedlings were observed there. In the scrub, seedling density was negatively related to distance from the three nearest adult plants in the clearings, and positively related to adult plant size beneath the adult Lavandula plants. There was also a negative relationship between seedling density and the percentage of bare soil. Only one seedling survived the first drought period, with no detection of effects of either position with respect to adult individuals or seedling density. We hypothesized that the study populations suffer a lack of appropriate safe sites within the scrubland while in the adjacent perennial grassland, observed low seed availability was added to safe-site limitation. That results in a lack of successful seedling establishments and a poor expansion potential of Lavandula scrublands, whose edges remain static in the short and medium term. As found in other Mediterranean scrubland, recruitment may only occur in years with particularly favourable weather, under disturbance regimes that increase seedling survival probability or when external dispersal agents increased seed availability in adequate places for Lavandula establishment.

  13. Typhoid fever: hurdles to adequate hand washing for disease prevention among the population of a peri-urban informal settlement in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, James; McCool, Judith; Kool, Jacob; Salusalu, Mosese

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS). Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.

  14. Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in Cambodian health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faurand-Tournaire Anne-Laure

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian Countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. Methods We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Results Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipements. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1 informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2 major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Conclusion Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting.

  15. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: School-age children, Effective implementation, Adequate knowledge, Positive health ... healthy habits of the future adult population of any nation2 ... understanding of skills that a person has acquired ..... 7. Ofovwe GE, Ofili AN. Knowledge, attitude and practice of school health programme among head teachers of.

  16. People, Planet and Profit: Unintended Consequences of Legacy Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several exam...

  17. Los Angeles and Its Mistress Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wesley

    1973-01-01

    Los Angeles city has acute air pollution problems because of lack of an adequate mass transit system and the type of local industries. Air pollution in Los Angeles has affected agricultural production, vegetation, and public health in nearby areas. (PS)

  18. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient counseling materials: The effect of patient health literacy on the comprehension of printed prescription drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit; Bakina, Daria; Kirk, Jim; von Lutcken, Scott; Donnelly, Tom; Stone, William; Ashley-Collins, Heather; Tibbals, Karen; Ricker, Lynn; Adler, Jeffrey; Ewing, John; Blechman, Michelle; Fox, Sherry; Leopold, Will; Ryan, Daniel; Wray, Donna; Turkoz, Heather

    2018-05-16

    Counseling patients with written materials relies equally on patients' health literacy to understand their disease and its treatment, and the written materials' effectiveness communicating clearly in accessible and actionable ways. Only about 12% of the US population is adequately health literate. To explore the impact of reducing the health literacy demands of written patient health information. 805 patients were screened for health literacy, and recruited for balanced cohorts of adequate and low literacy, and high and normal blood pressure. Half of each patient cohort received either standard or "health literacy-friendly" drug summaries (i.e. Patient Package Inserts, or PPIs or "leaflets") along with a standardized health literacy assessment scale. The literacy-friendly drug summary improved comprehension of drug-related information overall from 50% to 71% correct responses. Adequate literacy patients improved from 58% correct to 90%, while lower literacy patients improved from 42% to 52% correct in response to the health literacy-friendly PPIs. Health literacy demands require special attention in developing and using written drug summary materials. Additionally, pharmacists should be provided additional information and counseling support materials to facilitate communications with low health literacy level patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A model to estimate the cost of the National Essential Public Health Services Package in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Delu; Wong, Sabrina T; Chen, Wei; Xin, Qianqian; Wang, Lihong; Cui, Mingming; Yin, Tao; Li, Ruili; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Yang, Huiming; Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Bowen; Yang, Weizhong

    2015-06-06

    In order to address several health challenges, the Chinese government issued the National Essential Public Health Services Package (NEPHSP) in 2009. In China's large cities, the lack of funding for community health centers and consequent lack of comprehensive services and high quality care has become a major challenge. However, no study has been carried out to estimate the cost of delivering the services in the package. This project was to develop a cost estimation approach appropriate to the context and use it to calculate the cost of the NEPHSP in Beijing in 2011. By adjusting models of cost analysis of primary health care and workload indicators of staffing need developed by the World Health Organization, a model was developed to estimate the cost of the services in the package through an intensive interactive process. A total of 17 community health centers from eight administrative districts in Beijing were selected. Their service volume and expenditure data in 2010 were used to evaluate the costs of providing the NEPHSP in Beijing based on the applied model. The total workload of all types of primary health care in 17 sample centers was equivalent to the workload requirement for 14,056,402 standard clinic visits. The total expenditure of the 17 sample centers was 26,329,357.62 USD in 2010. The cost of the workload requirement of one standard clinic visit was 1.87 USD. The workload of the NEPHSP was equivalent to 5,514,777 standard clinic visits (39.23 % of the total workload). The model suggests that the cost of the package in Beijing was 7.95 USD per capita in 2010. The cost of the NEPHSP in urban areas was lower than suburban areas: 7.31 and 8.65 USD respectively. The average investment of 3.97 USD per capita in NEPHSP was lower than the amount needed to meet its running costs. NEPHSP in Beijing is therefore underfunded. Additional investment is needed, and a dynamic cost estimate mechanism should be introduced to ensure services remain adequately funded.

  1. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  2. Quality of Health Assistants in primary Health centres in Rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enakshi Ganguly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health assistants are important functionaries of the primary health care system in India. Their role is supervision of field-based services among other things. A quality assurance mechanism for these health assistants is lacking. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of developing a tool to assess the quality of health assistants in primary health centres (PHCs and to assess their quality using this tool. Methodology Health assistants from three PHCs in the Wardha district of India were observed for a year using a tool developed from primary health care management Aavancement program modules. Data was collected by direct observation, interview, and review of records for quality of activities. Results Staff strength of health assistants was 87.5%. None of the health assistants were clear about their job descriptions. A supervisory schedule for providing supportive supervision to auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs was absent; most field activities pertaining to maternal and child health received poor focus. Monthly meetings lacked a clear agenda, and comments on quality improvement of services provided by the ANMs were missing. Conclusion Continuous training with sensitization on quality issues is required to improve the unsatisfactory quality.

  3. Adequate Education: Issues in Its Definition and Implementation. School Finance Project, Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther, Ed.

    Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…

  4. The Role of Council Health Management Team in the Improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Council Health Management Team in the Improvement of Health Services Quality: The Case of Kinondoni and Ilala Municipalities in Dar es ... poor working equipment, lack of commitment on the part of members of the CHMT, lack of effective CHMTs' supervision, as well as the lack of good networking and ...

  5. Systemic racism and U.S. health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Joe; Bennefield, Zinobia

    2014-02-01

    This article draws upon a major social science theoretical approach-systemic racism theory-to assess decades of empirical research on racial dimensions of U.S. health care and public health institutions. From the 1600s, the oppression of Americans of color has been systemic and rationalized using a white racial framing-with its constituent racist stereotypes, ideologies, images, narratives, and emotions. We review historical literature on racially exploitative medical and public health practices that helped generate and sustain this racial framing and related structural discrimination targeting Americans of color. We examine contemporary research on racial differentials in medical practices, white clinicians' racial framing, and views of patients and physicians of color to demonstrate the continuing reality of systemic racism throughout health care and public health institutions. We conclude from research that institutionalized white socioeconomic resources, discrimination, and racialized framing from centuries of slavery, segregation, and contemporary white oppression severely limit and restrict access of many Americans of color to adequate socioeconomic resources-and to adequate health care and health outcomes. Dealing justly with continuing racial "disparities" in health and health care requires a conceptual paradigm that realistically assesses U.S. society's white-racist roots and contemporary racist realities. We conclude briefly with examples of successful public policies that have brought structural changes in racial and class differentials in health care and public health in the U.S. and other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Child outpatient mental health service use: why doesn't insurance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Bowen Garrett, A.; Hoven, Christina; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Regier, Darrel; Moore, Robert E.; Goodman, Sherryl; Wu, Ping; Bird, Hector

    1998-12-01

    . Finally, we find that the lack of a difference is not a consequence of substitution of school-based for office-based services. School-based and office-based specialty mental health services are complements rather than substitutes. School-based services are used by the same children who use office-based services, even after controlling for mental health status. DISCUSSION: Our results are consistent with at least two explanations. First, limits on coverage under private insurance may discourage families who anticipate a need for child mental health services from purchasing such insurance. Second, publicly funded services may be readily available substitutes for private services, so that lack of insurance is not a barrier to adequate care. Despite the richness of data in the MECA dataset, cross-sectional data based on epidemiological surveys do not appear to be sufficient to fully understand the surprising result that insurance does not enable access to care. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND RESEARCH: Limits on coverage under private mental health insurance combined with a relatively extensive system of public mental health coverage have apparently generated a situation where there is no observed advantage to the marginal family of obtaining private mental health insurance coverage. Further research using longitudinal data is needed to better understand the nature of selection in the child mental health insurance market. Further research using better measures of the nature of treatment provided in different settings is needed to better understand how the private and public mental health systems operate.

  7. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G.; Colasso, Camilla G.; Monteiro, Paula P.; Filho, Walter R. Pedreira; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-01-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk. - Highlights: ► Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. ► Lack of clear reentry restrictions can intensify the exposure in greenhouses. ► Specific regulations dealing with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment are needed. ► Distribution of simple guidelines relying on greenhouse working can improve OSH practices. ► Training interventions are important to change the workers' perception of hazards and behavior towards risk.

  8. Knowledge assessment regarding poliomyelitis among the caregivers of children who received oral polio vaccine reveals lack of awareness of the vaccine vial monitor (VVM): Implications extending beyond polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna

    2017-07-01

    Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it prevents health personnel from administering damaged vaccine. Studies have shown a lack of awareness of health workers regarding the use and interpretation of a VVM. The current study, undertaken among the caregivers of children who were immunized, showed that this lack of information about the VVM also exists among the caregivers. This deficiency in knowledge, both in the health workers and the caregivers, can affect the health of the child and needs urgent attention.

  9. Lack of dust in quasar absorption line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the origin of absorption line systems in quasars is still uncertain. Most such systems apparently have atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 19 /cm 2 , but at least two quasars, 1331 + 170 and PHL957, have such strong Lyman α absorption lines that atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 21 /cm 2 are indicated. It should be possible to observe the dust produced 2,200 A extinction feature as it is red shifted into the visible, and to determine whether absorption line systems are produced in spiral galaxies where the dust content is similar to that in the interstellar medium. It has been argued that the emission line regions of quasars generally lack dust and that towards PHL957 the 2,200 A feature is absent. The present author argues that dust similar to that found in the interstellar medium is not found towards the quasars 1331 + 170 and PHL957. This could explain why H 2 is not found towards PHL957, and it indicates that the absorption line systems in quasars are not produced in spiral galaxies similar to our own. It seems from the analysis presented that the dust-to-gas ratio towards 1331 + 170 is at least a factor of 20 less than in the interstellar medium, and there is no reason to suppose that this lack of dust results from a lack of metals It is concluded that there seems to be a lack of normal dust towards PHL957 by at least a factor of two; and that the absorption region towards 1331 + 170 and probably the region towards PHL957 are lacking dust similar to that in our own galaxy. This can explain the lack of H 2 in these systems. (U.K.)

  10. First Annual LGBT Health Workforce Conference: Empowering Our Health Workforce to Better Serve LGBT Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Nelson F; Sánchez, John Paul; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R; Callahan, Edward J

    2014-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine has identified significant health disparities and barriers to health care experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. By lowering financial barriers to care, recent legislation and judicial decisions have created a remarkable opportunity for reducing disparities by making health care available to those who previously lacked access. However, the current health-care workforce lacks sufficient training on LGBT-specific health-care issues and delivery of culturally competent care to sexual orientation and gender identity minorities. The LGBT Healthcare Workforce Conference was developed to provide a yearly forum to address these deficiencies through the sharing of best practices in LGBT health-care delivery, creating LGBT-inclusive institutional environments, supporting LGBT personal and professional development, and peer-to-peer mentoring, with an emphasis on students and early career professionals in the health-care fields. This report summarizes the findings of the first annual LGBT Health Workforce Conference.

  11. Health Indicators for Older Sexual Minorities: National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.

  12. Health information: reconciling personal privacy with the public good of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O

    2001-01-01

    The success of the health care system depends on the accuracy, correctness and trustworthiness of the information, and the privacy rights of individuals to control the disclosure of personal information. A national policy on health informational privacy should be guided by ethical principles that respect individual autonomy while recognizing the important collective interests in the use of health information. At present there are no adequate laws or constitutional principles to help guide a rational privacy policy. The laws are scattered and fragmented across the states. Constitutional law is highly general, without important specific safeguards. Finally, a case study is provided showing the important trade-offs that exist between public health and privacy. For a model public health law, see www.critpath.org/msphpa/privacy.

  13. An investigation of culturally competent terminology in healthcare policy finds ambiguity and lack of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julian; Parry, Yvonne; Guerin, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    This research explored how the concept of cultural competence was represented and expressed through health policies that were intended to improve the quality and efficacy of healthcare provided to families from culturally marginalised communities, particularly women and children with refugee backgrounds. A critical document analysis was conducted of policies that inform healthcare for families from culturally marginalised communities in two local government areas in South Australia. The analysis identified two major themes: lack of, or inconsistent, definitions of 'culture' and 'cultural competency' and related terms; and the paradoxical use of language to determine care. Cultural competence within health services has been identified as an important factor that can improve the health outcomes for families from marginalised communities. However, inconsistency in definitions, understanding and implementation of cultural competence in health practice makes it difficult to implement care using these frameworks. Clearly defined pathways are necessary from health policy to inform culturally competent service delivery. The capacity for policy directives to effectively circumvent the potential deleterious outcomes of culturally incompetent services is only possible when that policy provides clear definitions and instructions. Consultation and partnership are necessary to develop effective definitions and processes relating to cultural competence. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Developing and pilot testing a comprehensive health literacy communication training for health professionals in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    Objective: Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Methods: Thirty health

  15. Liberalisation of Trade in Health Services and the Implication for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hence proxy measure of health services were utilised in the paper and this might blur the expected impacts. The implication of the paper is for African countries to adequately participate in GATS as it involves trade in health services. Key Words: Liberalisation, health system, mortality, services supply modes, WTO, general ...

  16. Lack of Healthy Food Options on Children’s Menus of Restaurants in the Health-Disparate Dan River Region of Virginia and North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Nicole C.; Waters, Clarice N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interest has increased in understanding the types and healthfulness of restaurant foods for children, particularly in disadvantaged areas. The purpose of this community-based participatory research study was to describe the quality of restaurant food offered to children in a health-disparate region in Virginia and North Carolina and to determine if the availability of healthy foods differed by location (rural, urban) or by the predominant race (black, white, mixed race) of an area’s population. Methods Restaurants offering a children’s menu in the 3 counties in Virginia and North Carolina that make up the Dan River Region were identified by using state health department records. Research assistants reviewed menus using the Children’s Menu Assessment (CMA), a tool consisting of 29 scored items (possible score range, −4 to 21). Scores were calculated for each restaurant. We obtained information on the predominant race of the population at the block group level for all counties from 2010 US Census data. Results For the 137 restaurants studied, mean CMA scores were low (mean, 1.6; standard deviation [SD], 2.7), ranging from −4 to 9 of 21 possible points. Scores were lowest for restaurants in the predominantly black block groups (mean, 0.2; SD, 0.4) and significantly different from the scores for restaurants in the predominantly white (mean, 1.4; SD, 1.6) and mixed-race block groups (mean, 2.6; SD, 2.4) (F = 4.3; P < .05). Conclusion Children’s menus available in the Dan River Region lack healthy food options, particularly in predominantly black block groups. These study findings can contribute to regional efforts in policy development or environmental interventions for children’s food quality by the community-based participatory research partnership and help local stakeholders to determine possible strategies and solutions for improving local food options for children. PMID:25811495

  17. Investigation of Barriers of Access to Children’s Oral and Dental Health Services from the Point of View of Mothers Referring to Health Centers of Qom City, 2016 (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Berakyan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adequate access to oral and dental health services in childhood can reduce long-term complications in the following years of life. The objective of this study was to determine the barriers of access to children’s oral and dental health services from the point of view of mothers referring to health centers in Qom city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the statistical population included 325 mothers referred to health centers. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of items, including age, educational level, job, and barriers of access to oral health services. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical indicators and logistic regression test. Results: In this study, lack of insurance coverage for dentistry costs (59.7% had the highest frequency in barriers of access to dental health services, followed by child's fear of dentistry (53.2% and high costs of dental services (49.8%. There was no significant relationship between mother's job and barriers of access to dental health services, but the chance of barriers of access to dental health services increased 1.60 times with father’s employment in government jobs. Also, the results showed that the chance of barriers of access to dental health services increased 3.60 times with residence in Pardisan region, on the other hand, the chance of access to the services, was improved up to 52% with residence in Tohid region. Conclusion: Expansion of insurance coverage of oral and dental health services and increase of public centers providing dental services can be eliminate the major part of barriers of access to these services. In addition, the proportional distribution of these services in different regions of the city can be effective in easy and low-cost access.

  18. Cost utility analysis of everolimus in the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Minović, I.; Bruinsma, A.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) is becoming an important part of Dutch health care expenditure due to expensive pharmaceutical options for disease control and lack of adequate prevention methods. New targeted therapeutics, such as sunitinib, sorafenib and everolimus, have recently

  19. Human rights dimensions of food, health and care in children's homes in Kampala, Uganda - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Line Erikstad; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Eide, Wenche Barth

    2016-03-18

    More than 14 % of Ugandan children are orphaned and many live in children's homes. Ugandan authorities have targeted adolescent girls as a priority group for nutrition interventions as safeguarding nutritional health before pregnancy can reduce the chance of passing on malnutrition to the offspring and thus future generations. Ugandan authorities have obligations under international human rights law to progressively realise the rights to adequate food, health and care for all Ugandan children. Two objectives guided this study in children's homes: (a) To examine female adolescent residents' experiences, attitudes and views regarding: (i) eating patterns and food, (ii) health conditions, and (iii) care practices; and (b) to consider if the conditions in the homes comply with human rights standards and principles for the promotion of the rights to adequate food, health and care. A human rights-based approach guided the planning and conduct of this study. Five children's homes in Kampala were included where focus group discussions were held with girls aged 12-14 and 15-17 years. These discussions were analysed through a phenomenological approach. The conditions of food, health and care as experienced by the girls, were compared with international standards for the realisation of the human rights to adequate food, health and care. Food, health and care conditions varied greatly across the five homes. In some of these the girls consumed only one meal per day and had no access to clean drinking water, soap, toilet paper and sanitary napkins. The realisation of the right to adequate food for the girls was not met in three homes, the realisation of the right to health was not met in two homes, and the realisation of the right to care was not met in one home. In three of the selected children's homes human rights standards for food, health or care were not met. Care in the children's homes was an important contributing factor for whether standards for the rights to adequate

  20. Still a health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The social model of disability has been fruitful in promoting human rights of people with disabilities, but has been associated with a downplaying of the health dimension of disability. Adequate accounts of disability should make space for medical, psychological, social, and political factors in the lives of people with disabilities. Disability is almost always connected to a health condition; civil rights law needs to be anchored in a robust definition of the protected class; failure to meet health needs constitutes an important aspect of the discrimination faced by people with disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Adequate Coiling Versus Clipping of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Sprengers, Marieke E.; van Rooij, Willem Jan; Sluzewski, Menno; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    Background and Purpose-Coiling is increasingly used as treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Despite its favorable short-term outcome, concerns exist about long-term reopening and inherent risk of recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized a higher risk for recurrent SAH after adequate

  2. The Relation Between the Health Workforce distribution and Maternal and Child Health Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Sousa (Angelica)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWeak health systems with a shortage of qualified staff, and lack of equipment and medicines impede the delivery of quality health care that is required to prevent maternal and newborn deaths and the attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the cases

  3. Promoting oral health care among people living in residential aged care facilities: Perceptions of care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Amy R; Clark, Sally; Villarosa, Ariana C; Patterson Norrie, Tiffany; Macdonald, Susan; Anlezark, Jennifer; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh

    2018-04-23

    This study aimed to look at the practices and perspectives of residential aged care facility (RACF) care staff regarding the provision of oral health care in RACFs. Emphasis has been placed on the provision of adequate oral health care in RACFs through the Better Oral Health in Residential Aged Care programme. Endorsed by the Australian government, this programme provided oral health education and training for aged care staff. However, recent evidence suggests that nearly five years after the implementation of this programme, the provision of oral care in RACFs in NSW remains inadequate. This project utilised an exploratory qualitative design which involved a focus group with 12 RACF care staff. Participants were asked to discuss the current oral health practices in their facility, and their perceived barriers to providing oral health care. The key findings demonstrated current oral health practices and challenges among care staff. Most care staff had received oral health training and demonstrated positive attitudes towards providing dental care. However, some participants identified that ongoing and regular training was necessary to inform practice and raise awareness among residents. Organisational constraints and access to dental services also limited provision of dental care while a lack of standardised guidelines created confusion in defining their role as oral healthcare providers in the RACF. This study highlighted the need for research and strategies that focus on capacity building care staff in oral health care and improving access of aged care residents to dental services. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    In the last 50 years conventional treatments have not been able to slow down the expanding chronic low back pain problem. However, nowadays health care has changed according to a broad biopsychosocial model of health, the positive effect of activity on health and healing, emphasis on function rather than pain or impairment, and reliance upon clinical evidence. In search for new solutions "functional restoration" (FR) programs have been developed. They include multidisciplinary treatment of patients in groups, consisting of 6-8 h of treatment a day, lasting 3 to 6 weeks and usually integrating intense physical and ergonomic training, psychological (behavioral) therapy, patient education, and instruction in social- and work-related issues. FR programs have yet to demonstrate their effectiveness in several countries. Controlled studies in the USA were very positive regarding the return-to-work rate, whereas studies in Scandinavian countries did not demonstrate similar results. Possible reasons for the different results concerning back-to-work ratios might be that study design, patient population, content of the program, and other external factors are different and studies as well as effects are therefore not directly comparable. According to several well-controlled studies, the most probable reason for this different effect may be that social and security (health care) systems and cultures differ among countries and that patients with chronic low back pain respond differently to this combination. Sick absenteeism and inability to work may be influenced by many factors besides pain that cannot be addressed by intervention or prevention programs, e.g., job satisfaction, education level, and the compensation systems. It may be that the lower economic benefit during sick leave in the United States leads to favorable results from functional restoration programs. Concerning the prediction of success, several studies have shown that medical background, diagnosis and physical

  5. Involvement of Mitanins (female health volunteers) in active malaria surveillance, determinants and challenges in tribal populated malaria endemic villages of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Bhatt, Rajendra Mohan; Swain, Dipak Kumar; Dutta, G D P; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-07-11

    Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA), female health volunteers working at village level have become an integral component of National Health Mission (NHM) in India in the past two decades. Mitanin (meaning female friend in local dialect), a precursor of ASHA, play an indispensable role in early detection of health related problems and are helping in improving overall community health status in Chhattisgarh state. The current study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of involving Mitanin in active malaria surveillance work in 80 tribal villages of Chhattisgarh and to explore the challenges and determinants to perform malaria surveillance activities by the Mitanins. A total of 162 Mitanins were selected and divided into two age and village matched groups. The first group (training plus) of Mitanins were given additional training in malaria surveillance activities in whilst the second (standard) group received routine training. All Mitanins were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were also conducted among randomly selected sub groups of Mitanins (five from each group) after the completion of the quantitative survey. Performance of Mitanins was evaluated using pre-defined grading scores (A-E) which included various factors such as educational qualifications and knowledge about malaria, its signs and symptoms and knowledge, attitude and treatment practices. More number of Mitanins in training plus group has showed better performance (≥ B) than those in the standard group of Mitanins (80% vs 43.5%, p = 0.001) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Based on the outcome of in-depth interviews, Mitanin's lack of adequate support from supervisors, delayed payment of incentives and lack of appreciation were the major challenges mentioned. Mitanins can play an effective role in active fever surveillance for malaria besides performing other health related tasks at sub-village level after focused education on malaria

  6. The adverse effects of International Monetary Fund programs on the health and education workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marphatia, Akanksha A

    2010-01-01

    Decades of underinvestment in public sectors and in teachers and health workers have adversely affected the health and educational outcomes of women. This is partly explained by a general lack of resources. However, the amount a country can spend on social sectors, including teachers and health workers, is also determined by its macroeconomic framework, which is set in agreement with the International Monetary Fund. There is now ample evidence of how IMF-imposed wage ceilings have constrained the ability of governments to hire adequate numbers of trained professionals and increase investment in social sectors. Though the IMF has recently removed wage ceilings from its basket of conditions, little change has taken place to ensure that women are better supported by macroeconomic policies or, at the least, are less adversely affected. Thus far, the IMF's neoliberal policies have either ignored gender concerns or instrumentalized equity, health, and education to support economic development. Unless macroeconomic policies are more flexible and deliberately take into account the different needs of women and men, social outcomes will continue to be poor and inequitable. Governments must pursue alternative, feminist policies that put the goals of social equity at the center of macroeconomic policy. These policies can facilitate increased investment in education and health care, which are vital measures for achieving gender equality and providing both women and men with the skills and training needed to soften the impact of the current economic crisis.

  7. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles Dr; Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England's NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. English NHS Trusts. We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation.

  8. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Design Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England’s NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. Setting NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. Participants English NHS Trusts. Main outcome measures We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. Results A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Conclusions Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation. PMID:28904806

  9. Adrift in the Gray Zone: IRB Perspectives on Research in the Learning Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Kelley, Maureen; Cho, Mildred K; Kraft, Stephanie Alessi; James, Cyan; Constantine, Melissa; Meyer, Adrienne N; Diekema, Douglas; Capron, Alexander M; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Magnus, David

    2016-01-01

    Human subjects protection in healthcare contexts rests on the premise that a principled boundary distinguishes clinical research and clinical practice. However, growing use of evidence-based clinical practices by health systems makes it increasingly difficult to disentangle research from a wide range of clinical activities that are sometimes called "research on medical practice" (ROMP), including quality improvement activities and comparative effectiveness research. The recent growth of ROMP activities has created an ethical and regulatory gray zone with significant implications for the oversight of human subjects research. We conducted six semi-structured, open-ended focus group discussions with IRB members to understand their experiences and perspectives on ethical oversight of ROMP, including randomization of patients to standard treatments. Our study revealed that IRB members are unclear or divided on the central questions at stake in the current policy debate over ethical oversight of ROMP: IRB members struggle to make a clear distinction between clinical research and medical practice improvement, lack consensus on when ROMP requires IRB review and oversight, and are uncertain about what constitutes incremental risk when patients are randomized to different treatments, any of which may be offered in usual care. They characterized the central challenge as a balancing act, between, on the one hand, making information fully transparent to patients and providing adequate oversight, and on the other hand, avoiding a chilling effect on the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship. Evidence-based guidance that supports IRB members in providing adequate and effective oversight of ROMP without impeding the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship is necessary to realize the full benefits of the learning health system.

  10. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikana Lekei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.

  11. Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendik, Igor; Friedel, Angelika; Roos, Franz F; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g., in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to a multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well-known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers, and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Based on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7% of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3% are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient

  12. The prospects for national health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J R; Palley, H A

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the unequal access to health care in the context of efforts by the American Medical Association (AMA) and its allies to maintain a market-maximizing health care system. The coalition between the AMA and its traditional allies is breaking down, in part, because of converging developments creating an atmosphere which may be more conducive to national health care reform and the development of a reformed health care delivery system that will be accessible, adequate, and equitable in meeting the health care and related social service needs of the American people.

  13. Evaluating Training Programs for Primary Care Providers in Child/Adolescent Mental Health in Canada: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Sandra; Espinet, Stacey; Naqvi, Reza; Lingard, Lorelei; Steele, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    The need for child/adolescent mental health care in Canada is growing. Primary care can play a key role in filling this gap, yet most providers feel they do not have adequate training. This paper reviews the Canadian literature on capacity building programs in child and adolescent psychiatry for primary care providers, to examine how these programs are being implemented and evaluated to contribute to evidence-based initiatives. A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed published articles of capacity building initiatives in child/adolescent mental health care for primary care practitioners that have been implemented in Canada. Sixteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed that capacity building initiatives in Canada are varied but rigorous evaluation methodology is lacking. Primary care providers welcome efforts to increase mental health care capacity and were satisfied with the implementation of most programs. Objective conclusions regarding the effectiveness of these programs to increase mental health care capacity is challenging given the evaluation methodology of these studies. Rigorous evaluation methods are needed to make evidence-based decisions on ways forward to be able to build child/adolescent mental health care capacity in primary care. Outcome measures need to move beyond self-report to more objective measures, and should expand the measurement of patient outcomes to ensure that these initiative are indeed leading to improved care for families.

  14. Evaluating Training Programs for Primary Care Providers in Child/Adolescent Mental Health in Canada: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinet, Stacey; Naqvi, Reza; Lingard, Lorelei; Steele, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The need for child/adolescent mental health care in Canada is growing. Primary care can play a key role in filling this gap, yet most providers feel they do not have adequate training. This paper reviews the Canadian literature on capacity building programs in child and adolescent psychiatry for primary care providers, to examine how these programs are being implemented and evaluated to contribute to evidence-based initiatives. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed published articles of capacity building initiatives in child/adolescent mental health care for primary care practitioners that have been implemented in Canada. Results Sixteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed that capacity building initiatives in Canada are varied but rigorous evaluation methodology is lacking. Primary care providers welcome efforts to increase mental health care capacity and were satisfied with the implementation of most programs. Discussion Objective conclusions regarding the effectiveness of these programs to increase mental health care capacity is challenging given the evaluation methodology of these studies. Conclusion Rigorous evaluation methods are needed to make evidence-based decisions on ways forward to be able to build child/adolescent mental health care capacity in primary care. Outcome measures need to move beyond self-report to more objective measures, and should expand the measurement of patient outcomes to ensure that these initiative are indeed leading to improved care for families. PMID:29662521

  15. Food habits of hypertensive and diabetics cared for in a Primary Health Care service in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Azeredo de Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the eating habits of hypertensive and diabetic individuals, classify their adequacy according to the Ministry of Health's Food Guide for the Brazilian Population and determine the association between adequate diet and the health problems under investigation. METHODS: Descriptive study from the baseline of a longitudinal study begun in 2011, with a sample of hypertensive and diabetic patients from a Primary Health Care facility in Southern Brazil, interviewed at home. RESULTS: A total of 2,482 people were interviewed, of which 66.5% were hypertensive, 6.5% diabetic and 27.1% suffered from hypertension and diabetes. Of those interviewed, 29.6% had inadequate eating habits, 46.9% partially inadequate and 23.4% had adequate diets. Low fiber intake was identified along with high consumption of soda, sugar, salt and saturated fat. The most adequate diet was associated with poor health status and the prevalence of inadequate diet was 30.0% higher among those who were only hypertensive. CONCLUSION: According to Ministry of Health guidelines, the eating habits of diabetic and hypertensive subjects are inadequate. The association between adequate diet and the health problems studied indicated a delayed improvement in diet, suggesting an urgent need for preventive and effective interventions to promote healthy eating.

  16. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co-workers or others Fewer opportunities for work, school or social activities or trouble finding housing Bullying, physical violence or harassment Health insurance that doesn't adequately cover your ...

  17. Detecting bacteriuria in a primary maternal and child health care programme

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, K S; Brahmadathan, K N; Abraham, Sulochana; Joseph, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Urinary tract infection in pregnancy has not been adequately dealt with in developing countries, though its consequences are well recognised. This is primarily because of constraints on resources coupled with a lack of technological infrastructure. An evaluation of the Griess test for the mass screening of urinary tract infection among antenatal women was carried out prospectively using a case-control method.

  18. Integrating the 3Ds—Social Determinants, Health Disparities, and Health-Care Workforce Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. PMID:24385659

  19. Integrating the 3Ds--social determinants, health disparities, and health-care workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.

  20. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert

    2009-11-01

    India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access.

  1. Social health insurance in Nepal: A health system departure toward the universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Rajani; Silwal, Pushkar Raj

    2018-04-10

    The World Health Organization has identified universal health coverage (UHC) as a key approach in reducing equity gaps in a country, and the social health insurance (SHI) has been recommended as an important strategy toward it. This article aims to analyze the design, expected benefits and challenges of realizing the goals of UHC through the recently launched SHI in Nepal. On top of the earlier free health-care policy and several other vertical schemes, the SHI scheme was implemented in 2016 and has reached population coverage of 5% in the implemented districts in just within a year of implementation. However, to achieve UHC in Nepal, in addition to operationalizing the scheme, several other requirements must be dealt simultaneously such as efficient health-care delivery system, adequate human resources for health, a strong information system, improved transparency and accountability, and a balanced mix of the preventive, health promotion, curative, and rehabilitative services including actions to address the social determinants of health. The article notes that strong political commitment and persistent efforts are the key lessons learnt from countries achieving progressive UHC through SHI. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The health impacts of climate change and variability in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menne, B. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome (Italy). Global Change and Health; Kunzil, N. [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine University, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Basel and Keck School of Medicine; Bertollini, R. [WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen (Denmark). Technical Support Div.

    2002-07-01

    Health is a focus reflecting the combined impacts of climate change on the physical environment, ecosystems, the economic environment and society. Long-term changes in the world's climate may affect many requisites of good health - sufficient food, safe and adequate drinking water and secure dwelling. The current large-scale social and environmental changes mean that we must assign a much higher priority to population health in the policy debate on climate change. Climate change will affect human health and wellbeing through a variety of mechanisms. Climate change can adversely impact on the availability of fresh water supply and the efficiency of local sewerage systems. It is also likely to affect food security. Cereal yields are expected to increase at high and mid latitudes but decrease at lower latitudes. Changes in food production are likely to significantly affect health in Africa. In addition, the distribution and seasonal transmission of several vector-borne infectious diseases (such as malaria and dengue) may be affected by climate change. Altered distribution of some vector species may be among the early signals of climate change. A change in the world climate could increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. The impacts on health of natural disasters are considerable - the number of people killed, injured or made homeless from such causes is increasingly alarming. The vulnerability of people living in risk-prone areas is an important contributor to disaster casualties and damage. An increase in heatwaves (and possibly air pollution) will be a problem in urban areas, where excess mortality and morbidity is currently observed during hot weather episodes. We can assume that climate change will affect the most vulnerable in developing countries. These might be socio-economic deprived populations, people who lack access to a health care system, technology and communication, as well as immuno compromised persons. The health community

  3. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  4. The problems and prospects of public health care development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abysmal failure of public health care system in Nigeria has attracted comments and criticisms from local and national levels. The provision of adequate health care services to the citizens, particularly those residing at the rural areas has left much to be desired. In spite of media propaganda and the current health sector ...

  5. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess measurements for growth monitoring in a developing country's primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, J J; Brown, L D; Vargas, W V; Morley, D

    1996-04-01

    Local supervisors used lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) during routine household visits to assess the technical quality of Costa Rican community-based health workers (CHW): measuring and recording weights of children, inter