WorldWideScience

Sample records for laboratory-scale constructed wetland

  1. Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 μg kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 μg kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended.

  2. Dynamics of nitrogen transformation depending on different operational strategies in laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongjiang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Tao; Mazur, Robert; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2014-07-15

    The influence of different flooded/drained (F/D) time ratios and different effluent flow rates on the dynamics of nitrogen transformations in three laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetland systems (TFCWs-A, B, and C) under varying NH4(+)-N and COD influent loadings was investigated in this study. Good organic matter removal performance up to 90% was achieved for all experimental TFCWs under inflow concentrations of 300 and 150 mg/L regardless of F/D and effluent flow rate. The ammonium removal efficiency of wetland with F/D=3h:3h (55%) was higher than that of the wetland with F/D=5h:1h (47%) under an ammonium inflow concentration of 60 mg/L, indicating the positive effect of longer drained and shorter flooded time on tidal-operated wetlands under nitrification. In addition, more uniform oxygen distribution and better nitrification capacity within the wetland might be achieved with a relatively slow effluent flow rate of 0.025 L/s. TFCWs were shown to be a robust and reliable option to achieve high TN removal of 70% due to its repeated cycle of "wet" and "dry" periods, particularly for the treatment of wastewater with high organic content. Moreover, F/D and effluent flow rates of tidal flow constructed wetlands exhibited no significant effect on phosphorus removal in this study. Other techniques, such as pretreatment or post treatment, require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  4. Phosphorus removal by laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems using anthracite, steel slag and related blends as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junmei; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Xiangling; Xiao, Enrong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the phosphorus (P) removal of a series of laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems using anthracite, steel slag and related blends as substrate in treatment of low concentration domestic sewage. The long-term performance of P removal was firstly studied by using single substrate of anthracite or steel slag, and three systems applying various combined substrates were investigated when the average P loading rate varied between 0.9 and 1.5 g TP/m2 x d. The results demonstrated that both anthracite and steel slag systems were highly effective in removing total P (CTP, 77.17 +/- 23.34% and 90.26 +/- 4.48%) and soluble reactive P (SRP, 92.14 +/- 12.56% and 96.20 +/- 2.58%). The system filled with anthracite, vermiculite and steel slag from the top down removed 82.45 +/- 9.52% and 87.83 +/- 8.58% of TP and SRP, respectively. However, other combined substrate systems showed comparative low and fluctuant P removal. The effluent pH was maintained at 7-9, which met environmental requirements of China. Therefore, anthracite provides a long-term high efficiency of P removal and may be a promising substrate from the standpoint of the effluent pH, and the arrangement of combined substrate has a prominent effect on P removal.

  5. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  6. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  7. [Analysis on the removal efficiency and mechanisms of phosphorus by modified zeolites substrates coated with LDHs reacted by different metal compounds in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Jie; Guo, Lu; Chen, Qiao-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Six kinds of metal compounds which were CaCl2 , ZnCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, and CoCl3 were formed nine kinds of different combinations in the alkaline conditions to synthesized LDHs (Layered Double Hydroxides), which were in-situ coated on the surface of zeolites. With the filling of the original and nine kinds of modified zeolites in the columns to simulate a laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland system, the experiments of purified phosphorus were conducted. Combined removal efficiency with adsorption isotherm data of the ten kinds of zeolites, mechanism for strengthening the removal rates of the phosphorus by the modified zeolites was studied. The results showed that compared with the original zeolites, the removal rates of the phosphorus by nine kinds of modified zeolites were enhanced with various degrees. In the cases of Zn involved in the modified zeolites, the removal efficiencies of phosphorus reached a high quality. Especially, the ZnFe-LDHs had the average removal rates of the total phosphorus, the dissolved phosphorus and the phosphate were over 90%, and its maximum adsorption capacity of the phosphorus was three times higher than that of the original zeolites. Therefore, by means of increasing the adsorption capacity and improving the chemical adsorption ability of phosphorus, the modification to coated LDHs on the zeolites reached the aim of strengthening the purification of the phosphorus.

  8. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  9. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  10. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  11. A review on removing pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater by constructed wetlands: design, performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifei; Zhu, Guibing; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current state of research activities on the application of constructed wetlands for removing pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater. The focus of the review was placed on the application of constructed wetlands as an alternative secondary wastewater treatment system or as a wastewater polishing treatment system. The design parameters of the reported constructed wetlands including the physical configuration, hydraulic mode, vegetation species, and targeting pharmaceuticals were summarized. The removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals under different conditions in the wetlands were evaluated at the macroscopic level. In addition, the importance of the three main components of constructed wetlands (substrate, plants and microbes) for pharmaceutical removal was analyzed to elucidate the possible removal mechanisms involved. There is a general consensus among many researchers that constructed wetlands hold great potential of being used as an alternative secondary wastewater treatment system or as a wastewater polishing treatment system for the removal of pharmaceuticals, but relevant reported studies are scarce and are not conclusive in their findings. Current knowledge is limited on the removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals in constructed wetlands, the removal mechanisms involved, the toxicity to constructed wetlands caused by pharmaceuticals, and the influences of certain important parameters (configuration design, hydraulic mode, temperature and seasonality, pH, oxygen and redox potential, etc.). This review promotes further research on these issues to provide more and better convincing evidences for the function and performance of larger laboratory-scale, pilot-scale or full-scale constructed wetlands. © 2013.

  12. Occurence of organic pollutants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are wetlands designed to improve the quality of water. In this work, four representatives of typical organic pollutants in Constructed wetlands are studied : DEET, cotinine, coprostanol and galaxolide as the representatives of insecticide, alkaloid,faecal sterol and musk compound respectively. Moreover three different types of extraction techniques : aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - are investiga...

  13. Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the duplex-constructed wetland and the constructed wetroof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapater Pereyra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Maribel Zapater Pereyra Abstract thesis:  Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the Duplex-constructed wetland and the Constructed wetroof Constructed wetlands (CWs) are among the few natural treatment systems that can guarantee an efficient wastewater treatment and an appe

  14. Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the duplex-constructed wetland and the constructed wetroof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapater Pereyra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Maribel Zapater Pereyra Abstract thesis:  Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the Duplex-constructed wetland and the Constructed wetroof Constructed wetlands (CWs) are among the few natural treatment systems that can guarantee an efficient wastewater treatment and an

  15. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  16. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  17. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN A VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND USING DOLOMITE POWDER AND CHIPPINGS AS FILTER MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Žibienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of natural and artificial filter media are able to retain phosphorus in the constructed wetlands. Due to the fact that the constructed wetland needs huge amounts of the filter media, it is very important to find locally available material which distinguishes itself by its ability to retain phosphorus. The materials found in Lithuania were considered and dolomite was chosen. Two dolomite fractions, dolomite powder (1–2 mm and dolomite chippings (2–5 mm, and sand media were used in the laboratory- scale installed for the comparative experiments. The laboratory-scale with dolomite as the filter media was on average by 21% more efficient in total phosphorus removal in comparison with the sand media. Based on the laboratory research pilot–scale vertical flow constructed wetland of 160 m2 was installed and planted with reed Phragmites australis. The dolomite chippings as filter media were chosen in order to avoid the danger of the clogging of constructed wetland. Efficiency of total phosphorus removal in the pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland was on average 95.7%, phosphates removal – 94.8% within one year.

  18. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  19. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  20. Phytoremediation of industrial effluent containing azo dye by model up-flow constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.Ong; K.Uchiyama; D.Inadama; Y.Ishida; K.Yamagiwa

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7(AO7)containing wastewater by laboratory-scale up-flow constructed wetland(UFCW)with and without supplementary aeration.The supplementary aeration could effectively control the ratio of anaerobic and aerobic zones in the UFCW reactor.The results dearly show the supplementary aeration boosted the biodegradation of organic pollutants and mineralization of intermediate aromatic amines formed by AO7 degradation.

  1. Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Xu; Chang, Jie; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yan; Xue, Hui; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Progress has been made in reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen fertilizer consumption through biofuel production. Here we advocate an alternative approach that efficiently produces cellulosic biofuel and greatly reduces GHG emissions using waste nitrogen through wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands in China. Our combined experimental and literature data demonstrate that the net life-cycle energy output of constructed wetlands is higher than that of corn, soybean, switchgrass, low-input high-diversity grassland and algae systems. Energy output from existing constructed wetlands is ~237% of the input for biofuel production and can be enhanced through optimizing the nitrogen supply, hydrologic flow patterns and plant species selection. Assuming that all waste nitrogen in China could be used by constructed wetlands, biofuel production can account for 6.7% of national gasoline consumption. We also find that constructed wetlands have a greater GHG reduction than the existing biofuel production systems in a full life-cycle analysis. This alternative approach is worth pursuing because of its great potential for straightforward operation, its economic competitiveness and many ecological benefits.

  2. Groundwater Flow Through a Constructed Treatment Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    references present techniques for flow net construction (Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Cedergren , 1989; Fetter, 1994; Kresic, 1997). All of these authors...Brix, H. “Functions of Macrophytes in Constructed Wetlands,” Water Science & Technology, 29(4): 71-78 (1994). Cedergren , H.R. Seepage

  3. ROLE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN NUTRIENT STRIPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan A; Zubair M; Ali R

    2005-01-01

    A number of research programs have been established to evaluate potential applications of constructed wetlands in Western Australia. These constructed wetlands are known not only for their nutrient removal capability, but also their role in habitat creation, urban landscaping and water quality and environmental health. They play an important role in the reduction of nutrients, particularly phosphorous, from entering the waterways.This paper reports on the improvement of water quality in the Peel Main Drain before its disposal into the Peel Estuary, Perth, Western Australia. The nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratio was below the critical limit during summer (dry spell) and the system was limited by nitrogen. The concentration of phosphorus was high in summer and low in winter due to increased availability of dissolved oxygen in winter.A wetland was proposed to improve the water quality in the Peel Main Drain using vegetation and substrate. The hydrologic effectiveness was found to be 78% for a detention time of 30 hours. It is expected that the maximum nitrogen removal efficiency of the constructed wetland will be 80% with an estimated efficiency of 40% in the first year and 60-80% in the subsequent years. For phosphorous it is expected that the constructed wetland will be effective in removing filterable reactive phosphorous. Traditional sediment remediation techniques have been found unsuitable for the long term binding of the phosphorous therefore the use of Phoslock TM is recommended.

  4. Construction and Protection of Qionghai Lake Wetland Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiwei; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Wetland is closely related to survival, reproduction and development of human beings. Due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, wetland ecosystems are suffered from huge pressure of human society and the wetland ecological environment becomes extremely vulnerable. On the basis of analyzing current situations of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City of Sichuan Province, this paper discussed the significance of Qionghai wetland construction and protection, and offered countermeasures and recommendations for solving existing problems in Qionghai wetland.

  5. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  6. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  8. Clay particle retention in small constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskerud, B C

    2003-09-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used to mitigate non-point source pollution from arable fields. Previous investigations have shown that the relative soil particle retention in small CWs increases when hydraulic load increases. This paper investigates why this phenomenon occurs, even though common retention models predict the opposite, by studying clay and silt particle retention in two Norwegian CWs. Retention was measured with water flow proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet of the wetlands, and the texture of the suspended solids was analyzed. The surface area of the CWs was small compared to the watershed area (approximately 0.07%), giving high average hydraulic loads (1.1 and 2.0 md(-1)). One of the watersheds included only old arable land, whereas the other included areas with disturbed topsoil after artificial land leveling. Clay particle retention was 57% for the CW in the first watershed, and 22% for the CW in the disturbed watershed. The different behavior of the wetlands could be due to differences in aggregate size and stability of the particles entering the wetlands. Results showed that increased hydraulic loads did affect CW retention negatively. However, as runoff increased, soil particles/aggregates with higher sedimentation velocities entered the CWs (e.g., the clay particles behaved as silt particles). Hence, clay particle settling velocity is not constant as assumed in many prediction models. The net result was increased retention.

  9. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  10. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  11. Albuquerque's constructed wetland pilot project for wastewater polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Marcus; Shannon M. House; Nathan A. Bowles; Robert T. Sekiya; J. Steven Glass

    1999-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque has funded the Constructed Wetland Pilot Project (CWPP) since 1995 at the City's Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP). Results from CWPP and other wetland treatment projects indicate that appropriately designed surface-flow wetlands could increase the cost-efficiencies of wastewater treatment, as well as help the City meet present and...

  12. [Problems and countermeasures in the application of constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Lou; Chen, Qin; Xu, Lian-Huang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands as a wastewater eco-treatment technology are developed in recent decades. It combines sewage treatment with the eco-environment in an efficient way. It treats the sewage effectively, and meanwhile beautifies the environment, creates ecological landscape, and brings benefits to the environment and economics. The unique advantages of constructed wetlands have attracted intensive attention since developed. Constructed wetlands are widely used in treatment of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and wastewater from mining and petroleum production. However, many problems are found in the practical application of constructed wetland, e. g. they are vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and temperature, their substrates are easily saturated and plugged, they are readily affected by plant species, they often occupy large areas, and there are other problems including irrational management, non-standard design, and a single function of ecological service. These problems to a certain extent influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment, shorten the life of the artificial wetland, and hinder the application of artificial wetland. The review presents correlation analysis and countermeasures for these problems, in order to improve the efficiency of constructed wetland in wastewater treatment, and provide reference for the application and promotion of artificial wetland.

  13. Performance comparison of constructed wetlands with gravel- and rice husk-based media for phenol and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, H C; Seng, C E; Noor, A Md; Lim, P E

    2009-05-15

    This study aims to compare the performance of planted and unplanted constructed wetlands with gravel- and raw rice husk-based media for phenol and nitrogen removal. Four laboratory-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units, two of which planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) were operated outdoors. The units were operated at a nominal hydraulic retention time of 7 days and fed with domestic wastewater spiked with phenol concentration at 300 mg/L for 74 days and then at 500 mg/L for 198 days. The results show that planted wetland units performed better than the unplanted ones in the removal and mineralization of phenol. This was explained by the creation of more micro-aerobic zones in the root zone of the wetland plants which allow a faster rate of phenol biodegradation, and the phenol uptake by plants. The better performance of the rice husk-based planted wetland compared to that of the gravel-based planted wetland in phenol removal could be explained by the observation that more rhizomes were established in the rice husk-based wetland unit thus creating more micro-aerobic zones for phenol degradation. The role of rice husk as an adsorbent in phenol removal was considered not of importance.

  14. Nitrogen compounds in drain sewage after constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, K; Malczewska, B

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands, commonly known as ground filters, are well suited mostly for wastewater treatment in areas with no central sewage system. The basic difficulty with exploitation of constructed wetlands is connected with irregular hydraulic overload of its surface. However, irregular wastewater inflow can be reduced by cyclical irrigation which increases efficiency. The unquestionable advantage of the constructed wetlands is inexpensive construction and exploitation as well as low energy consumption. The constructed wetlands also fit very well in surrounding area. The investigation concerned the analysis of two constructed wetlands which are composed of mechanical separation (septic tank) and a filter bed with subsurface flow. The research has been undertaken in a period from July to December 2008, with regard to concentration distribution of nitrogen compounds in municipal sewage after constructed wetlands. The preliminary investigation on constructed wetland which has been exploited for 10 years showed variable removal efficiency of nitrogen compounds. The continuation of the research can indicate the efficiency of wastewater treatment in summer and winter season.

  15. Treatment Efficiencies of Constructed Wetlands for Eutrophic Landscape River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-Bing; YAN Li; KONG Hai-Nan; LIU Zhi-Ming; WU De-Yi; HU Zhan-Bo

    2007-01-01

    The efficiencies of two types of constructed wetlands for the treatment of low-concentration polluted eutrophic landscape river water were studied in the western section of the Qingyuan River at the Minhang campus of Shanghai Jiaotong University. The first wetland was a single-stage system using gravel as a filtration medium, and the second was a three-stage system filled with combinations of gravel, zeolite, and fly ash. Results from parallel operations of the wetlands showed that the three-stage constructed wetland could remove organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus successfully. At the same time, it could also decrease ammoniacal odour in the effluent. Compared to the single-stage constructed wetland, it had better nutrient removal efficiencies with a higher removal of 19.37%-65.27% for total phosphorus (TP) and 21.56%- 62.94% for total nitrogen (TN), respectively, during the operation period of 14 weeks. In terms of removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and blue-green algae, these two wetland systems had equivalent performances. It was also found that in the western section of the test river, in which the two constructed wetlands were located, the water quality was much better than that in the eastern and middle sections without constructed wetland because COD, TN, and TP were all in a relatively lower level and the eutrophication could be prevented completely in the western section.

  16. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-22

    Dec 22, 2008 ... The feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the mitigation of pesticide runoff has been studied in the last decade. ... Aquatic acute toxicity ... Determination of process efficiency based on the mass of ametryn ...

  17. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  18. Constructed wetlands as wood stork habitat: Good, bad, or ugly?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives of our project are to determine the productivity of the wood stork colony nesting at the Jacksonville Zoo, to determine actual use of constructed wetlands...

  19. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  20. Simulation of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Aragón, M C; Alarcón-Herrera, M T; Llorens, E; Obradors-Prats, J; Leyva, A

    2017-01-01

    The software RCB-arsenic was developed previously to simulate the metalloid behavior in a constructed wetland (CW). The model simulates water flow and reactive transport by contemplating the major processes of arsenic (As) retention inside of CW. The objective of this study was to validate the RCB-arsenic model by simulating the behavior of horizontal flow CW for As removal from water. The model validation was made using data from a 122-day experiment. Two CWs prototypes were used: one planted with Eleocharis macrostachya (CW_planted) and another one unplanted (CW_unplanted) as a control. The prototypes were fed with synthetic water prepared using well water and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). In the RCB-arsenic model, a CW prototype was represented using a 2D mesh sized in accordance with the experiment. For simulation of As retention in CW, data addition was established in two stages that considered the mechanisms in the system: (1) aqueous complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and adsorption on granular media and (2) retention by plants: uptake (absorption) and rhizofiltration (adsorption). Simulation of As outlet (μg/L) in stage_1 was compared with CW_unplanted; the experimental mean was 40.79 ± 7.76 and the simulated 39.96 ± 6.32. As concentration (μg/L) in stage_2 was compared with CW_planted, the experimental mean was 9.34 ± 4.80 and the simulated 5.14 ± 0.72. The mass-balance simulation and experiment at 122 days of operation had a similar As retention rate (94 and 91%). The calibrated model RCB-arsenic adequately simulated the As retention in a CW; therefore, it constitutes a powerful tool of design.

  1. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  2. Effect of carbon source on the denitrification in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Songliu; HU Hongying; SUN Yingxue; YANG Jia

    2009-01-01

    The constructed wetlands with different plants in removal of nitrate were investigated.The factors promoting the rates of denitrification including organic carbon, nitrate load, plants in wetlands, pH and water temperature in field were systematically investigated.The results showed that the additional carbon source (glucose) can remarkably improve the nitrate removal ability of the constructed wetland.It demonstrated that the nitrate removal rate can increase from 20% to more than 50% in the summer and from 10% to 30% in the winter, when the nitrate concentration was 30-40 mg/L, the retention time was 24 h and 25 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was ploughed into the constructed wetland.However, the nitrite in the constructed wetland accumulated a litter with the supply of the additional carbon source in summer and winter, and it increased from 0.15 to 2 mg/L in the effluent.It was also found that the abilities of plant in adjusting pH and temperature can result in an increase of denitrification in wetlands, and the seasonal change may impact the denitrification.

  3. Temporal variation of nitrogen balance within constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water using a stable nitrogen isotope experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanguang; Lei, Qiongye; Li, Zhengkui; Han, Huayang

    2016-02-01

    Slightly polluted water has become one of the main sources of nitrogen contaminants in recent years, for which constructed wetlands (CW) is a typical and efficient treatment. However, the knowledge about contribution of individual nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen balance in constructed wetlands is still limited. In this study, a stable-isotope-addition experiment was performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water to determine quantitative contribution of different pathways and temporal variation of nitrogen balance using Na(15)NO3 as tracer. Microbial conversion and substrate retention were found to be the dominant pathways in nitrogen removal contributing 24.4-79.9 and 8.9-70.7 %, respectively, while plant contributed only 4.6-11.1 % through direct assimilation but promoted the efficiency of other pathways. In addition, microbial conversion became the major way to remove N whereas nitrogen retained in substrate at first was gradually released to be utilized by microbes and plants over time. The findings indicated that N2 emission representing microbial conversion was not only the major but also permanent nitrogen removal process, thus keeping a high efficiency of microbial conversion is important for stable and efficient nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands.

  4. Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    tunneling (staff biologist, Bosque del Apache NWR, New Mexico). Occasionally, berms are constructed to prevent flood damage to the wetlands. Berms...D. L. Parry, and B. N. Noller, 1995, “Retention of Arsenic and Metals in a Tropical Wetland following Dewatering from Tom’s Gully Gold Mine...Proceedings from 4th Environment Chemistry Conference, Chemistry in Tropical and Temperate Environments. Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, July 9–14

  5. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2012-01-01

    as surface-flow and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Various natural and industrial P filter substrates are tested towards P sorption properties, as well as hydraulic efficiency and P retention efficiency during variable flow regimes. A major challenge is to reduce comparatively low P concentrations....... The project further explores the denitrification capacity and potential green house gas emissions in different types of constructed wetlands and filter solutions. Sensitivity analyses using integrated models will provide filter design parameters for optimized filter performance and allow analysis of cost...

  7. Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2007-07-15

    The processes that affect removal and retention of nitrogen during wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs) are manifold and include NH(3) volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, plant and microbial uptake, mineralization (ammonification), nitrate reduction to ammonium (nitrate-ammonification), anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX), fragmentation, sorption, desorption, burial, and leaching. However, only few processes ultimately remove total nitrogen from the wastewater while most processes just convert nitrogen to its various forms. Removal of total nitrogen in studied types of constructed wetlands varied between 40 and 55% with removed load ranging between 250 and 630 g N m(-2) yr(-1) depending on CWs type and inflow loading. However, the processes responsible for the removal differ in magnitude among systems. Single-stage constructed wetlands cannot achieve high removal of total nitrogen due to their inability to provide both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at the same time. Vertical flow constructed wetlands remove successfully ammonia-N but very limited denitrification takes place in these systems. On the other hand, horizontal-flow constructed wetlands provide good conditions for denitrification but the ability of these system to nitrify ammonia is very limited. Therefore, various types of constructed wetlands may be combined with each other in order to exploit the specific advantages of the individual systems. The soil phosphorus cycle is fundamentally different from the N cycle. There are no valency changes during biotic assimilation of inorganic P or during decomposition of organic P by microorganisms. Phosphorus transformations during wastewater treatment in CWs include adsorption, desorption, precipitation, dissolution, plant and microbial uptake, fragmentation, leaching, mineralization, sedimentation (peat accretion) and burial. The major phosphorus removal processes are sorption, precipitation, plant uptake (with

  8. Nutrient processing capacity of a constructed wetland in western Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M; Cawley, A M

    2002-01-01

    In Ireland, constructed wetland systems are increasingly being used to perform tertiary treatment on municipal waste effluent from small towns and villages located in areas whose receiving waters are deemed sensitive. The bedrock formation in the west of Ireland is primarily karst limestone and where the overburden-soil cover is very shallow, such waters are highly sensitive to pollution sources, as little or no natural attenuation and/or treatment will occur. Constructed wetland technology has been seen to offer a relatively low-cost alternative to the more conventional tertiary treatment technologies, particularly when dealing with low population numbers in small rural communities. This paper examines the waste treatment performance, in terms of nutrient (P and N) reduction, of a recently constructed surface-flow wetland system at Williamstown, County Galway, Ireland. Performance evaluation is based on more than two years of water quality and hydrological monitoring data. The N and P mass balances for the wetland indicate that the average percentage reduction over the two-year study period is 51% for total N and 13% for total P. The primary treatment process in the wetland system for suspended solids (between 84 and 90% reduction), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (on average, 49% reduction), N, and P is the physical settlement of the particulates. However, the formation of algal bloom during the growing season reduces the efficiency of the total P removal.

  9. Conservative and reactive solute transport in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Wass, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of bromide, a conservative tracer, and rhodamine WT (RWT), a photodegrading tracer, was evaluated in three wastewater-dependent wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, using a solute transport model with transient storage. Coupled sodium bromide and RWT tracer tests were performed to establish conservative transport and reactive parameters in constructed wetlands with water losses ranging from (1) relatively impermeable (15%), (2) moderately leaky (45%), and (3) significantly leaky (76%). RWT first-order photolysis rates and sorption coefficients were determined from independent field and laboratory experiments. Individual wetland hydraulic profiles influenced the extent of transient storage interaction in stagnant water areas and consequently RWT removal. Solute mixing and transient storage interaction occurred in the impermeable wetland, resulting in 21% RWT mass loss from main channel and storage zone photolysis (10%) and sorption (11%) reactions. Advection and dispersion governed solute transport in the leaky wetland, limiting RWT photolysis removal (1.2%) and favoring main channel sorption (3.6%). The moderately leaky wetland contained islands parallel to flow, producing channel flow and minimizing RWT losses (1.6%).

  10. On the use of photothermal techniques for monitoring constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatts, C. E. N.; Faria, R. T.; Vargas, H.; Lannes, L. S.; Aragon, G. T.; Ovalle, A. R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands are a valued part of landscapes throughout the world. The steady increase of industrial facilities and disorganized urbanization processes, especially in developing countries, became a serious menace to these systems. The capability of wetlands to serve as a sink for nonpoint pollutants, particularly nutrients, is remarkable, but not limitless. For this reason, efforts to preserve them are considered a strategic issue for several countries. In addition, due to the exploding costs for sewage treatment, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment (reed-bed systems) have been widely used under a variety of different conditions. Wetlands present unique characteristics related to biogeochemical cycles, the transport and transformation of chemicals due to interrelated physical, and chemical, and biological processes. Particularly, vegetated wetlands can act as a source for greenhouse gases through the emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to atmosphere. From studies concerning the behavior of Salvinia auriculata Aublet., we intend to demonstrate the potential use of photothermal techniques for monitoring gaseous emissions in wetlands.

  11. Intensification of constructed wetlands for land area reduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Huma; Masih, Ilyas

    2017-05-01

    The large land area requirement of constructed wetlands (CWs) is a major limitation of its application especially in densely populated and mountainous areas. This review paper provides insights on different strategies applied for the reduction of land area including stack design and intensification of CWs with different aeration methods. The impacts of different aeration methods on the performance and land area reduction were extensively and critically evaluated for nine wetland systems under three aeration strategies such as tidal flow (TF), effluent recirculation (ER), and artificial aeration (AA) applied on three types of CWs including vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW), horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW), and hybrid constructed wetland (HCW). The area reduction and pollutant removal efficiency showed substantial variation among different types of CWs and aeration strategies. The ER-VFCW designated the smallest footprint of 1.1 ± 0.5 m(2) PE(-1) (population equivalent) followed by TF-VFCW with the footprint of 2.1 ± 1.8 m(2) PE(-1), and the large footprint was of AA-HFCW (7.8 ± 4.7 m(2) PE(-1)). When footprint and removal efficiency both are the major indicators for the selection of wetland type, the best options for practical application could be TF-VFCW, ER-HCW, and AA-HCW. The data and results outlined in this review could be instructive for futures studies and practical applications of CWs for wastewater treatment, especially in land-limited regions.

  12. Mitigation of methane emissions from constructed farm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Reay, David S; Heal, Kate V

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are increasingly used for water pollution treatment but may also be sources of the greenhouse gas CH(4). The effect of addition of two potential inhibitors of methanogenesis - iron ochre and gypsum - on net CH(4) emissions was investigated in a constructed wetland treating farm runoff in Scotland, UK. CH(4) fluxes from three 15-m(2) wetland plots were measured between January and July 2008 in large static chambers incorporating a tunable diode laser, with application of 5tonha(-1) ochre and gypsum in May. CH(4) fluxes were also measured from control and ochre- and gypsum-treated wetland sediment cores incubated at constant and varying temperature in the laboratory. Ochre addition suppressed CH(4) emissions by 64+/-13% in the field plot and >90% in laboratory incubations compared to controls. Gypsum application of 5tonha(-1) in the field and laboratory experiments had no effect on CH(4) emissions, but application of 10tonha(-1) to a sediment core reduced CH(4) emissions by 28%. Suppression of CH(4) emissions by ochre application to sediment cores also increased with temperature; the reduction relative to the control increased from 50% at 17.5 degrees C to >90% at 27.5 degrees C. No significant changes in N removal or pH and potentially-toxic metal content of sediments as the result of inhibitor application were detected in the wetland during the study.

  13. Biological diversity versus risk for mosquito nuisance and disease transmission in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O; Pfeffer, M; Lundkvist, E; Landin, J

    2004-09-01

    In southern Sweden, many wetlands have been constructed, and maintaining or increasing biological diversity is often included in the aims. Some wetlands are constructed near human settlements, thus raising the problem of wetlands being associated with mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Increased biodiversity (including mosquito diversity) is considered desirable, whereas mosquito nuisance from a human point of view is not. Adult mosquito abundance, diversity and species assemblages of constructed wetlands were compared to natural wetlands. The potential of constructed wetlands for mosquito nuisance and transmission of mosquito-borne viruses was evaluated. The study areas included five constructed and four natural wetlands. Mosquito abundance and species richness were higher in the natural than in the constructed wetlands, and showed a positive correlation with wetland size. Mosquito species assemblages formed three clusters, which were not explained by origin, size and water permanence of wetlands. In a redundancy analysis, however, mosquito faunas showed significant relationships with these variables, and size and origin of wetlands were most important. Major nuisance species (multivoltine species feeding on mammals and laying eggs on soil) were found in all wetlands, although in relatively low numbers. Risk assessment for Sindbis virus transmission showed moderate risk for two constructed wetlands near human settlements. It is concluded that small size of constructed wetlands has the advantage of low mosquito numbers from a human point of view. The use of functional groups is recommended as a tool for presenting mosquito data to the public, and for helping communication between scientists and administrative decision makers.

  14. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  15. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  16. INVENTORY OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 1990 and 1991 the U.S. Environmental Production Agency (EPA) sponsored an effort to identify existing and planned constructed wetlands in the U.S. and to collect readily available information from operating systems. In addition to inquiries by telephone and mail, the effor...

  17. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  18. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  19. High rate nitrogen removal in an alum sludge-based intermittent aeration constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaohong; Kumar, Jeyakumar L G

    2012-04-17

    A new development on treatment wetland technology for the purpose of achieving high rate nitrogen removal from high strength wastewater has been made in this study. The laboratory scale alum sludge-based intermittent aeration constructed wetland (AlS-IACW) was integrated with predenitrification, intermittent aeration, and step-feeding strategies. Results obtained from 280 days of operation have demonstrated extraordinary nitrogen removal performance with mean total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 90% under high N loading rate (NLR) of 46.7 g N m(-2) d(-1). This performance was a substantial improvement compared to the reported TN removal performance in literature. Most significantly, partial nitrification and simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) via nitrite was found to be the main nitrogen conversion pathways in the AlS-IACW system under high dissolved oxygen concentrations (3-6 mg L(-1)) without specific control. SND under high dissolved oxygen (DO) brings high nitrogen conversion rates. Partial nitrification and SND via nitrite can significantly reduce the demand for organic carbon compared with full nitrification and denitrification via nitrate (up to 40%). Overall, these mechanisms allow the system to maintaining efficient and high rate TN removal even under carbon limiting conditions.

  20. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  1. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  2. Assessment of Constructed Wetland Biological Integrity Using Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galbrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland consisting of seven cells was used to treat the leachates from a decommissioned landfill. Wetland monitoring was performed by evaluating the treatment efficiency of the landfill leachate and the wetland biological integrity of the wetland. The water quality samples were analyzed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were examined using Average Score per Taxon (ASPT via the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP biotic index, the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Sphaeriidae and Odonata (ETSD biotic index, abundance of mayflies and trophic structure. Reductions of 49.66, 66.66, 1.91, 46.37 and 8.33% were obtained for manganese, orthophosphate, TSS, TDS and COD, respectively. The nitrite, dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations were not in accordance with the water quality guidelines for aquatic life. ASPT, ETSD, percent abundance of mayflies and trophic structure represented moderate to moderately-poor water quality in comparison to a high quality reference site. Iron had most adverse effect on the biological system of the wetland.

  3. Triclosan removal in wetlands constructed with different aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wang, Jingmin; Zhao, Congcong; Hay, Anthony G; Xie, Huijun; Zhan, Jian

    2015-10-22

    Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in consumer products as an antimicrobial agent. Constructed wetlands have the potential for TCS removal, but knowledge about the relative importance of sediment, plants, and microbes is limited. TCS removal performance was investigated in well-operated constructed wetlands planted with three different types of aquatic plants: emergent Cattail (C-T), submerged Hornwort (H-T), and floating Lemnaminor (L-T). Results showed that the TCS removal efficiencies from water were all greater than 97 %. Maximal TCS adsorption to sediment in the C-T wetland (13.8 ± 0.6 ng/g) was significantly lower than in the H-T wetland (21.0 ± 0.3 ng/g) or the L-T wetland (21.4 ± 0.6 ng/g). The maximal TCS concentrations in plants were 5.7 ± 0.2 and 7.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for H-T and L-T, respectively, and it was below the minimal detection limit (MDL) in C-T. Deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing results revealed that C-T wetland had the highest community richness and diversity. Some bacteria, like beta-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were detected and might have significant correlations with TCS degradation. Overall, with regard to soils, plants, and microorganism, accumulation in sediment and plants in H-T and L-T was high, while in C-T biodegradation likely played an important role.

  4. Constructed wetland and aquatic treatment systems for fish farms in Egypt : Desk study report

    OpenAIRE

    Truijen, G.; Heijden, van der, MGM Mike

    2013-01-01

    This report summarises the information found in scientific literature regarding the mechanisms and processes that enable constructed wetlands to remove heavy metals and pesticides from waste water. It examines what factors have an influence on the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat waste water containing such pollutants and shows the impact on the design and operation of constructed wetlands. It focuses on free surface flow wetlands and aquatic treatment systems because these type...

  5. 人工湿地的构建与应用%Construction and Application of Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清

    2011-01-01

    论述了人工湿地污水处理技术的机制和优势,阐述了人工湿地的构建和污水处理研究进展,表明人工湿地的污水处理效率与污染物的种类和污染程度、人工湿地的类型、湿地植物种类、基质类型、水力停留时间和水力负荷等密切相关.在中国,典型人工湿地有3种类型,分别为垂直流人工湿地、潜流式人工湿地和表面流人工湿地,主要用于处理来自化粪池、养殖场、造纸厂、油田、煤矿、富营养湖泊以及城市生活等的污水.构建人工湿地常用的植物有芦苇(Phragmites austr alis)、香蒲(Typha orientalis)、美人蕉(Canna indica)、眼子菜(Potamogeton sp.)和金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)等,常见的基质成分为砾石、沸石、沙子、土壤或炉煤渣等.通过系统总结中国人工湿地在污水处理过程中的研究进展和应用实例,认为建立人工湿地去除污染物具有良好的应用前景,今后应该进一步加强人工湿地的基础理论研究,进一步推广人工湿地的应用.%This paper presents the mechanisms and advantages of the constructed wetlands and indicates the research situation of the wetland construction and disposition of sewage by the constructed wetlands. It shows that many factors such as the components and levels of pollutants, the types of constructed wetlands, the categories of its plants and fillers, the hydraulic retention time as well as the load of hydropower can influence the efficiency of the constructed wetland. In China, there are three major types of constructed wetlands: vertical flow constructed wetland, subsurface flow constructed wetland and surface flow constructed wetland. These constructed wetlands are mainly used for treating the sewage from cesspit, nursery, paper mill, oil and coal mine, eutrophic lake and city life. During the construction course of wetlands, reed, cattail, herb of distinct pondweed and ladder brake are chosen as the dominating plants

  6. A LOW-COST THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLE COLLECTION ARRAY TO EVALUATE AND MONITOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  7. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2012-01-01

    typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic...... as surface-flow and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Various natural and industrial P filter substrates are tested towards P sorption properties, as well as hydraulic efficiency and P retention efficiency during variable flow regimes. A major challenge is to reduce comparatively low P concentrations....... The project further explores the denitrification capacity and potential green house gas emissions in different types of constructed wetlands and filter solutions. Sensitivity analyses using integrated models will provide filter design parameters for optimized filter performance and allow analysis of cost...

  8. Modelling the Hydraulic Processes on Constructed Stormwater Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Constructed stormwater wetlands are manmade, shallow, and extensively vegetated water bodies which promote runoff volume and peak flow reduction, and also treat stormwater runoff quality. Researchers have noted that treatment processes of runoff in a constructed wetland are influenced by a range of hydraulic factors, which can vary during a rainfall event, and their influence on treatment can also vary as the event progresses. Variation in hydraulic factors during an event can only be generated using a detailed modelling approach, which was adopted in this research by developing a hydraulic conceptual model. The developed model was calibrated using trial and error procedures by comparing the model outflow with the measured field outflow data. The accuracy of the developed model was analyzed using a well-known statistical analysis method developed based on the regression analysis technique. The analysis results show that the developed model is satisfactory.

  9. Modelling constructed wetlands: scopes and aims - a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, D; Chazarenc, Florent; Claveau Mallet, D.; Dittmer, D; Forquet, N.; Molle, P.; Morvannou, A.; Palfy, T.; Petitjean, A; Rizzo, A.; Samso Campa, R.; Scholz, M.; Soric, Audrey; Langergraber, G.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; During the last two decades a couple of models were developed for constructed wetlands with differing purposes. Meanwhile the usage of this kind of tool is generally accepted, but the misuse of the models still confirms the skepticism. Generally three some groups of models can be distinguished: On one hand mechanistic models try to display the complex and diffuse interaction of occurring processes, on the other hand the same kind of models is are used to investigate si...

  10. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Tanveer Ferdous

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes in detail the background, methods, results, and conclusions of a three-year PhD research project - “subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater”, which was undertaken at Monash University between April 2008 and December 2010. The overall objective of the research was to discover the efficiencies of key pollutant removals (organics, nutrients, solids, and coliforms), when a medium-strength wastewater is treated in different types of subsu...

  11. Wastewater Treatment Using Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarafraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades witnessed sharp focus on environment pollution and its impact on life in nature. Wetlands can be used for biological treatment of wastewater. Problem statement: Scarcity of water is considered as a global problem and Iran is one the countries which is facing water shortage problem. Pollution of water bodies restrict the availability of water for various uses. Treatment of waste water before disposal contributes to water conservation efforts. Constructed wetlands are techniques aim to polish water quality and reduce the harmful effect of effluent. Approach: In this study, four horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSF were constructed at the Research Station of Tehran University, located in Karaj, Iran. The study was carried out from April to September, 2007. Gravel and zeoilte were used in this study as substrate. Gravel-beds with and without plants (called GP and G and gravel-beds mixed with (10% zeolite, with and without plants (called ZP and Z were examined to investigate the feasibility of treating synthetic wastewater which was specifically produced and modified to imitate agricultural wastewater. Results: The results of this study indicated that the system had acceptable pollutant removal efficiency and that both plants were found to be tolerant under the tested conditions. The wetland system could achieve the NO3-N removal of (79% in ZP, (86% in Z, (82% in GP and finally (87.94% in G. As for the P removal, the efficiencies of 93, 89, 81 and 76% were respectively achieved for ZP, GP, Z and G. The outflow concentrations of Pb and Cd were found to be under the detection limit; however, as for Zn, the removal efficiencies of 99.9, 99.76, 99.71 and 99.52% were concluded for ZP, Z, GP and G respectively. Conclusions/Recommendations: It can be concluded that constructed wetlands are efficient in removing Zn, Pb and Cd from agricultural wastewater. Plants types such as Phragmites Australis and Juncus Inflexus can contribute

  12. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  13. Characterisation of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansola, Gemma; Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA was used to characterise the soil bacterial community composition of a constructed wetland receiving municipal wastewater and a nearby natural wetland. Soil samples were taken from different locations in each wetland (lagoon, zone with T. latifolia, zone with S. atrocinerea). Moreover, the water quality parameters were evaluated (pH, Tª, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, nutrients and suspended solids), revealing that the organic matter and nutrient contents were significantly higher in the constructed wetland than in the natural one. In general, the bacterial communities of the natural wetland were more diverse than those of the constructed wetland. The major phylogenic groups of all soils included Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi, with Proteobacteria being the majority of the community composition. The Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi phyla were more abundant in the natural wetland than the constructed wetland; in contrast, the Proteobacteria phylum was more abundant in the constructed wetland than the natural wetland. Beta diversity analyses reveal that the soil bacterial communities in the natural wetland were less dissimilar to each other than to those of the constructed wetland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of vertical-flow constructed wetlands with and without supplementary aeration treating decentralized domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Takala, Josu; Hiltunen, Erkki; Li, Zhaohua; Kristianto, Yohanes

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are efficient in reducing excessive contamination from wastewaters. However, oxygen inside CW beds is frequently low especially when substrate clogging problems appear after long-term operation, and this may become a limited factor for the treatment of wastewaters. Aimed at dealing with the issue of a low oxygen content in CW systems, two laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with and without an aeration device (called VFCW-a and VFCW-c, respectively) were designed in this study to test the contribution of supplementary aeration to the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater. Results showed that under the intermittent operation of about 45 days, two VFCW units were successfully started up by using activated sludge as seed sludge. Compared to VFCW-c, VFCW-a had a better resistance ability to organic shock loads and its removal function could be effectively recovered within a short period after the introduction of organic shock loads. Under intermittent operation with a 12 h idling time, the ideal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of VFCW-a was 42 h, about 6 h shorter than that of VFCW-c. Likewise, under intermittent operation with 42 h HRT, the ideal idling time of VFCW-a was 12 h, still about 6 h shorter than that of VFCW-c. Under intermittent operation with HRT-42 h and an idling time of 12 h, SS, COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies in VFCW-a could reach 81.2%, 85%, 89.9% and 77.9%, respectively. The VFCW unit with supplementary aeration is an efficient innovation for the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater.

  15. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  16. Nitrogen management in reservoir catchments through constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçiper, B; Ayaz, S C; Akça, L; Samsunlu, A

    2005-01-01

    In this study, nitrogen removal was investigated in pilot-scale subsurface flow (SSF) and in free water surface flow (FWS) constructed wetlands installed in the campus of TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center, Gebze, near Istanbul, Turkey. The main purposes of this study are to apply constructed wetlands for the protection of water reservoirs and to reuse wastewater. Experiments were carried out at continuous flow reactors. The effects of the type of plants on the removal were investigated by using emergent (Canna, Cyperus, Typhia spp., Phragmites spp., Juncus, Poaceae, Paspalum and Iris.), submerged (Elodea, Egeria) and floating (Pistia, Salvina and Lemna) marsh plants at different conditions. During the study period HLRs were 30, 50, 70, 80 and 120 L m(2)d(-1) respectively. The average annual NH4-N, NO(3)-N, organic N and TN treatment efficiencies in SSF and FWS wetlands are 81% and 68%, 37% and 49%, 75% and 68%, 47% and 53%, respectively. Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification rate constant (k20) values in SSF and FNS systems have been found as 0.898 d(-1) and 0.541 d(-1), 0.488 d(-1) and 0.502 d(-1), 0.986 d(-1) and 0.908 respectively. Two types of the models (first-order plug flow and multiple regression) were tried to estimate the system performances.

  17. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  18. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  19. Constructed wetlands as sustainable ecotechnologies in decentralization practices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Alireza; Ahn, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a range of novel and cost-effective engineered wetland technologies for decentralization practices of domestic wastewater treatment have been developed with ecological process modification, the use of functionalized plants, and advanced biofilm formation. However, selecting the one that can be more appreciated for on-site sanitation is still uncertain. This paper reviews the role of plants, media materials, microorganisms, and oxygen transfer in domestic wastewater purification through constructed wetlands (CWs). The effectiveness of traditional and recently developed CWs and the necessity of an induced biofilm attachment surface (BAS) in these systems for the treatment of domestic sewage are presented. This review also elucidates the idea of CWs for domestic wastewater characteristics highly stressed by total dissolved solids and the adaptive strategies in mitigating the cold climate impacts on their efficiencies. Further research needed to enhance the stability and sustainability of CWs is highlighted. By a more advanced investigation, BAS CWs can be specified as an ideal treatment process in decentralization.

  20. Removal mechanisms and plant species selection by bioaccumulative factors in surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs): In the case of triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Hao, Jingcheng; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2016-03-15

    Plants can bioaccumulate triclosan and bond with microbes and sediments in constructed wetlands (CWs) as well. However, little is known regarding the species-specific removal mechanism of CWs components and the selection of suitable wetland plant species for triclosan disposal. In this work, the use of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for choosing the best triclosan removal plant species was studied in laboratory-scale CWs. By the end of the experiment, over 80% of triclosan was removed and a specie-effect distribution was revealed in CWs with emergent, submerged and floating plants. By mass balance calculation, negative correlation between triclosan concentration in plants and degradation process was observed. The significant correlations between Log BSAFs values and triclosan concentration in plants or degradation contribution made it possible and reasonable in wetland plants selection. Introductions on plant species were provided considering the target removal process or regulation method. This work provided new information on plant species selection in CWs for triclosan removal or its emergency remediation by using bioaccumulative factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  2. Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Kadlec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic.

  3. Driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai

    2016-09-01

    This research revealed important driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands (DFEMW) in China. Using China's provincial panel data from 1978 to 2008, a fixed-effects model was used to analyze the impacts of agricultural production systems on wetlands. We identified three DFEMW as follows: the change of wetland resources and protection measures in China; declaration and implementation of the provincial Wetland Protection Ordinance; and wetland degradation by agricultural production systems, which necessitated the establishment of a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. In addition to the DFEMW, a significant positive correlation between wetland area and both rural population and gross agricultural production was identified, in addition to a negative correlation with chemical fertilizer usage, reservoir storage capacity, and irrigation area. The underlying reasons for the serious degradation and inadequate protection of wetlands were market failure and government failure; these were the driving forces behind the need to establish a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. From a governmental perspective, it has been difficult to rectify market failures in resource distribution and thus to prevent wetland degradation. Factors include conflicts of interest, lack of investment, effective special laws, a simple means to protect wetlands, and a multidisciplinary management system. Therefore, the key factor is the coordination of interest relationships between those who utilize wetlands and those who seek to minimize wetland degradation and effectively protect wetlands.

  4. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  5. Mosquito production from four constructed treatment wetlands in peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Meara, George F; O'Connell, Sheila M; Cutwa-Francis, Michele M

    2006-06-01

    Several techniques were used to sample adult and immature mosquitoes in 4 constructed treatment wetlands in Florida. Adults of 19 species (7 genera) of mosquitoes were collected, and immatures of the most abundant species and of 60% of all species also were collected. Few significant differences between sites and stations in the numbers of mosquitoes collected were discovered. Culex nigripalpus Theobald was the most abundant mosquito found in adult (carbon dioxide-baited suction traps) and ovitrap collections, whereas Mansonia spp. and Uranotaenia spp. were most common in pump-dip-grab samples. The roles of rooted and floating vegetation and of water quality in determining mosquito production from these areas are discussed.

  6. Development and evaluation of an alternative method for municipal wastewater treatment using homogeneous photocatalysis and constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, A.; Poulios, I. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Takavakoglou, V.; Zalidis, G. [School of Agriculture, Laboratory of Applied Soil Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-06-30

    Wastewater collection and treatment is an important parameter of sustainable development. In Mediterranean region especially, the design and operation of competitive wastewater treatment systems for small communities and touristic facilities is a challenge to wastewater engineers. Within this context an alternative method of wastewater treatment has been developed that is based on solar photocatalytic oxidation and natural processes. The system combines the synergetic action of the homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation with the surface flow constructed wetlands in order to utilize the high solar irradiation and the ability of the constructed wetlands to improve water quality through natural processes. Aim of this work is to present the design, development, and experimental evaluation of the combined system. Experiments were conducted at laboratory scale using artificial as well as solar irradiation, for the treatment of both synthetic and cesspool wastewater. The data evaluation revealed that the combined system may effectively reduce the organic load and nutrients of wastewater, even in cases of great inflow variability, in terms of hydraulic and organic load, and thus may be proven a promising, competitive and environmental friendly solution for wastewater treatment in the near future. (author)

  7. Simultaneous removal of color, organic compounds and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater using up-flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Soon-An; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Inadama, Daisuke; Yamagiwa, Kazuaki

    2009-06-15

    Combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes in constructed wetlands can enhance the treatment performance in textile wastewater. This study assessed the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and nutrients using five laboratory-scale up-flow constructed wetlands (UFCW) with and without supplementary aeration, and with different emergent plants. Supplementary aeration controlled the size of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the UFCW reactors as evidenced by the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) profile of the UFCW. The AO7 removal efficiency was above 95% in all UFCW reactors and most of the color was extensively removed in the anaerobic region of the UFCW beds. The intermediates produced through the breakage of azo bond were significantly reduced in the UFCW reactors with supplementary aeration. The results indicated the applicability of the UFCW reactors to the treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater. The removals of T-N and T-P were in the range of 60-67% and 26-37%, respectively, among the UFCW reactors. The COD and NH(4)-N removals in the aerated reactors were about 86 and 96%, respectively. On the other hand, the COD and NH(4)-N removals were in the range of 78-82% and 41-48%, respectively, in the non-aerated reactors. The supplementary aeration enhanced the removal efficiencies in organic matter, NH(4)-N and aromatic amines in the UFCW reactors.

  8. Characterisation of microbial biocoenosis in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietz, Alexandra [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: alexandra.tietz@boku.ac.at; Kirschner, Alexander [Clinical Institute for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Department for Water Hygiene - Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langergraber, Guenter [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sleytr, Kirsten [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Haberl, Raimund [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    In this study a quantitative description of the microbial biocoenosis in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands fed with municipal wastewater was carried out. Three different methods (substrate induced respiration, ATP measurement and fumigation-extraction) were applied to measure the microbial biomass at different depths of planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, bacterial biomass was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and productivity was measured via {sup 14}C leucine incorporation into bacterial biomass. All methods showed that > 50% of microbial biomass and bacterial activity could be found in the first cm and about 95% in the first 10 cm of the filter layer. Bacterial biomass in the first 10 cm of the filter body accounted only for 16-19% of the total microbial biomass. Whether fungi or methodical uncertainties are mainly responsible for the difference between microbial and bacterial biomass remains to be examined. A comparison between the purification performance of planted and unplanted pilot-scale subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (PSCWs) showed no significant difference with the exception of the reduction of enterococci. The microbial biomass in all depths of the filter body was also not different in planted and unplanted systems. Compared with data from soils the microbial biomass in the PSCWs was high, although the specific surface area of the used sandy filter material available for biofilm growth was lower, especially in the beginning of the set-up of the PSCWs, due to missing clay and silt fraction.

  9. Integrated Cr(VI) removal using constructed wetlands and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mar-Yam; Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md Muktadirul Bari; Michailides, Michail K; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-01-08

    The present work was conducted to study integrated chromium removal from aqueous solutions in horizontal subsurface (HSF) constructed wetlands. Two pilot-scale HSF constructed wetlands (CWs) units were built and operated. One unit was planted with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and one was kept unplanted. Influent concentrations of Cr(VI) ranged from 0.5 to 10mg/L. The effect of temperature and hydraulic residence time (8-0.5 days) on Cr(VI) removal were studied. Temperature was proved to affect Cr(VI) removal in both units. In the planted unit maximum Cr(VI) removal efficiencies of 100% were recorded at HRT's of 1 day with Cr(VI) concentrations of 5, 2.5 and 1mg/L, while a significantly lower removal rate was recorded in the unplanted unit. Harvested reed biomass from the CWs was co-composted with olive mill wastes. The final product had excellent physicochemical characteristics (C/N: 14.1-14.7, germination index (GI): 145-157%, Cr: 8-10mg/kg dry mass), fulfills EU requirements and can be used as a fertilizer in organic farming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  11. Evaluation of constructed wetlands by wastewater purification ability and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, P; Inamori, R; Matsumura, M; Inamori, Y

    2007-01-01

    Domestic wastewater is a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause lake eutrophication. Among the wastewater treatment technologies, constructed wetlands are a promising low-cost means of treating point and diffuse sources of domestic wastewater in rural areas. However, the sustainable operation of constructed wetland treatment systems depends upon a high rate conversion of organic and nitrogenous loading into their metabolic gaseous end products, such as N2O and CH4. In this study, we examined and compared the performance of three typical types of constructed wetlands: Free Water Surface (FWS), Subsurface Flow (SF) and Vertical Flow (VF) wetlands. Pollutant removal efficiency and N2O and CH4 emissions were assessed as measures of performance. We found that the pollutant removal rates and gas emissions measured in the wetlands exhibited clear seasonal changes, and these changes were closely associated with plant growth. VF wetlands exhibited stable removal of organic pollutants and NH3-N throughout the experiment regardless of season and showed great potential for CH4 adsorption. SF wetlands showed preferable T-N removal performance and a lower risk of greenhouse gas emissions than FWS wetlands. Soil oxidation reduction potential (ORP) analysis revealed that water flow structure and plant growth influenced constructed wetland oxygen transfer, and these variations resulted in seasonal changes of ORP distribution inside wetlands that were accompanied by fluctuations in pollutant removal and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Modeling and Understanding BOD Removal Processes in Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Free-water surface constructed wetlands have proven to be effective systems for removal of various pollutants in wastewater and agricultural drainage water. Modeling tools are needed for understanding the processes and mechanisms responsible for the removal of pollutants and for the design of new constructed wetlands. This paper presents a new model for mimicking the processes and mechanisms controlling the removal of BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in free-water surface constructed wetlands. The processes and mechanisms, simulated in the model, include advection, dispersion, diffusion, monod kinetics of bacterial growth, water gains (via precipitation) and losses (evaporation and seepage) and mass exchange between water column and root layers of a wetland. A novel feature of the new model is the incorporation of a dynamic diffusive root-zone. Sensitivity analysis of the model input vaiables indicates that the BOD removal in free water surface constructed wetlands is most sensitive to the biological removal process of BOD in the root zone, controlled by acetic acid and anaerobic bacteria in root zone, and the flow velocity (controlling mean hydraulic residence time) and organic carbon in the water column. The application of the new model is demonstrated through two case studies involving two distinct constructed wetlands with one (Gustine Wetland) for treatment of secondary wastewater located in the USA and another (Lake Manzala Engineered Wetland) for treatment of agricultural drainage water in Egypt. The model is relatively simple yet effective, as evidenced by the high coefficient of determination of 0.73 - 0.99 for the Gustine Wetland and 0.98 for Manzala Wetland. The model is a reliable and efficient tool for designing constructed wetlands and for understanding effects of various processes and mechanisms on the treatment efficiency of wastewater in constructed wetlands.

  13. Characterization of Chlorinated Ethene Degradation in a Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    pathway for chlorinated volatiles in phytoremediation applications. Although transpiration of chlorinated solvents has been confirmed in studies ... case study publications and conference presentations providing support for the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of chlorinated solvent...groundwater. This study characterized and evaluated the concentration of chlorinated ethenes within a vertical flow constructed wetland, fed with PCE

  14. Constructed wetland and aquatic treatment systems for fish farms in Egypt : Desk study report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijen, G.; Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarises the information found in scientific literature regarding the mechanisms and processes that enable constructed wetlands to remove heavy metals and pesticides from waste water. It examines what factors have an influence on the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat waste

  15. Evaluation of selected risk elements removal processes from wastewater in constructed wetlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrázková, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor work is to provide a literature survey aimed at the processes responsible for removal of selected risk elements (arsenate, lead, nickel, Merkury, kadmium and manganese) during the wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands. Also, constructed wetlands are compared with conventional treatment plants.

  16. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m) comprised of a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells was used to determine fate and transport of sim...

  17. [Segregation effect of purification for nitrogen and phosphate pollution in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Yan, Bai-Xing; Wang, Li-Xia

    2011-03-01

    Three minitype subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands planted with Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis and filled with soil and slag were used to investigate the N, P and pH for upper layer and underlayer wetland system by intermission operation. Results demonstrated that TN removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 0.771 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 1.481 g x(m2 x d)(-1) with 10 days of the hydraulic retention, which were 1.15 and 1.31 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. Simultaneity, TP removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 1.655 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 6.838 g x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, which were 1.13 and 1.28 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. The purification ability of upper layer in the wetland system was higher than that of underlayer. A regular trend of pH changes and upstanding buffer ability of wetland system were found. The pH values in the upper layer of soil-slag wetlands were smaller than that of underlayer which was contrary to the soil wetland. The break-point of pH curve indicates the termination of NH4(+) -N reaction in constructed wetland.

  18. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite residue leachate: laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Buckley; T, Curtin; R, Courtney

    2016-07-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Whilst the use of constructed wetlands is gaining in interest for its use in the treatment of alkaline waters, thus far, there is limited evidence of its suitability for treating NaOH dominated bauxite residue leachate. A series of batch trials were conducted to investigate the potential for constructed wetland conferred mechanisms (dilution water quality, contact with CO2, and substrate type) for treating NaOH solutions to levels permissible for discharge (p constructed wetland. Formation of a calcite precipitate was observed in some treatments and further characterisation by XRD and XPS suggested surface coating with Na2CO3. It is therefore suggested that, under suitable conditions, constructed wetland technology can reduce leachate pH to constructed wetland.

  19. Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-nv; Chen, Chun-xing; Wang, Su-yu; Tao, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Organic and Engineered Nanomaterial Contaminants of Emerging Concerns (WaterRF Report 4334)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to determine hydraulic and carbon loading rates for constructed wetlands required for achieving different levels of organic and nanomaterial contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) removal in constructed wetlands. Specific research objectives included...

  1. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day).

  2. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  3. Constructed wetland: an alternative for wastewater treatment; Humedales construidos: una alternativa a considerar para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza de los Reyes del Rio, C.; Vidal Saez, G.

    2007-07-01

    Research and trends dealing with sewage and industrial wastewaters treated by constructed wetlands are shown in this paper. Plant and constructed wetlands configurations are also described. Sewage domestic wastewaters from individual houses or villages have used constructed wetlands as wastewater treatment. On the other hand, constructed wetlands as finally treatment working together with conventional technologies could be a good alternative for improving the treated quality wastewater. (Author) 56 refs.

  4. Landscape planning and ecology construction of wetland comprehensive protected area system in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Wetland is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the earth. The main purpose of establishing wetland protected area is to protect biodiversity, and the protection of ecosystem diversity and landscape diversity is the key to protect biodiversity. In order to protect regional ecosystem and landscape, it is a good way to establish wetland comprehensive protected area which connected wetland nature reserves by habitat corridors. The Sanjiang Plain as a study area, its landscape evaluation index system on wetland protected area was studied, and some problems on landscape planning and ecology construction were further approached in this paper. It showed that establishing wetland comprehensive protected area is very important to protect regional wetlands, to maintain ecological balance,and to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and industry in this region.

  5. Xenobiotics removal from polluted water by a multifunctional constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiping; Vidakovic-Cifrek, Zeljka; Grosse, Wolfgang; Karrenbrock, Friedhelm

    2002-07-01

    Removal efficiencies on xenobiotics from polluted water in a twin-shaped constructed wetland consisting of a vertical flow chamber with the crop plant Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and a reverse vertical flow one with Ischaemum aristatum var. glaucum Honda, were assessed by chemical analysis and bioassays. After a four-month period of application, removal efficiencies of the applied pesticides parathion and omethoate were 100% with no detectable parathion and omethoate in the effluent. For the applied herbicides, the decontamination was less efficient with removal efficiencies of 36% and 0% for 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxyacetic acid and dicamba, respectively. As shown by toxicity assay with duckweed Lemna minor L., growth retardation may occur if the water treated for herbicide removal is used in irrigation of sensitive cultivars in agriculture or horticulture. In contrast to I. aristatum var. glaucum Honda, the crop C. esculenta L. Schott has a high yield in biomass production as a valuable source of renewable energy.

  6. A promising approach of reject water treatment using a tidal flow constructed wetland system employing alum sludge as main substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Wang, S P; Guo, X C; Ren, Y X; Wang, L; Wang, X C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined a novel reuse of alum sludge, an inescapable by-product of drinking water treatment process when aluminium salt is added as a coagulant, as the main medium in a laboratory-scale multi-stage constructed wetland (CW) system for reject water treatment. Such reject water is a main concern in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) for increasing the organic and nutrient loading. A 'tidal flow' strategy was employed to enhance the wetland aeration to stimulate organic matters (OM) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (N) oxidation while the 'step feed' operation was adopted to supply the necessary amount of carbon source for denitrification. The results reveal that alum sludge acting as P adsorbent can secure the P removal. Meanwhile, high removals of N and OM can also be obtained due to the active bacteria growth on the alum sludge surface. The results show that average removal efficiencies of 65.4 +/- 12.3% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 67.8 +/- 9.2% for five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 33.6 +/- 17.0% for N and 99.5 +/- 0.49% for P can be achieved over a period of 190 days. This indicates that novel reuse of alum sludge as medium in CW system can provide a promising approach for reject water treatment. Therefore, it will significantly reduce the amount of pollutant feedback through reject water recycling in a MWWTP.

  7. Efficiencies of freshwater and estuarine constructed wetlands for phenolic endocrine disruptor removal in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Yang, Lei; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Zen, Yi-Peng

    2013-10-01

    We examined the distribution and removal efficiencies of phenolic endocrine disruptors (EDs), namely nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP), in wastewater treated by estuarine and freshwater constructed wetland systems in Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area (DBNSA) and along the Dahan River in Taiwan. Water samples were taken bimonthly at 30 sites in three estuarine constructed wetlands (Datan, Pengcun and Linbian right bank (A and B)) in DBNSA, for eight sampling campaigns. The average removal efficiencies were in the range of 3.13-97.3% for wetlands in DBNSA. The highest average removal occurred in the east inlet to the outlet of the Tatan wetland. The most frequently detected compound was OP (57.7%), whose concentration was up to 1458.7 ng/L in DBNSA. NP was seen in only 20.5% of the samples. The temporal variation of EDs showed a decrease across seasons, where summer>spring>winter>autumn in these constructed wetlands. The removal efficiencies of EDs by estuarine wetlands, in decreasing order, were Datan>Pengcun>Linbian right bank in DBNSA. Water samples collected at 18 sites in three freshwater constructed wetlands (Daniaopi, Hsin-Hai I, and Hsin-Hai II) along the riparian area of Dahan River. NP2EO was the most abundant compound, with a concentration of up to 11,200 ng/L. Removal efficiencies ranged from 55% to 91% for NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP in Hsin-Hai I. The average removal potential of EDs in freshwater constructed wetlands, in decreasing order, was Hsin-Hai II>Daniaopi>Hsin-Hai I constructed wetlands. The lowest concentrations of the selected compounds were observed in the winter. The highest removal efficiency of the selected phenolic endocrine disruptors was achieved by Hsin-Hai I wetland. The calculated risk quotients used to evaluate the ecological risk were up to 30 times higher in the freshwater wetlands along Dahan River than in the estuarine (DBNSA) constructed wetlands, indicating

  8. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  9. Performance of a subsurface-flow constructed wetland in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; WANG Bao-zhen; CAO Xiang-dong; Wang Jin; LEI Zhi-hong; WANG Zhi-ren; LIU Zheng-ying; LU Bing-nan

    2004-01-01

    The operational performance of a full-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetland, which treated the mixed industrial and domestic wastewater with BOD5/COD mean ratio of 0.33 at Shatian, Shenzhen City was studied. The constructed wetland system consists of screens, sump, pumping station, and primary settling basin, facultative pond, first stage wetland and secondary stage wetland. The designed treatment capacity is 5000 m3/d, and the actual influent flow is in the range of 10000 m3/d. Under normal operational conditions, the final effluent quality well met the National Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978-1996), with the following parameters(mean values): COD 33.90 mg/L, BOD5 7.65 mg/L, TSS 7.92 mg/L, TN 9.11 mg/L and TP 0.56 mg/L. Seven species of plants were selected to grow in the wetland: Reed, Sweetcane flower Silvergrass, Great Bulrush, Powdery Thalia and Canna of three colours. The growing season is a whole year-round. The seasonal discrepancy could be observed and the plants growing in the wetland are vulnerable to lower temperature in winter.The recycling of the effluent in the first stage of the wetland system is an effective measure to improve the performance of the wetland system. The insufficient DO value in the wetland system not only had significant effect on pollutants removal in the wetland, but also was unfavourable to plant growth. The recycling of effluent to the inlet of wetland system and artificial pond to increase DO value of influent to the wetland is key to operate the subsurface constructed wetland steadily and effectively.

  10. Wastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Andualem; Leta, Seyoum; Njau, Karoli Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low.

  11. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  12. The Values of Natural and Constructed Wetlands: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghermandi, A.; Bergh, van den, J.C.J.M.; L.M. Brander; Groot; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The values of goods and services provided by natural and constructed wetlands are examined through a meta-analysis of 418 observations of the economic value of 186 wetlands. Water quality improvement, non-consumptive recreation, and provision of natural habitat and biodiversity turn out to be highly valued services. Substitution effects are observed through the negative correlation between values and proximity to other wetlands. Values are found to increase with anthropogenic pressure. Constr...

  13. [Limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands for treating river water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Rui-hua; Li, Jie; Hu, Jun-song; Sun, Qian-qian

    2013-09-01

    Polluted river water was treated with limestone and pyrite-limestone subsurface horizontal constructed wetlands. The aims were to know the performance of two wetlands on removal of common pollutants, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, and analyze the actions of these minerals. The relationship between hydraulic retention time and purification performance of two constructed wetlands was studied. The optimal hydraulic retention time for pollutant removal was about 3 d, The average removal efficiency of COD, TN and TP were 51%, 70% and 95%, respectively. With same influent and hydraulic loading, the average removal efficiency of COD, NH4+ -N, TN and TP were 53.93%, 82.13%, 66%, 50.9%, and 51.66%, 77.43%, 72.06%, 97.35% for limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands, respectively. There were few differences between limestone and pyrite-limestone wetlands on COD removal, but the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone constructed wetland was higher than that of limestone constructed wetland. The phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone wetland was more efficiency and stable, not affected by temperature.

  14. How Long, Narrowly Constructed Wetlands Purify Irrigation Return Water: A Case Study of Ulansuhai Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of raw wastewater in China has proved to be very successful in recent decades. However, it is not known whether surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively purify irrigation return water. To investigate the performance of a constructed wetland in terms of meeting the goals of pollutant purification, the 8th drainage of Ulansuhai Lake was used for this study. Pollutant removal performances, as well as hydrological characteristic variations in relation to specific characteristics of plants, were investigated utilizing two years of monthly average data. The results indicated that surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively change the physical characteristics of return water and lead to a sharp decrease in pollutant concentrations. The 1200 m long, narrowly constructed wetland resulted in the average reduction rates of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP of up to 22.1% and 21.5%, respectively. The overall purification efficient of the constructed wetland presented seasonal variations in four different monitoring periods (May, July, September, and November. Constructed wetlands with multiple types of plants exhibited higher efficiencies in pollutants removal than those with a single type of plant. The current study can provide meaningful information for the treatment of agricultural wastewater.

  15. Establishment of a constructed wetland in extreme dryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Yoram; Idan, Gil; Strom, Marjorie; Nusinow, Uri; Banet, Dorit; Cohen, Eli; Schröder, Peter; Shelef, Oren; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Soares, Ines; Gross, Amit; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2009-11-01

    The project was set to construct an extensive wetland in the southernmost region of Israel at Kibbutz Neot Smadar (30 degree 02'45" N and 35 degree 01'19" E). The results of the first period of monitoring, summary, and perspectives are presented. The constructed wetland (CW) was built and the subsequent monitoring performed in the framework of the Southern Arava Sustainable Waste Management Plan, funded by the EU LIFE Fund. The specific aims were: (1) To end current sewage disposal and pollution of the ground, the aquifer, and the dry river bed (wadi) paths by biologically treating the sewage as part of the creation of a sustainable wetland ecosystem. (2) Serve as an example of CW in the Negev highlands and the Arava Valley climates for neighboring communities and as a test ground for plants and building methods appropriate to hyper arid climate. (3) Serve as an educational resource and tourist attraction for groups to learn about water reuse, recycling, local wildlife and migrating birds, including serving the heart of a planned Ecological-Educational Bird Park. This report is intended to allow others who are planning similar systems in hyper arid climates to learn from our experience. The project is located in an extreme arid desert with less than 40 mm of rain annually and temperature ranges of -5 degree C to +42 degree C. The site receives 165-185 m3 of municipal and agricultural wastes daily, including cowshed and goat wastes and winery outflow. The CW establishment at Neot Smadar was completed in October 2006. For 8 months, clean water flowed through the system while the plants were taking root. In June 2007, the wetland was connected to the oxidation pond and full operation began. Because of seepage and evaporation, during the first several months, the water level was not high enough to allow free flow from one bed to the next. To bed A, the water was pumped periodically from the oxidation pond (Fig. 1) and from there flowed by gravitation through the rest

  16. Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For the first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native species.

  17. Morphological response of Typha domingensis to an industrial effluent containing heavy metals in a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Mufarrege, M M; Pinciroli, M; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2010-04-01

    Typha domingensis had become the dominant species after 2 years of operation of a wetland constructed for metallurgical effluent treatment. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate its ability to tolerate the effluent and to maintain the contaminant removal efficiency of the constructed wetland. Plant, sediment, and water at the inlet and outlet of the constructed wetland and in two natural wetlands were sampled. Metal concentration (Cr, Ni, and Zn) and total phosphorus were significantly higher in tissues of plants growing at the inlet in comparison with those from the outlet and natural wetlands. Even though the chlorophyll concentration was sensitive to effluent toxicity, biomass and plant height at the inlet and outlet were significantly higher than those in the natural wetlands. The highest root and stele cross-sectional areas, number of vessels, and biomass registered in inlet plants promoted the uptake, transport, and accumulation of contaminants in tissues. The modifications recorded accounted for the adaptability of T. domingensis to the conditions prevailing in the constructed wetland, which allowed this plant to become the dominant species and enabled the wetland to maintain a high contaminant retention capacity.

  18. Regulatory Implications of Using Constructed Wetlands to Treat Selenium-Laden Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Harry M. Ohlendorf

    2002-01-01

    The practice of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater is gaining popularity in the linited States and elsewhere. However, proponents of treatment wetlands often overlook important ecological liabilities and regulatory implications when developing new methods and applications. Their research studies typically seek to answer a basic performance...

  19. Vegetation Changes and Partitioning of Selenium in 4-Year-Old Constructed Wetlands Treating Agricultural Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge of vegetation management and the partitioning of selenium (Se) in treatment wetlands is essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Vegetation changes in six vegetated wetl...

  20. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  1. Appropriate and sustainable wastewater management in developing countries by the use of constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarat; Fryd, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems for wastewater management may have great potential in developing countries as robust and decentralized solution. A case study from Koh Phi Phi island in Thailand where a constructed wetland systems was established after the destructions by the tsunami in 2004...... is described. The project includes a wastewater collection system for the main business area of the island, a pumping station, a multistage constructed wetland system, and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The wastewater is treated to meet the Thai effluent standards for total suspended solids...

  2. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  3. Propagation of Human Enteropathogens in Constructed Horizontal Wetlands Used for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Mashinski, Yessika; Broaders, Michael A.; Connolly, Michelle; Cheng, Hui-Wen A.

    2009-01-01

    Constructed subsurface flow (SSF) and free-surface flow (FSF) wetlands are being increasingly implemented worldwide into wastewater treatments in response to the growing need for microbiologically safe reclaimed waters, which is driven by an exponential increase in the human population and limited water resources. Wastewater samples from four SSF and FSF wetlands in northwestern Ireland were tested qualitatively and quantitatively for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and human-pathogenic microsporidia, with assessment of their viability. Overall, seven species of human enteropathogens were detected in wetland influents, vegetated areas, and effluents: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. muris, G. duodenalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. SSF wetland had the highest pathogen removal rate (i.e., Cryptosporidium, 97.4%; G. duodenalis, 95.4%); however, most of these values for FSF were in the negative area (mean, −84.0%), meaning that more pathogens were discharged by FSF wetlands than were delivered to wetlands with incoming wastewater. We demonstrate here that (i) the composition of human enteropathogens in wastewater entering and leaving SSF and FSF wetlands is highly complex and dynamic, (ii) the removal and inactivation of human-pathogenic microorganisms were significantly higher at the SSF wetland, (iii) FSF wetlands may not always provide sufficient remediation for human enteropathogens, (iv) wildlife can contribute a substantial load of human zoonotic pathogens to wetlands, (v) most of the pathogens discharged by wetlands were viable, (vi) large volumes of wetland effluents can contribute to contamination of surface waters used for recreation and drinking water abstraction and therefore represent a serious public health threat, and (vii) even with the best pathogen removal rates achieved by SSF wetland, the reduction of pathogens was not enough for a safety reuse of the reclaimed water. To our knowledge, this

  4. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement.

  5. STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET/DRY PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extant data were used to assess the relative effectiveness of ponds vs. wetland-type BMPs. Compared to wet ponds, wetlands tended toward higher constituent concentrations in effluent, were inefficient at nitrogen removal, and appeared to preferentially retain phosphorous. These d...

  6. Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butterworth, Eleanor; Richards, Andrew; Jones, Mark; Mansi, Gabriella; Ranieri, Ezio; Dotro, Gabriela; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-01-01

      A comparison of the performance of four full-scale aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands was conducted to determine the efficacy of the technology on sites receiving high and variable ammonia...

  7. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Bruno Scardoelli Truzzi; Ana Milstein; Aline Marcari Marques

    2017-01-01

    Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth ( ) stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season...

  8. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  9. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

      Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear...

  10. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP.

  11. Microbial nitrogen transformation in constructed wetlands treating contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Oksana; Kuschk, Peter; Wells, Naomi S; Strauch, Gerhard; Knoeller, Kay

    2015-09-01

    Pathways of ammonium (NH4 (+)) removal were investigated using the stable isotope approach in constructed wetlands (CWs). We investigated and compared several types of CWs: planted horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), unplanted HSSF, and floating plant root mat (FPRM), including spatial and seasonal variations. Plant presence was the key factor influencing efficiency of NH4 (+) removal in all CWs, what was illustrated by lower NH4 (+)-N removal by the unplanted HSSF CW in comparison with planted CWs. No statistically significant differences in NH4 (+) removal efficiencies between seasons were detected. Even though plant uptake accounted for 32-100 % of NH4 (+) removal during spring and summer in planted CWs, throughout the year, most of NH4 (+) was removed via simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, what was clearly shown by linear increase of δ(15)N-NH4 (+) with decrease of loads along the flow path and absence of nitrate (NO3 (-)) accumulation. Average yearly enrichment factor for nitrification was -7.9 ‰ for planted HSSF CW and -5.8 ‰ for FPRM. Lack of enrichment for δ(15)N-NO3 (-) implied that other processes, such as nitrification and mineralization were superimposed on denitrification and makes the stable isotope approach unsuitable for the estimation of denitrification in the systems obtaining NH4 (+) rich inflow water.

  12. Mathematical model for analysis of recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarz, Menachem Y; Gross, Amit; Soares, M Ines M; Yakirevich, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    The recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW) was developed for the treatment of domestic wastewater (DWW). In this system, DWW is applied to a vertical flow bed through which it trickles into a reservoir located beneath the bed. It is then recirculated back to the root zone of the bed. In this study, a compartmental model was developed to simulate the RVFCW. The model, which addresses transport and removal kinetics of total suspended solids, 5-day biological oxygen demand and nitrogen, was fitted to kinetical results obtained from pilot field setups and a local sensitivity analysis was performed on the model parameters and operational conditions. This analysis showed that after 5h of treatment water quality is affected more by stochastic events than by the model parameter values, emphasizing the stability of the RVFCW system to large variations in operational conditions. Effluent quality after 1h of treatment, when the sensitivity analysis showed the parameter impacts to be largest, was compared to model predictions. The removal rate was found to be dependent on the recirculation rate. The predictions correlated well with experimental observations, leading to the conclusion that the proposed model is a satisfactory tool for studying RVFCWs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SELECTION OF MESOCOSM TO REMOVE NUTRIENTS WITH CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosisa Teferi Timotewos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidizing bacteria located in the roots of the plant have a unique ability of absorbing nutrients (pollutants in the wastewater, thus they may be considered as a useful method for wastewater treatment from the viewpoint of eco-toxicology and environmental safety. By using three prevalent plants, namely Typha, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus, we performed a series of mesocosms experiments in Arba Minch, southern part of Ethiopia for the removal efficiency of NO-3-N, NH4+-N, PO4-3-P, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and BOD5 by design constructed wetlands. Contrastingly, we found that the PO4-3-P, Ca2+, Mg2+ and BOD5 reached the removal efficiencies of up to 99.1%, 55.2%, 81.1% and 93.88% for Typha plant, which has much better removal efficiency than Phragmites australis and Scirpus. The results explore how the oxidizing bacteria behave in different plant environments and that led to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal in wastewater.

  14. Constructed Wetlands Revisited: Microbial Diversity in the -omics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) constitute an interesting alternative option to conventional systems for wastewater treatment. This technology is based on the utilization of the concerted activity of microorganisms for the removal of contaminants. Consequently, knowledge on the microbial assemblages dwelling CWs and the different environmental factors which can alter their activities is crucial for understanding their performance. In the last decades, the use of molecular techniques to characterize these communities and more recently, application of -omics tools, have broaden our view of microbial diversity and function in wastewater microbiology. In this manuscript, a review of the current knowledge on microbial diversity in CWs is offered, placing particular emphasis on the different molecular studies carried out in this field. The effect of environmental conditions, such as plant species, hydraulic design, water depth, organic carbon, temperature and substrate type on prokaryotic communities has been carefully revised, and the different studies highlight the importance of these factors in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. Overall, the novel -omics open a new horizon to study the diversity and ecophysiology of microbial assemblages and their interactions in CWs, particularly for those microorganisms belonging to the rare biosphere not detectable with conventional molecular techniques.

  15. Design and optimisation of novel configurations of stormwater constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiza, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are recognised as a cost-effective technology for wastewater treatment. CWs have been deployed and could be retrofitted into existing urban drainage systems to prevent surface water pollution, attenuate floods and act as sources for reusable water. However, there exist numerous criteria for design configuration and operation of CWs. The aim of the study was to examine effects of design and operational variables on performance of CWs. To achieve this, 8 novel designs of vertical flow CWs were continuously operated and monitored (weekly) for 2years. Pollutant removal efficiency in each CW unit was evaluated from physico-chemical analyses of influent and effluent water samples. Hybrid optimised multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) were applied to simulate treatment efficiency in the CWs. Subsequently, predictive and analytical models were developed for each design unit. Results show models have sound generalisation abilities; with various design configurations and operational variables influencing performance of CWs. Although some design configurations attained faster and higher removal efficiencies than others; all 8 CW designs produced effluents permissible for discharge into watercourses with strict regulatory standards.

  16. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  17. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN A VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND USING DOLOMITE POWDER AND CHIPPINGS AS FILTER MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gražina Žibienė; Midona Dapkienė; Jurgita Kazakevičienė; Algirdas Radzevičius

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of natural and artificial filter media are able to retain phosphorus in the constructed wetlands. Due to the fact that the constructed wetland needs huge amounts of the filter media, it is very important to find locally available material which distinguishes itself by its ability to retain phosphorus. The materials found in Lithuania were considered and dolomite was chosen. Two dolomite fractions, dolomite powder (1–2 mm) and dolomite chippings (2–5 mm), and sand media were us...

  18. A pilot study on municipal wastewater treatment using a constructed wetland in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Okurut, T.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using constructed v wetlands as a cheaper and yet effective alternative method for treating domestic wastewater in tropical environments was investigated in this study from May 1996 - April 1999. The major aim was to determine their technical viability with respect to treatment performance under different operating conditions and the economic competitiveness of the technology in Uganda and within the region. A pilot constructed wetland design, based on horizontal flo...

  19. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Yang; Zhenxing Wu; Lifen Liu; Fengxiang Zhang; Shengna Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC) alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW) alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemic...

  20. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  1. Myriophyllum aquaticum Constructed Wetland Effectively Removes Nitrogen in Swine Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of nitrogen (N is a critical aspect in the functioning of constructed wetlands (CWs, and the N treatment in CWs depends largely on the presence and activity of macrophytes and microorganisms. However, the effects of plants on microorganisms responsible for N removal are poorly understood. In this study, a three-stage surface flow CW was constructed in a pilot-scale within monospecies stands of Myriophyllum aquaticum to treat swine wastewater. Steady-state conditions were achieved throughout the 600-day operating period, and a high (98.3% average ammonia removal efficiency under a N loading rate of 9 kg ha-1 d-1 was observed. To determine whether this high efficiency was associated with the performance of active microbes, the abundance, structure, and interactions of microbial community were compared in the unvegetated and vegetated samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed the abundances of nitrifying genes (archaeal and bacterial amoA and denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ were increased significantly by M. aquaticum in the sediments, and the strongest effects were observed for the archaeal amoA (218-fold and nirS genes (4620-fold. High-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that M. aquaticum greatly changed the microbial community, and ammonium oxidizers (Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira, and abundant denitrifiers including Rhodoplanes, Bradyrhizobium, and Hyphomicrobium, were enriched significantly in the sediments. The results of a canonical correspondence analysis and Mantle tests indicated that M. aquaticum may shift the sediment microbial community by changing the sediment chemical properties. The enriched nitrifiers and denitrifiers were distributed widely in the vegetated sediments, showing positive ecological associations among themselves and other bacteria based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks.

  2. Constructed wetlands in the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mar-Yam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, constructed wetlands are becoming more prevalent in wastewater treatment all over the world. Their range of applications is no longer limited to municipal wastewater but has expanded to the treatment of heavily polluted wastewaters such as agro-industrial effluents. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the application of constructed wetlands in treating a variety of agro-industrial wastewaters, and discusses pollutant surface loads and the role of constructed wetland type, prior-treatment stages and plant species in pollutant removal efficiency. Results indicate that constructed wetlands can tolerate high pollutant loads and toxic substances without losing their removal ability, thus these systems are very effective bio-reactors even in hostile environments. Additionally, the review outlines issues that could improve pollutant treatment efficiency and proposes design and operation suggestions such as suitable vegetation, porous media and constructed wetland plain view. Finally, a decision tree for designing constructed wetlands treating agro-industrial wastewaters provides an initial design tool for scientists and engineers.

  3. The influence of urbanisation on macroinvertebrate biodiversity in constructed stormwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-12-01

    The construction of wetlands in urban environments is primarily carried out to assist in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters; however, these wetlands have the added benefit of providing habitat for aquatic invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. Stormwater quantity and quality is directly related to impervious area (roads, sealed areas, roofs) in the catchment. As a consequence, it would be expected that impervious area would be related to contaminant load and biodiversity in receiving waters such as urban wetlands. This study aimed to establish whether the degree of urbanisation and its associated changes to stormwater runoff affected macroinvertebrate richness and abundance within constructed wetlands. Urban wetlands in Melbourne's west and south east were sampled along a gradient of urbanisation. There was a significant negative relationship between total imperviousness (TI) and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates detected for sites in the west, but not in the south east. However macroinvertebrate communities were relatively homogenous both within and between all study wetlands. Chironomidae (non-biting midges) was the most abundant family recorded at the majority of sites. Chironomids are able to tolerate a wide array of environmental conditions, including eutrophic and anoxic conditions. Their prevalence suggests that water quality is impaired in these systems, regardless of degree of urbanisation, although the causal mechanism is unclear. These results show some dependency between receiving wetland condition and the degree of urbanisation of the catchment, but suggest that other factors may be as important in determining the value of urban wetlands as habitat for wildlife.

  4. Indicator pathogens, organic matter and LAS detergent removal from wastewater by constructed subsurface wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Constructed wetland is one of the natural methods of municipal and industrial wastewater treatments with low initial costs for construction and operation as well as easy maintenance. The main objective of this study is to determine the values of indicator bacteria removal, organic matter, TSS, ammonia and nitrate affecting the wetland removal efficiency. Results The average concentration of E. coli and total coliform in the input is 1.127 × 1014 and 4.41 × 1014 MPN/100 mL that reached 5.03 × 1012 and 1.13 × 1014 MPN/100 mL by reducing 95.5% and 74.4% in wetland 2. Fecal streptococcus reached from the average 5.88 × 1014 in raw wastewater to 9.69 × 1012 in the output of wetland 2. Wetland 2 could reduce 1.5 logarithmic units of E. coli. The removal efficiency of TSS for the wetlands is 68.87%, 71.4%, 57.3%, and 66% respectively. Conclusions The overall results show that wetlands in which herbs were planted had a high removal efficiency about the indicator pathogens, organic matter, LAS detergent in comparison to a control wetland (without canes) and could improve physicochemical parameters (DO, ammonia, nitrate, electrical conductivity, and pH) of wastewater. PMID:24581277

  5. Influence of environmental variables on the structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in natural and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Ansola, Gemma

    2015-02-15

    Bacteria are key players in wetland ecosystems, however many essential aspects regarding the ecology of wetland bacterial communities remain unknown. The present study characterizes soil bacterial communities from natural and constructed wetlands through the pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes in order to evaluate the influence of wetland variables on bacterial community composition and structure. The results show that the composition of soil bacterial communities was significantly associated with the wetland type (natural or constructed wetland), the type of environment (lagoon, Typha or Salix) and three continuous parameters (SOM, COD and TKN). However, no clear associations were observed with soil pH. Bacterial diversity values were significantly lower in the constructed wetland with the highest inlet nutrient concentrations. The abundances of particular metabolic groups were also related to wetland characteristics.

  6. Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Chung [Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Ko, Chun-Han [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chang, Fang-Chih [The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chen, Pen-Yuan [Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004 (China); Liu, Tzu-Fen [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Sheu, Yiong-Shing [Department of Water Quality Protection, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, Taipei 10042 (China); Shih, Tzenge-Lien [Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 25137 (China); Teng, Chia-Ji [Environmental Protection Bureau, Taipei County Government, Taipei 22001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Wetland biomass has potentials for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration. Planted with multiple species macrophytes to promote biodiversity, the 3.29 ha constructed wetland has been treated 4000 cubic meter per day (CMD) domestic wastewater and urban runoff. This study investigated the seasonal variations of aboveground biomass of the constructed wetland, from March 2007 to March 2008. The overall aboveground biomass was 16,737 kg and total carbon content 6185 kg at the peak of aboveground accumulation for the system emergent macrophyte at September 2007. Typhoon Korsa flood this constructed wetland at October 2007, however, significant recovery for emergent macrophyte was observed without human intervention. Endemic Ludwigia sp. recovered much faster, compared to previously dominated typha. Self-recovery ability of the macrophyte community after typhoon validated the feasibility of biomass harvesting. Incinerating of 80% biomass harvested of experimental area in a nearby incineration plant could produce 11,846 kWh for one month. (author)

  7. Landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Anna; Pedersen, Eja; Weisner, Stefan E B

    2012-12-30

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers' good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  8. A smart market for nutrient credit trading to incentivize wetland construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F.; Prabodanie, R. A. Ranga; Kostel, Jill A.

    2017-03-01

    Nutrient trading and constructed wetlands are widely discussed solutions to reduce nutrient pollution. Nutrient markets usually include agricultural nonpoint sources and municipal and industrial point sources, but these markets rarely include investors who construct wetlands to sell nutrient reduction credits. We propose a new market design for trading nutrient credits, with both point source and non-point source traders, explicitly incorporating the option of landowners to build nutrient removal wetlands. The proposed trading program is designed as a smart market with centralized clearing, done with an optimization. The market design addresses the varying impacts of runoff over space and time, and the lumpiness of wetland investments. We simulated the market for the Big Bureau Creek watershed in north-central Illinois. We found that the proposed smart market would incentivize wetland construction by assuring reasonable payments for the ecosystem services provided. The proposed market mechanism selects wetland locations strategically taking into account both the cost and nutrient removal efficiencies. The centralized market produces locational prices that would incentivize farmers to reduce nutrients, which is voluntary. As we illustrate, wetland builders' participation in nutrient trading would enable the point sources and environmental organizations to buy low cost nutrient credits.

  9. [Difference of P content in different area substrate of constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xue-Ying; Chong, Yun-Xiao; Yu, Guang-Wei; Zhong, Hai-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Adsorption of substrate is the main removal mechanisms of phosphorus in constructed wetland. It is easily impacted by various environmental factors existing in the wetland bed. The contents of substrate TP and the main inorganic P in different areas of both horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland with plant and one without plant were measured after treating wastewater five months. Different areas of the wetland with plant differed greatly in the substrate TP. Rhizosphere substrate in front area had the highest TP content and achieved 0.75 g x kg(-1), and the TP content of non-rhizosphere substrate in back area was only 0.21 g x kg(-1). The TP content of substrate in different areas of the wetland without plant had a little variety and ranged only between 0.21 and 0.27 g x kg(-1). Averagely, the substrate TP content in the wetland with plant was higher than the one in the wetland without plant. The phosphorous with Fe-bound (Fe-P), Al-bound (Al-P), and Ca-bound (Ca-P) were main inorganic phosphorous existing in the substrate in both wetlands, their contents in different areas substrate all increased, compared with the one before experiment. Fe-P and Al-P in different substrates in both wetlands had a similar variety. Their content between rhizosphere and intermediate substrate of front area in the wetland with plant and other area substrate in both wetlands differed greatly because the former increased greatly. Compared with Fe-P and Al-P, the variety of Ca-P in different substrates in both wetlands was low. But the content of Ca-P in rhizosphere substrate in wetland with plant was higher than other two parts respectively in front and back areas. Obviously, the plant root had an impact on the phosphorous content of substrate in constructed wetland. For TP, Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P and loosely sorbed phosphorous in substrate, it increased with distance of the root.

  10. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and sulfate from greenhouse wastewater by constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Dorais, Martine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Zagury, Gérald J

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of C-enriched subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in reducing high concentrations of nitrate (NO) and sulfate (SO) in greenhouse wastewaters. Constructed wetlands were filled with pozzolana, planted with common cattail (), and supplemented as follows: (i) constructed wetland with sucrose (CW+S), wetland units with 2 g L of sucrose solution from week 1 to 28; (ii) constructed wetland with compost (CW+C), wetland units supplemented with a reactive mixture of compost and sawdust; (iii) constructed wetland with compost and no sucrose (CW+CNS) from week 1 to 18, and constructed wetland with compost and sucrose (CW+CS) at 2 g L from week 19 to 28; and (iv) constructed wetland (CW). During 28 wk, the wetlands received a typical reconstituted greenhouse wastewater containing 500 mg L SO and 300 mg L NO. In CW+S, CW+C, and CW+CS, appropriate C:N ratio (7:3.4) and redox potential (-53 to 39 mV) for denitrification resulted in 95 to 99% NO removal. Carbon source was not a limiting factor for denitrification in C-enriched constructed wetlands. In CW+S and CW+CS, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/SO ratios of 0.36 and 0.28 resulted in high sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) counts and high SO removal (98%), whereas low activities were observed at DOC/SO ratios of 0.02 (CW) to 0.11 (CW+C, CW+CNS). On week 19, when organic C content was increased by sucrose addition in CW+CS, SRB counts increased from 2.80 to 5.11 log[CFU+1] mL, resulting in a level similar to the one measured in CW+S (4.69 log[CFU+1] mL). Consequently, high sulfate reduction occurred after denitrification, suggesting that low DOC (38-54 mg L) was the limiting factor. In CW, DOC concentration (9-10 mg L) was too low to sustain efficient denitrification and, therefore, sulfate reduction. Furthermore, the high concentration of dissolved sulfides observed in CW+S and CW+CS treated waters were eliminated by adding FeCl. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop

  11. The contribution of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria to particulate organic nitrogen in a constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; PAN, X.; MA, M.; Li, W.; Cui, L.

    2016-12-01

    N-fixing cyanobacteria can create extra nitrogen for aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies reported inconsistence patterns of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen pools in aquatic ecosystems. However, there were few studies concerning the effect of fixed nitrogen by cyanobacteria on the nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands. This study was performed at the Beijing Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre, where a constructed lake for the habitation of waterfowls and a constructed wetland for purifying sewage from the lake are located. The composition of phytoplankton communities, the concentrations of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and nitrogen fixation rates (Rn) in the constructed lake and the constructed wetland were compared throughout a growing season. We counted the densities of genus Anabaena and Microcystis cells, and explored their relationships with PON and Rn in water. The proportions of PON from various sources, including the ambient N2, waterfowl faeces, wetland sediments and the nitrates, were calculated by the natural abundance of 15N with the IsoSource software. The result revealed that the constructed lake was alternately dominated by Anabaena and Microcystis throughout the growing season, and the Rn was positively correlated with PON and the cell density of Anabaena (P constructed lake and wetland respectively during the growing season. The proportions of PON from N2 increased to more than 80% when the Rn reached the highest in September. The result demonstrated that the nitrogen fixed by Anabaena might be utilized by non-N-fixing Microcystis which formed water blooms in summer. Therefore, the decline of the removal efficiency of PON in the constructed wetland in summer might indirectly result from the nitrogen fixation, since the proliferated algal were difficult to sediment in surface flow wetlands.

  12. Improvement of Groundwater Quality Using Constructed Wetland for Agricultural Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to evaluate the performance of Constructed Wetlands (CW for groundwater quality improvement. In the first phase of this study, performance of CW planted with cattails for Manganese (Mn and Iron (Fe reduction was evaluated at 12, 24 and 48 hours of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT. Average efficiencies of all tested CW systems were higher than 90 and 75% for Mn and Fe concentration reduction. Subsequently, the efficiency of CW operated at 12 hours of HRT was investigated at different plant harvest intervals. In the second phase of study, Mn and Fe removal efficiencies were 75-100 and 48-99%, respectively. Both Mn and Fe removal efficiencies for the CW system were not different between 4, 6 and 8 weeks of harvest intervals. However, the efficiency obviously increased after the first plant harvest. Average Mn and Fe removal rates of the CWs operated at the tested harvest intervals were 0.068 to 0.092 and 0.383 to 0.432 g/m2/d, respectively. Fe removal rate was not significantly different under the various test conditions. However the highest Mn removal rate was obtained in CWs operated with a harvest interval of 4 weeks. Mn accumulation rates in cattail shoots and roots were 0.04-8.25 and 0.83-23.14 mg/m2/d, respectively. Fe accumulation rates in those were 0.04-164.27 and 249.62-1,701.54 mg/m2/d, respectively. Obviously, cattail underground tissues accumulated both Mn and Fe at higher concentrations than those of the above ground tissue. These results show that CW can improve the quality of groundwater before agricultural irrigation.

  13. Impact of flood damage on pollutant removal efficiencies of a subtropical urban constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Tsai-Ming; Chen, Pen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Hsieh, Hwey-Lien; Guan, Chung-Yu

    2010-09-15

    Typhoons and hurricanes in subtropical/tropical regions can induce significant environmental changes (e.g., mass flooding and inundations). However, the damage to the pollutant removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands brought about by these natural disturbances has been neglected in major studies conducted in temperate climates. Therefore, this study compares the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland in the Danshui River Basin, before and after the system was inundated with flooding from Typhoon Krosa in 2007. The pollutant removal performance of the free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland was investigated monthly from September 2006 to April 2008. Results of the study demonstrated that this FWS wetland effectively removed 64.3% BOD, 98.9% NH(4)-N, and 39.5% Total-P before Typhoon Krosa. However, the extensive flooding caused by Typhoon Krosa swept over most of the aboveground plant community and deposited the sediment onto the bottom of each compartment. Subsequently, reduced pollutant removal efficiencies were observed. Only 37.7% BOD, 35.1% NH(4)-N, and 31.8% Total-P were removed after this event, although the flow regime was immediately restored. Comparing the water quality data for the FWS wetland before and after Typhoon Krosa revealed the immediate, quantitative damage to the pollutant removal performance caused by the typhoon's inundation. Consequently, a high-flow bypass and additional preventive measures would protect any constructed wetland in areas subject to typhoons.

  14. Growth and Contaminant Removal Effect of Several Plants in Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Yun Cheng; Ming-Qiu Liang; Wen-Yin Chen; Xu-Cheng Liu; Zhang-He Chen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to probe the relation between plant growth and its decontamination effect in constructed wetlands.Four species were studied in the small-scale mono-cuitured constructed wetlands, which were fed with domestic wastewater. Plant growth indexes were correlated with contaminant removal performance of the constructed wetlands. Wetlands planted with Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb. showed the highest growth indexes such as shoot growth, biomass, root activity, root biomass increment, and the highest contaminant removal rates, whereas wetlands planted with Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash had the lowest growth indexes and the lowest removal rates. Above-ground biomass and total biomass were significantly correlated with ammonia nitrogen removal, and below-ground biomass with soluble reactive phosphorus removal. Photosynthetic rate had higher correlation with nitrogen removal in these species. Root activity and root biomass increment was more correlated with 5 d biochemical oxygen demand removal.Chemical oxygen demand removal had lower correlations with plant growth indexes. All four species had higher removal rates in summer and autumn. The results suggest that the effect of plant growth on contaminant removal in constructed wetlands were different specifically in plants and contaminants.

  15. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy

  16. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy m

  17. Experimental study of a novel hybrid constructed wetland for water reuse and its application in Southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, J.; Xiao, H.W.; Kujawa, K.; He, Q.; Kerstens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of hybrid constructed wetland (CW), consisting of both vertical-baffled flow wetland (VBFW) and horizontal subsurface flow wetland (HSFW), has been deployed in Southern China to naturally accelerate the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. The hybrid CW system is characterised by a

  18. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Treatment of Stormwater Runoff and Landfill Leachates Using a Surface Flow Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The aim was to protect a freshwater ecosystem that consists of a 4.6 km long brook and two lakes. The ability of the constructed wetland to retain iron and manganese from the influent water was investigated and the change in pH of the water as it flowed through the cells was assessed. In 2004, the total iron removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 47.13 % to a high of 84.74 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 35.56 % to a high of 78.49 % depending on rain events. The outlet total iron concentrations in 2006 were not significantly different from those reported for 2004. In 2004, the total manganese removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 25.75 % to a high of 51.61 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 0.0 % to a high of 33.33 % depending on rain events. The inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations in the constructed wetland from August to October 2006 were significantly higher than the inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations reported for August to October 2004 because water levels in the constructed wetland were very low and the average pH of the outlet water was lower in 2006. In 2004 and 2006, the pH of the water in the constructed wetland had average inlet values of 6.70 and 6.26 and average outlet values of 7.28 and 6.70, respectively.

  20. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  1. A bench-scale constructed wetland as a model to characterize benzene biodegradation processes in freshwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Remy, Benjamin; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H

    2011-12-01

    In wetlands, a variety of biotic and abiotic processes can contribute to the removal of organic substances. Here, we used compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), hydrogeochemical parameters and detection of functional genes to characterize in situ biodegradation of benzene in a model constructed wetland over a period of 370 days. Despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations (98% removal), we applied CSIA to study in situ benzene degradation by indigenous microbes. Combining carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures by two-dimensional stable isotope analysis revealed that benzene was degraded aerobically, mainly via the monohydroxylation pathway. This was additionally supported by the detection of the BTEX monooxygenase gene tmoA in sediment and root samples. Calculating the extent of biodegradation from the isotope signatures demonstrated that at least 85% of benzene was degraded by this pathway and thus, only a small fraction was removed abiotically. This study shows that model wetlands can contribute to an understanding of biodegradation processes in floodplains or natural wetland systems.

  2. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Tao; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer; Smardon, Richard C.; Zeno F. Levy

    2014-01-01

    As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This ...

  3. Performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte Spartina alterniflora treating mariculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Treger Zydowicz Sousa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.

  4. Treating urban sewage using constructed wetlands; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante humedales contruidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [ETS Camins, Canals i Ports. UPC. Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, A. [Biologa. Barcelona. (Spain); Junqueras, X. [Biologo. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Constructed wetlands are a low-cost alternative for treating sewage from small urbanized areas. The ``Can Massaguer`` children`s holiday home has a 230 m``2 subsurface flow wetland for secondary treatment of the sewage generated by 130 people. The system comprises two porous substrate beds with macrophytes (ditch reed, Phragmites australis) and entry and exit units. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating wastewaters from small built-up areas. (Author)

  5. Emergy-based evaluation of system sustainability and ecosystem value of a large-scale constructed wetland in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Renqing

    2013-07-01

    Constructed wetland has been widely adopted to deal with degraded natural wetlands and water bodies; thus, more attention should be focused on ecological-economic sustainability and ecological efficiency of these projects for long-term success. Emergy accounting was conducted to investigate the energy and resource flows in constructed wetlands during the restoration process. Emergy-based indexes were adopted to evaluate the sustainability of a pilot large-scale constructed wetland in a large wetland restoration project in North China, carried out to enhance the river water quality and offset the degradation of natural wetland. Emergy and emdollar values for ecosystem services and natural capital were also calculated. The results showed that when outflow was considered as the product, the studied large-scale constructed wetland was more self-supporting and could be operated with lesser financial investment, although the waste treatment efficiency and the sustainability index were lower than conventional small-scale treatment constructed wetlands. Compared with natural wetlands, more visits from tourists and lesser financial investment coming in as feedback into the wetland would reduce system environment loading and promote system self-support ability, ultimately generating sustainability. In addition, the studied large-scale constructed wetland can effectively simulate energy and resource flows of natural wetland ecosystem and contribute a roughly equal value of ecosystem services in term of gross primary production. The studied large-scale constructed wetland can successfully achieve ecosystem functions as replacement for natural wetland and hasten the restoration process, although the restoration effectiveness of ecosystem structures in terms of living biomass and water using emergy-value accounting is still inconclusive.

  6. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  7. Removal of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms by a constructed wetland receiving untreated domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Díaz, M J; Karpiscak, M M; Ellman, E D; Gerba, C P

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands containing floating, emergent and submergent aquatic plants, and other water-tolerant species have been found to economically provide a mechanism of enhancing the quality of domestic wastewater. The use of constructed wetlands for the removal of indicator bacteria (total and fecal coliforms), coliphages, protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and enteric viruses was investigated. A pilot scale constructed wetland consisting of two cells, one planted with bulrush and the other unplanted bare sand, were used to compare their efficiency in removing pathogens from raw sewage. Overall more than 90 percent of all microorganisms studied were removed by either of the two systems with a 1 to 2 day retention time. Removal of all mentioned microorganisms was greater from the surface flow in the unplanted cell than in the planted cell, except for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, although the differences were not statistically significant. Enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria were found to penetrate 2 m below the surface, although concentrations were reduced by greater than 99 percent in both cells. Less virus penetration into the sand occurred in the planted wetland versus the unplanted wetland. Water temperature was found to be the most important factor in the removal of enteric bacteria and viruses, while turbidity reduction was related to Giardia removal. These results demonstrate that significant reductions of pathogenic microorganisms can occur in constructed wetlands receiving untreated domestic wastewater with only a 1-2 day retention time.

  8. 'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

  9. [Correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shao-Yuan; Song, Zhi-Xin; Ding, Yan-Li; You, Shao-Hong; He, Shan

    2014-02-01

    The correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics was studied by numerical simulation combined with experimental method. The numerical simulation results showed that the permeability coefficient of matrix had a great influence on hydraulic efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The filler with a high permeability coefficient had a worse flow field distribution in the constructed wetland with single layer structure. The layered substrate structure with the filler permeability coefficient increased from surface to bottom could avoid the short-circuited flow and dead-zones, and thus, increased the hydraulic efficiency. Two parallel pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built according to the numerical simulation results, and tracer experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results. The tracer experiment result showed that hydraulic characteristics in the layered constructed wetland were obviously better than that in the single layer system, and the substrate effective utilization rates were 0.87 and 0.49, respectively. It was appeared that numerical simulation would be favorable for substrate structure optimization in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  10. Sustainability of a constructed wetland faced with a depredation event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Sánchez, G C; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Caffaratti, S E; Pedro, M C

    2013-10-15

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) designed for effluent treatment was dominated by the emergent macrophyte Typha domingensis reaching a cover of roughly 80% for 5 years. Highly efficient metal and nutrient removal was reported during this period. In June 2009, a population of approximately 30 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) caused the complete depredation of the aerial parts of macrophytes. However, plant roots and rhizomes were not damaged. After depredation stopped, T. domingensis showed a luxuriant growth, reaching a cover of 60% in 30 days. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sustainability of the CW subjected to an extreme event. Removal efficiency of the system was compared during normal operation, during the depredation event and over the subsequent recovery period. The CW efficiently retained contaminants during all the periods studied. However, the best efficiencies were registered during the normal operation period. There were no significant differences between the performances of the CW over the last two periods, except for BOD. The mean removal percentages during normal operation/depredation event/recovery period, were: 84.9/73.2/74.7% Cr; 66.7/48.0/51.2% Ni; 97.2/91.0/89.4% Fe; 50.0/46.8/49.5% Zn; 81.0/84.0/80.4% NO3(-); 98.4/93.4/84.1% NO2(-); 73.9/28.2/53.2% BOD and 75.4/40.9/44.6% COD. SRP and TP presented low removal efficiencies. Despite the anoxic conditions, contaminants were not released from sediment, accumulating in fractions that proved to be stable faced with changes in the operating conditions of the CW. T. domingensis showed an excellent growth response, consequently the period without aerial parts lasted a few months and the CW could recover its normal operation. Plants continued retaining contaminants in their roots and the sediment increased its retention capacity, balancing the operating capacity of the system. This was probably due to the fact that the CW had reached its maturity, with a complete root

  11. Removal of antibiotics from urban wastewater by constructed wetland optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Fink, Guido; Schlüsener, Michael P; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Ternes, Thomas; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), differing in their design characteristics, were set up in the open air to assess their efficiency to remove antibiotics from urban raw wastewater. A conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was simultaneously monitored. The experiment took place in autumn. An analytical methodology including HPLC-MS/MS was developed to measure antibiotic concentrations in the soluble water fraction, in the suspended solids fraction and in the WWTP sludge. Considering the soluble water fraction, the only easily eliminated antibiotics in the WWTP were doxycycline (61±38%) and sulfamethoxazole (60±26%). All the studied types of CWs were efficient for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (59±30-87±41%), as found in the WWTP, and, in addition, they removed trimethoprim (65±21-96±29%). The elimination of other antibiotics in CWs was limited by the specific system-configuration: amoxicillin (45±15%) was only eliminated by a free-water (FW) subsurface flow (SSF) CW planted with Typha angustifolia; doxycycline was removed in FW systems planted with T. angustifolia (65±34-75±40%), in a Phragmites australis-floating macrophytes system (62±31%) and in conventional horizontal SSF-systems (71±39%); clarithromycin was partially eliminated by an unplanted FW-SSF system (50±18%); erythromycin could only be removed by a P. australis-horizontal SSF system (64±30%); and ampicillin was eliminated by a T. angustifolia-floating macrophytes system (29±4%). Lincomycin was not removed by any of the systems (WWTP or CWs). The presence or absence of plants, the vegetal species (T. angustifolia or P. australis), the flow type and the CW design characteristics regulated the specific removal mechanisms. Therefore, CWs are not an overall solution to remove antibiotics from urban wastewater during cold seasons. However, more studies are needed to assess their ability in warmer periods and to determine the behaviour of full-scale systems. Copyright

  12. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  13. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from...

  14. An Analysis of Groundwater Flow Patterns in a Constructed Treatment Wetland Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Constructed for the Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated by Chlorinated Ethenes.” Ecological Engineering . 30:51-66. 2007 Bair, Scott E. and...Constructed Wetlands,” Ecological Engineering . 18: 157-171. 2001. MODFLOW. Version 6.0. Computer Software. Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc., Waterloo

  15. Iron and manganese removal by using manganese ore constructed wetlands in the reclamation of steel wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Cheng; Chen, Gu; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Liu, Jia; Yang, Na; Gao, Sai-Nan

    2009-09-30

    To reclaim treated steel wastewater as cooling water, manganese ore constructed wetland was proposed in this study for the removal of iron and manganese. In lab-scale wetlands, the performance of manganese ore wetland was found to be more stable and excellent than that of conventional gravel constructed wetland. The iron and manganese concentration in the former was below 0.05 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 2-5 days when their influent concentrations were in the range of 0.16-2.24 mg/L and 0.11-2.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, its removals for COD, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were 55%, 90%, 67% and 93%, respectively, superior to the corresponding removals in the gravel wetland (31%, 86%, 58% and 78%, respectively). The good performance of manganese ore was ascribed to the enhanced biological manganese removal with the aid of manganese oxide surface and the smaller size of the medium. The presence of biological manganese oxidation was proven by the facts of good manganese removal in wetlands at chemical unfavorable conditions (such as ORP and pH) and the isolation of manganese oxidizing strains from the wetlands. Similar iron and manganese removal was later observed in a pilot-scale gravel-manganese-ore constructed wetland, even though the manganese ore portion in total volume was reduced from 100% (in the lab-scale) to only 4% (in the pilot-scale) for the sake of cost-saving. The quality of the polished wastewater not only satisfied the requirement for cooling water but also suitable as make-up water for other purposes.

  16. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

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    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  17. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from a constructed wetland for municipal sewage treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The fluxes of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emission from a constructed wetland in the Eastern China as municipal sewage treatment were measured from June 1999 to August 2000 by the closed chamber method. The constructed wetland for municipal sewage treatment is a significant source of methane, up to 976.6 x 106 gCH4/a, which was emitted from the constructed wetland with the area of 495000 m2 and wastewater loading rate of 12000 m3/d. Its daily mean methane flux reached 5.22 gCH4/(m2*d),250 times as much as that in natural wetland in the same latitude region. 227.8 mgCH4 was produced from the treatment of 1 liter wastewater, up to 700-1000 times as much as that in the secondary treatment. The emission of nitrous oxide from the constructed wetland is not higher than that from secondary treatment of wastewater, only 0.07 mgN2O/L.

  19. Treatment of table olive washing water using trickling filters, constructed wetlands and electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoulis, Triantafyllos; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Frontistis, Zacharias; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2017-01-01

    The production of table olives is a significant economic activity in Mediterranean countries. Table olive processing generates large volumes of rinsing water that are characterized by high organic matter and phenol contents. Due to these characteristics, a combination of more than one technology is imperative to ensure efficient treatment with low operational cost. Previously, biological filters were combined with electrooxidation to treat table olive washing water. Although this combination was successful in reducing pollutant loads, its cost could be further reduced. Constructed wetlands could be an eligible treatment method for integrated table olive washing water treatment as they have proved tolerant to high organic matter and phenol loads. Two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands, one planted and one unplanted, were combined with a biological filter and electrooxidation over a boron-doped diamond anode to treat table olive washing water. In the biological filter inlet, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations ranged from 5500 to 15,000 mg/L, while mean COD influent concentration in the constructed wetlands was 2800 mg/L. The wetlands proved to be an efficient intermediate treatment stage, since COD removal levels for the planted unit reached 99 % (mean 70 %), while the unplanted unit presented removal rates of around 65 %. Moreover, the concentration of phenols in the effluent was typically below 100 mg/L. The integrated trickling filter-constructed wetland-electrooxidation treatment system examined here could mineralize and decolorize table olive washing water and fully remove its phenolic content.

  20. Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Liang; Nakano, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nomura, Munehiro; Nishimura, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    The presence of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical-flow wetland as polishing step of conventional wastewater treatment in the removal of estrogens and to examine the effect of sand depth. The highest removal efficiency of 67.8+/-28.0%, 84.0+/-15.4% and 75.3+/-17.6% for E1, E2 and EE2, respectively, was achieved by the shallowest wetland among three constructed wetlands with different filter layer depth (i.e. 7.5, 30 and 60 cm). Together with the result that the performance of wetlands when operating in unsaturated condition was superior to that when operating in water-saturated condition, it is suggested that maintaining sufficient aerobic circumstance in constructed wetlands was important for estrogens removal. Core sampling indicated that the highest efficiency achieved in extremely shallow wetland might be due partly to the highest root density, besides the superior condition for penetration of oxygen. The adsorbed estrogens in sand accounted for less than 12% of the removed estrogens irrespective of the depth, indicating biotic processes play a major role in the estrogens removal.

  1. Emergy as embodied energy based assessment for local sustainability of a constructed wetland in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-02-01

    Ecological treatment engineering has been widely accepted as an artificially designed work to deal with the deteriorating ecological environment with low energy and resource consumption. To measure the energy and resource consumption and environmental support contained in the constructed wetland as a kind of ecological treatment engineering, emergy as embodied solar energy based assessment is performed and relative emergy-based indices including emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy load ratio (ELR), emergy sustainability index (ESI), net economic benefit index (Np), and renewable percentage index (Pr), are also modified to evaluate the local sustainability of the constructed wetland in this paper. A case study on Longdao River constructed wetland compared with those of some earlier conventional treatment systems indicate that more local renewable resources and less ecological cost are involved, thus promoting the economic benefit due to less energy and resource consumption and simultaneously lowering the environmental stress of the treatment system on the local areas.

  2. Effectiveness of pollutants removal in hybrid constructed wetlands – different configurations case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewska Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in interest in hybrid constructed wetland systems (HCWs has been observed. The aim of the paper is to compare different HCW configurations in terms of mass removal rates and efficiency of pollutants removal. Analysed data have been collected at multistage constructed wetlands in Poland, which are composed by at least two beds: horizontal subsurface flow (SSHF and vertical subsurface flow (SSVF. The evaluation was focused on hybrid constructed wetlands performance with HF+VF vs. VF+HF configuration, where influent wastewater of the same composition was treated. In analysed HCWs, the effective removal of organic matter from 75.2 to 91.6% COD was confirmed. Efficiency of total nitrogen removal varied from 47.3 to 91.7%. The most effective removal of TN (8.3 g m−2 d−1 occurred in the system with VF+VF+HF configuration.

  3. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  4. Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by constructed wetland with shorter retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulidzi, A R

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for using constructed wetlands for treating wastewater is that wetlands are naturally among the most biological active ecosystem on earth. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of shorter retention time on the performance of constructed wetland in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and other elements removal. The application of wastewater with retention time of seven days as well as the evaluation of water quality after treatment at Goudini experimental wetland was carried out throughout the year. The results had shown an overall average COD removal of 60% throughout the year. Results also showed reasonable removal of other elements namely; potassium, pH, nitrogen, electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, magnesium and boron from the wastewater by constructed wetlands. The results showed low COD removal during July until September after which it improved tremendously. The reason for low COD removal during first three months could be attributed to the fact that there was no gradual increase of wastewater application to the wetlands i.e. from 4,050 litres per day to 8,100 litres per day. The results had showed that constructed wetland as a secondary treatment system is effective in terms of COD and other elements removal from winery and distillery wastewater. COD removal throughout the year was 60% with seven days retention time. When compared with previous studies that showed 80% COD removal within 14 days retention time, therefore the 60% removal is very critical to wine industries as more wastewater will be applied to the system.

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Schoenoplectus litter in a constructed wetland in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Thullen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Culm processing characteristics were associated with differences in invertebrate density in a study of invertebrates and senesced culm packs in a constructed treatment wetland. Invertebrate abundance differed by location within the wetland and there were differences between the two study years that appeared to be related to water quality and condition of culm material. Open areas in the wetland appeared to be critical in providing dissolved oxygen (DO) and food (plankton) to the important invertebrate culm processor, Glyptotendipes. As culm packs aged, invertebrate assemblages became less diverse and eventually supported mostly tubificid worms and leeches. It appears from this study that wetland design is vital to processing of plant material and that designs that encourage production and maintenance of high DO's will encourage microbial and invertebrate processing of material.

  6. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  7. Constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2009-04-01

    Across Europe, many rivers and lakes are polluted. Sediment can disturb aquatic ecosystems, and is associated with the transport of pesticides, pathogens, toxic metals and nutrients, including phosphorus (P). P is growth-limiting in freshwaters, and rivers and lakes may become eutrophic where concentrations are high, leading to algal blooms and loss of biodiversity. For example, in the UK, the Biodiversity Action Plan estimates that over 70% of lakes are eutrophic. Concern about water quality has resulted in EU policy drivers to protect rivers and lakes. Under the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), surface waters must achieve ‘good ecological and chemical condition' by 2015. Studies in the UK indicate that P concentrations need to be an order of magnitude lower in fresh waters to comply with the requirements of the WFD, and methods of controlling sediment and P inputs into surface waters are urgently required. Pollution sources such as sewage treatment works can be regulated, but non point (diffuse) sources are difficult to control. As agricultural activities have been estimated to account for 30% of P inputs to surface waters, controlling the transfer of diffuse pollutants in runoff from agricultural land is a priority for catchment managers. The use of in-field mitigation options such as reduced tillage has been found to be effective in the UK, but pollutants can still be lost from hillslopes unchecked via subsurface runoff pathways, some of which (e.g. field drains) may contribute very high loads of sediment and P to streams. Mitigation approaches, such as wetlands, which operate at the edge-of-field, where hillslope pathways have already discharged their pollutant loads into the receiving stream, are therefore essential. Over the next two years we will establish ten wetland sites in the UK and use these to: 1) reduce levels of sediment and nutrients leaving agricultural fields; 2) determine the effectiveness of different wetland designs for

  8. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  9. Uptake and Translocation of Iron by Native Tree Species In A Constructed Wetland Treating Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The objectives of this study were: (a to compare the uptake of iron by red maple, white birch and red spruce trees growing under flooded soil conditions in the constructed wetland and well drained soil conditions in a nearby reference site, (b to evaluate the seasonal variability of iron in these trees and (c to determine the distribution of iron in different compartments of these trees (leaves, twigs, branches, trunk wood, trunk bark and roots. The average iron concentrations in the aboveground compartments of red maple, white birch and red spruce trees were within the range of iron concentrations reported in the literature for these trees. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland had significantly greater iron concentrations in their roots than the same species in the reference site. The average iron concentrations in the leaves of red maple trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed an increasing trend towards the end of the growing season while the average iron concentrations in the twigs of red maple and white birch trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed maximum concentrations at the beginning of the growing season. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland retained a major portion of their overall iron concentration in their root systems.

  10. Regulatory implications of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2002-05-01

    The practice of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater is gaining popularity in the United States and elsewhere. However, proponents of treatment wetlands often overlook important ecological liabilities and regulatory implications when developing new methods and applications. Their research studies typically seek to answer a basic performance question--are treatment wetlands effective in improving water quality--rather than answering an implicit safety question-are they hazardous to wildlife. Nevertheless, wetland owners are responsible for both the operational performance of treatment wetlands and the health of animals that use them. This is true even if wetlands were not created with the intent of providing wildlife habitat; the owner is still legally responsible for toxic hazards. If poisoning of fish and wildlife occurs, the owner can be prosecuted under a variety of federal and state laws, for example, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the Endangered Species Act. In considering this type of treatment technology it is important to document the selenium content of the wastewater, understand how it cycles and accumulates in the environment, and evaluate the threat it may pose to fish and wildlife before deciding whether or not to proceed with construction. Many of the potential hazards may not be obvious to project planners, particularly if there is no expressed intention for the wetland to provide wildlife habitat. Ecological risk assessment provides an approach to characterizing proposed treatment wetlands with respect to wildlife use, selenium contamination, and possible biological impacts. Proper application of this approach can reveal potential problems and the associated liabilities, and form the basis for selection of an environmentally sound treatment option.

  11. Performance of constructed wetland systems treating anerobic effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, J T; van Haandel, A; Lima, E P C; Guimarães, A V A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this present paper is to verify the performance of three wetland systems operated with effluents from a UASB reactor, with respect nutrient removal (nitrogen and phosphorus), pathogenic organisms and remaining carbonaceous material, monitored over a three-year period. The experiment was carried out and monitored at PROSAB (Programa de Saneamento Básico) in Campina Grande, Paraíba. The removal efficiency of the carbonaceous material expressed in DQO ranged from 70 to 86%, but concerning the total suspended solids, the efficiency ranged from 50 to 71%. The removal efficiency in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus of both vegetated systems was about 65.5 to 86%, respectively, during the first year of operation. Under the operational conditions of the experiment, the removal of phosphorus in a wetland system containing washed sand as the substratum decreased, as its operation period increased. The vegetated wetland has been the most efficient in removing faecal coliforms (roughly 4 log units) as compared to the non-vegetated one (about 3 log units), when both were operated with the same hydraulic load (2.3 cm. per day). Thus, the effluent produced over the three-year period ranged from 800 to 1,800 UFC/100 mL in the analyzed samples.

  12. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  14. Microbial diversity of bacteria, archaea, and fungi communities in a continuous flow constructed wetland for the treatment of swine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminant removal in constructed wetlands may largely be a function of many microbial processes. However, information about bacterial, archaea, and fungi communities in constructed wetlands for the removal of swine waste is limited. In this study, we used 454/GS-FLX pyrosequencing to assess bacter...

  15. Constructed wetlands as a component of the agricultural landscape: Mitigation of herbicides in simulated runoff from upland drainage areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are a recommended practice for buffering pollutant source areas and receiving waters. A wetland consisting of a sediment trap and two treatment cells was constructed in a Mississippi Delta lake watershed. A 3-h simulated runoff event was initiated (2003) to evaluate fate and tr...

  16. Impacts of multiple stressors on ecosystem function: Leaf decomposition in constructed urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of stormwater on stream biota is well documented, but less is known about the impacts on ecosystem processes, such as the breakdown of organic matter. This study sought to establish whether the degree of urbanisation affected rates of leaf-litter breakdown within constructed wetlands. A litter bag method was used to ascertain rate of decomposition along a gradient of urbanisation (total imperviousness, TI), in constructed wetlands in western and south-eastern Melbourne. A significant positive relationship between TI and breakdown rate was found in the south-eastern wetlands. The significant reduction in rate of invertebrate-mediated breakdown with increasing concentration of certain metals was consistent with other studies. However, overall there was an increase in rate of breakdown. Studies have shown that the effects of heavy metals can be negated if nutrient levels are high. Our results suggest that other parameters besides exposure to contaminants are likely to affect leaf litter breakdown.

  17. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C Brandt

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland "cells" were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity.

  18. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jake J.; Allen, George A.; Benzing, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland “cells” were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity. PMID:26296205

  19. A mass balance study on nitrification and deammonification in vertical flow constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Austin, D

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, mass-balance study was carried out on the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in four vertical flow wetland columns. Landfill leachate containing low organic matter, but a high concentration of ammoniacal-nitrogen, was treated under dissolved oxygen concentrations close to saturation. Influent total nitrogen (TN) comprised ammoniacal-nitrogen with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, negligible organic nitrogen, and very low BOD. Nitrification occurred in three of the four columns. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (< 12%). Nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for it: (1) either the loss of TN is attributed to nitrogen transformation into a form (provisionally termed alpha-nitrogen) that is undetectable by the analytical methods used; or (2) the loss is caused by microbial denitrification or deammonification. By elimination and stoichiometric mass balance calculations, completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite (CANON) deammonification is confirmed as responsible for nitrogen loss in one column. This result reveals that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating high ammonia, low organic content wastewater.

  20. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-02-01

    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove

  1. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B

    2016-02-15

    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition.

  2. Role of vegetation in a constructed wetland on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity of Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of a nutrient-pesticide mixture in non-vegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (60 X 30 X 0.3 m) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48 h aqueous whole effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple super phosphate, dia...

  3. Responses of phytoplankton and Hyalella azteca to agrichemical mixtures in a constructed wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the capability of a constructed wetland to mitigate toxicity of a variety of possible mixtures such as nutrients only (N, P), pesticides only (atrazine, S-metolachlor, permethrin), and nutrients+pesticides on phytoplankton chlorophyll a, 48 h aqueous Hyalella azteca survival, and 10 d se...

  4. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  5. Effects of constructed wetland design on ibuprofen removal – A mesocosm scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Liang; Lyu, Tao; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of constructed wetland design (unsaturated, saturated and aerated saturated) and plant species (Juncus, Typha, Berula, Phragmites and Iris) on the mass removal and removal kinetics of the pharmaceutical ibuprofen. Planted systems had higher ibuprofen......, indicating that degradation may be due to co-metabolisation processes....

  6. Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been shown to improve the water quality of treated wastewater. The capacity of CWs to reduce nutrients, pathogens and organic matter and restore oxygen regime under normal operating conditions cannot be extrapolated to periods of incidental peak discharges. The

  7. A pilot study on municipal wastewater treatment using a constructed wetland in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okurut, T.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using constructed v wetlands as a cheaper and yet effective alternative method for treating domestic wastewater in tropical environments was investigated in this study from May 1996 - April 1999. The major aim was to determine their technical viability with respect to

  8. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C. alternifolius species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising engineering technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewater and stormwater. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (Structural Thinking, Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation) model for estimati...

  9. Removal of Nutrients from Septic Effluent with Re-circulated Hybrid Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua Cui; Jigkun Feng; Ying Ouyang; Peiwen. Deng

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) with recirculation is an improved biological and engineering technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewater. This study investigated the removal efficiency of total phosphorus (TP), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and total nitrogen (TN) from septic tank effluent with the hybrid tidal flow CW system...

  10. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read

    2015-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  11. Trace Metal Accumulation in Sediments and Benthic Macroinvertebrates before and after Maintenance of a Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periodic maintenance of stormwater best management practices (BMP) includes the removal of accumulated sediment. The resulting impact on trace metal concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in a constructed stormwater wetland BMP on Staten Island, NY was investiga...

  12. Removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater through constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetland for the removal of AOX (adsorbable organic halides) and chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of HSSF constructed wetland were 3.5 m in length, 1.5 m in width, and 0.28 m in depth, with surface area of 5.25 m2. The HSSF constructed wetland unit was planted with an ornamental plant species, Canna indica. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.9 days, the average AOX removal was 89.1%, and 67% to 100% removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater was achieved. The complete removal of 2,3-dichlorophenol, 3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,6-dichlorocatechol, and 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol was observed. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil. The evapotranspiration rate varied from 6.7 to 12.7 mm day(-1) during the experimental period. The mass balance of chlorophenolics was also studied in constructed wetland system.

  13. Chlorobenzene removal efficiencies and removal processes in a pilot-scale constructed wetland treating contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeckevelt, M.; Reiche, N.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Low-chlorinated benzenes (CBs) are widespread groundwater contaminants and often threaten to contaminate surface waters. Constructed wetlands (CWs) in river floodplains are a promising technology for protecting sensitive surface water bodies from the impact of CBs. The efficiency and seasonal var...

  14. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  15. The Revival of a Failed Constructed Wetland Treating of a High Fe Load AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Karathanasis; C.D. Barton

    1999-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines has significantly impaired water quality in eastern Kentucky. A small surface flow wetland constructed in 1989 to reduce AMD effects and subsequently failed after six months of operation was renovated by incorporating anoxic limestone drains (ALDs) and anaerobic subsurface drains promoting vertical flow through successive...

  16. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining.

  17. Trace gas exchanges of marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) constructed wetlands have been used effectively to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. However, at high N loading rates, a significant portion of ammonia in the wastewater could be volatilized into the atmosphere. To mitigate ammonia emission, ponds can be covered w...

  18. Comparison of aerated marsh-pond-marsh and continuous marsh constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased swine production in North Carolina has resulted in greater waste generation and is demanding some emerging new innovative technologies to effectively treat swine wastewater. One of the cost-effective and passive methods to treat swine wastewater is using constructed wetlands. The objective...

  19. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihu Cui; Ying Ouyang; Weizhi Yang; Zhujian Huang; Qiaoling Xu; Guangwei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs...

  20. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  1. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...

  2. Appropriate and sustainable wastewater management in developing countries by the use of constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarat; Fryd, Ole

    2010-01-01

    is described. The project includes a wastewater collection system for the main business area of the island, a pumping station, a multistage constructed wetland system, and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The wastewater is treated to meet the Thai effluent standards for total suspended solids...

  3. A pilot study on municipal wastewater treatment using a constructed wetland in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okurut, T.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using constructed v wetlands as a cheaper and yet effective alternative method for treating domestic wastewater in tropical environments was investigated in this study from May 1996 - April 1999. The major aim was to determine their technical viability with respect to treatment perf

  4. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  5. Effects of Plant Species on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Constructed Wetlands Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, methane (CH4 and Nitrous Oxide (N2, from free water surface constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. All constructed wetlands were monoculture and each plot was planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp., or Canna sp. The average CH4 and N2 O emissions were in the range of 5.9-11.2 and 0.9-1.8 g/m2/h, respectively. Seasonal fluctuations of CH4 and N2 O emissions were observed. The highest fluxes of both GHGs occurred during hot rainy season (July-October followed by summer and the lowest found in cool season. The mean of CH4 and N2O emissions from different plants species were significantly different (p<0.05. Average CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp. and Cannasp. were 11.2, 6.0 and 5.9 mg/m2/h, respectively, while mean N2O emissions were 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 mg/m2/h, respectively. Calculated of Global Warming Potential (GWP found that GWP of CH4 and N2O flux from constructed wetlands planted with Cyperus sp., was the highest (669 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h, followed by Phragmite sp., (524 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h and Cannasp., (434 mg CO2 equivalent/mm2/h, respectively. These results suggested that municipal wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands planted with Canna sp. and Phragmite sp., had potential of lower GHGs emissions into the atmosphere and Phragmite sp., provided the highest removal rate of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD.

  6. How efficient are constructed wetlands in removing pharmaceuticals from untreated and treated urban wastewaters? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2014-02-01

    This review presents and discusses the data from 47 peer-reviewed journal articles on the occurrence of 137 pharmaceutical compounds in the effluent from various types of constructed wetlands treating urban wastewater. We analyse the observed removal efficiencies of the investigated compounds in order to identify the type of constructed wetland that best removes those most frequently detected. The literature reviewed details experimental investigations carried out on 136 treatment plants, including free water surface systems, as well as horizontal and vertical subsurface flow beds (pilot or full-scale) acting as primary, secondary or tertiary treatments. The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in sediments and gravel and their uptake by common macrophytes are also presented and discussed. We analyse the main removal mechanisms for the selected compounds and investigate the influence of the main design parameters, as well as operational and environmental conditions of the treatment systems on removal efficiency. We also report on previous attempts to correlate observed removal values with the chemical structure and chemical-physical properties (mainly pKa and LogKow) of pharmaceutical compounds. We then use the literature data to calculate the average pharmaceutical mass loadings in the effluent from constructed wetlands, comparing the ability of such systems to remove selected pharmaceuticals with the corresponding conventional secondary and tertiary treatments. Finally, the environmental risk posed by pharmaceutical residues in effluents from constructed wetlands acting as secondary and tertiary treatment steps is calculated in the form of the risk quotient ratio. This approach enabled us to provide a ranking of the most critical compounds for the two scenarios, to discuss the ramifications of the adoption of constructed wetlands for removing such persistent organic compounds, and to propose avenues of future research. © 2013.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Nitrogen in the Soil of Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubaszek Anita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.

  8. Pathways of nitrobenzene degradation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Effect of intermittent aeration and glucose addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirui, Wesley K; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Carvalho, Pedro N; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Intermittent aeration and addition of glucose were applied to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in order to investigate the effect on pathways of nitrobenzene (NB) degradation and interactions with microbial nitrogen and sulphur transformations. The experiment was carried out in three phases A, B and C consisting of different NB loading and glucose dosing. For each phase, the effect of aeration was assessed by intermittently aerating one wetland and leaving one unaerated. Regardless of whether or not the wetland was aerated, at an influent NB concentration of 140 mg/L, both wetlands significantly reduced NB to less than 2 mg/L, a reduction efficiency of 98%. However, once the influent NB concentration was increased to 280 mg/L, the aerated wetland had a higher removal performance 82% compared to that of the unaerated wetland 71%. Addition of glucose further intensified the NB removal to 95% in the aerated wetlands and 92% in the unaerated. Aeration of wetlands enhanced NB degradation, but also resulted in higher NB volatilization of 6 mg m(-2) d(-1). The detected high concentration of sulphide 20-60 mg/L in the unaerated wetland gave a strong indication that NB may act as an electron donor to sulphate-reducing bacteria, but this should be further investigated. Aeration positively improved NB removal in constructed wetlands, but resulted in higher NB volatilization. Glucose addition induced co-metabolism to enhance NB degradation.

  9. Study of Geochemical System in Constructed Wetland Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V.

    2015-12-01

    People have recognized that the human activities lead to the degradation of the environment, and constructed wetland is one of the well-known technologies for water treatment. In constructed wetland, complicated processes should be considered such as redox reactions, acid-base reactions, adsorption-desorption between water and sediment and biochemical reactions associated with plant and microorganism. In this study, most of inorganic components were analyzed and principal component analysis (PCA) was followed for depicting the controlling biochemical reaction in the constructed wetland. The results could be a guide to operate the constructed wetland. The constructed wetland in this study is located in Taoyuan County, north Taiwan. It's a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland composed of ten cells. The water in wetland was pumped from Nankan River, which collects wastewater from Hwaya technology park, Linkou, Guishan and Nankan industrial zone. The water of inflow and outflow from each cell were collected for analyzing inorganic components with ICP-MS and IC. In general, the results show that water quality had dramatically changed in the first three cells and became stable in the following seven cells. In this study, PCA extracted two major factors (PCs), which can respectively explain 52.76%(PC1)and 28.32%(PC2)of variance of water quality data. PC1 separates samples of the first three cells from those of the other following cells. It is believed that there was another pollution source involved in the 4th cell because PC1 is characterized by high loadings of most of trace heavy metals. On the other hand, the hydrochemistry of water mainly evolve along PC2 axis. PC2 is composed of Fe, Mn, NH4, dissolved oxygen, pH, etc with high loadings. These chemical components are predominately controlled by redox reactions. Moreover, the deep water from the 4th cell contains high concentrations of many heavy metals, especially Cu and Ga. This confirms the

  10. Water quality, fate of metals and predictive model validation of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Wise, K.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources

    1998-06-01

    The paper describes how 0.39 ha constructed wetland designed with 9 cells, including two anaerobic cells that were to stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction, was evaluated for its effect on water quality of a low-order acid mine drainage (AMD) stream in southeastern Ohio, USA. Emphasis was on the uptake and fate of selected metals and the accuracy of a simulation model that predicted this specific wetland`s behavior before it was built.

  11. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour.

  12. Superior drainage treated by combinational technique of biologic contact oxidation and constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡学斌; 徐志恒; 柴宏祥; 龙腾锐

    2009-01-01

    The superior drainage was pre-treated by biologic contact oxidation on BOD5 load of 0.72 kg/(m3·d),and then post-treated by constructed wetland. The results about the effect on the constructed wetland post-treatment show that the total nitrogen (TN) is the restrictive index of the combinational technique treatment effect. To meet the reclaimed water quality standard and reuse for waterscape,the peak hydraulic load of constructed wetland is 0.50 m/d in summer (30-36 ℃) and 0.33 m/d in winter (8-12℃),and the load ratio of the peak hydraulic under the two temperature conditions is 3-2. The results are combined of reclaimed water quantity requirements in different seasons of green building. Reasonable scale of the reclaimed water treatment systems can be determined. The treatment efficacy can be well predicted,and both the design and operations can be effectively guided,by which the reclaimed water treatment systems regard superior drainage as the source and are purified by combinational technique of contact oxidation and artificial wetland.

  13. The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza

    2015-02-01

    Pesticides are used in modern agriculture to increase crop yields, but they may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides may enter water bodies through diffuse and point sources, but diffuse sources are probably the most important. Among diffuse pollution, surface runoff and erosion, leaching and drainage represent the major pathways. The most commonly used mitigation techniques to prevent pesticide input into water bodies include edge-of-field and riparian buffer strips, vegetated ditches and constructed wetlands. The first attempts to use wetland macrophytes for pesticide removal were carried out as early as the 1970s, but only in the last decade have constructed wetlands for pesticide mitigation become widespread. The paper summarizes 47 studies in which removal of 87 pesticides was monitored. The survey revealed that constructed wetlands with free water surface are the most commonly used type. Also, it has been identified that removal of pesticides is highly variable. The results of the survey revealed that the highest pesticide removal was achieved for pesticides of the organochlorine, strobilurin/strobin, organosphosphate and pyrethroid groups while the lowest removals were observed for pesticides of the triazinone, aryloxyalkanoic acid and urea groups. The removal of pesticides generally increases with increasing value of KOC but the relationship is not strong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative variability in microbial community of constructed wetlands used for purifying wastewater contaminated with pharmaceutical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Aleksandra; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical substances and their residues are increasingly present in the environment. Therefore, attempts at their removal are made by using different processes. Increasingly important among these processes are those modeled on natural phenomena which occur in wetland ecosystems, called technical scale constructed wetlands. Microbial degradation is an important process in these constructed wetlands. The biodegradation of chemicals often involves a complex series of biochemical reactions and usually varies with the microorganisms involved. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other parameters of wastewater in the microcosm of down-flow constructed wetlands. The Spearman correlation coefficient attained negative values in the case of comparison of the Shannon biodiversity index and the parameters of purified wastewater. This dependence was pronounced. In the case of pharmaceutical substances dosed with wastewater, the Spearman correlation coefficient assumed positive values. The highest value assumed by the Spearman correlation coefficient (0.9) was for the removal of diclofenac and Shannon index values for the planted columns, with a very high relationship. For unplanted columns, this value equaled 0.6. For sulfamethoxazole, the value for planted columns was 0.7, and for unplanted -0.7. The presence of plants did not have an impact on the Shannon biodiversity index.

  15. Removal of mercury from gold mine effluents using Limnocharis flava in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 μg mL(-1)) and spiked with HgNO3 (1.50 ± 0.09 μg mL(-1)). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  17. [Effect of constructed wetland on the purification of industrial zone rainfall runoff contaminated with phenanthrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Dan-Dan; Wan, Jin-Quan; Ma, Yong-Wen; Li, Dong-Ya; Wang, Yan; Huang, Ming-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    According to the water characteristics of industrial rainfall runoff in the catchment of Tongsha Reservoir, Dongguan City, a subsurface-flow constructed wetland (SSFCW) was used to treat simulated rainfall and the spatial variation of removal efficiency of contaminants in the wetland bed was analyzed. The longitudinal and vertical variation of removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N, TN, TP and phenanthrene were examined. Enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and nitrate reductase (NR) along the wetland bed were analyzed as well, meanwhile, four biogeochemical indexes of the wetland system, including DO, pH, ORP and water temperature, were monitored and their influences on the removal efficiency of contaminants and enzyme activity were analyzed. Results showed that DO, pH, ORP, water temperature all presented a decreasing tendency along the wetland bed, and the removal of COD, TP and phenanthrene occurred mainly in the front quarter of the wetland system; in the vertical direction, DO and ORP in the upper wetland bed were significantly higher than those in the ground floor, suggesting that the horizontal subsurface system was in an anaerobic or anoxic condition. The removal rates of COD, TP, TN, NH4(+) -N and phenanthrene were 1.17-1.36, 2.04-2.11, 1.40-1.92, 1.37-2.30, and 1.07-1.36 times higher than those at the bottom, respectively. Therefore, the vertical variation of purification efficiency was more significant than the longitudinal variation. A significant positive correlation was determined between the enzyme activity of NR and the NO3(-) -N concentration, but the longitudinal variation in the enzyme activity of NR and PPO was not obvious.

  18. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  19. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipaúba-Tavares Lúcia Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season and July-September (winter/dry season. The hydrological regime and decomposition processes had strong impact on the wetland water quality and on the associated fauna composition. Protozoa and Rotifera were at high densities, mainly in the dry season. Vorticella sp. was the dominant species in both seasons. Zooplankton richness, evenness and diversity were high during both seasons, with higher levels during the rainy season. Protozoa diversity and evenness were higher in the dry season when the water volume was lower. Maximum plant residence time in this wetland should be about 60 days.

  20. EPS solubilization treatment by applying the biosurfactant rhamnolipid to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingpu; Xu, Dong; Trinh, Xuantung; Liu, Shuangyuan; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Junmei; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Application of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solubilization treatment with biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands was first conducted in this study. The results showed significant improvement in the solubilization and dispersion of clogging matter following the treatment. And RL dosage of 0.09-0.15g/L altered microbial group make-up and had an overall positive effect on the growth of microorganisms. Moreover, RL was found to enhance EPS dissolution and dispersion, which was beneficial for the release of enzymes embedded in the EPS, and resulted in enhanced pollutant removal. The treatment had no apparent detrimental effect on wetland plants. Our results indicate that the optimum dosage of RL is 0.12g/L, and that the approach provides a promising and moderate option to reverse wetland clogging through RL-mediated solubilization treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of nutrients and metals by constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Achyut R; Acharya, Kumud; Shanahan, Seth A; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2011-09-01

    Increased water use associated with rapid growth in the Las Vegas Valley has inadvertently led to the creation of unique wetland systems in Southern Nevada with an abundance of biological diversity. Constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las Vegas Valley watershed were studied to characterize and understand their potential role for improving ecosystem services (i.e., water purification). Nutrient and metal removal was assessed at four sites including a natural urban runoff wetland, a constructed urban runoff wetland, a constructed wastewater wetland, and a natural urban runoff/wastewater wetland. Plant nutrient uptake was dependent on ambient nutrient concentrations in water and sediments of specific wetlands, irrespective of the type of plants present. Phosphorus was mostly concentrated in below-ground plant parts whereas nitrogen was concentrated in above-ground parts. As for metalloids, bulrushes were more efficient than cattails at taking up arsenic and selenium. Averaging all the wetland sites and plant species, total nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and selenium removal was 924.2, 61.5, 0.30, and 0.38 kg/ha/year, respectively. Our findings suggest that natural and created wetland systems can improve water quality in the Las Vegas Valley watershed for some common pollutants, however, other measures are still needed to improve water quality below regulatory thresholds.

  2. Microbial community response during the treatment of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in constructed wetland mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Min, Jie; Yu, Yonghong; Zhu, Zhiwei; Feng, Guozhong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater treatment plant effluent poses a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands have recently been used to control PhACs. However, the microbial communities that are involved in these processes have not been comprehensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the removal of PhACs and microbial response in constructed wetlands during the treatment of PhACs. The effects of PhACs on bacterial communities in constructed wetland mesocosms were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Results indicated that removal efficiencies of PhACs were enhanced over time, and constructed wetlands offer higher removal efficiencies for the PhACs studied compared to conventional wastewater treatment plants. Plants improved microbial richness and diversity while both indices were negatively correlated with PhAC concentrations ranging from 30 to 500 μg/L in constructed wetland mesocosms. The microbial communities of the constructed wetland mesocosms were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes under PhAC exposure, while Desulfobulbus and Treponema were the dominant genera. In particular, Proteobacteria were correlated with PhAC concentrations. Overall, this study provides valuable microbial community ecology data to understand how microbial populations respond to PhAC stress in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Desain IPAL Pengolahan Grey Water dengan Teknologi Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland di Rusunawa Grudo Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safrodin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pencemaran Lingkungan di Kota Surabaya akan terus meningkat  seiring dengan perkembangan penduduk dan keterbatasan sarana sanitasi yang kurang baik. Pencemaran lingkungan ini didominasi limbah domestik sehingga perlu sistem pengolahan yang efektif dan efisien dalam mendegradasi senyawa polutan. Teknologi Constructed wetland merupakan  sistem  pengolahan  terencana atau terkontrol yang telah didesain dan dibangun menggunakan proses alami yang  melibatkan  vegetasi,  media,  dan  mikroorganisme  untuk  mengolah  air  limbah domestik. Teknologi ini dapat diterapkan untuk skala perumahan baik individu atau secara komunal. Rusunawa Grudo Surabaya merupakan rusun yang belum memiliki IPAL untuk mengolah greywater, sehingga sistem Contructed wetland ini dapat diterapkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas sanitasi lingkungan. Perencanaan sistem Constructed wetland di Rusunawa Grudo Surabaya mempertimbangkan aspek kuantitas dan kualitas air limbah. Kualitas air limbah domestik menunjukkan nilai COD 329.81 mg/L; BOD 182.02 mg/L; dan TSS 103.33 mg/L, sedangkan kuantitas air limbah 33.6 m3/hari. Sistem ini terdiri dari unit ekualisasi, Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland dengan tanaman Cyperus alternifolius, dan kolam penampung. Hasil perencanaan menunjukkan efisiensi pengolahan seluruh sistem untuk COD, BOD, dan TSS masing-masing sebesar 86%, 85%, dan 88%. Desain sistem IPAL menghasilkan luas permukaan 480 m2, kedalaman bed 0,5 m, beban pada bed (OLR 12.75 gr BOD/m2.hari, beban hidrolik (HLR 0,07 m3/m2.hari dengan waktu tinggal 3 hari. Kualitas efluen yang didapatkan menunjukkan nilai BOD 25 mg/L, COD 48.35 mg/L dan TSS 11.72 mg/L. Dihasilkan standar operasional dan perawatan IPAL dan Biaya investasi seluruh sistem constructed wetland diperkirakan sebesar Rp.412.059.022.

  4. The role of constructed wetlands for biomass production within the water-soil-waste nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellan, C T; Ardakanian, R; Gremillion, P

    2017-05-01

    The use of constructed wetlands for water pollution control has a long standing tradition in urban, peri-urban, rural, agricultural and mining environments. The capacity of wetland plants to take up nutrients and to filter organic matter has been widely discussed and presented in diverse fora and published in hundreds of articles. In an ever increasingly complex global world, constructed wetlands not only play a role in providing safe sanitation in decentralized settings, shelter for biodiversity, and cleansing of polluted sites, in addition, they produce biomass that can be harvested and used for the production of fodder and fuel. The United Nations University Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES) was established in December 2012 in Dresden, Germany, to assess the trade-offs between and among resources when making sustainable decisions. Against the backdrop of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, which was introduced as a critical element for the discussions on sustainability at Rio +20, the UNU was mandated to pay critical attention to the interconnections of the underlying resources, namely, water, soil and waste. Biomass for human consumption comes in the form of food for direct use, as fodder for livestock, and as semi-woody biomass for fuelling purposes, be it directly for heating and cooking or for the production of biogas and/or biofuel. Given the universal applicability of constructed wetlands in virtually all settings, from arid to tropical, from relatively high to low nutrient loads, and from a vast variety of pollutants, we postulate that the biomass produced in constructed wetlands can be used more extensively in order to enhance the multi-purpose use of these sites.

  5. Performance of the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the corumbataí river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the Corumbataí river simulated on a laboratory scale. The parameters analyzed at different points of the system were ammonia, biochemical demand for oxygen (BDO, chemical demand for oxygen (CDO, chlorides, apparent color, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicon (Si, total phosphorous, total coliforms and Escherichia coli, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and macrophyte biomass. The results demonstrated that this alternative water treatment system was effective in removing the microorganisms (total coliforms and E. coli, among other parameters analyzed, for varying periods of the treatment, promoting notable improvement in the quality of the water treated from the Corumbataí River.Na intenção de reduzir nutrientes e microrganismos das águas de rio, foi estudado um processo alternativo de tratamento, como o sistema construído de áreas alagadas (CWs, em escala de laboratório. Os parâmetros analisados em diferentes pontos do sistema utilizado foram amônia, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, cloretos, cor aparente, condutividade, oxigênio dissolvido, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicium (Si, fósforo total, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS, turbidez e biomassa da macrófita. Os resultados demonstraram que este sistema alternativo de tratamento de água do rio Corumbataí foi eficiente na remoção dos microrganismos: coliformes totais e Escherichia coli dentre outros parâmetros analisados, em diferentes tempos de tratamento, promovendo melhoria acentuada na qualidade da água tratada.

  6. Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs.

  7. Impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiguo; WANG Shihe; HUANG Juan; YAN Lu; HUANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    To determine the impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in wetlands,an artificial wetland planted with reeds was constructed to treat highly concentrated domestic wastewater.Under different meteorological and hydraulic conditions,the daily changes of photosynthesis and transpiration of reeds,as well as nitrogen removal efficiency were measured.It was found that net photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area was maintained on a high Photon Flux Density was high during the day.Meanwhile,TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency rose to 79.6% and 89.6%,respectively-the maximum values observed in the test.Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated a positive correlation among photon flux density,net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.In contrast,there was a negative correlation between stomatal conductance and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.Results suggest that the photosynthesis and transpiration of wetland plants have a great impact on nitrogen removal efficiency of wetlands,which can be enhanced by an increase in the photosynthesis and transpiration rate.In addition,the efficiency of water usage by reeds and nitrogen removal efficiency could be affected by the water level in wetlands;a higher level boosts nitrogen removal efficiency.

  8. Wastewater treatment in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different media (setup stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Razik A. Zidan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment through horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF constructed wetlands (CWs using three different treatment media (gravel, pieces of plastic pipes, and shredded tire rubber chips were investigated in Samaha village, Dakahliya, Egypt. The study focused on the wetland setup stage during the first months of its operation (setup stage. In this stage media porosity, bacterial biofilm, and plant roots growth were in progress and it was prior to the operational steady state stage. Objectives of this paper are to study the change in media porosity of HSSF wetland cells in order to estimate duration of wetland setup stage, and to evaluate the use of different bed media on biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS treatment. The results showed that after 180 days of operation, the wetland cells had reached steady porosity and had started stable treatment. Also performance of plastic media bed in pollutants reduction was better than gravel and rubber beds and gravel media was in advanced than rubber media.

  9. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg · L(-1)). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (ΦPS II) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removing heavy metals from Isfahan composting leachate by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Soltani Mohammadi, Amir; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Composting facility leachate usually contains high concentrations of pollutants including heavy metals that are seriously harmful to the environment and public health. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals removal from Isfahan composting facility (ICF) leachate by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCWs) system. Two horizontal systems were constructed, one planted with vetiver and the other without plant as a control. They both operated at a flow rate of 24 L/day with a 5-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The average removal efficiencies for Cr (53 %), Cd (40 %), Ni (35 %), Pb (30 %), Zn (35 %), and Cu (40 %) in vetiver constructed wetland were significantly higher than those of the control (P Vetiver tolerates the extreme condition in leachate including high total dissolved solids.

  11. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    One of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) major goals is cleanup and protection of the waters of the Tennessee River system. Although great strides have been made, point source and nonpoint source pollution still affect the surface water and groundwater quality in the Tennessee Valley and nationally. Causes of this pollution are poorly operating wastewater treatment systems or the lack of them. Practical solutions are needed, and there is great interest and desire to abate water pollution with effective, simple, reliable and affordable wastewater treatment processes. In recognition of this need, TVA began demonstration of the constructed wetlands technology in 1986 as an alternative to conventional, mechanical processes, especially for small communities. Constructed wetlands can be downsized from municipal systems to small systems, such as for schools, camps and even individual homes.

  12. Finding the harvesting frequency to maximize nutrient removal in a constructed wetland dominated by submerged aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhofstad, M.J.J.M.; Poelen, M.D.M.; Van Kempen, M.M.L.; Bakker, E.S.; Smolders, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Water quality is still poor in many freshwater ecosystems around the world as a result of anthropogenic nutrient loading. Constructed wetlands can be used to remove excess nutrients. In these wetlands, helophytes or free floating aquatic plants are traditionally used to absorb the nutrients. The

  13. ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE RESISTANCE OF RESIDENT MICROBES IN WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of constructed wetlands as a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment is becoming more prevalent. These systems are championed as combining many of the benefits of tertiary treatment while also providing high quality wetland habitat as...

  14. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  15. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  16. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Haijie; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm) in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types). However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  17. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cao

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types. However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  18. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  19. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  20. Do constructed wetlands in grass strips reduce water contamination from drained fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Schott, François-Xavier; Pallez, Christelle; Ortar, Agnès; Cherrier, Richard; Munoz, Jean-François; Benoît, Marc

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of two small constructed wetlands installed in the regulatory grass strips between a drained plot and a river. The observed nitrate removal efficiencies were independent of the season or type of constructed wetland and ranged from 5.4 to 10.9% of the inlet amounts. The pesticide mass budgets ranged from -618.5 to 100%, depending on the molecule. The negative efficiencies were attributed to runoff and remobilization. In contrast, the highest efficiencies were associated with pesticides with high Koc and low DT50 (half-life) values, suggesting sorption and degradation. However, the effectiveness of these wetlands is limited for pesticides with low Koc or high DT50 values; thus, the use of these molecules must be reduced. Increasing the number of these small, inexpensive and low-maintenance wetlands in the agricultural landscape would reduce the level of water pollution whilst preserving the extent of cultivated land, but their long-term effectiveness should be evaluated.

  1. Effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cipangopaludina cathayensis on Pollutant Removal and Microbial Community in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals play an important role in the energy flow and matter cycling in the wetland ecosystem. However, little is known about their effects on pollutant removal performance and microbial community in constructed wetlands. This work presents an initial attempt to investigate the effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (loach and Cipangopaludina cathayensis (snail on nutrient removal performance and microbial community of constructed wetlands (CWs. Compared with a control group, CW microcosms with aquatic animals exhibited better pollutant removal performance. The removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP in the loach group were 13.1% higher than in the control group, and snails increased the ammonium removal most effectively. Moreover, the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC and TP in sediment significantly reduced with the addition of loaches and snails (p < 0.05, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen (TN showed an obvious increase with the addition of loaches. High-throughput sequencing showed a microbial community structure change. Loaches and snails in wetlands changed the microbial diversity, especially in the Proteobacteria and denitrifying community. Results suggested that benthic aquatic animals might play an important role in CW ecosystems.

  2. Planting richness affects the recovery of vegetation and soil processes in constructed wetlands following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance. Mesocosms were planted in richness groups with various combinations of either 1, 2, 3, or 4 species (RG 1–4) to create a gradient of richness. Structural wetland traits measured include morphological regrowth of macrophytes, soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil %C, and soil %N. Functional wetland traits measured include above ground biomass production, soil potential denitrification, and soil potential microbial respiration. Total mesocosm cover increased along the gradient of plant richness (43.5% in RG 1 to 84.5% in RG 4) in the growing season after the disturbance, although not all planted individuals recovered. This was largely attributed to the dominance of the obligate annual species. The morphology of each species was affected negatively by the disturbance, producing shorter, and fewer stems than in the years prior to the disturbance, suggesting that the communities had not fully recovered one year after the disturbance. Soil characteristics were almost uniform across the planting richness gradient, but for a few exceptions (%C, C:N, and non-growing season soil moisture were higher slightly in RG 2). Denitrification potential (DEA) increased with increasing planting richness and was influenced by the abundance and quality of soil C. Increased open space in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms with lower species richness increased labile C, leading to higher C mineralization rates.

  3. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  4. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Onur Can [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Böcük, Harun, E-mail: hbocuk@anadolu.edu.tr [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey); Yakar, Anıl [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l{sup −1} to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg{sup −1} B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg{sup −1} B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg{sup −1} whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg{sup −1} B during the research period.

  5. Establishment and Evaluation of the Vegetative Community in A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake, (b sedimentation and erosion control, (c habitat function, (d public deterrent potential and (e rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus and soft rush (Juncus effusus were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and

  6. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Paschke, Heidrun; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-02-15

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane from constructed wetlands in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, A K; Augustin, J; Heikkinen, K; Huttunen, J T; Necki, J M; Karjalainen, S M; Kløve, B; Liikanen, A; Mander, U; Puustinen, M; Teiter, S; Wachniew, P

    2006-01-01

    The potential atmospheric impact of constructed wetlands (CWs) should be examined as there is a worldwide increase in the development of these systems. Fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) have been measured from CWs in Estonia, Finland, Norway, and Poland during winter and summer in horizontal and vertical subsurface flow (HSSF and VSSF), free surface water (FSW), and overland and groundwater flow (OGF) wetlands. The fluxes of N(2)O-N, CH(4)-C, and CO(2)-C ranged from -2.1 to 1000, -32 to 38 000, and -840 to 93 000 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were significantly higher during summer than during winter. The VSSF wetlands had the highest fluxes of N(2)O during both summer and winter. Methane emissions were highest from the FSW wetlands during wintertime. In the HSSF wetlands, the emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were in general highest in the inlet section. The vegetated ponds in the FSW wetlands released more N(2)O than the nonvegetated ponds. The global warming potential (GWP), summarizing the mean N(2)O and CH(4) emissions, ranged from 5700 to 26000 and 830 to 5100 mg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) d(-1) for the four CW types in summer and winter, respectively. The wintertime GWP was 8.5 to 89.5% of the corresponding summertime GWP, which highlights the importance of the cold season in the annual greenhouse gas release from north temperate and boreal CWs. However, due to their generally small area North European CWs were suggested to represent only a minor source for atmospheric N(2)O and CH(4).

  8. Candidate soil indicators for monitoring the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state: a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.; Fennessy, M. Siobhan; Mack, John; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    A persistent question among ecologists and environmental managers is whether constructed wetlands are structurally or functionally equivalent to naturally occurring wetlands. We examined 19 variables collected from 10 constructed and nine natural emergent wetlands in Ohio, USA. Our primary objective was to identify candidate indicators of wetland class (natural or constructed), based on measurements of soil properties and an index of vegetation integrity, that can be used to track the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state. The method of nearest shrunken centroids was used to find a subset of variables that would serve as the best classifiers of wetland class, and error rate was calculated using a five-fold cross-validation procedure. The shrunken differences of percent total organic carbon (% TOC) and percent dry weight of the soil exhibited the greatest distances from the overall centroid. Classification based on these two variables yielded a misclassification rate of 11% based on cross-validation. Our results indicate that % TOC and percent dry weight can be used as candidate indicators of the status of emergent, constructed wetlands in Ohio and for assessing the performance of mitigation. The method of nearest shrunken centroids has excellent potential for further applications in ecology.

  9. Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Diederik P L; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; De Pauw, Niels

    2004-03-01

    The increasing application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment coupled with increasingly strict water quality standards is an ever growing incentive for the development of better process design tools. This paper reviews design models for horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands, ranging from simple rules of thumb and regression equations, to the well-known first-order k-C* models, Monod-type equations and more complex dynamic, compartmental models. Especially highlighted in this review are the model constraints and parameter uncertainty. A case study has been used to demonstrate the model output variability and to unravel whether or not more complex but also less manageable models offer a significant advantage to the designer.

  10. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.

    2017-02-01

    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  11. Constructed wetlands for environmental pollution control: a review of developments, research and practice in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Zhao, Y Q; O'Neill, M; O'Sullivan, B

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of synthesizing a compendium of efforts aimed at environmental pollution control through the use of constructed wetlands systems (CWs) in Ireland, a detailed review of CWs was undertaken. Emphasis was placed on the diverse range of development, practice and researches on CWs technology, placing them in the overall context of the need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. The potential use of CWs in protecting estuarine quality within the current legislative framework is considered, as well as the emerging concept of integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs). In addition, an assessment of the efficiency of CWs in operation in Ireland towards abating environmental pollution was done, and compared with CWs operating in other European countries. The need for sufficient and appropriate data to assist in further development of CWs and modelling studies, and instilling confidence in the public is also highlighted.

  12. Removal Kinetics of Organic Matter and Nitrogen Using Microbial Electrochemical Based - Constructed Wetlands (iMETland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Pedro

    In recent years the combination of Constructed Wetlands and Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), has led to an innovative set- up for wastewater treatment and energy harvesting, relaying on electrodes and external circuits (CW – MFC). Based on this approach, a new concept is being developed to create...... the Microbial Electrochemical-based Constructed Wetland (iMETland). In this system electro- active bacteria – EAB (e.g. Geobacter sp., Shewanella spp) are stimulated to release and transfer electrons to an electro-conductive material that act as unlimited electron acceptor, maximizing the substrate consumption....... The iMETland technology is still in development and therefore uncertainties still exist regarding the dynamics in the removal of pollutants, as well as in its performance along time. To elucidate these uncertainties, a benchmark study is being conducted to characterize the processes and interactions n...

  13. Performance evaluation of integrated treatment plant of trickling filter and constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar P.S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A system consisting of trickling filter followed by a vertical intermittent flow constructed wetland system under laboratory condition was evaluated for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was able to produce final effluents with low concentrations of both organic and nutrients. Mean effluent concentrations were,respectively: BOD: 22.22mg/L;COD:64.58mg/L;SS:27.63mg/L;NH4-N:0.62mg/L;P:1.72mg/L. The study shows that the integrated treatment system of trickling filter and vertical intermittent flow constructed wetlands can be effectively used a treatment option for a treatment with positive attributes of conceptual simplicity and lesser energy consumption.

  14. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  15. Improving the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands with zeolite-containing filter sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Ingo; Fritsche, Johannes; Bänninger, Dominik; Alewell, Ulrike; Sendelov, Michael; Hürlimann, Heinz; Hasselbach, Ralf; Alewell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study the physical and chemical properties of three different lava sands used in constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. The aim was to identify those properties and mechanisms that render lava sands as highly efficient filter media which could substitute conventional, fluviatile sands. It was shown that although lava sands per se may be suitable filter materials, the presence of zeolite minerals within the lava sands enhances the purification efficiency tremendously. Zeolites not only increase the sorption capacity, but even more important, they are able to absorb water in large amounts, which in turn leads to stronger swelling. The latter reduces hydrological conductivity considerably, resulting in a longer contact time to eliminate pollutants. A simple mineralogical survey of filter materials for the presence of zeolites may render many installations of constructed wetlands successful. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of the Iron-Caron Coupling Constructed Wetland for Rural Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruize; Peng, Yutao; Zhong, Shan; Tu, Lijun; Xie, Yuanshan; Zhang, Lishan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rural decentralized sewage treatment have gained widespread attention. Although wastewater treatment facility has been developed for rural areas, most rural population are left without adequate wastewater treatment systems. In the present study, the performance of iron-carbon coupling constructed wetland system (ICCWS) and constructed wetland system (CWS) receiving synthetic domestic wastewater were compared in side-by-side trials. Studies have found that CWS filled with spherical iron-carbon packing showed better treatment efficiency than normal CWS. When the HRT is 3 days, the ICCWS have 95.8% COD and 96.6% PO4 3- removal rate, higher than 67.0% COD and 74.3% PO4 3- removal rate in CWS respectively. The use of ICCWS planted with canna and cattail proved to be efficient technology for the removal of rural wastewater pollutants.

  17. Assessment of the microbial community in a constructed wetland that receives acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Constructed wetlands are used to treat acid drainage from surface or underground coal mines. However, little is known about the microbial communities in the receiving wetland cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the microbial population present in a wetland that was receiving acid coal mine drainage (AMD). Samples were collected from the oxic sediment zone of a constructed wetland cell in southeastern Ohio that was treating acid drainage from an underground coal mine seep. Samples comprised Fe(Ill) precipitates and were pretreated with ammonium oxalate to remove interfering iron, and the DNA was extracted and purified by agarose gel electrophoresis prior to amplification of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Amplified products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA from seven distinct bands was excised from the gel and sequenced. The sequences were matched to sequences in the GenBank bacterial 16S rDNA database. The DNA in two of the bands yielded matches with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and the DNA in each of the remaining five bands was consistent with one of the following microorganisms: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, strain TRA3-20 (a eubacterium), strain BEN-4 (an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium), an Alcaligenes sp., and a Bordetella sp. Low bacterial diversity in these samples reflects the highly inorganic nature of the oxic sediment layer where high abundance of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria would be expected. The results we obtained by molecular methods supported our findings, obtained using culture methods, that the dominant microbial species in an acid receiving, oxic wetland are A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans.

  18. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Penghe Wang; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Dehua Zhao; Xiangxu Zou; Zhengjie Zhu; Nasreen Jeelani; Xin Leng; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and dive...

  19. The use of constructed wetland for dye-rich textile wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Griessler Bulc, Tjaša; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands (CW) for the dye-rich textile wastewater with special focus on colour reduction. Preliminary, a series of dynamic experiments were performed in the CW model packed with gravel, sand, and zeolitic tuff on three synthetically-prepared wastewaters using chemically differ dyestuffs, auxiliaries and chemicals, in order to investigate the potential of low-cost materials as media for textile dye-bath w...

  20. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    options targeting subsurface drainage are lacking. An end-of-pipe drainage filter solution offers the benefits of a targeted measure typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... drainage. The project studies different approaches of implementing the filter technologies including drainage well or drainage pipe filters as well as surface-flow and sub-surface flow constructed wetlands....

  1. Influence of substrate water saturation on pesticide dissipation in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are an effective and practical option for removing pesticide pollution from runoff or subsurface drainage water. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiencies of a ditch with a bundle of straw placed in its centre and a vegetated pond installed in grass cover bands at downstream of a drained plot. The dissipation rates of three herbicides and three fungicides were monitored on four substrates commonly found in constructed wetlands (two soils, sediment and straw). The influence of water content was determined in a sequence of three steps (flooded-unsaturated-flooded) over 120 days. The pesticide dissipation rates observed during the 120 days of incubation ranged from 1.4 to 100%. Isoproturon and 2,4-MCPA (MCPA) showed the highest dissipation rates, which ranged from 61.0 to 100% of the applied quantities during the 120 days of incubation. In contrast, boscalid and tebuconazole showed the lowest dissipation rates, which ranged from 1.4 to 43.9% of the applied quantities during the 120 days of incubation. The estimated DT50 values ranged from 20.5 days to more than 1 year and were influenced by the substrate water content. The soil and straw substrates had the lowest DT50 values during the unsaturated conditions, whereas the sediments had the lowest DT50 values during the flooded conditions. These results could be explained by an adaptation of microbial communities to their environmental conditions. Thus, the most favourable conditions of dissipation for soils and straw are observable when the drainage ceases (spring and summer). However, favourable conditions occur all year for the sediments, except when the constructed wetlands are dry. The results suggest that the dissipation of pesticides in constructed wetlands contributes to the long-term effectiveness of these buffer zones for reducing water pollution.

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Nares Chuersuwan

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs) used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF) and free water surface flow (FWS) CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p

  3. Stormwater Treatment Evaluation of a Constructed Floating Wetland after Two Years Operation in an Urban Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Walker; Katharina Tondera; Terry Lucke

    2017-01-01

    Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFW) for stormwater treatment are increasingly used to treat urban runoff. However, studies of large-scale systems and the long-term evaluation of their treatment efficiency are scarce. This article presents the final results of a two-year study of the pollutant removal performance of a CFW in a stormwater pond capturing runoff from a low-residential catchment in South-East Queensland (Australia) under subtropical conditions. Although the CFW treatment area to c...

  4. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  5. Using cerium anomaly as an indicator of redox reactions in constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R.

    2013-12-01

    The study area, Chiayi County located in southern Taiwan, has highly developed livestock. The surface water has very low dissolved oxygen and high NH4. Under the situation, constructed wetland becomes the most effective and economic choice to treat the wastewater in the natural waterways. Hebao Island free surface constructed wetland started to operate in late 2006. It covers an area of 0.28 km2 and is subdivided into 3 major cells, which are sedimentation cell, 1st aeration cell with rooted plants and 2nd aeration cell with float plants. The water depth of cells ranges from 0.6 m to 1.2 m. The total hydraulic retention time is about a half day. In this study, the water samples were sequentially collected along the flow path. The results of hydrochemical analysis show that the untreated inflow water can be characterized with enriched NH4 (11 ppm), sulfate (6 ppm) and arsenic (50 ppb). The removal efficiency of NH4 in the first two cells is constructed wetland. However, the removal of sulfate and phosphate is very weak. It is worth to note that arsenic is still higher than the permissible limits recommended by WHO (10 ppb). The wetland operation should be tuned to take more arsenic away in the future. As demonstrated in the above, oxidation reaction is the most dominant mechanism to remove pollutants from the wastewater; therefore, dissolved oxygen is traditionally considered as an important indicator to evaluate the operation efficiency of wetland. However, it would need longer time to achieve equilibrium state of redox reaction involving dissolved oxygen due to the slower reaction rate. For example, the input water in this study has fairly high dissolved oxygen (5 ppm) but the NH4 content is still high, which indicates a non-equilibrium condition. In this study, the cerium anomaly is alternatively utilized to evaluate the water redox state. The results demonstrate that the input water has the negative cerium anomaly of -0.16. Along the flow path, the cerium

  6. Assessment of The Biological Integrity of The Native Vegetative Community In A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the biological integrity of a constructed wetland receiving landfill leachate and stormwater runoff from the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. The biological integrity of the constructed wetland was tested in the second growing season using vegetative community monitoring. The metrics analyzed were species diversity, species heterogeneity (dominance and exotic/invasive species abundance. There was no significant difference in the plant species diversity between the constructed wetland and the reference site. However, the constructed wetland supported a higher plant species richness than the reference site. The top three species in the constructed wetland were tweedy’s rush (Juncus brevicaudatus, soft rush (Juncus effusus and fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata. In total, these three species occupied 46.4% of the sampled population. The top three species in the reference site were soft rush (Juncus effusus, sweetgale (Myrica gale and woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus. In total, these three species occupied a more reasonable 32.6% of the sampled population. The reference site supported greater biological integrity as it had greater heterogeneity and a smaller abundance of exotic and invasive species compared to the constructed wetland (3.8% versus 10.7%. Although poor heterogeneity and the presence of weedy, exotic species can be a sign of degraded biological health and future problems, these are also common indicators of a system simply undergoing early succession. As the constructed wetland matures, its plant biodiversity may actually decrease, but its integrity, as measured by exotic and invasive species abundance as well as heterogeneity, is expected to increase, so long as invasive species present in the constructed wetland remain controlled through weeding during the first few growing seasons.

  7. A System Dynamics Approach to Modelling the Degradation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand in A Constructed Wetland Receiving Stormwater Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    conventional treatment plants " are: "Constructed wetland systems (1) are relatively inexpensive to construct and operate; (2) are easy to maintain; (3) provide... macrophytes are divided into free floating and rooted forms. The rooted forms are further subdivided into emergent , floating and submerged classes...to state that "the removal of larger particles protects one of the key roles of emergent aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands which is the provision

  8. Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2012-12-15

    This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years.

  9. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics.

  10. The integration of constructed wetlands into a treatment system for airport runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D M; Worral, P; Brewer, D

    2001-01-01

    A new surface runoff treatment system has been designed for London Heathrow Airport, which incorporates separate floating constructed wetlands or reedbeds and sub-surface flow constructed wetlands as major pollutant removal systems. The primary requirement of the newly developed treatment system is to control the concentrations of glycols following their use as de-icers and anti-icers within the airport. The ability of reedbeds to contribute to this treatment role was fully tested through pilot scale, on-site experiments over a 2 year period. The average reductions in runoff BOD concentrations achieved by pilot scale surface flow and sub-surface flow reedbeds were 30.9% and 32.9%, respectively. The corresponding average glycol removal efficiencies were 54.2% and 78.3%, following shock dosing inputs. These treatment performances are used to predict the required full scale constructed wetland surface areas needed to attain the desired effluent water quality. The treatment system also incorporates aeration, storage and, combined with reedbed technology, has been designed to reduce a mixed inlet BOD concentration of 240 mg/l to less than 40 mg/l for water temperatures varying between 6 degrees C and 20 degrees C.

  11. Performance and cost comparison of a FWS and a VSF constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Akratos, C S; Gikas, G D; Karamouzis, D; Angelakis, A N

    2007-06-01

    Two constructed wetland systems, treating domestic wastewater, are compared in terms of performance and costs. One is a free water surface (FWS) wetland system located in Pompia, Crete, south Greece, and the other one is a vertical subsurface flow (VSF) wetland system located in Comati, Chalkidiki, north Greece. The FWS system is designed for 1200 p.e. Its construction cost was Euro 305,000, and the capital, operation and maintenance cost was Euro 22.07 p.e.(-1) yr(-1) or Euro 0.50 m(-3) of influent. The VSF system is designed for 1000 p.e. Its construction cost was Euro 410,850, and the capital, operation and maintenance cost was Euro 36.81 p.e.(-1) yr(-1) or Euro 0.56 m(-3) of influent. Both systems achieved high removal rates for BOD5, COD, TSS, TKN, phosphorus, TC, and FC, which makes them ideal for small communities in the Mediterranean region.

  12. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in rural wastewater by an integrated constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Feng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Fan-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs) are regarded as one of the most important removal technology for pollutants in rural domestic wastewaters. This study investigated the efficiency of an ICW consisting of a regulating pool, four surface and subsurface flow-constructed wetlands, and a stabilization unit for removing antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from rural domestic wastewaters. The results showed that antibiotics leucomycin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and sulfamethazine, and ARGs sul1, sul2, tetM, and tetO were the predominant antibiotics and ARGs in the influent, respectively. The ICW system could significantly reduce most of the detected antibiotics and ARGs with their aqueous removal rates of 78 to 100 % and >99 %, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations, the total pollution loadings of antibiotics were 3,479 μg/day in the influent and 199 μg/day in the final effluent. Therefore, constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for rural wastewater in removing contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs.

  13. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions.

  14. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  15. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Wallison da Silva Freitas; Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco; Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS) for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW). Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L.), Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb....

  16. Sustainability of Constructed Wetland under the Impact of Aquatic Organisms Overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chieh Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts, such as earthquakes, chemical pollution and anthropogenic factors can affect the stability and sustainability of an ecosystem. In this study, a long-term (3.7 years investigation experiment was conducted to estimate the sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW under the impact of aquatic organisms overloading. The situation of aquatic organisms overloading in this study meant that around 27,000 kg of fishes had to be moved and accommodated in a 4 ha water area of wetland for six months. Experimental results indicated that the pH value of CW water was slightly acidic and the Dissolved Oxygen (DO level decreased under the impact. On the other hand, the levels of Electrical Conductivity (EC, Suspended Solids (SS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN of CW water were increased under the impact. The pathogen analysis revealed that total coliforms, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, in the wetland water increased under the impact. The analyzed factors of water quality and amount of pathogens were all returned to their original statuses soon after the impact ended. Eventually, the results of microbial community structure analysis showed that overloading of aquatic organisms slightly increased the specific richness (R of wetland bacteria, whereas higher structural biodiversity (H of CW could stabilize the whole microbial community and prevent the pathogens or other bacteria from increasing to become the dominant strains. These results were novel and could be possible to conclude that a CW environment could not only stabilize the water quality and amount of pathogens resulting from the impact of aquatic organisms overloading, but also they could stabilize the microbial community structures, allowing the biogeochemical cycles of the CW to function. They could provide the useful information for wetland sustainability.

  17. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in tropical and subtropical regions (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Jinadasa, K B S N; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-04-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option for developing countries. With the goal of promoting sustainable engineered systems that support human well-being but are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems, the application of CWs has become more relevant. Such application is especially significant for developing countries with tropical climates, which are very conducive to higher biological activity and productivity, resulting in higher treatment efficiencies compared to those in temperate climates. This paper therefore highlights the practice, applications, and research of treatment wetlands under tropical and subtropical conditions since 2000. In the present review, removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solid (TSS) was shown to be very efficient and consistent across all types of treatment wetlands. Hybrid systems appeared more efficient in the removal of total suspended solid (TSS) (91.3%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (84.3%), and nitrogen (i.e., 80.7% for ammonium (NH)4-N, 80.8% for nitrate (NO)3-N, and 75.4% for total nitrogen (TN)) as compared to other wetland systems. Vertical subsurface flow (VSSF) CWs removed TSS (84.9%), BOD (87.6%), and nitrogen (i.e., 66.2% for NH4-N, 73.3% for NO3-N, and 53.3% for TN) more efficiently than horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs, while HSSF CWs (69.8%) showed better total phosphorus (TP) removal compared to VSSF CWs (60.1%). Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) showed comparable removal efficiencies for BOD (70.7%), NH4-N (63.6%), and TP (44.8%) to free water surface (FWS) CW systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An Australian experience with a constructed wetland to treat ash dam water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.W. Jensen; K.W. Riley [Delta Electricity (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of a wetland system to treat water from a power station ash dam is discussed. The wetlands were constructed during 1996 and 1997. The length of the canals within the system is 1700 metres. There was a total planting of 35,000 tube stock of nine different species. In the summer of 1998, Typha orientalis colonised the system and is now the dominant species of emergent plant present. Water is introduced to the wetland from the return channel of the power station. The ash dam water is acidic (pH 4.5 5.5) and contains elevated levels of some trace elements including selenium, boron and fluorine. Of these three trace elements, selenium is regarded as the element of particular environmental concern. Since June 2000, there has been periodic sampling and analysis of both the inlet and outlet waters. The analytes include conductivity, pH, total organic carbon, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cl, K, F, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, selenite, total selenium, Si, Sr, sulfate and Zn. As well, plant material (stems and roots of the Typha) and sediments have been analysed for selenium. The results indicate boron and fluorine are not removed from the ash dam water by the processes occurring in the wetland. Selenium is partly removed. It appears that selenite is removed in preference to selenate. The development and operation of this experimental wetland is discussed in the context of a sustainable and ecologically sound system of minimising detrimental effects of the discharge of ash water. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Role of vegetation in a constructed wetland on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Richard E; Moore, Matthew T; Locke, Martin A; Kröger, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The toxicity of a nutrient-pesticide mixture in nonvegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (882 m² each) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48-h aqueous whole-effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple superphosphate, diazinon, and permethrin simulating storm-event agricultural runoff. Aqueous samples were collected at inflow, middle, and outflow points within each section 5 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days postamendment. Nutrients and pesticides were detected throughout both wetland sections with concentrations longitudinally decreasing more in vegetated than nonvegetated section within 24 h. Survival effluent dilution point estimates-NOECs, LOECs, and LC₅₀s-indicated greatest differences in toxicity between nonvegetated and vegetated sections at 5 h. Associations of nutrient and pesticide concentrations with NOECs indicated that earlier toxicity (5-72 h) was from permethrin and diazinon, whereas later toxicity (7-21 days) was primarily from diazinon. Nutrient-pesticide mixture concentration-response assessment using toxic unit models indicated that H. azteca toxicity was due primarily to the pesticides diazinon and permethrin. Results show that the effects of vegetation versus no vegetation on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity are not evident after 5 h and a 21-day retention time is necessary to improve H. azteca survival to ≥90% in constructed wetlands of this size.

  20. Phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury using Typha domingensis in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos Vinícius Teles; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues; Teles, Vinícius Silva; Araújo Mendes, Érica

    2014-05-01

    The presence of mercury in aquatic environments is a matter of concern by part of the scientific community and public health organizations worldwide due to its persistence and toxicity. The phytoremediation consists in a group of technologies based on the use of natural occurrence or genetically modified plants, in order to reduce, remove, break or immobilize pollutants and working as an alternative to replace conventional effluent treatment methods due to its sustainability - low cost of maintenance and energy. The current study provides information about a pilot scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the aquatic macrophyte Typha domingensis in a constructed wetland with subsurface flow for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury. The efficiency in the reduction of the heavy metal concentration in wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the T. domingensis, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of the system was 7 times higher than the control line, demonstrating a better performance and reducing 99.6±0.4% of the mercury presents in the water contaminated. When compared to other species, the results showed that the T. domingensis demonstrated a higher mercury accumulation (273.3515±0.7234 mg kg(-1)) when the transfer coefficient was 7750.9864±569.5468 L kg(-1). The results in this present study shows the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte T. domingensis in constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  2. Root Zone Microbial Populations, Urease Activities, and Purification Efficiency for a Constructed Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; WU Zhen-Bin; ZHAN Fa-Cui; DENG Jia-Qi

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of microorganisms and their urease activities in macrophytic root zones on pollutant removal, four small-scale plots (SSPs) of vertical/reverse-vertical flow wetlands were set up to determine: a) the relationship between the abundance of microorganisms in the root zones and water purification efficiency; and b) the relationship between urease activities in the root zones and pollutant removal in a constructed wetland system. Total numbers of the microbial population (bacteria, fungi, and actinomyces) along with urease activities in the macrophytic root zones were determined. In addition, the relationships between microbial populations and urease activities as well as the wastewater purification efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also analyzed. The results showed that there was a highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.9772, P < 0.01) between the number of bacteria in the root zones and BOD5 removal efficiency and a significant negative correlation (r = -0.9092, P < 0.05) between the number of fungi and the removal efficiency of TKN. Meanwhile, there was a significant positive correlation (r -- 0.8830, P < 0.05) between urease activities in the root zones and the removal efficiency of TKN. Thus, during wastewater treatment in a constructed wetland system,microorganism and urease activities in the root zones were very important factors.

  3. Integrated constructed wetlands: water management as a land-use issue, implementing the 'Ecosystem Approach'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R; Carroll, P; Cook, S; Harrington, C; Scholz, M; McInnes, R J

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the need for social, economic and environmental coherence in the management of water is becoming evermore apparent. Water supply as well as treatment is becoming more costly; a challenge that is not only limited to developing countries. The use of wetlands, natural and constructed, is now more widely accepted as a means of tackling a range of problems in water management to deliver this coherence. The use of 16 Integrated Constructed Wetlands that mimic shallow, emergent-vegetated, palustrine wetlands in a 2,500 ha catchment in County Waterford, Southeast Ireland, has shown a number of distinct advantages in implementing the all encompassing 'Ecosystem Approach', addressing the key elements for sustainable water management in an intensively used agricultural area. The significant increase in water quality, biodiversity, social amenities and acceptance by the local rural community provided by this 'real' field-scale demonstration show the benefits that such a joined-up approach can have on catchment management in the widest sense.

  4. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  5. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation. PMID:26218872

  6. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  7. Microbiology of a wetland ecosystem constructed to remediate mine drainage from a heavy metal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2005-02-01

    A pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) was constructed to evaluate the potential of a composite wetland system to remediate acidic, metal-rich water draining the former Wheal Jane tin, in Cornwall, England. The treatment plant consists of three separate and controllable composite systems, each of which comprises a series of aerobic wetlands for iron oxidation and precipitation, a compost bioreactor for removing chalcophilic metals and to generate alkalinity, and rock filter ponds for removing soluble manganese and organic carbon. To understand the roles of microorganisms in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD) in constructed wetland ecosystems, populations of different groups of cultivatable acidophilic microbes in the various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP were enumerated over a 30-month period. Initially, moderately acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria (related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus) were found to be the major cultivatable microorganisms present in the untreated AMD, though later heterotrophic acidophiles emerged as the dominant group, on a numerical basis. Culturable microbes in the surface waters and sediments of the aerobic wetlands were similarly dominated by heterotrophic acidophiles, though both moderately and extremely acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria were also present in significant numbers. The dominant microbial isolate in waters draining the anaerobic compost bioreactors was an iron- and sulfur-oxidising moderate acidophile that was closely related to Thiomonas intermedia. The acidophiles enumerated at the Wheal Jane PPTP accounted for 1% to 25% of the total microbial population. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 isolates from various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP showed that, whilst many of these bacteria were commonly encountered acidophiles, some of these had not been previously encountered in AMD and AMD-impacted environments.

  8. Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan.

  9. Effect of phosphate, iron and sulfate reduction on arsenic dynamics and bioaccumulation in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Moon, H. S.; Myneni, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Constructed wetlands are economically viable and highly efficient in the treatment of high As waters discharged from smelting process in the mining industry. However, arsenic (As) dynamics and bioaccumulation in constructed wetlands coupled to nutrients loading and associated biogeochemical changes are confounding and not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of phosphate, iron and sulfate reduction on As dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants using greenhouse mesocosms. Results show that high Fe (50µM ferrihydrite/g soil) and SO42- (5mM) treatments are most favorable for As sequestration in soils in the presence of wetland plants (Scirpus actus), probably because the biodegradable plant exudates released into the rhizosphere facilitates the microbial reduction of Fe(III), SO42- and As(V) to sequester As by precipitation/coprecipitation. Whereas, from the transition of oxidizing to reducing conditions, the loading of high phosphate (100µM) enhances the As release into groundwater and its accumulation in the plants, due to the competitive sorption between phosphate and arsenate as well as the reductive dissolution of Fe and As. As retention in soils and accumulation in plants were mainly controlled by SO42- rather than Fe levels. Compared with low SO42- (0.1mM) treatment, high SO42- resulted in 2 times more As in soils, 30 times more As in roots, and 49% less As in leaves. The As levels in soils are negatively correlated with the As levels in plant roots. An As speciation analysis in pore water indicated that 19% more dissolved As was reduced under high SO42- than low SO42- levels, and 30% more As(III) was detected under high PO43- than low PO43- levels, which is consistent with the fact that more dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria were found under high SO42- and high PO43- levels.

  10. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity in a constructed wetland system treating acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicorarat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Dopson, M.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA)

    2008-02-15

    Microorganisms in acid mine drainage are typically acidophiles that mediate the oxidation of reduced compounds of iron and sulfur. However, microbial populations in wetland systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage are not well characterized. This study was to analyze bacterial diversity, using cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, in a constructed wetland that received acid drainage from an abandoned underground coal mine. DNA was purified from Fe(III)-precipitates from the oxidized surface zone of wetland sediments and 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and cloned. A total of 200 clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 77 unique RFLP patterns were obtained with four restriction enzymes. Of these patterns, 30 most dominant unique clones were selected for sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Half of these 30 clones could be matched with autotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiohacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans). Several clones also formed a clade with heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (TRA2-10, TRA3-20, and TRA5-3) and heterotrophic bacteria (Stenotrophomas maltophilia, Bordetella spp., Alcalgenes sp., Alcaligenesfaecalis, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans). Approximately 40% and 35% of the analyzed RFLP restriction patterns were consistent with A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, respectively. The relatively high frequency of acidithiobacilli is consistent with the chemical and physical characteristics of this site i.e., continuous, abundant supply of reduced iron and sulfur compounds, pH 3-4, ambient temperature, and limited organics originating from the coal seam and from vegetation or soil surrounding the inlet channel to the wetland.

  11. Loss of plant biodiversity over a seven-year period in two constructed wetlands in Central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Miranda A; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  12. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, L., E-mail: lilian.marchand@hotmail.f [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecologie des communautes, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RDC Est, Avenue des facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mench, M. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecologie des communautes, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RDC Est, Avenue des facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Jacob, D.L.; Otte, M.L. [Wet Ecosystem Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, NDSU Dept. 2715, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R and D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg > Mn > Fe = Cd > Pb = Cr > Zn = Cu > Al > Ni > As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency. - A new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands.

  13. Establishing a design for passive vertical flow constructed wetlands treating small sewage discharges to meet British Standard EN 12566.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Christopher Michael; Murphy, Clodagh; Sweaney, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Owing to legislation change (which made General Binding Rules effective from 1 January 2015) unless discharge is to specified environmentally sensitive sites, small sewage discharges (SSDs) in England - that is, wetlands, unless covered by an EP, because the cost of certification to EN 12566 for bespoke designs is prohibitive. EPs take up to four months to obtain. Therefore, the new legislation has created a commercial disadvantage for constructed wetlands treating SSDs, compared with mass-produced sewage treatment plants. However, the UK statutory pollution regulators have maintained a dialogue with the Constructed Wetland Association (CWA), with a view to assessing whether treatment of SSD using constructed wetlands might be allowable, without requiring EPs. This paper presents treatment performance data obtained over 15 years, from a variety of full-scale operational treatment wetlands, as supporting evidence for design guidelines, proposed by the CWA to the UK regulators, for the implementation of constructed wetlands continuously passively treating SSD to 20:30:20 mg l(-1) BOD/SS/NH4-N under a wide range of loading rates. Relevant experience of UK designers, installers and operators since the early 1990s is included, resulting in recommended physical design criteria and loading rates for compact vertical flow reed beds, presented here as key elements of the draft guidelines.

  14. Correlation Among Soil Enzyme Activities, Root Enzyme Activities, and Contaminant Removal in Two-Stage In Situ Constructed Wetlands Purifying Domestic Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Xu, Jiajun; Chu, Xianglin; Li, Shiyin; Wang, Peifang; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage in situ wetlands (two vertical flow constructed wetlands in parallel and a horizontal flow constructed wetland) were constructed for studying domestic wastewater purification and the correlations between contaminant removal and plant and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated the removal efficiency of NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) were significantly correlated with both urease and protease activity, and the removal of total phosphorus was significantly correlated with phosphatase activity. Chemical oxygen demand removal was not correlated with enzyme activity in constructed wetlands. Plant root enzyme (urease, phosphatase, protease and cellulose) activity correlation was apparent with all contaminant removal in the two vertical flow constructed wetlands. However, the correlation between the plant root enzyme activity and contaminant removal was poor in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. Results indicated that plant roots clearly played a role in the removal of contaminants.

  15. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  16. A Constructed Freshwater Wetland Shows Signs of Declining Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Windham-Myers, L.; Byrd, K. B.; Drexler, J. Z.; Fujii, R.

    2014-12-01

    The USGS constructed a freshwater-wetland complex on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA, in 1997 and maintained it until 2012 to investigate strategies for biomass accretion and reduction of oxidative soil loss. We studied an area of the wetland complex covered mainly by dense patches of hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattails (Typha spp.), with smaller areas of floating and submerged vegetation, that was maintained at an average depth of 55 cm. Using eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes, we found that the combination of water management and the region's Mediterranean climate created conditions where peak growing season daily means of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) reached -45 gCO2 m-2 d-1 and averaged around -30 gCO2 m-2 d-1 between 2002 through 2004. However, when measurements resumed in 2010, NEE rates were a fraction of the rates previously measured, approximately -6 gCO2 m-2 d-1. Interestingly, NEE rates in 2011 doubled compared to 2010 (-13 gCO2 m-2 d-1). Methane fluxes, collected in 2010 to assess a complete atmospheric carbon budget, were positive throughout the year, with daily mean flux values ranging from 50 to 300 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. As a result, methane flux reduced NEE values by approximately one-third, and when the global warming potential was considered, the wetland became a net global warming potential source. We found that carbon cycling in a constructed wetland is complex and can change over annual and decadal timescales. We investigated possible reasons for differences between flux measurements from 2002 to 2004 and those from 2010 and 2011: (1) changes in methodology, (2) differences in weather conditions, (3) differences in gross primary productivity relative to respiration rates, and (4) the amount of living plant tissue relative to brown accumulations of senesced plant litter. We hypothesize that large mats of senesced material within the flux footprint could have

  17. Phytoremediation of Water Using Phragmites karka and Veteveria nigritana in Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adedayo A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Coker, Adewale O; Ndambuki, Julius M; Kupolati, Williams K

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an innovative and emerging ecological technology for wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a Vegetated Submerged Bed Constructed Wetland (VSBCW) for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a steel manufacturing company. A pilot Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) consisting of equalization basin, two VSBCW basins and a storage tank was constructed. The VSBCW was constructed using 10-30 mm round granite for the different zones. This was overlaid by 200 mm deep granite and 150 mm washed sand with Phragmites karka, Vetiveria nigritana and Cana lilies as macrophytes. Irrigation of macrophytes using effluent from the industry was done after 3 months of planting and ETP monitored. Industrial wastewater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg) and chromium (Cr) to know the treatment efficiency of the ETP. Results indicated that the removal efficiencies of the VSBCW for Pb, Mg and Cr were 15.4%, 79.7% and 97.9% respectively. Fe and Mn were seen to increase by 1.8% and 33% respectively. The ETP using locally available macrophytes is effective in the phytoremediation of heavy metals, particularly Cr from the wastewater.

  18. Comparison of microfauna communities in full scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigagut, Jaume; Salvadó, Humbert; García, David; Granes, Francesc; García, Joan

    2007-04-01

    In order to evaluate the microfauna composition and distribution in two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was monitored during five months. Results indicate that total microfauna abundance in the wetland treating primary influents is around five times higher than that found in the wetland treating secondary influents. Ciliated protozoa and microflagellates are the most important microfauna groups in both wetlands; microflagellates in terms of abundance and ciliates in terms of biomass. The most abundant ciliate species in the wetland treating primary influents are polysaprobic organisms as Dexiostoma campylum, Trimyema compressum, and to a lesser extend Metopus spp. On the other hand, the most important ciliate species found in the wetland treating secondary influents are mainly aerobic ciliates as Vorticella comvallaria-complex, Aspidisca cicada, Litonotus lamella and some ciliates belonging to the group of the scuticociliates and Hypotrichidae. The sort of the organic matter treated (particulated or dissolved) is at least as important as the amount of it in order to explain microfauna dynamics in constructed wetlands.

  19. Enhancing the removal of arsenic, boron and heavy metals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different supporting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, K Lizama; Fletcher, T D; Sun, G

    2011-01-01

    The presence of arsenic and heavy metals in drinking water sources poses a serious health risk due to chronic toxicological effects. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove arsenic and heavy metals, but little is known about pollutant removal efficiency and reliability of wetlands for this task. This lab-scale study investigated the use of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for removing arsenic, boron, copper, zinc, iron and manganese from synthetic wastewater. Gravel, limestone, zeolite and cocopeat were employed as wetland media. Conventional gravel media only showed limited capability in removing arsenic, iron, copper and zinc; and it showed virtually no capability in removing manganese and boron. In contrast, alternative wetland media: cocopeat, zeolite and limestone, demonstrated significant efficiencies--in terms of percentage removal and mass rate per m3 of wetland volume--for removing arsenic, iron, manganese, copper and zinc; their ability to remove boron, in terms of mass removal rate, was also higher than that of the gravel media. The overall results demonstrated the potential of using vertical flow wetlands to remove arsenic and metals from contaminated water, having cocopeat, zeolite or limestone as supporting media.

  20. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  1. Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Removal in a Full-Scale Artificial Aerated Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient removal, a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW consisting of pre-treatment units, vertical-baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs, and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSFWs was installed in August 2014 to treat sewage wastewater. Artificial aeration (AA was applied continuously in the VBFW stage to improve the aerobic condition in the hybrid CW. Water samples were collected and analyzed twice a month between the period of August 2015 and July 2016. The results suggest that this new hybrid CW can achieve a satisfactory reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP with average removal rates of 85% ± 10% (35% ± 19 g/m2 per day, 76% ± 18% (7% ± 2 g/m2 per day, 65% ± 13% (8% ± 2 g/m2 per day, and 65% ± 21% (1 g/m2 per day, respectively. AA significantly improved the aerobic condition throughout the experimental period, and the positive influence of AA on nitrogen removal was found to be higher during summer that during winter. A significant positive correlation between water temperature and nutrient removal (p < 0.01 was observed in the system. Overall, this study demonstrates the application of AA in a full-scale hybrid CW with satisfactory nutrient removal rates. The hybrid CW system with artificial aeration can serve as a reference for future applications areas where land availability is limited.

  2. Carbon sequestration in a surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gudigopuram B; Raczkowski, Charles W; Cyrus, Johnsely S; Szogi, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in a marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbon content and organic matter turnover rate. To better understand system performance and carbon dynamics, we measured plant dry matter, decomposition rates and soil carbon fractions. Plant litter decomposition rate was 0.0052 g day(-1) (±0.00119 g day(-1)) with an estimated half-life of 133 days. The detritus layer accumulated over the soil surface had much more humin than other C fractions. In marsh areas, soil C extracted with NaOH had four to six times higher amounts of humic acid, fulvic acid and humin than soil C extracted by cold and hot water, HCl/HF, and Na pyruvate. In the pond area, humic acid, fulvic acid and humin content were two to four times lower than in the marsh area. More soil C and N was found in the marsh area than in the pond area. These wetlands proved to be large sinks for stable C forms.

  3. Removal of total suspended solids from wastewater in constructed horizontal flow subsurface wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2003-06-01

    Subsurface horizontal flow experimental wetlands (reed beds), were designed and built based on a combination of two design methodologies, that of the WRc and Severn Trent Water plc (1996) and that of the USA, EPA (1988). Four different growing media were used with a combination of top soil, gravel, river sand, and mature sewage sludge compost, to determine the best substrate for total suspended solids (TSS) removal. Eight units were constructed, two for each growing media. One bed for each pair was planted with Typha latifolia plants commonly known as cattails. Primary treated domestic wastewater, was continuously fed to the beds for more than six months. All eight beds performed very well. The best performance was achieved by the gravel reed beds with an almost constant removal rate above 95% and an average effluent concentration of less than 10 mg/L. Soil based beds containing top soil and sand, managed to reach values of removal around 90%. The wetlands containing compost in their substrate, produced an effluent with average concentration of less than 30 mg/L and a percentage removal between 80% and 90%. As expected, there was no significant difference in the performance of planted and unplanted wetlands.

  4. Greenhouse wastewater treatment by baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands supplemented with flower straws as carbon source in different modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Chen, Jinquan; Lu, Yifeng; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Four laboratory-scale baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (BSCWs) were established for the treatment of greenhouse wastewater containing high levels of nitrate and sulfate in the present study. Each BSCW microcosm involved a treatment zone and another post-treatment zone with a surface area ratio of 2:1. Evenly mixed straws of carnation and rose (w/w: 1/1), two common ornamental flowers, were supplemented as an organic carbon source into the treatment zone through a hydrolysis zone (CW 1), decentralized vertically installed perforated pipes (CW 2), and centralized pipes (CW 3 in the figures), except the blank system. Removals and transformations of nitrogen and sulfate as well as carbon release in the BSCWs were investigated and comparatively assessed. Results showed that the supplements of flower straws could greatly enhance both the nitrate and sulfate removals, and good performance was achieved during the beginning operation period of 30 days, followed by decline due to insufficient organic carbon supply. Nitrate removal efficiency was significantly higher and more stable compared to sulfate. The highest removal rates of nitrate and sulfate were achieved in the CW 3, with a mean value of 4.33 g NO3(-)-N·m(-2) d(-1) and 2.74 g SO4(2-)-S·m(-2) d(-1), respectively, although the differences among the experimental microcosms were not statistically significant. However, almost the same TN removal rate (3.40-3.47 g N·m(-2) d(-1)) was obtained due to the productions of NO2(-)-N and NH4(+)-N and leaching of organic N from the straws. High contents of organic carbon and colored substance were leached from the straws during the initial 10 days, but dropped rapidly to low levels, and could hardly determined after 30 days operation. The post-treatment zone could further eliminate various contaminants, but the capability was limited. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentration was detected to be a highly good indicator for the estimation of nitrate and sulfate

  5. The performance of constructed wetlands treating primary, secondary and dairy soiled water in Ireland (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; O' Flynn, C J

    2011-10-01

    In Ireland, no database detailing the design, influent loading rates or performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) exists. On account of this, they are designed without any protocol based on empirical data. The aim of this paper was to provide the first published data on the performance of free-water surface flow (FWSF) CWs treating primary and secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and agricultural dairy soiled water (DSW) in Ireland. In total, the performance of thirty-four FWSF CWs, comprising fourteen CWs treating primary-treated municipal wastewater, thirteen CWs treating secondary-treated municipal wastewater, and seven CWs treating DSW, were examined. In most CWs, good organic, suspended solids (SS) and nutrient removal was measured. At an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 10 and 9 g biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) m(-2) d(-1), CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater removed 95 and 84% of influent BOD. Constructed wetlands treating DSW had an average BOD removal of 98%. At average SS loading rates of 6 and 14 g m(-2) d(-1), CWs treating primary and secondary wastewater had a 96 and an 82% reduction, and produced a final effluent with a concentration of 14 and 13 mg L(-1). Constructed wetlands treating DSW produced a final effluent of 34 mg L(-1) (94% reduction). Similar to other studies, all CWs examined had variable performance in ammonium-N (NH(4)(+)-N) removal, with average removals varying between 37% (for CWs treating secondary wastewater) and 88% (for CWs treating DSW). Variable ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)(3-)-P) removal was attributable to different durations of operation, media types and loading rates.

  6. Efficiency in removing pollutants by constructed wetland purification systems in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stepien, D; Kempers, A J

    2004-02-27

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency between Phragmites communis, Salix viminalis, and Populus canadensis in removing the heavy metals Al, Ba, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb and the eutrophying macroelements phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, chloride, sulfate, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe from sewage in subsurface flow constructed wetlands in Poland. The effectiveness of the sewage treatment system was higher in summer compared to winter for the removal of (1) all heavy metals, phosphate (P) and mineral nitrogen (N) for all of species, (2) sulfates (S) for Phragmites and Salix, (3) iron (Fe) for Salix, and (4) chloride (Cl) for Salix and Populus. Analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant difference between the purifications systems in phytoremediation of Mn; so all species were equally effective (99%, prob. level 0.001). The Salix wetland system was most effective in purification of water and removal of macroelements (24-82% in summer, 10-80% in winter with Fe 97%), Cd (58-71%), V (100%), and Zn (84-92%). The Phragmites system was most effective in purification and removal of Al (81-97%), Ba (70-95%), Pb (64-81%), and Sr (24-51%), while in the case of Cu (49-60%) and Ni (55-67%) the Populus wetland system proved most effective. The outflowing water of the wetlands contained elements in amounts exceeding the admissible levels as established for unpolluted water both in winter and summer. Therefore the effectiveness of the observed phytoremediation systems in this study was not sufficient alone to remove these elements and can be considered as a supplemental tool in purification of sewage.

  7. Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Maine, M A; Bonetto, C A

    2006-06-01

    A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal. The wetland was 6 x 3 x 0.4 m. Water discharge was 1000 l d(-1) and residence time was 7d. After the wetland was rendered impermeable, macrophytes from Middle Paraná River floodplain were transplanted. Influent and effluent quality was analyzed every 15 d. TP, Cr, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves, roots and sediment (inlet and outlet) were measured monthly. Cover and biomass of predominant species were estimated. Also, greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of conductivity and pH on floating species. The variables measured in the influent were significantly higher than those in the effluent, except for HCO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). TP and metal concentrations in sediment at the inlet were significantly higher than those at the outlet. Conductivity and pH of the incoming wastewater were toxic for the floating species. Typha domingensis displaced the other species and reached positive relative cover rate and biomass greater than those at the undisturbed natural environment. T. domingensis proved to be highly efficient for the treatment of wastewater. For that reason, it is the advisable species for the treatment of wastewater of high conductivity and pH enriched with metals, characteristic of many industrial processes.

  8. Study of praziquantel phytoremediation and transformation and its removal in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsik, P; Podlipna, R; Vanek, T

    2017-02-05

    Accumulation and/or degradation of Praziquantel (PZQ) in plants were determined using Phragmites australis, both suspension cultures and in vitro cultivated plants. In case of initial PZQ concentration 20mgL(-1), 90% was removed from liquid media within 21days. The accumulated PZQ was partly metabolized, twenty one compounds being identified, products of both Phase I and II of detoxification metabolism. Laboratory results were confirmed in real scale using the constructed wetland (CW), where PZQ (500mg in total) was completely removed until the first purification pond. This result offers a promising possibility to use CW for PZQ removal from agricultural as well as domestic waste-waters.

  9. Effect of spray aeration on organics and nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Song, Xin-Shan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Hui

    2014-12-01

    The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen by four lab-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (V-SFCWs). The emergent plants employed were Canna indica. Five-month experiments showed that the planted and aerated system largely reduced the COD by 95%, NH4 by 88% and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83%. It outperformed the unplanted or simple aerated system and was much better than non-aerated system. The study provided a strong evidence to support widespread research and application of spray aeration as a low-cost and energy-efficient aeration technology in V-SFCWs.

  10. Treatment of laboratory wastewater in a tropical constructed wetland comparing surface and subsurface flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meutia, A A

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by constructed wetland is an appropriate technology for tropical developing countries like Indonesia because it is inexpensive, easily maintained, and has environmentally friendly and sustainable characteristics. The aim of the research is to examine the capability of constructed wetlands for treating laboratory wastewater at our Center, to investigate the suitable flow for treatment, namely vertical subsurface or horizontal surface flow, and to study the effect of the seasons. The constructed wetland is composed of three chambered unplanted sedimentation tanks followed by the first and second beds, containing gravel and sand, planted with Typha sp.; the third bed planted with floating plant Lemna sp.; and a clarifier with two chambers. The results showed that the subsurface flow in the dry season removed 95% organic carbon (COD) and total phosphorus (T-P) respectively, and 82% total nitrogen (T-N). In the transition period from the dry season to the rainy season, COD removal efficiency decreased to 73%, T-N increased to 89%, and T-P was almost the same as that in the dry season. In the rainy season COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to 95% respectively, while T-P remained unchanged. In the dry season, COD and T-P concentrations in the surface flow showed that the removal efficiencies were a bit lower than those in the subsurface flow. Moreover, T-N removal efficiency was only half as much as that in the subsurface flow. However, in the transition period, COD removal efficiency decreased to 29%, while T-N increased to 74% and T-P was still constant, around 93%. In the rainy season, COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to almost 95%. On the other hand, T-P decreased to 76%. The results show that the constructed wetland is capable of treating the laboratory wastewater. The subsurface flow is more suitable for treatment than the surface flow, and the seasonal changes have effects on the removal efficiency.

  11. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Miguel Roston; Andréia de Barros Collaço

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm), while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tir...

  12. Area Estimation and Distribution Analysis of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Regional Scale--Take Guangzhou City for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Tang, G. L.; Xiong, H. X.; Chen, J.; Yin, X. L.; Huang, G. Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Area of Constructed Wetlands (CWs) required for treatment of domestic sewage generated by 13 million people was calculated in accordance with the distribution of existing population in Guangzhou City and mathematical model of CWs. By comparing this with land use data, the distribution of constructed wetlands at construction regional scale was simulated with GIS. The results show that, Guangzhou generate about 3.88 million m3 domestic sewage per day, which shall be treated with 59.37 km2 CWs. Assuming that a single wetland bed is 300 m2, total 197,905 wetland beds shall be required in the city. Based on the analysis and statistics on data of second national land survey of Guangzhou City with GIS, there are enough ponds, bare lands, other grasslands and other garden plots in Guangzhou that can be used for construction of regional scale CWs, but the distribution of available lands in different regions is uneven. Constructed wetlands at regional scale are mainly distributed around Baini Channel, Tianma River, Xinjie River, Liuxi River Valley, Zengjiang River Valley and on both sides of the Pearl River through Panyu and Nansha.

  13. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  14. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  15. Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Eva M., E-mail: eva.seeger@ufz.de [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Hoelderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tuebingen (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m{sup 2}/d, 97/112 mg/m{sup 2}/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m{sup 2}/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique. - Highlights: > BTEX compounds contaminated groundwater can be efficiently treated by CWs. > The removal efficiency depended on CW type, season and contaminant. > The plant root mat revealed better treatment results than the gravel filter CW. > Best results achieved by the plant root mat (99% benzene concentration decrease). > Stable isotope analysis and MPN indicated high benzene remediation potential. - Gravel bed constructed wetlands and a plant root mat system efficiently eliminated fuel hydrocarbons (benzene, MTBE) and ammonia-N from groundwater at a pilot-scale.

  16. Optimal conditions for chlorothalonil and dissolved organic carbon in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rìos-Montes, Karina A; Casas-Zapata, Juan C; Briones-Gallardo, Roberto; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2017-04-03

    The most efficient system of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the presence of chlorothalonil pesticide (CLT) present in synthetic domestic wastewater was determined using the macrophyte Phragmites australis. Two concentrations of CLT (85 and 385 μg L(-1)) and one concentration of glucose (20 mg L(-1)) were evaluated in four pilot scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands coupled with two sizes of silica gravel, igneous gravel, fine chalky gravel (3.18-6.35 mm), coarse gravel (12.70-25.40 mm) and two water surface heights (20 and 40 cm). For a month, wetlands were acclimated with domestic wastewater. Some groups of bacteria were also identified in the biofilm attached to the gravel. In each treatment periodic samplings were conducted in the influent and effluent. Chlorothalonil was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-ECD m), DOC by an organic carbon analyzer and bacterial groups using conventional microbiology in accordance with Standard Methods. The largest removals of DOC (85.82%-85.31%) were found when using fine gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and the lower layer of water (20 cm). The bacterial groups quantified in the biofilm were total heterotrophic, revivable heterotrophic, Pseudomonas and total coliforms. The results of this study indicate that fine grain gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and both water levels (20 to 40 cm) can be used in the removal of organic matter and for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT in HSSFCW.

  17. Structure and function of the bacterial communities during rhizoremediation of hexachlorobenzene in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Bei; Dai, Xiaoyan; Li, Shuying; Lu, Guangqiu; Zhou, Yuanqing

    2017-04-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg. During 96 days of cultivation, we monitored hexachlorobenzene (HCB) removal efficiency by GC/MS and the structure of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in the different VF CWs by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and constructed bacterial clone library based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. As expected, the rhizosphere bacterial communities also remained insensitive to HCB exposure in the wetland soil. The diversity of these microbes presented two stages, from the varied up and down to equilibrium in the entire experimental period. Molecular analysis revealed that the phylum Firmicutes dominated over the bacterial communities. The genera that increased under HCB stress included the well-known HCB-degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp.) and other common bacteria found in contaminated soil but with lesser known practical functions (Burkholderia sp., Lysinibacillus fusiformis, and Bacillus cereus). Furthermore, there was a certain variance in the relative abundances of the bacterial phyla and HCB removal efficiency among different VF CW treatments. The degradation of HCB in T. angustifolia microcosms was faster than that in P. australis and unvegetated wetlands, and the highest bacterial diversity and richness was found in the VF CWs comprising T. angustifolia.

  18. EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND:A SIMULATION STUDY IN THE WEST JINLIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hu-Cheng; YU Mu-Qing; TIAN Wei; YU Jian; FU You-Bao; WANG Xiao-Dong

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of inorganic nitrogen in wastewater can cause the eutrophication in water bodies, so it is an important task to remove nitrogen. Purification role was realized by absorption, filtration, depositon, evaporation, nitrification and denitrification of microbes. Although the studies of Phragmites austrilis bed in the constructed wetland are popular, the purification performances of constructed wetland filled by saline-alkali soil substrate are less reported. In the paper, the purification efficiency of nitrogen with Phragmites austrilis bed in the constructed wetland filled by saline-alkali soil substrate was discussed through a simulation study. Results to date indicated that the first order plug flow model was adequate to describe the nitrogen removal. The experiment showed that the diminishing concentration of TN, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N were closely related to hydrological retention time (HRT), the correlation coefficient was Re = 0.98499, R2 = 0. 9911, R2 = 0. 89407 and R2 = 0. 95459, respectively. According to the data, the most suitable hydrological retention time (HRT) for this kind of constructed wetland should be determined to 4 days. In addition, the experiment showed the purification efficiency of nitrogen has very broad range and drastic vibration, TN( 17 % - 79%), NO2-N (33 % - 98 %), NO3-N( 13 % - 93 %), NH4-N (28 % - 64%). The study will promote wetland's design and operation procedures in large saline-alkaline soil areas.

  19. Comparing the efficiency of Cyperus alternifolius and Phragmites australis in municipal wastewater treatment by subsurface constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Davod Hossein; Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoosh, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Ghaneian, Mohamad Taghy; Ayatollah, Shirin; Mozayan, Mohamad Reza

    2013-04-15

    Nowadays, application of natural wastewater treatment systems such as wetland not only reduces economic costs and energy consumption, but also decreases environmental pollution. This study aimed to compare efficiency of Cyperus alternifolius and Phragmites australis in Municipal wastewater treatment by Subsurface Constructed Wetland Method. This is an applied-interventionnal study in which three reactors (control pilot, Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella palm) plant pilot and Phragmites australis (reed) plant pilot were designed by subsurface constructed wetland method. Then 90 samples were taken from input and output of reactors with four-day retention time. These samples were tested and finally the data were analyzed by Paired Sample Test statistical analysis. The results showed that removal efficiency of the parameters such as COD, BOD5, TSS, NO3-N, NH3-N, PO4-P, total coliform and fecal coliform was 74, 73, 84, 40, 36, 70, 33 and 38% in Cyperus alternifolius plant wetland, 44, 34, 77, 15, 0.3, 1, 17 and 26% in control wetland and 59, 54, 73, 6, 3, 10, 93 and 50 in Phragmites australis plant wetland, respectively. This reduction rate in all parameters- except fecal coliform- was statistically significant (p = 0.05). The results of this study showed that Cyperus alternifolius plant had higher efficiency in the removal of chemical parameters, whereas Phragmites australis plant had appropriate efficiency in the removal of microbiological parameters. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of these two plants can be effective in wastewater treatment.

  20. The role of free water surface constructed wetlands as polishing step in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, A; Bixio, D; Thoeye, C

    2007-07-15

    In Europe, the last two decades witnessed growing water stress, both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration, which prompted many municipalities for a more efficient use of the water resources, including a more widespread acceptance of water reuse practices. Treatment technology encompasses a vast variety of options. Constructed wetlands are regarded as key elements in polishing conventionally treated wastewater for recreational and environmental applications. A survey was conducted to assess the performance of tertiary free water surface constructed wetlands in treating both key and emerging contaminant categories in the perspective of water reuse. A database was created with information concerning systems with emerging and free-floating macrophytes. The database includes results from both full- and pilot-scale systems, and considers a broad variety of operating conditions. This paper provides an overview of the treatment performances of the constructed wetlands in the database and discusses their significance in the optic of water reclamation and reuse practices.

  1. Biological Cr(VI) removal using bio-filters and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailides, Michail K; Sultana, Mar-Yam; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Akratos, Christos S; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2013-01-01

    The bioreduction of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution was carried out using suspended growth and packed-bed reactors under a draw-fill operating mode, and horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands. Reactors were inoculated with industrial sludge from the Hellenic Aerospace Industry using sugar as substrate. In the suspended growth reactors, the maximum Cr(VI) reduction rate (about 2 mg/L h) was achieved for an initial concentration of 12.85 mg/L, while in the attached growth reactors, a similar reduction rate was achieved even with high initial concentrations (109 mg/L), thus confirming the advantage of these systems. Two horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) pilot-scale units were also built and operated. The units contained fine gravel. One unit was planted with common reeds and one was kept unplanted. The mean influent concentrations of Cr(VI) were 5.61 and 5.47 mg/L for the planted and unplanted units, respectively. The performance of the planted CW units was very effective as mean Cr(VI) removal efficiency was 85% and efficiency maximum reached 100%. On the contrary, the unplanted CW achieved very low Cr(VI) removal with a mean value of 26%. Both attached growth reactors and CWs proved efficient and viable means for Cr(VI) reduction.

  2. Responses of phytoplankton and Hyalella azteca to agrichemical mixtures in a constructed wetland mesocosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Richard E; Testa, Sam; Locke, Martin A; Steinriede, R Wade

    2013-10-01

    We assessed the capability of a constructed wetland to mitigate toxicity of a variety of possible mixtures, such as nutrients only (NO) (nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P]), pesticides only (PO) (atrazine, S-metolachlor, permethrin), and nutrients + pesticides on phytoplankton chlorophyll-a, on 48-h aqueous Hyalella azteca survival and 10-day sediment H. azteca survival and growth. Water and sediment were collected at 10-, 20-, and 40-m distances from inflow and analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, chlorophyll-a, and H. azteca laboratory bioassays. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a increased 4- to 10 -fold at 7 days after NO treatment. However, responses of chlorophyll-a to PO and nutrients + pesticides were more complex with associated decreases at only 20 m for pesticides only and 10 and 40 m for nutrients + pesticides treatments. H. azteca aqueous survival decreased within the first 48 h of dosing at 10- and 20-m distances during PO and nutrients + pesticides treatments in association with permethrin concentrations. H. azteca sediment survival was unaffected, whereas 10-day growth decreased within 1 day of dosing at all sites during nutrients + pesticides treatment. Constructed wetlands were shown to be an effective agricultural best-management tool for trapping pollutants and mitigating ecological impacts of run-off in agricultural watersheds.

  3. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  4. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Miguel Roston

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm, while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tires, a 0.10 m gravel layer to complete the total height (1 m and avoid floating. The aquatic macrophytes utilized were from Typha species distributed uniformly over the beds. The following parameters were monitored: suspended solids, pH, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen. The results were submitted to a statistical analysis in order to verify if significant difference existed (to 1 % and 5% of significance between the two treatments. The results demonstrate no significant difference for the parameter NH3-N, while for suspended solids and pH, were found significant differences to 1% and 5% of significance. For COD was found significant difference to 5% of significance. The results indicated a potential use of shredded tires to substitute the conventional media utilized for subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  5. [Study on optimization gradation of substrates in vertical flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-mei; Zhang, Xiang-ling; Wang, Rong; Xu, Dong; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen-bin

    2010-05-01

    Bio-ceramic, anthracite, zeolite, steel slag and vermiculite were used as substrate according to different kinds of gradation to treat wastewater in vertical-flow constructed wetlands simulation systems. The results show that the removal ability of COD by graded substrates according to particle size are better than single substrates, and average removal efficiency by graded bio-ceramic is up to 72.91%. The removal rate of TN by graded zeolite, which reaches 91.23%, is higher than single zeolite. No significant difference (p nitrogen removal between single and combined use of bio-ceramic and zeolite. The pH values in effluents of all columns filled with steel slag and anthracite are within normal limits, but phosphorus removal of all columns filled with steel slag and anthracite are lower than that filled with single substrates, except for the column filled with anthracite, vermiculite and steel slag from up to down. No difference between planted and unplanted systems can be observed. The present results probably provide a basis for vertical-flow constructed wetland design, among which based on the characteristic of wastewater proper selection of high-efficiency graded substrates, e.g., graded bio-ceramic, graded zeolite, graded anthracite, combined use of bio-ceramic, zeolite and anthracite, is a guarantee of better performance at a high hydraulic loading rate.

  6. Optimization of Four Kinds of Constructed Wetlands Substrate Combination Treating Domestic Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yongzheng; ZHANG Beiping; LIU Zhen; WANG Jin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the static and dynamic experiments, this paper has analyzed the adsorbing capacity for domestic wastewater pollutant (COD, NH4+-N and TP) of four kinds of constructed wetlands substrate which were fly ash, hollow brick crumbs, coal cinder and activated carbon pellets in single and combined condition. In the static experiments, the adsorbing capacity of four substrates all grew as the adsorbing dose increased. In adsorbing COD,each substrate's adsorbing capacity rises with the adsorbing dosage. Simultaneously, experiments show that all the adsorption of the four kinds of substrate for COD, NH4+-N and TP follows the Freundich Rule. The dynamic experiment demonstrated that the adsorbing capacity of combined substrates is bigger than that of single substrate. Fly ash in combination with small coal cinder adsorbs COD the best, while it takes in NH4+-N and TP the best when working with hollow brick crumbs. The combination of the two raises the removal rates up to 89% and 81% respectively.Given high cost and low adsorbing effect, activated carbon is not a suitable candidate for constructed wetlands substrate.

  7. Comparison of grey water treatment performance by a cascading sand filter and a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadewa, W W; Le Corre, K; Pidou, M; Jeffrey, P J; Jefferson, B

    2010-01-01

    A novel unplanted vertical flow subsurface constructed wetland technology comprising three shallow beds (0.6 m length, 0.45 m width and 0.2 m depth) arranged in a cascading series and a standard single-pass Vertical Flow Planted Constructed Wetland (VFPCW, 6 m² and 0.7 m depth) were tested for grey water treatment. Particular focus was on meeting consent for published wastewater reuse parameters and removal of anionic surfactants. Treatment performance at two hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 0.08, and 0.17 m³ m⁻² d⁻¹ were compared. Both technologies effectively removed more than 90% turbidity and more than 96% for organics with the prototype meeting the most stringent reuse standard of < 2 NTU and <10 mg/L. However, surfactant removal in the VFPCW was higher (76-85%) than in the prototype which only achieved more than 50% removal at higher loading rate. Generally, the prototype performed consistently better than the VFPCW except for surfactant removal. However, at higher loading rates, both systems did not meet the reuse standard of <1 mg L⁻¹ for anionic surfactants. This observation confirms that shallow beds provide a more oxidised environment leading to higher BOD₅ and COD removals. Presence of plants in the VFPCW led to higher anionic surfactant removal, through increased microbial and sorption processes.

  8. Isolation and characterization of facultative mixotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soulwène Kouki; Neila Saidi; Fadhel M'hiri; Houda Nasr; Hanène Cherif; Hadda Ouzari; Abdermaceur Hassen

    2011-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been widely studied in constructed wetlands systems,while mixotrophic AOB have been less thoroughly examined.Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wastewater and rhizospheres of macrophytes of constructed wetlands,and then cultivated in a mixotrophic medium containing ammonium and acetic acid.A molecular characterization was accomplished using ITS-PCR amplification,and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.Results showed the presence of 35 bacteria,among 400 initially heterotrophic isolates,that were able to remove ammonia.These 35 isolates were classified into 10 genetically different groups based on ITS pattern.Then,a collection of 10 isolates were selected because of their relatively high ammonia removal efficiencies (ARE ≥ 80%) and their phylogenetic diversity.In conditions of mixotrophy,these strains were shown to be able to grow (increase of optical density OD660 during incubation with assimilation of nitrogen into cellular biomass) and to oxidize ammonia (important ammonia oxidation efficiencies,AOE between 79% and 87%).Among these facultative mixotrophic AOB,four isolates were genetically related to Firmicutes (Bacillus and Exiguobacterium),three isolates were affiliated to Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) and three other isolates were associated with Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas,Ochrobactrum and Bordetella).

  9. Intensified nitrate and phosphorus removal in an electrolysis -integrated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Xie, Y W; Zhang, Q; Wang, A L; Yu, Y X; Yang, L Y

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland system (E-HFCWs) was developed for intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus contaminated water. The dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of main water qualities of inflow and outflow were also evaluated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) greatly enhanced nitrate removal when the electrolysis current intensity was stabilized at 0.07 mA/cm(2). When the HRT ranged from 2 h to 12 h, the removal rate of nitrate increased from 20% to 84%. Phosphorus (P) removal was also greatly enhanced-exceeding 90% when the HRT was longer than 4 h in the electrolysis-integrated HFCWs. This improved P removal is due to the in-situ formation of ferric ions by anodizing of sacrificial iron anodes, causing chemical precipitation, physical adsorption and flocculation of phosphorus. Thus, electrolysis plays an important role in nitrate and phosphorus removal. The diversity and communities of bacteria in the biofilm of substrate was established by the analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequences, and the biofilm was abundant with Comamonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae bacteria in E-HFCWs. Test results illustrated that the electrolysis integrated with horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland is a feasible and effective technology for intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD, oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO2 modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m3 (102 mW/m2 and 3044 mW/m3 (80 mW/m2, respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation.

  12. Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza; Koželuh, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Estrogenic hormones, progesterone and testosterone are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their presence in aquatic environments represents a potentially adverse environmental and public health impact. There is a considerable amount of information about removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in conventional wastewater treatment plants, namely activated sludge systems. However, the information about removal of these compounds in constructed wetlands is very limited. Three constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow in the Czech Republic have been selected to evaluate removal of estrogens (estrone, estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol), testosterone and progesterone. Monitored constructed wetlands for 100, 150 and 200 PE have been in operation for more than 10 years and all systems exhibit very high treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids. The results indicate that removal of all estrogens, progesterone and testosterone was high and only estrone was found in the outflow from one constructed wetland in concentrations above the limit of quantification 1 ng l(-1). The limits of quantification for other estrogens, i.e., 10 ng l(-1) for estriol, 1 ng l(-1) for 17β-estradiol and 2 ng l(-1) for 17α-ethinylestradiol were not exceeded in the outflow of all monitored constructed wetlands. Also, for progesterone and testosterone, all outflow concentrations were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng l(-1). The results indicated that constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow are a promising technology for elimination of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone from municipal sewage but more information is needed to confirm this finding.

  13. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and biodiversity levels: ecological role of constructed wetlands and artificial ponds in a natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sartori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Constructed wetlands play an important role in water supply, floodwater retention and nutrient removal, at the same time allowing the restoration of lost habitat and the preservation of biodiversity. There is little knowledge about the biodiversity that can be found in these artificial environments along time, especially at the invertebrate community level. Macroinvertebrate assemblages, water chemistry, morphology, and environmental characteristics of natural ponds, artificial pools and constructed wetlands in Parco Pineta (Northern Italy were studied to evaluate the effects of local factors on macroinvertebrate communities. The objective was to verify if each ecosystem could equally contribute to local biodiversity, regardless of its natural or artificial origin. Principal Components Analysis showed that ponds were divided into clusters, based on their morphology and their water quality, independently from their origin. The composition of macroinvertebrate communities was similar among natural wetlands and ponds artificially created to provide new habitats in the park, while it was different among natural wetlands and constructed wetlands created for wastewater treatment purposes. Biodiversity of natural ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluated using taxa richness, Shannon index, and Pielou index, was comparable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and pointed out the relationships among macroinvertebrates and various environmental variables: habitat heterogeneity resulted as the most relevant factor that influences taxa richness. Water quality also affects the macroinvertebrate community structure. We determined that constructed wetlands with higher pollutant concentrations show different assemblage compositions but comparable overall macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Constructed wetlands became valuable ecological elements

  14. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems.

  15. Enhancing treatment efficiency of swine wastewater by effluent recirculation in vertical-flow constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Livestock wastewater has been a major contributor to Chinese cultural eutrophication of surface waters. Constructed wetlands are under study as a best management practice to treat wastewater from dairy and swine operations, but the removal efficiency of pollutants is relatively low. Enhancing the treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater by effluent recirculation was investigated in a pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland. The wetland system was composed of downflow and upflow stages, on which narrow-leafPhragmites communis and common reed Phragmites Typhia are planted, respectively; each stage has a dimension of4 m2 (2 m × 2 m). Wastewater from facultative pond was fed into the system intermittently at a flow rate of 0.4 m3/d. Recirculation rates of 0, 25%, 50%, 100% and 150% were adopted to evaluate the effect of the recirculation rate on pollutants removal. It shows that with effluent recirculation the average removal efficiencies of NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and suspended solids(SS)obviously increase to 61.7%, 81.3%, and 77.1%, respectively, in comparison with the values of 35.6%, 50.2%, and 49.3% without effluent recirculation. But the improvement of TP removal is slight, only from 42.3% to 48.9%. The variations of NH4-N, dissolved oxygen(DO) and oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) of inflow and outflow reveal that the adoption of effluent recirculation is beneficial to the formation of oxide environment in wetland. The exponential relationships with excellent correlation coefficients (R2 >0.93)are found between the removal rates of NH4-N and BOD5 and the recirculation rates. With recirculation the pH value of the outflow decreases as the alkalinity is consumed by gradually enhanced nitrification process. When recirculation rate is kept constant 100%, the ambient temperature appears to affect NH4-N removal, but does not have significant influence on BOD5 removal.

  16. Emergent macrophytes select for nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, Rosalia; Ramió Pujol, Sara; Bañeras, Lluis

    2014-05-01

    The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment is a reliable low-cost alternative that has been widely developed during the last years. Several processes involving plants, sediments, and microbial communities contribute to nitrogen removal in wetlands. Vegetation plays an important role in this process, not only by nutrient assimilation but also by the stimulation of the plant associated microbiota. Plants supply oxygen at the close proximity of the root surface that may favour ammonia oxidizers. At the same time, exudation of organic compounds potentially speeds-up denitrification in the anoxic environment. The aim of this work was to understand the plant-microbe interactions at the root level in the Empuriabrava free water surface constructed wetland (Spain). The roots of the macrophytes Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus were sampled at four dates from January to September 2012, covering all the stages of plant growth. Additionally, sediment surrounding vegetation and non-vegetated sediments were sampled. Microbial community structure was analysed by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA and functional genes (nirK, nirS, nosZ and amoA). Bacterial communities were significantly different in sediments of the vegetated areas compared to the root surface. Plant roots exhibited a higher proportion of proteobacteria whereas Actinobacteria were dominant in sediments. The nitrifiers Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrosococcus sp. accounted for less than 1% of all sequences. Archaeal communities were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Groups C2 and C3 and Methanomicrobia. Higher relative abundances of MCG were found in roots of P. australis, B. maritimus and T. angustifolia. Ammonia oxidizing archaea accounted for less than 0.1% of all sequences but were consistently more abundant in sediment samples compared to roots. NirK and NirS-type bacterial communities showed clearly distinct distribution

  17. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  18. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  19. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO3(-). Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, L; Mench, M; Jacob, D L; Otte, M L

    2010-12-01

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R&D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg > Mn > Fe = Cd > Pb = Cr > Zn = Cu > Al > Ni > As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency.

  1. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation.

  2. [Comparison of nutrient removal ability between Cyperus alternifolius and Vetiveria zizanioides in constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xindi; Luo, Shiming; Wu, Yinbao; Wang, Zhisan

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare the nutrient removal ability of Cyperus alternifolius and Vetiveria zizanioides, a 17.0 m2 subsurface flow wetland covered with Cyperus alternifolius and another 13.3 m2 one covered with Vetiveria zizanioides were constructed for piggery wastewater treatment, and the biomass as well as the N, P, Cu and Zn contents in the root and shoot of the plants was measured by the end of each season. The results showed that the below-ground biomass of V. zizanioides was greater than that of C. alternifolius. By the contrary, the above-ground biomass of C. alternifolius was greater than that of V. zizanioides. The annual biomass yield of C. alternifolius was 2.3 times higher than that of V. zizanioides,which was 3406.47 g x m(-2) and 1483.88 g x m(-2), respectively. The N concentration in C. alternifolius tissue was higher than that in V. zizanioides tissue, being 22.69 mg x g(-1) and 15.44 mg x g(-1) respectively, and similarly, the P concentration in C. alternifolius tissue was higher than that in V. zizanioides tissue, being 6.09 mg x g(-1) and 5.47 mg x g(-1) respectively. The Cu and Zn concentrations in C. alternifolius tissue were a little higher than those in V. zizanioides. 68.72 g N x m(-2) and 18.49 g P x m(-2) were removed by harvesting C. alternifolius vegetation, while 8.93 g N x m(-2) and 3.69 g x P m(-2) were removed by harvesting V. zizanioides vegetation. It was concluded that the removals of N, P, Cu and Zn by harvesting vegetation were 4-7 times higher in C. alternifolius wetland than in V. zizanioides wetland.

  3. Urban wastewater process by aerobic constructed wetland; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas utilizando un humedal artificial aerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Rodriguez, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the experiences of urban wastewater treatment are shown in an aerobic constructed wetland, using phragmites australis.They were carried out changes on the design and operation of aerobic constructed wetlands of subsurface flow, in order to increase denitrification and biodegradation rate and to diminish the surface of the installation. the flow was channeled through a long and narrow channel to get bigger biodegradation rate to approach to the plug flow performance. the active space of process consists of two sites, one first anoxic in which denitrification takes place, and in the other one the wetland in oxygenated environment the organic matters of the wastewater are consumed by biodegradation and it takes place nitrification, and utilization of nitrates and phosphates by the vegetable culture. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Removal of fluoride and arsenic by pilot vertical-flow constructed wetlands using soil and coal cinder as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Liu, Xinchun; Yu, Zhisheng; Yi, Xin; Ju, Yiwen; Huang, Jing; Liu, Ruyin

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of soil and coal cinder used as substrate in vertical-flow constructed wetlands for removal of fluoride and arsenic. Two duplicate pilot-scale artificial wetlands were set up, planted respectively with cannas, calamus and no plant as blank, fed with a synthetic sewage solution. Laboratory (batch) incubation experiments were also carried out separately to ascertain the fluoride and arsenic adsorption capacity of the two materials (i.e. soil and coal cinder). The results showed that both soil and coal cinder had quite high fluoride and arsenic adsorption capacity. The wetlands were operated for two months. The concentrations of fluoride and arsenic in the effluent of the blank wetlands were obviously higher than in the other wetlands planted with cannas and calamus. Fluoride and arsenic accumulation in the wetlands body at the end of the operation period was in range of 14.07-37.24% and 32.43-90.04%, respectively, as compared with the unused media.

  5. Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, Alexander K; Korsah, Percy E; Addo-Fordjour, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is thought to be the most sustainable wastewater treatment option for developing countries. However, its application is often limited by unavailability of suitable candidate species. In the present study, the potentials of Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia for remediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater with a constructed wetland system were evaluated. The wetland consisted of three treatment lines each planted with sufficient and equal number of a species. Duplicate plant and water samples were collected bi-monthly and analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer over a six month period. Bioaccumulation rates generally increased over time and varied among plants for these metals, with Fe (456-1549 mg kg1 roots; 20-183 mg kg(-1) shoot) being the most sequestered and Pb (1.2-7.6 mg kg(-1) roots; 1.55-3.95 mg kg(-1) shoot) the least. Translocation factors differed among the species but generally remained stable over time. L flava showed potential for hyperaccumulating Hg. Removal efficiencies varied for the studied metals (approximately 20-77 %) and were generally related to metal uptake by the plants. These results demonstrate the suitability of the species for phytoremediation, and the usefulness of the technique as an option for improving irrigation water quality in Ghana.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: Effect of plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China); Inamori, Ryuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kong Hainan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: remanda@126.com; Xu Kaiqin [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan Unviversity, Wuhan 430072 (China); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang Jixiang [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N{sub 2}O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N{sub 2}O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. The highest N{sub 2}O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N{sub 2}O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N{sub 2}O formation. - Zizania latifolia has a large contribution to global warming.

  7. Observations of nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in a surface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V; Tait, Douglas; Eyre, Bradley D; Bingham, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Free surface water constructed wetlands (CWs) provide a buffer between domestic wastewater treatment plants and natural waterways. Understanding the biogeochemical processes in CWs is crucial to improve their performance. In this study we measured a range of water and sediment parameters, and biogeochemical processes, in an effort to describe the processing of nutrients within two wetland cells in series. As a whole the studied CW effectively absorbed both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emanating from the waste treatment plant. However the two individual cells showed marked differences related to the availability of oxygen within the water column and the sediments. In one cell we speculated that the prevalence of surface plant species reduced its ability to function as a net nutrient sink. Here we observed a build-up of sediment organic matter, sediment anoxia, a decoupling of nitrification-denitrification, and a flux of N and P out of the sediments to the overlying water. The availability of DO in the surface sediments of the second studied cell led to improved coupling between nitrification-denitrification and a net uptake of both NH4+ and PO4(3-). We hypothesise that the dominance of deeply rooted macrophytes in the second cell was responsible for the improved sediment quality.

  8. Embedding constructed wetland in sequencing batch reactor for enhancing nutrients removal: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ranbin; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Jinhui; Xu, Lei; Sibille, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a novel green bio-sorption reactor (GBR) was firstly proposed and preliminarily investigated by embedding constructed wetland (CW) into the aeration tank of the conventional activated sludge (CAS). This integrated novel system owns the striking features of adding carriers of wetland substrate (i.e. the dewatered alum sludge in this case) in CAS for robust phosphorus adsorption and enriching the biomass. Meanwhile, the "green" feature of this GBR imparted aesthetic value of CW to the CAS system. The preliminary 3-month trial of GBR based on a sequencing batch reactor (GB-SBR) with diluted piggery wastewater demonstrated an average removal of 96%, 99% and 90% for BOD, TP and TN, respectively. The comparison with moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reflected the advantages of GBR over purification performance, aesthetic value and potential carbon sink. Moreover, the carriers used in the GBR are dewatered alum sludge which is in line with the policy of "recycle, reuse and reduce". Overall, this GBR undoubtedly offered a more sustainable and economical solution for retrofitting the aging CAS.

  9. Treatment of swine wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G B; Hunt, P G; Phillips, R; Stone, K; Grubbs, A

    2001-01-01

    Swine waste is commonly treated in the USA by flushing into an anaerobic lagoon and subsequently applying to land. This natural system type of application has been part of agricultural practice for many years. However, it is currently under scrutiny by regulators. An alternate natural system technology to treat swine wastewater may be constructed wetland. For this study we used four wetland cells (11 m width x 40 m length) with a marsh-pond-marsh design. The marsh sections were planted to cattail (Typha latifolia, L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). Two cells were loaded with 16 kg N ha(-1) day(-1) with a detention of 21 days. They removed 51% of the added N. Two additional cells were loaded with 32 kg ha(-1) day(-1) with 10.5 days detention. These cells removed only 37% of the added N. However, treatment operations included cold months in which treatment was much less efficient. Removal of N was moderately correlated with the temperature. During the warmer periods removal efficiencies were more consistent with the high removal rates reported for continuous marsh systems--often > than 70%. Phosphorus removal ranged from 30 to 45%. Aquatic macrophytes (plants and floating) assimilated about 320 and 35 kg ha(-1), respectively of N and P.

  10. Comparison of maturation ponds and constructed wetlands as the final stage of an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S; Park, J B K

    2005-01-01

    The treatment performance of a maturation pond (MP), the typical final polishing stage of an Advanced Pond System (APS), is compared with that of a surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) over 19 months. Both received approximately 67 mm d-1 of wastewater after passage through upstream stages of the APS. The MP, with greater sunlight exposure, had higher algal biomass (and associated suspended solids) than the CW, showed higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and greater diurnal variation in DO and pH. Neither polishing stages reduced nutrients markedly, with the CW exporting slightly more NH(3)-N and DRP, and less NO(3)-N than the MP. Disinfection was more efficient in the MP (geometric mean 1 log load removal, 12 MPN (100ml)-1) compared to the CW (0.47 log load removal, 53 MPN (100ml)-1). Incorporation of a final rock filter (28% of area) reduced median solids levels to wetland vegetation (promoting sedimentation and denitrification, and providing refugia for zooplankton) may provide more consistent effluent quality that either stage alone.

  11. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  13. Phytoremediation of selenium by two helophyte species in subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardendu; Salhani, N; Boulyga, S F; Stengel, E

    2003-03-01

    The phytoremediation of selenium by two different wetland species was investigated. Selenium (20.4 microg/l) was supplied continuously to subsurface flow constructed wetlands, one vegetated with Typha latifolia L. and the other with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. The beds of both species had same hydraulic loading rate (0.079 m(3)/m(2)/d) and water retention time (24 h). However, the mass loading rate was 1.27 mg Se/m(2)/d for Phragmites and 1.35 mg Se/m(2)/d for Typha. In the Typha bed Se migrated faster than in the Phragmites bed. After 25 d of Se supplementation in the Typha bed about 54% of the Se inlet concentration remained in the outlet water. In the Phragmites bed Se was removed completely from the water after passing through 3/4 of the bed length. After 65 d of Se supplementation the highest amount of Se (2.8 microg/g dry matter) was determined in the organic material of the Typha bed. Roots and rhizomes accumulated 2.2 and 1.8 microg/g dry matter respectively. Phragmites accumulated Se in the leaves and stems, but not in the rhizomes. The accumulation in the leaves (1.8 microg Se/g dry matter) was three times higher than in the stems (0.6 microg Se/g dry matter). Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Müller, Jochen A; Manoj, Valsa Remony; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Removal of human pathogens from wastewater is a critical factor with linkage to human health. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are environmental friendly ecosystems that are applicable not only for chemical pollution control, but also for the reduction of pathogens from wastewater. Yet the knowledge on the fate and removal of such indicator bacteria in CWs is still not sufficient due to the complexity of removal mechanisms and influencing factors. This review serves to provide a better understanding of this state-of-the-art technology, which is necessary for further investigations and design development. The fecal indicator bacteria in CWs mainly come from three sources, namely, influent wastewaters, regrowth within the CWs, and animal activities. The properties of microbial contamination vary depending on the different sources. The removal of pathogens is a complex process that is influenced by operational parameters such as hydraulic regime and retention time, vegetation, seasonal fluctuation, and water composition. The most frequent and well-validated removal mechanisms include natural die-off due to starvation or predation, sedimentation and filtration, and adsorption. The concentration of the main fecal indicator bacteria in the effluent was found to be exponentially related to the loading rate. Generally, horizontal subsurface flow CWs have better reduction capacity than free water surface flow CWs, and hybrid wetland systems were found to be the most efficient due to a longer retention time. Further improvement of fecal indicator bacteria removal in CWs is needed, however, levels in CW effluents are still higher than most of the regulation standards for reuse.

  15. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for real-time monitoring of integrated-constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán; Sani, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring large-scale treatment wetlands is costly and time-consuming, but required by regulators. Some analytical results are available only after 5 days or even longer. Thus, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were developed to predict the effluent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N from a full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) treating domestic wastewater. The ANFIS models were developed and validated with a 4-year data set from the ICW system. Cost-effective, quicker and easier to measure variables were selected as the possible predictors based on their goodness of correlation with the outputs. A self-organizing neural network was applied to extract the most relevant input variables from all the possible input variables. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify the architecture of the ANFIS models and to optimize fuzzy rules, overall, improving the network performance. According to the findings, ANFIS could predict the effluent quality variation quite strongly. Effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations were predicted relatively accurately by other effluent water quality parameters, which can be measured within a few hours. The simulated effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations well fitted the measured concentrations, which was also supported by relatively low mean squared error. Thus, ANFIS can be useful for real-time monitoring and control of ICW systems.

  17. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  18. Redox geochemistry in organic-rich sediments of a constructed wetland treating colliery spoil leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.I.; Aplin, A.C. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geoscience

    2009-01-15

    The results are reported of a geochemical study of sediment cores and surface waters taken over an annual cycle from the compost-based constructed wetland at Quaking Houses, NE England. The wetland was built to treat acidic and metalliferous waters emanating from colliery spoil. The influent waters contain up to 10 mM SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, total Fe around 100 {mu} M, and a mean pH of 6.2. The organic-rich sediments sustain a coupled redox cycle of Fe and S which occurs throughout the year but which is more intense in the summer months. Throughout the sediments, reduction of Fe(III) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} apparently occur within the same macroscopic volume of sediment, along with oxidation of sulfide and Fe(III). Pore water pH is between 7.2 and 7.8 and alkalinity increases downwards, coupled to microbial SO{sub 4} and Fe reduction. Transport processes occurring at and across the sediment-water interface are sufficiently rapid in the similar to 20 h residence time of the waters to: (a) remove 70-90% of influent Fe and 15-25% of influent SO{sub 4} into surface sediments and (b) increase both the pH and alkalinity of effluent waters. Coupling of the Fe and S cycles is fundamental to effective remediation in terms of both alkalinity generation and the retention of metals.

  19. Enhancement of azo dye Acid Orange 7 removal in newly developed horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Heng-Chong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Mohd Nawi, Mohd Asri; Adnan, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal subsurface-flow (HSF) constructed wetland incorporating baffles was developed to facilitate upflow and downflow conditions so that the treatment of pollutants could be achieved under multiple aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions sequentially in the same wetland bed. The performances of the baffled and conventional HSF constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, in the removal of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) were compared at the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 5, 3 and 2 days when treating domestic wastewater spiked with AO7 concentration of 300 mg/L. The planted baffled unit was found to achieve 100%, 83% and 69% AO7 removal against 73%, 46% and 30% for the conventional unit at HRT of 5, 3 and 2 days, respectively. Longer flow path provided by baffled wetland units allowed more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes, microbes and micro-aerobic zones resulting in relatively higher oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and enhanced performance as kinetic studies revealed faster AO7 biodegradation rate under aerobic condition. In addition, complete mineralization of AO7 was achieved in planted baffled wetland unit due to the availability of a combination of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions.

  20. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C; Mitsch, W J; Wolfe, W E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms although lower average stem lengths and fewer stems bearing flowers were observed in mesocosms with FGD liners. Potentially phytotoxic boron was significantly higher in the belowground biomass of plants grown in lined mesocosms with low phosphorus loading. A larger-scale, long-term wetland experiment close to full scale is recommended from this two-year mesocosm study to better predict the potentially positive and negative effects of using FGD by-products in constructed wetlands.

  1. Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States). Environmental Science Graduate Programme

    2006-07-15

    Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at < 0.01% of the total microbial community. The most numerous bacterial species in this wetland system was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, comprising up to 37% of the bacterial population. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was also abundant.

  2. Composting plant leachate treatment by a pilot-scale, three-stage, horizontal flow constructed wetland in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Paydary, Pooya

    2017-09-02

    Handling and treatment of composting leachate is difficult and poses major burdens on composting facilities. The main goal of this study was to evaluate usage of a three-stage, constructed wetland to treat leachate produced in Isfahan composting facility. A pilot-scale, three-stage, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland, planted with vetiver with a flow rate of 24 L/day and a 15-day hydraulic retention time, was used. Removal of organic matter, ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, suspended solids, and several heavy metals from Isfahan composting facility leachate was monitored over a 3-month period. Constructed wetland system was capable of efficiently removing BOD5 (87.3%), COD (74.5%), ammonia (91.5%), nitrate (87.9%), total nitrogen (87.8%), total suspended solids (85.5%), and heavy metals (ranging from 70 to 90%) from the composting leachate. High contaminant removal efficiencies were achieved, but effluent still failed to meet Iranian standards for treated wastewater. This study shows that although a three-stage horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with vetiver cannot be used alone to treat Isfahan composting facility leachate, but it has the potential to be used as a leachate pre-treatment step, along with another complementary method.

  3. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  4. Evaluation of nutrient removal efficiency and microbial enzyme activity in a baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua Cui; Ying Ouyang; Wenjie Gu; Weozhi Yang; Qiaoling. Xu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the enzyme activities and their relationships to domestic wastewater purification are investigated in four different types of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the traditional horizontal subsurface-flow, horizontal baffled subsurface-flow, vertical baffled subsurface-flow, and composite baffled subsurface-flow CWs. Results showed that...

  5. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns, and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The treatment and removal of contaminants such as nutrients, salts, microbes, and pharmaceutically active compounds from swine waste by constructed wetlands involves complex biological processes. However, little is known about the population structure and antibiotic resistant patterns of E. coli em...

  6. Research on Nitrogen Removal and Microorganism in a Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland System in Sihong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ning; LIU Han-hu; GUO Ru-mei; ZHANG Hong-zhen; YANG Kun

    2006-01-01

    Experiments in monitoring the removal of organic material and nitrogen and determining the amounts of microorganism at different sites in the subsurface flow constructed wetland in Sihong county were performed. The results show that the removal of CODCr agrees with the kinetic equation of a first order reaction. The removal of pollutants varies with different seasons. The removal rates of CODCr, NH3-N, TN in the spring are 15%-23% higher than those in the autumn. The amount of ammonifier is larger than that of denitrifying bacteria and the amount of denitrifying bacteria is larger than that of nitrosomonas. The amount of bacteria around the plant roots is larger than that on the surface of the packing medium. No apparent change is observed for the amount of denitrifying bacteria and nitrosomonas between spring and autumn.

  7. Decreases in ammonia volatilization in response to greater plant diversity in microcosms of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ge, Ying; Han, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Ren, Yuan; Du, Yuanyuan; Shi, Mengmeng; Chang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia volatilization from wastewaters with a high concentration of ammonium is a serious environmental and health problem. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widely used for treating wastewater, and plant diversity clearly improves some functions of ecosystem such as nitrogen removal. However, whether plant diversity can affect ammonia volatilization from wastewater is still unknown. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment with different plant diversity treatments using four plant species. Results showed that, (1) ammonia volatilization decreased with increasing plant species richness; (2) ammonia volatilization from systems containing Rumex japonicus was lower than other systems; and (3) ammonia volatilization was affected more by species composition than species richness. This paper is the first to report that ammonia volatilization is reduced by plant diversity, and that some plant species combinations are important to reduce ammonia volatilization from CWs when treating wastewater.

  8. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Common practice of aquaculture in Vietnam and other countries in South East Asia involves frequent discharge of polluted water into rivers which results in eutrophication and degradation of receiving water bodies. There is therefore a need to develop improved aquaculture systems which have a more...... efficient use of water and less environmental impact. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of fishpond water in a recirculating aquaculture system in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Water from a fishpond stocked with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis...... in the outlets. The ornamental Canna×generalis planted in the CWs grew faster and took up more N and P in the vertical flow CWs. The aquaculture fish had a feed conversion ratio of 1.53 based on feed dry weight, and 31% and 34% of N and P input, respectively, were incorporated into fish biomass. Only minor...

  9. Assessing environmental impacts of constructed wetland effluents for vegetable crop irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, A; Consoli, S; Barbagallo, S; Branca, F; Farag, A; Licciardello, F; Cirelli, G L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and assess environmental impacts of reclaimed wastewater (RW), used for irrigation of vegetable crops, on soil, crop quality and irrigation equipment. During 2013, effluents of a horizontal sub-surface flow constructed treatment wetland (TW) system, used for tertiary treatment of sanitary wastewater from a small rural municipality located in Eastern Sicily (Italy), were reused by micro-irrigation techniques to irrigate vegetable crops. Monitoring programs, based on in situ and laboratory analyses were performed for assessing possible adverse effects on water-soil-plant systems caused by reclaimed wastewater reuse. In particular, experimental results evidenced that Escherichia coli content found in RW would not present a risk for rotavirus infection following WHO (2006) standards. Irrigated soil was characterized by a certain persistence of microbial contamination and among the studied vegetable crops, lettuce responds better, than zucchini and eggplants, to the irrigation with low quality water, evidencing a bettering of nutraceutical properties and production parameters.

  10. Hydro-geochemistry and retention of phosphorus in drainage filters and constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canga, Eriona; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The project further explores the denitrification capacity and potential green house gas emissions in different types of constructed wetlands and filter solutions. Sensitivity analyses using integrated models will provide filter design parameters for optimized filter performance and allow analysis of cost...... typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic...... Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies targeting P-retention and N-removal in agricultural subsurface drainage. The project studies different approaches of implementing the filter technologies including drainage well filters as well...

  11. Statistical modelling of organic matter and emerging pollutants removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Cruz Valsero-Blanco, M; Bayona, Josep M; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    Multiple regression models, clustering tree diagrams, regression trees (CHAID) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied to the study of the removal of organic matter and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater by means of constructed wetlands (CWs). These four statistical analyses pointed out the importance of physico-chemical parameters, plant presence and chemical structure in the elimination of most pollutants. Temperature, pH values, dissolved oxygen concentration, redox potential and conductivity were related to the removal of the studied substances. Plant presence (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) enhanced the removal of organic matter and some PPCPs. Multiple regression equations and CHAID trees provided numerical estimations of pollutant removal efficiencies in CWs. These models were validated and they could be a useful and interesting tool for the quick estimation of removal efficiencies in already working CWs and for the design of new systems which must fulfil certain quality requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships of nitrous oxide fluxes with water quality parameters in free water surface constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan WU; Jian ZHANG; Wenlin JIA; Huijun XIE; Bo ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the influent on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, together with the relationships between N2O and water quality parameters in free water surface constructed wetlands, were investigated with laboratoryscale systems. N20 emission and purification performance of wastewater were very strongly dependent on COD concentration in the influent, and the total N2O emission in the system with middle COD influent concentration was the least. The relationships between N2O and the chemical and physical water quality variables were studied by using principal component scores in multiple linear regression analysis to predict N2O flux. The multiple linear regression model against principal components indicated that different water parameters affected N2O flux with different COD concentrations in the influent, but nitrate nitrogen affected N2O flux in all systems.

  13. Impacts of feeding strategy on microbial community structure diversity in vertical flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Q.

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of feeding strategy (intermittently or continuously) on contaminant removal performance and microbial community structure in vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were evaluated. The results showed that intermittent feeding strategy improved the removal of COD, TP and ammonium in VFCWs, although TN removal was weakened correspondingly The bacterial diversity decreased with the increase of substratum depth in all CWs. The intermittent feeding favored the growth of microorganisms due to the enhancement of oxygen content in the substratum. The feeding strategy had little impact on the microbial community in the surface substratum. However, in the bottom substratum, the impacts were of great significance. The microbial community structure similarity between the CWs with different feeding strategies was low.

  14. Furosemide removal in constructed wetlands: Comparative efficiency of LECA and Cork granulates as support matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Dordio, A; Fragoso, R; Leitão, A E; Duarte, E

    2017-12-01

    The removal efficiency of LECA and cork granulates as support matrix for pharmaceuticals active compounds in a constructed wetland system was investigated using the diuretic drug Furosemide. Kinetics studies were performed testing three different concentrations of Furosemide in an ultrapure water matrix, along seven days. LECA achieved higher removal values compared to cork granulates. However, cork granulates presented a higher removal in the first 24 h of contact time compared to the other adsorbent. The kinetic studies showed that LECA and cork granulates have different adsorption behaviours for Furosemide which is controlled by different adsorption mechanisms. Both materials showed good removal efficiencies and a combination of the two should be further explored in order to applied both materials as support matrix to cope with different furosemide concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  16. Removal of Salmonella and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetlands treating agricultural wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gemma; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of pathogenic and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems treating agricultural wastewater. Nine ICW's treating piggery (3) or dairy (6) wastewaters were sampled and indicator micro-organisms were enumerated in the influent as well as the effluent from the first, mid- and final cells. The presence/absence of Salmonella was also determined and any Salmonella isolates recovered were characterized. Mean counts of coliform, E. coli and Enterococcus across all nine ICW systems were lower in the final effluent than in the effluent from cell 1 (P micro-organisms were reduced significantly within ICW, with E. coli and Enterococcus non-detectable in the final effluent. Moreover, Salmonella, when present in the influent, appears to have been removed.

  17. Microbial community structure of different electrode materials in constructed wetland incorporating microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Abayneh, Befkadu; Ding, Yi; Yan, Denghua; Bai, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    The microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) microcosms were operated under fed-batch mode for evaluating the effect of electrode materials on bioelectricity generation and microbial community composition. Experimental results indicated that the bioenergy output in CW-MFC increased with the substrate concentration; maximum average voltage (177mV) was observed in CW-MFC with carbon fiber felt (CFF). In addition, the four different materials resulted in the formation of significantly different microbial community distribution around the anode electrode. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in CFF and foamed nickel (FN) was significantly higher than that in stainless steel mesh (SSM) and graphite rod (GR) samples. Notably, the findings indicate that CW-MFC utilizing FN anode electrode could apparently improve relative abundance of Dechloromonas, which has been regarded as a denitrifying and phosphate accumulating microorganism.

  18. Temperature Impact of Nitrogen Transformation in Technological System: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland and Polishing Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Bydałek, Franciszek

    2016-12-01

    The article describes the results of the research, purpose of which was to evaluate influence of the temperature on the effectiveness of nitrification and denitrification in the sewage treatment system consisting of vertical flow constructed wetland and polishing pond. During the analysed period, the efficiency of removing total nitrogen was low and amounted to 12.7%. In the polishing pond in the summer period, content of total nitrogen in treated sewages was further decreased by nearly 50%. In the winter period, the polishing pond fulfilled mainly retention role and thus did not improve effectiveness of the whole system. Temperature coefficients, calculated on the basis of single first-order kinetics, for nitrification process in the filter bed (N-NH4+) and denitrification process in the polishing pond (N-NO3-) amounted to 1.039 and 1.089, respectively.

  19. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality.

  20. A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades. CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted.

  1. Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies.

  2. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  3. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.

  4. Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of plants in the treatment of effluents by constructed wetland (CW systems is under debate. Here, we review ways in which plants can affect CW processes and suggest two novel functions for plants in CWs. The first is salt phytoremediation by halophytes. We have strong evidence that halophytic plants can reduce wastewater salinity by accumulating salts in their tissues. Our studies have shown that Bassia indica, a halophytic annual, is capable of salt phytoremediation, accumulating sodium to up to 10% of its dry weight. The second novel use of plants in CWs is as phytoindicators of water quality. We demonstrate that accumulation of H2O2, a marker for plant stress, is reduced in the in successive treatment stages, where water quality is improved. It is recommended that monitoring and management of CWs consider the potential of plants as phytoremediators and phytoindicators.

  5. Soil microbial abundances and enzyme activities in different rhizospheres in an integrated vertical flow constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Jiang, Qinsu; Min, Hang; Fan, Haitian; Zeng, Qiang; Chang, Jie [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Chongbang [School of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Yue, Chunlei [Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Rhizosphere microorganism is an important bio-component for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). Microbial abundance and enzyme activities in the rhizospheres of nine plant species were investigated in an integrated vertical-flow CW. The abundance of denitrifiers, as well as urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase activities were positively correlated to plant root biomass. The abundance of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, and phosphorus decomposers, related to nutrient removal efficiencies in CWs, greatly varied among rhizospheres of different plant species (p < 0.05). Significant differences in rhizosphere enzyme activity among plant species were also observed (p < 0.05), with the exception of catalase activity. The principal component analysis using the data of microbial abundance and enzyme activity showed that Miscanthus floridulus, Acorus calamus, and Reineckia carnea were candidates to be used in CWs to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Optimizations on supply and distribution of dissolved oxygen in constructed wetlands: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaqing; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Lu, Shaoyong; Wu, Haiming

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important factors that can influence pollutants removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). However, problems of insufficient oxygen supply and inappropriate oxygen distribution commonly exist in traditional CWs. Detailed analyses of DO supply and distribution characteristics in different types of CWs were introduced. It can be concluded that atmospheric reaeration (AR) served as the promising point on oxygen intensification. The paper summarized possible optimizations of DO in CWs to improve its decontamination performance. Process (tidal flow, drop aeration, artificial aeration, hybrid systems) and parameter (plant, substrate and operating) optimizations are particularly discussed in detail. Since economic and technical defects are still being cited in current studies, future prospects of oxygen research in CWs terminate this review.

  7. Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2005-02-01

    A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance.

  8. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the bioassay.

  9. Experimental Study on Anoxic/Oxic Bioreactor and Constructed Wetland for Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the removal of nutrients from the domestic wastewater through the application of integrated anoxic/oxic (A/O bio-reactor and constructed wetland system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and experimented for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4+-N, NO3--N and TP in the laboratory. Different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT and recycle ratios were applied in the reactor to evaluate their influence on removal efficiency of nutrients. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH ranges was 7.6-8.1. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 47, 68, 74, 83 and 85% at HRT of 1.5, 4, 2, 3 and 5 h. The average removal of NH4+-N was 60.3, 63.0, 64.4, 71 and 91.8 % operated with HRT of 2, 3, 5, 1.5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of NO3- -N was 92, 94, 95 and 97% run with HRT of 2, 1.5, 3, 5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of TP was 78, 85, 88 and 89% operated with HRT of 5, 3, 2 and 1 h. This system removed up to 74.1, 94.4 and 85% of NH4+-N, NO3- -N and TP with proper pH control using external source of alkalinity. The result showed the optimum recycle ratio of 3. The results obtained attest that, the integrated anoxic/oxic bioreactor and constructed wetland is feasible and efficient for wastewater treatment.

  10. Assessment of long-term phosphorus retention in an integrated constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán N

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nature of the phosphorus (P) removal mechanisms associated with constructed wetlands, the sustainability of P treatment is usually of high interest. As a result, a 4-year dataset from a typical multi-celled integrated constructed wetland (ICW) located at Glaslough in Co. Monaghan, Ireland was evaluated to determine the effects of long-term P loadings and hydrological inputs on P treatment. The ICW was intensively monitored year-round from February 2008 through March 2012 for total P and molybdate reactive phosphate (MRP). Domestic wastewater was loaded at 16.4 ± 0.96 g m(2) year(-1) for total P and 11.2 ± 0.74 g m(2) year(-1) for MRP. Average mass reductions over the monitoring period were 91.4 and 90.1%, respectively. The area-based kinetic coefficients (K(20)) of 11.8 for total P and 15.6 m year(-1) for MRP indicated a high area-specific retention rate. The ICW appeared to have a sustained capacity for P adsorption and retention, but the treatment was influenced mainly by external hydrological inputs and fluctuations in wastewater loadings. Linear regression analyses showed a reduction in mass retention of both total P and MRP with increased effluent flow volumes. Monthly mass reductions exceeded 90% when the effluent flow volumes were less than 200 m(3) day(-1). When monthly effluent flow volumes exceeded 200 m(3) day(-1), nonetheless, mass reductions became highly variable. Designs and management of ICW systems should adopt measures to limit external hydrological loadings in order to maintain sufficient P treatment.

  11. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized.

  12. Some Suggestions for the Construction of Kuihu Lake Provincial Wetland Park%奎湖省级湿地公园建设的几点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方伏

    2015-01-01

    本文根据奎湖湿地的实际情况,提出了奎湖湿地公园建设中存在的一些问题,并针对存在的问题,提出了一些建议和措施,为奎湖省级湿地公园建设提供参考。%In May, 2014, Anhui Provincial Wetland Conservation Center gave approval to planned construction of Kuihu Lake Provincial Wetland Park (pilot project), applied for by Forestry Bureau of Nanling County. At present, the construction of Kuihu Lake Provincial Wetland Park has started. According to the actualities of Kuihu Lake wetland, this paper pointed out some existing problems in its construction and put foward some specific suggestions and measures to provide reference for the construction of Kuihu Lake Provincial Wetland Park.

  13. Removal of nutrients from combined sewer overflows and lake water in a vertical-flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, L; Brix, H

    2001-01-01

    Lake Utterslev is situated in a densely built-up area of Copenhagen, and is heavily eutrophicated from combined sewer overflows. At the same time the lake suffers from lack of water. Therefore, a 5,000 m2 vertical flow wetland system was constructed in 1998 to reduce the phosphorus discharge from combined sewer overflows without reducing the water supply to the lake. During dry periods the constructed wetland is used to remove phosphorus from the lake water. The system is designed as a 90 m diameter circular bed with a bed depth of c. 2 m. The system is isolated from the surroundings by a polyethylene membrane. The bed medium consists of a mixture of gravel and crushed marble, which has a high binding capacity for phosphorus. The bed is located within the natural littoral zone of the lake and is planted with common reed (Phragmites australis). The constructed wetland is intermittently loaded with combined sewer overflow water or lake water and, after percolation through the bed medium, the water is collected in a network of drainage pipes at the bottom of the bed and pumped to the lake. The fully automated loading cycle results in alternating wet and dry periods. During the initial two years of operation, the phosphorus removal for combined sewer overflows has been consistently high (94-99% of inflow concentrations). When loaded with lake water, the phosphorus removal has been high during summer (71-97%) and lower during winter (53-75%) partly because of lower inlet concentrations. Effluent phosphorus concentrations are consistently low (0.03-0.04 mg/L). Ammonium nitrogen is nitrified in the constructed wetland, and total suspended solids and COD are generally reduced to concentrations below 5 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The study documents that a subsurface flow constructed wetland system can be designed and operated to effectively remove phosphorus and other pollutants from combined sewer overflows and eutrophicated lake water.

  14. Effect of a constructed wetland on disinfection byproducts: Removal processes and production of precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Martin, B.S.; Barber, L.B.; Leenheer, J.A.; Daniel, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (TH M), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (THM), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater

  16. 鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设的SWOT分析%Analysis on National Wetland Park Construction SWOT of Hebi q River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫

    2012-01-01

    This paper hebi q river national wetland park construction, for example, in the wetland park deficiencies in the construction theory, from the protection and improvement of the wetland habitat, and analyses the construction of national wetland park of existing strengths, weaknesses, the opportunities and challenge faced. Through to the wetland park the SWOT analysis, explore construction hebi q river national importance of wetland park, make full use of the wetland park geographical location, biological resources, tourist resources and cultural resources advantage and realize hebi q river national wetland park construction necessity and sustainable development.%以鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设为例,针对目前湿地公园建设理论方面的不足,从保护和改善湿地生境入手,探讨了建设国家湿地公园存在的优势、劣势,面临的机遇和挑战。通过对湿地公园进行SWOT分析,指出了建设鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园的重要性,提出了利用湿地公园的地理位置、生物资源、旅游资源、文化资源等优势,以实现鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设的可持续发展。

  17. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: A mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Mitsch, W.J.; Wolfe, W.E.

    2001-07-01

    This paper investigates the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms.

  18. Chromium removal from wastewater using HSF and VF pilot-scale constructed wetlands: Overall performance, and fate and distribution of this element within the wetland environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2017-02-01

    The current experimental work aimed at the investigation of the overall chromium removal capacity of constructed wetlands (CWs) and the chromium fate-distribution within a wetland environment. For this purpose, the experimental setup included the parallel operation and monitoring of two horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) pilot-scale CWs and two vertical flow (VF) pilot-scale CWs treating Cr-bearing wastewater. Samples were collected from the influent, the effluent, the substrate and the plants. Apart from the continuous experiment, batch experiments (kinetics and isotherm) were conducted in order to investigate the chromium adsorption capacity of the substrate material. According to the findings, HSF-CWs demonstrated higher removal capacities in comparison to VF-CWs, while in both types the planted units indicated better performance compared to the unplanted ones. Analysis in various wetland compartments and annual mass balance calculation highlighted the exceptional contribution of substrate to chromium retention, while Cr accumulation in plant was not so high. Finally, experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models regarding kinetics and isotherm simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

    2014-07-01

    Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Ambrose, Richard F; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Zhao, Zhimiao

    2016-05-01

    Microcosm horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were used to examine the impacts of vegetation on nitrogen dynamics treating different influent COD/N ratios (1:1, 4:1, and 8:1). An increase in the COD/N ratio led to increased reductions in NO3 and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in planted and unplanted wetlands, but diminished removal of NH4. The HSSFCW planted with Canna indica L. exhibited a significant reduction in NH4 compared to the unplanted system, particularly in the active root zone where NH4 removal performance increased by up to 26 % at the COD/N ratio of 8:1. There was no significant difference in NO3 removal between the planted and unplanted wetlands. TIN removal efficiency in the planted wetland increased with COD/N ratios, which was likely influenced by plant uptake. NH4 reductions were greater in planted wetland at the 20- and 40-cm depths while NO3 reductions were uniformly greater with depth in all cases, but no statistical difference was impacted by depth on TIN removal. These findings show that planting a HSSFCW can provide some benefit in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents, but only when a sufficient carbon source is present.

  1. Selenium removal and mass balance in a constructed flow-through wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Tanji, K K; Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Peters, D W

    2003-01-01

    A field study on the removal of Se from agricultural subsurface drainage was conducted from May 1997 to February 2001 in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) of San Joaquin Valley, California. A flow-through wetland system was constructed consisting of ten 15- x 76-m unlined cells that were continuously flooded and planted with either a monotype or combination of plants, including sturdy bulrush [Schoenoplectus robustus (Pursh) M.T. Strong], baltic rush (Juncus balticus Willd.), smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.), rabbitsfoot grass [Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.], salt-grass lDistichlis spicata (L.) Greene], cattail (Typha latifolia L.), tule [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. Löve & D. Löve], and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima L.). One cell had no vegetation planted. The objectives of this research were to evaluate Se removal efficiency of each wetland cell and to carry out a mass balance on Se. The inflow drainage water to the cells had average annual Se concentrations of 19 to 22 microg L(-1) dominated by selenate [Se(VI), 95%]. Average weekly water residence time varied from about 3 to 15 d for Cells 1 through 7 (target 7 d), 19 to 33 d for Cells 8 and 9 (target 21 d), and 13 to 18 d for Cell 10 (target 14 d). Average weekly Se concentration ratios of outflow to inflow ranged from 0.45 to 0.79 and mass ratio (concentration x water volume) from 0.24 to 0.52 for year 2000, that is, 21 to 55% reduction in Se concentration and 48 to 76% Se removal in mass by the wetland, respectively. The nonvegetated cell showed the least Se removal both in concentration and in mass. The global mass balance showed that on the average about 59% of the total inflow Se was retained within the cells and Se outputs were outflow (35%), seepage (4%), and volatilization (2%). Independent measurements of the Se retained in the cells totaled 53% of the total Se inflow: 33% in the surface (0-20 cm) sediment, 18% in the organic detrital layer above the

  2. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  3. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of atrazine degradation in subsurface flow constructed wetland under different salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Wen, Yue; Jiang, Lingyan; Li, Jianbo; Yang, Silu; Zhou, Qi

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the treatment capability of subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) and the effect of salinity on the degradation of atrazine, the degradation of atrazine in SFCW was studied. Under the static condition, the degradation of atrazine in SFCW followed first-order kinetics: c=0.09679 exp(-0.0396t) (c, residue concentration, mg l(-1); t, retention time, d), with a half-life of approximately 17.5 days. The atrazine degradation kinetic functions were established for salinities of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g l(-1), respectively, which appeared to approach first-order kinetics. The effect of salinity on the atrazine treatment efficiency showed an exponential inhibition: lnk=3.204+0.04991 C (k, degradation constant; C, NaCl concentration, mg l(-1)). The attenuation of atrazine in SFCW cannot be a result of hydrolysis or sorption process. It was considered that some bacteria in the wetland system degraded atrazine into deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and sequentially into CO(2) and H(2)O. Salinity impacted on the growth of bacteria resulting in a switch of the microbial community. With the increase of salinity, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index in the SFCW system declined. The relationship between atrazine degradation constant (k) and Shannon Index was established as shown in linear phase, y=-0.07286+0.0363x. The positive correlation between them indicated that microbial community played an important role in the atrazine degradation process.

  5. Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Abdelhakeem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSFCW for sewage effluent treatment was studied in an eight month experiment under different operational conditions including: vegetation (the presence or absence of common reeds “Phragmites australis”, media type (gravel or vermiculite, and mode of sewage feeding (continuous or batch. Plants had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the removal efficiency and mass removal rate of all pollutants, except phosphorous. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, ammonium (NH4 and total-P (TP were 75%, 84%, 75%, 32% and 22% for the planted beds compared to 29%, 37%, 42%, 26% and 17%, respectively, for the unplanted beds. The VSSFCW was ineffective in removing nitrate (NO3. The effect of either media type or feeding mode system on the removal efficiency of COD and BOD was insignificant. Vermiculite media significantly (P < 0.05 increased the efficiency of the wetland in removing NH4, TP and dissolved phosphorous (DP when compared with gravel particularly in the planted beds. The batch mode was more effective in removing TSS and NH4 compared to the continuous mode. Volumetric rate constant (kV was different for various pollutants and significantly increased due to the presence of plants. Media type had no significant effect on the values of kV for COD, BOD and TSS, while kV for NH4 and TP under vermiculite in the planted beds and kV for P in the unplanted beds were significantly higher than those under gravel.

  6. Management and treatment of landfill leachate by a system of constructed wetlands and ponds in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C H; Quek, B S; Shutes, R B E; Goh, K H

    2013-01-01

    Lorong Halus, Singapore's first landfill leachate treatment system, consists of a pre-treatment system (8,000 m(2)), five constructed reed beds (38,000 m(2)), five polishing ponds (13,000 m(2)), an education centre and a learning trail for visitors. Eight species of wetland plants (total 160,000 plants) were selected for their ability to uptake nutrients, tolerance to low phosphorus concentrations and resistance to pest infestations. The wetland was launched in March 2011 and water quality monitoring started in April 2011. The removal efficiencies of the pre-treatment system from April 2011 to August 2012 are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 57.4%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) 23.6%; total suspended solids (TSS) 55.1%; ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) 76.8%; total phosphorus (TP) 33.3% and total nitrogen (TN) 60.2%. Removal efficiencies of the reed beds are BOD5 47.0%; COD 42.2%; TSS 57.0%; NH4-N 82.5%; TP 29.3% and TN 83.9%. Plant growth is generally satisfactory, but the lower than designed volume of leachate has adversely affected some sections of plants and resulted in uneven flow distribution in reed beds. The plant management programme includes improving plant regrowth by harvesting of alternate strips of plants and replanting. The treated effluent meets water quality limits for discharge to the public sewer and is subsequently treated by the NEWater treatment system, which recycles water for industrial and indirect potable use.

  7. Overview of the state of the art of constructed wetlands for decentralized wastewater management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Beretta, M; Fragoso, R; Duarte, E

    2017-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) commonly require large capital investments as well as operation and maintenance costs. Constructed wetlands (CWs) appear as a cost-effective treatment, since they can remove a broad range of contaminants by a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes with a low cost. Therefore, CWs can be successfully applied for decentralized wastewater treatment in regions with low population density and/or with large land availability as Brazil. The present work provides a review of thirty nine studies developed on CWs implemented in Brazil to remove wastewater contaminants. Brazil current sanitation data is also considered to evaluate the potential role of CWs as decentralized wastewater treatment. Performance of CWs was evaluated according to (i) type of wetland system, (ii) different support matrix (iii) vegetation species and (iv) removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The reviewed CWs in overall presented good efficiencies, whereas H-CWs achieved the highest removals for P, while the higher results for N were attained on VF-CW and for COD and BOD5 on HF-CW. Therefore, was concluded that CWs are an interesting solution for decentralized wastewater treatment in Brazil since it has warm temperatures, extensive radiation hours and available land. Additionally, the low percentage of population with access to the sewage network in the North and Northeast regions makes these systems especially suitable. Hence, the further implementation of CW is encouraged by the authors in regions with similar characteristics as Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of wild macrophytes for use in constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of contaminant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Philippe, Anna; Petit, Marie-Eléonore; Masotti, Véronique; Monnier, Yogan; Malleret, Laure; Coulomb, Bruno; Combroux, Isabelle; Baumberger, Teddy; Viglione, Julien; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer an alternative to traditional industrial wastewater treatment systems that has been proved to be efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Most of the time, CWs are planted with proliferative species such as Phragmites australis or with plants originating from nurseries, both representing a risk for the natural biodiversity conservation of aquatic ecosystems located downstream of the CWs. For the removal of metals and organic pollutant mixtures present in industrial effluents, it is necessary to select tolerant plant species that are able to produce a high aboveground biomass and to develop a healthy belowground system. Wild plant species growing in aquatic bodies at industrial outfalls could constitute suitable tolerant species to use in CWs for industrial effluent treatment. To test this hypothesis, we assessed, under laboratory conditions (using an experimental design), the tolerance to mixtures of metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) or/and organic pollutants (THC, PHE, PYR, LAS) of five European sub-cosmopolitan native macrophytes (Alisma lanceolatum, Carex cuprina, Epilobium hirsutum, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus inflexus) that had been collected in a polluted Mediterranean wetland, after a field study (crossing ecological relevés and analyses of contaminant concentrations in water and sediments). Our results demonstrated that research on phytoremediation of industrial effluents should focus much more on the use of native macrophytes growing at short distances from industrial discharges (such as C. cuprina in this study), and that root/shoot ratio, aerial height and proportion of green leaves are good and cost-effective indicators of plant tolerance to metals and organic pollutant mixtures in laboratory studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Constructed Wetlands for Agricultural Wastewater Treatment in Northeastern North America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Rozema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CW are a treatment option for agricultural wastewater. Their ability to adequately function in cold climates continues to be evaluated as they are biologically active systems that depend on microbial and plant activity. In order to assess their performance and to highlight regional specific design considerations, a review of CWs in Eastern Canada and the Northeastern USA was conducted. Here, we synthesize performance data from 21 studies, in which 25 full-scale wetlands were assessed. Where possible, data were separated seasonally to evaluate the climatic effects on treatment performance. The wastewater parameters considered were five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS, E. coli, fecal coliforms, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+-N, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N, and total phosphorus (TP. Average concentration reductions were: BOD5 81%, TSS 83%, TKN 75%, NH4+-N 76%, NO3−-N 42%, and TP 64%. Average log reductions for E. coli and fecal coliforms were 1.63 and 1.93, respectively. Average first order areal rate constants (ka, m·y−1 were: BOD5 6.0 m·y−1, TSS 7.7 m·y−1, E. coli 7.0 m·y−1, fecal coliforms 9.7 m·y−1, TKN 3.1 m·y−1, NH4+-N 3.3 m·y−1, NO3−-N 2.5 m·y−1, and TP 2.9 m·y−1. In general, CWs effectively treated a variety of agricultural wastewaters, regardless of season.

  10. Factors affecting linear alkylbenzene sulfonates removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuming; LaTorre, Ana; Barceló, Damià; García, Joan; Aguirre, Paula; Mujeriego, Rafael; Bayona, Josep M

    2004-05-01

    The behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and sulfophenyl carboxylate (SPC) biointermediates in a pilot subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) is reported for the first time. The effects of wetland configuration and operation on their treatment efficiency were investigated. The pilot SFCW constituted by eight beds of 55 m2 with different aspect ratios (1 x 1; 1.5 x 1; 2 x 1; 2.5 x 1), two water depths (i.e., 0.47 and 0.27 cm) at 5 cm below surface and two medium sizes (i.e., D60 = 10 mm and 3.5 mm) planted with Phragmites sp. That SFCW pilottreats urban wastewater (i.e., 200 inhabitants) and was operated at four hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (20, 27, 36, and 45 mm d(-1)). Influent and effluent sampling was carried out from May 2001 to January 2002 with a weekly pattern. Main results were as follows: (i) water depth has a major influence on the performance of SFCW for the LAS removal, and HLR shows significant effect on SPC evolution; (ii) water temperature has a significant effect on the LAS evolution; (iii) biodegradation of LAS and SPC can occur under sulfate-reducing environment and mixed conditions (i.e., sulfate-reducing and denitrification), but aerobic respiration cannot be excluded; and (iv) C13 LAS homologues were generally removed in higher extent than the shorter alkyl chain counterparts. In the most appropriate conditions, LAS and SPC can be biodegraded up to 71% and 11%, respectively, in the pilot SFCW evaluated.

  11. Removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole in saturated constructed wetland mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Liang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole at realistic concentration levels (10 and 100 μg L(-1)) in saturated constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms planted with five wetland plant species (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus and Berula erecta) at different hydraulic loading rates during summer and winter. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole was not influenced by the influent concentration, but the removal efficiency for both compounds was lower in winter than in summer. Planted mesocosms had significantly higher removal efficiencies than the unplanted controls only in summer. The first-order kinetics model fitted the tebuconazole removal in all mesocosms, and the reaction rate constants varied by plant species and season (0.1-0.7 d(-1) in winter and 0.6-2.9 d(-1) in summer). For imazalil, the first-order kinetics model fitted the removal only in mesocosms planted with Phragmites australis (k = 1.2 ± 0.4 d(-1)) and in the unplanted control (k = 1.2 ± 0.5 d(-1) in both summer and winter). The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole by sorption to the bed substrate and plant uptake were low, suggesting a high rate of metabolization in the saturated CW mesocosms. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole correlated with the rate of evapotranspiration and the removal of nutrients (N and P) during summer and with the DO/oxygen saturation during winter. This reveals two possible metabolization pathways: degradation inside the plant tissue after uptake and plant-stimulated microbial degradation in the bed substrate. Furthermore, the results indicate that nitrifying bacteria may play an active role in the biodegradation of these pesticides.

  12. Ammonium tolerance and toxicity of Actinoscirpus grossus - A candidate species for use in tropical constructed wetland systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwpuan, Narumol; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Actinoscirpus grossus, a native species in tropical wetlands of South-East Asia, North Australia and the Pacific islands, has been reported to perform well in experimental scale constructed wetland (CW) systems. However, little is known about how high NH4+ concentrations prevailing in wastewater ...

  13. Flight distance of mosquitoes (Culicidae): A metadata analysis to support the management of barrier zones around rewetted and newly constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Besse-Lototskaya, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Society responds to changes in climate and land use via mitigation measures, including rainwater retention and storage in rewetted and newly constructed wetlands. Humans living close to these wetlands express concerns about future mosquito nuisance situations, and request the necessary distance betw

  14. Flight distance of mosquitoes (Culicidae): A metadata analysis to support the management of barrier zones around rewetted and newly constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Besse-Lototskaya, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Society responds to changes in climate and land use via mitigation measures, including rainwater retention and storage in rewetted and newly constructed wetlands. Humans living close to these wetlands express concerns about future mosquito nuisance situations, and request the necessary distance

  15. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to sediment N2 production in a surface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V; Eyre, Bradley D; Davison, Leigh

    2008-12-15

    This study used anaerobic slurry assays and intact core incubations to quantify potential rates of anammox (anaerobic ammonia oxidation) in sediments along the flow path of a surface flow constructed wetland receiving secondary treated sewage effluent. Anammox occurred at two of the four sites assayed with a maximum rate of 199.4 +/- 18.7 micromol N x m(-2) x hr(-1) (24% of total N2 production) at the discharge end of the wetland. Denitrification was the major producer of N2, with a maximum rate of 965.3 +/- 122.8 micromol N x m(-2) x hr(-1) at site 2. Oxygen was probably the key regulator of anammox activity within the studied CW. In addition to anammox, we found evidence that nitrifier-denitrification was potentially responsible for the production of N2O. Total production of N2O was 15.1% of the total gaseous N produced. Limitations to the methodology for quantifying anammox in CW's are outlined. This study demonstrated that denitrification is not the only pathway for gaseous production in constructed wetlands and that wetlands may be significant sources of greenhouse gases such as N2O.

  16. Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow.

  17. Operational, design and microbial aspects related to power production with microbial fuel cells implemented in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Puigagut, Jaume

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed at determining the amount of energy that can be harvested by implementing microbial fuel cells (MFC) in horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) during the treatment of real domestic wastewater. To this aim, MFC were implemented in a pilot plant based on two HSSF CW, one fed with primary settled wastewater (Settler line) and the other fed with the effluent of a hydrolytic up-flow sludge blanket reactor (HUSB line). The eubacterial and archaeal community was profiled on wetland gravel, MFC electrodes and primary treated wastewater by means of 16S rRNA gene-based 454-pyrosequencing and qPCR of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes. Maximum current (219 mA/m(2)) and power (36 mW/m(2)) densities were obtained for the HUSB line. Power production pattern correlated well with water level fluctuations within the wetlands, whereas the type of primary treatment implemented had a significant impact on the diversity and relative abundance of eubacteria communities colonizing MFC. It is worth noticing the high predominance (13-16% of relative abundance) of one OTU belonging to Geobacter on active MFC of the HUSB line that was absent for the settler line MFC. Hence, MFC show promise for power production in constructed wetlands receiving the effluent of a HUSB reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of a wall cascade constructed wetland treating surfactant-polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiazzo, Jessica; Breschigliaro, Simone; Salvato, Michela; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Carwashes are highly water-consuming processes that require wastewater treatment before discharge into a sewer system due to the complex composition of leachate. Anionic surfactants (AS) are the main constituents of this wastewater because of their cleaning and solubilization properties; they can be potentially dangerous for the environment if not adequately treated. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are low-cost systems increasingly used to treat different types of wastewater; however, there are few studies on their use for the treatment of carwash wastewater. In this study, an innovative constructed wetland arranged in a "cascade" to simulate a wall system (WCCW) was experimented in 2010 and 2011 to treat AS. Three plant species were tested at different AS inlet concentrations (10, 50, and 100 mg L(-1)) with two hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 3 and 6 days): ribbon grass (Typhoides arundinacea (L.) Moench (syn. Phalaris arundinacea L.) var. picta; Ta), water mint (Mentha aquatica L.; Ma), and divided sedge (Carex divisa Hudson; Cd). All plant species grew constantly over the experimental period, showing a capacity to tolerate even the highest AS concentration. Using the HRT of 6 days, raising the inlet concentration increased the AS outlet concentration, with similar values for the treatments (median values of 0.13-0.15, 0.47-0.78, and 1.19-1.46 mg L(-1) at inlet concentrations in the order 10, 50, and 100 mg L(-1)). The shorter HRT led to significant differences among treatments in the reduction of outlet concentration, the best result being given by the tanks vegetated with Ma (A = 97.7 % with outlet concentration 0.35 mg L(-1)). After treatments of the WCCW, the AS content was reduced almost completely, with removal in the ranges 0.07-10.2 g m(-2) day(-1) for tanks planted with Ta, 0.10-9.1 g m(-2) day(-1) for Ma tanks, and 0.11-9.5 g m(-2) day(-1) for Cd tanks depending on the inlet concentration.

  19. Aerobic Toluene Degraders in the Rhizosphere of a Constructed Wetland Model Show Diurnal Polyhydroxyalkanoate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lünsmann, Vanessa; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Taubert, Anja; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; von Bergen, Martin; Heipieper, Hermann J; Müller, Jochen A; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-07-15

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are successfully applied for the treatment of waters contaminated with aromatic compounds. In these systems, plants provide oxygen and root exudates to the rhizosphere and thereby stimulate microbial degradation processes. Root exudation of oxygen and organic compounds depends on photosynthetic activity and thus may show day-night fluctuations. While diurnal changes in CW effluent composition have been observed, information on respective fluctuations of bacterial activity are scarce. We investigated microbial processes in a CW model system treating toluene-contaminated water which showed diurnal oscillations of oxygen concentrations using metaproteomics. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess diurnal expression patterns of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation. We observed stable aerobic toluene turnover by Burkholderiales during the day and night. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis was upregulated in these bacteria during the day, suggesting that they additionally feed on organic root exudates while reutilizing the stored carbon compounds during the night via the glyoxylate cycle. Although mRNA copies encoding the anaerobic enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) were relatively abundant and increased slightly at night, the corresponding protein could not be detected in the CW model system. Our study provides insights into diurnal patterns of microbial processes occurring in the rhizosphere of an aquatic ecosystem. Constructed wetlands are a well-established and cost-efficient option for the bioremediation of contaminated waters. While it is commonly accepted knowledge that the function of CWs is determined by the interplay of plants and microorganisms, the detailed molecular processes are considered a black box. Here, we used a well-characterized CW model system treating toluene-contaminated water to investigate the microbial processes influenced by diurnal plant root exudation. Our results indicated stable

  20. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  1. Effect of different plant species in pilot constructed wetlands for wastewater reuse in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the first results of an experiment carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily on the evapotranspiration (ET and removal in constructed wetlands with five plant species are presented. The pilot plant used for this study is made of twelve horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (each with a surface area of 4.5 m2 functioning in parallel, and it is used for tertiary treatment of part of the effluents from a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (trickling filter. Two beds are unplanted (control while ten beds are planted with five different macrophyte species: Cyperus papyrus, Vetiveria zizanoides, Miscanthus x giganteus, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis (i.e., every specie is planted in two beds to have a replication. The influent flow rate is measured in continuous by an electronic flow meter. The effluent is evaluated by an automatic system that measure the discharged volume for each bed. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on wastewater samples collected at the inlet of CW plant and at the outlet of the twelve beds. An automatic weather station is installed close to the experimental plant, measuring air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, global radiation, relative humidity. This allows to calculate the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 with the Penman-Monteith formula, while the ET of different plant species is measured through the water balance of the beds. The first results show no great differences in the mean removal performances of the different plant species for TSS, COD and E.coli, ranged from, respectively, 82% to 88%, 60% to 64% and 2.7 to 3.1 Ulog. The average removal efficiency of nutrient (64% for TN; 61 for NH4-N, 31% for PO4-P in the P.australis beds was higher than that other beds. From April to November 2012 ET measured for plant species were completely different from ET0 and ETcontrol, underlining the strong effect of vegetation. The cumulative

  2. Potential of Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas in Kosovo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lavdim Osmanaj[1; Agon Haxhikadrija[1; Pierre-Henri Dodane[2; Astrit Vokshi[3

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Kosovo has 1,304 settlements from which only 37 are urban and 1,267 are rural. Shown in percentage, only 39.2% (765,125) of inhabitants live in urban areas. The focus is to work and find the best and cheap solutions for the 60.8% (1,173,370) of inhabitants of the country which live in rural areas. From this number only 42% of them have access to the sewage network while 60.8% of them have implemented individual solutions (latrines) without any treatment, leading to a large pollution of the water bodies. The existing rural sewage networks are built only with septic tanks, poorly designed and do not fulfill the wastewater treatment criteria. Regarding this issue, the Kosovan legislation concerns only urban areas (settlements of more than 2,000 inhabitants) and is expected to be completed in 2014 for rural areas according to the EU (European Union) directive for wastewater discharge. As a pilot project, the CDI (community development initiatives) started with WWTP (waste water treatment plants) based on the Vertical Constructed Wetland option (french model) as it appears to be the most adapted option in this rolling, rural, and temperate climate context, implementing this kind of treatment in 3 villages for the first time in Kosovo. Through this, it is interesting to take a perspective on all the phases of these projects starting from feasibility reports, project design to concept and modalities of implementation and options for operation and maintenance, in order to assess how this technical option is feasible and replicable in the country at a large scale. It finally appears that the potential for constructed wetland in the Balkan region is promising as it provides a simple solution for most of the regional constraints, but requires skills to be developed locally for designing and building as well as a deeper consideration in the national regulation.

  3. Advantages of using subsurface flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in space applications: Ground-based mars base prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; van Thillo, M.; Allen, John

    Research and design of subsurface flow wetland wastewater treatment systems for a ground-based experimental prototype Mars Base facility has been carried out, using a subsurface flow approach. These systems have distinct advantages in planetary exploration scenarios: they are odorless, relatively low-labor and low-energy, assist in purification of water and recycling of atmospheric CO2, and will support some food crops. An area of 6-8 m2 may be sufficient for integration of wetland wastewater treatment with a prototype Mars Base supporting 4-5 people. Discharge water from the wetland system will be used as irrigation water for the agricultural crop area, thus ensuring complete recycling and utilization of nutrients. Since the primary requirements for wetland treatment systems are warm temperatures and lighting, such bioregenerative systems may be integrated into early Mars base habitats, since waste heat from the lights may be used for temperature maintenance in the human living environment. "Wastewater gardens ™" can be modified for space habitats to lower space and mass requirements. Many of its construction requirements can eventually be met with use of in-situ materials, such as gravel from the Mars surface. Because the technology requires little machinery and no chemicals, and relies more on natural ecological mechanisms (microbial and plant metabolism), maintenance requirements are minimized, and systems can be expected to have long operating lifetimes. Research needs include suitability of Martian soil and gravel for wetland systems, system sealing and liner options in a Mars Base, and wetland water quality efficiency under varying temperature and light regimes.

  4. Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeid M M Abed

    Full Text Available Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was 90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences, Cyanobacteria (31%, Bacteriodetes (11.5%, Planctomycetes (7% and Chloroflexi (3%. Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53-100% of C12-C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats' microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters.

  5. [Removal efficiency of C and N in micro-polluted river through a subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang; Dai, Yuan-yuan; Cui, Chun-hong

    2008-08-01

    A subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with reed was used to treat micro-polluted river water in this study with an aim to investigate the long-term treatment efficiency of CWs especially for organic C and N. Average data obtained from two-year plant growth season showed that performance of the wetlands appeared to be affected by both establishment/maturation factors and year-to-year climatic variations. The results displayed that the removal of C and N in the influent depended, to a certain extend, on plant growth and seasonal variations, especially for total N removal. It was observed that C removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs in the first-year's operation period and then was translocated to the rear end of wetlands in the second-year's operation period. C/N ratio in the influent was 5 or more, indicating enough C source supply for denitrification. Organic C removal efficiencies varied from 6.10% to 37.83% throughout the trial. Average total N removal efficiency of 15.51% in the first-year operation period and then declined to 8.61% in the second year. The highest removal efficiency of total N was below 40% throughout the two-year trial. It was found that nitrification and denitrification reached dynamic equilibrium at the middle of the wetlands where the highest total N removal efficiency occurred. The greatest oxygen consumption was observed in the front and middle of CWs. It was noted that nitrification occurred even in deep layer located in the rear end of the wetlands in the second-year operation period. Nitrification and denitrification occurred concurrently with C and total N removal along the stream way. Low-molecular-weight organic acids released from reed rhizosphere seemed to have a significant inhibitory effect on chemoautrophic nitrifying bacteria, which involved in nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetlands, particularly during spring and autumn.

  6. Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

    2014-09-15

    Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m(3) per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 μg L(-1) and beryllium up to 139 μg L(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium.

  7. Evaluating the potential of 'on-line' constructed wetlands for mitigating pesticide transfers from agricultural land to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Michael; Ramos, Andre; Guymer, Ian; Villa, Raffaella; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides make important contributions to modern agriculture but losses from land to water can present problems for environmental management, particularly in catchments where surface waters are abstracted for drinking water. Where artificial field drains represent a dominant pathway for pesticide transfers, buffer zones provide little mitigation potential. Instead, "on-line" constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential means of reducing pesticide fluxes in drainage ditches and headwater streams. Here, we evaluate the potential of small free-surface wetlands to reduce pesticide concentrations in surface waters using a combination of field monitoring and numerical modelling. Two small constructed wetland systems in a first order catchment in Cambridgeshire, UK, were monitored over the 2014-2015 winter season. Discharge was measured at several flow control structures and samples were collected every eight hours and analysed for metaldehyde, a commonly-used molluscicide. Metaldehyde is moderately mobile and, like many other compounds, it has been regularly detected at high concentrations in surface water samples in a number of drinking water supply catchments in the UK over the past few years. However, it is unusually difficult to remove via conventional drinking water treatment which makes it particularly problematical for water companies. Metaldehyde losses from the upstream catchment were significant with peak concentrations occurring in the first storm events in early autumn, soon after application. Concentrations and loads appeared to be unaffected by transit through the wetland over a range of flow conditions - probably due to short solute residence times (quantified via several tracing experiments employing rhodamine WT - a fluorescent dye). A dynamic model, based on fugacity concepts, was constructed to describe chemical fate in the wetland system. The model was used to evaluate mitigation potential and management options under field conditions and

  8. Effects of aeration position on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Wu, Qing; Yan, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Given that few studies investigated the effects of aeration position (AP) on the performance of aerated constructed wetlands, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AP on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in lab-scale combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland (OP-CW) systems. Results showed that middle aeration allowed the CW to possess more uniform oxygen distribution and to achieve greater removals of COD and NH3-N, while the CW under bottom aeration and surface aeration demonstrated more distinct stratification of oxygen distribution and surface aeration brought about better TN removal capacity for the OP-CW system. However, no significant influence of artificial aeration or AP on TP removal was observed. Overall, AP could significantly affect the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen by influencing the oxygen diffusion paths in aerated CWs, thereby influencing the removal of pollutants, especially organics and nitrogen, which offers a reference for the design of aerated CWs.

  9. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage.

  10. Application of vertical flow constructed wetland in treatment of heavy metals from pulp and paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivoli, A; Mohanraj, R; Seenivasan, R

    2015-09-01

    The paper production is material intensive and generates enormous quantity of wastewater containing organic pollutants and heavy metals. Present study demonstrates the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat the heavy metals from pulp and paper industry effluent by using vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with commonly available macrophytes such as Typha angustifolia, Erianthus arundinaceus, and Phragmites australis. Results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the planted CWs for iron, copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, and cadmium were 74, 80, 60, 70, 71, and 70 %, respectively. On the other hand, the removal efficiency of the unplanted system was significantly lower ranging between 31 and 55 %. Among the macrophytes, T. angustifolia and E. arundinaceus exhibited comparatively higher bioconcentration factor (10(2) to 10(3)) than P. australis.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum sp strain 15-1 as a representative anaerobic toluene-degrader from a constructed wetland model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Cifuentes, Ingrid; Lavanchy, Paula Maria Martinez; Marin-Cevada, Vianey

    2017-01-01

    Previously, Planted Fixed-Bed Reactors (PFRs) have been used to investigate microbial toluene removal in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands. Aerobic toluene degradation was predominant in these model systems although bulk redox conditions were hypoxic to anoxic. However, culture...

  12. New Technology of Papermaking Wastewater Treatment——constructed Wetland System%造纸废水处理新思路——人工湿地系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺明; 陈嘉川; 杨桂花

    2009-01-01

    The concept, characteristics and classification of constructed wetland were described briefly. The mechanisms of papermaking wastewater treatment by constructed wetland were expounded. The functioning effect and analysis of papermaking wastewater treatment by constructed wetland in Shandong Zhanhua Qiming Paper Industry Co., Ltd were introduced,. Finally the application prospect of constructed wetland used in pulp and paper wastewater treatment in China is expected.%简述了人工湿地的概念、特征及分类,阐述了人工湿地处理造纸废水的机理.并以山东省沾化齐明纸业有限公司为例,介绍了人工湿地系统处理造纸废水的运行效果及效益分析,展望了人工湿地用于处理造纸废水在我国的应用前景.

  13. Efficiency of phenol biodegradation by planktonic Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes (a constructed wetland isolate) vs. root and gravel biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, Eyal; Kirzhner, Felix; Sela, Shlomo; Zimmels, Yoram; Armon, Robert

    2010-09-01

    In the last two decades, constructed wetland systems gained increasing interest in wastewater treatment and as such have been intensively studied around the world. While most of the studies showed excellent removal of various pollutants, the exact contribution, in kinetic terms, of its particular components (such as: root, gravel and water) combined with bacteria is almost nonexistent. In the present study, a phenol degrader bacterium identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was isolated from a constructed wetland, and used in an experimental set-up containing: plants and gravel. Phenol removal rate by planktonic and biofilm bacteria (on sterile Zea mays roots and gravel surfaces) was studied. Specific phenol removal rates revealed significant advantage of planktonic cells (1.04 × 10(-9) mg phenol/CFU/h) compared to root and gravel biofilms: 4.59 × 10(-11)-2.04 × 10(-10) and 8.04 × 10(-11)-4.39 × 10(-10) (mg phenol/CFU/h), respectively. In batch cultures, phenol biodegradation kinetic parameters were determined by biomass growth rates and phenol removal as a function of time. Based on Haldane equation, kinetic constants such as μ(max) = 1.15/h, K(s) = 35.4 mg/L and K(i) = 198.6 mg/L fit well phenol removal by P. pseudoalcaligenes. Although P. pseudoalcaligenes planktonic cells showed the highest phenol removal rate, in constructed wetland systems and especially in those with sub-surface flow, it is expected that surface associated microorganisms (biofilms) will provide a much higher contribution in phenol and other organics removal, due to greater bacterial biomass. Factors affecting the performance of planktonic vs. biofilm bacteria in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands are further discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on the wastewater treatment efficiency in the vertical flow constructed wetland with the dolomite used as the filter media

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakevičienė, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the research The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the constructed wetlands of vertical filtration with various fractions of dolomite used as the filter media to remove pollutants from the wastewater under the laboratory and industrial conditions and using experimental methods and after the research to prepare the calculation methodology for the filters with dolomite chippings used as the filter media. Objectives of the research In order to ...

  15. 人工湿地设计研究进展%Research Progress on the Design of Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹笑笑; 吕宪国; 张仲胜; 邹元春; 孙广智

    2013-01-01

    从人工湿地的组成——基质、植物、水流方式,阐述人工湿地的去污机理,并综合国内外人工湿地的设计方法,对其关键因素进行分析,探讨人工湿地结构组成因素的选择及确定方法.综述结果表明,人工湿地的出现和发展为净化污水提供了一种生态思路,是未来水处理领域发展的一种趋势,但目前人工湿地的设计理论尚不完善,存在较大的改进空间.如何进一步改进人工湿地结构组成成分、优化设计方案依然是未来人工湿地设计需要解决的问题.%Water environment pollution by human activities is one of the major factors leading to today's water crisis. Compared with traditional wastewater treatment technologies, constructed wetlands have expanded more rapidly due to various advantages that they have, such as low cost, simple maintenance, aesthetic and environmental friendly nature. Despite their rapidly increasing applications, the design of constructed wetlands needs significantly improvement towards more scientific, model-based approach, which is now an important issue of research and development. This paper investigates the mechanisms of pollutant removal in constructed wetlands that are directly affected by substrates, vegetations and water flow patterns. New, conceptual design methods are proposed, based on domestic and overseas experiences, and the impacts of several key design factors are discussed, to improve constructed wetland design.

  16. Apatite as an interesting seed to remove phosphorus from wastewater in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, P; Liénard, A; Grasmick, A; Iwema, A; Kabbabi, A

    2005-01-01

    Intensive use of phosphates has resulted in high P levels in surface waters and therefore eutrophication problems. Over the last decade many studies have revealed the advantage of using specific materials with efficient phosphorus retention capacities. Recent studies state that Ca materials are of particular interest for long-term retention of P, but can induce negative effects. To improve P retention and avoid negative counter-effects we tested the potential of natural apatites. Apatite sorption was evaluated using batch and open reactor experiments. Batch experiments identify sorption mechanisms and the influence of the ionic characteristics of the solution; open reactor experiments evaluate sorption capacities in relation to the ionic composition of the solution and biomass development. In parallel, observation of the material by electron microscopy was used to give more precision information about the mechanisms involved. This work reveals the strong chemical affinity between apatites and phosphorus. Compared to other calcareous materials apatite is better able to maintain low outlet P levels. After more than 550 days feeding, sorption was still present and low P outlet levels were still being obtained when sufficient contact time and calcium content in the solution were ensured. This work demonstrates the advantages of using apatites for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands. The behaviour of apatite in phosphorus retention is explained and its suitability for use in such extensive systems defined.

  17. Seasonal effects of pre-aeration on microbial processes for nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Li, Tian

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal effects of pre-aeration on microbial nitrogen performance in constructed wetlands (CWs) involved with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process were investigated in this study. Slow natural re-aeration rate was the inhibiting factor for total nitrogen removal in CW without pre-aeration, and partial nitrification was the main way for nitrite generation. Besides partial nitrification, pre-aeration provided nitrite generation in CWs with an alternative way: nitrate reduction. Advantage of pre-aeration of influent was much different under various temperature ranges. Mean temperature of 15 °C seemed to be the turning point. With a mean temperature of or higher than 15 °C, nitrate in the influent effectively improved nitrogen removal in CWs. With a mean temperature lower than 15 °C, the nitrate reduction process in CWs was greatly inhibited. The benefit of pre-aeration was weak under this temperature range. Seasonal aeration pattern for the pre-treatment of HSSF CWs might be a more energy-saving alternative in in-suit domestic sewage treatment.

  18. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  19. [Treatment studies of industrial rainoff with a new type of constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Jun; Ma, Yong-Wen; Wan, Jin-Quan; Li, Dong-Ya; Wang, Yan

    2012-03-01

    According to water characteristics of industrial rain runoff in a catchment of Tongsha reservoir, Dongguan city, an improved baffled constructed wetland (BCW) was used for purification experiment study of simulated and on-the-spot rain runoff. The purification effects of simulated rain runoff were compared in different operated phases of BCW. Meanwhile, the variation of the pollutants (COD, SS, TN, TP, NH4(+) -N, Pb, Zn, Cu) along the BCW and their removal mechanism were analyzed and discussed, respectively. In the simulated experiment, the effluent water quality of BCW system met the needs of Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water( GB 3838-2002) III, besides TN met IV, and most of the pollutants were removed in the front of the BCW. In the purification study of on-the-spot rain runoff, removal rate of COD, SS, TN, TP and NH4(+) -N were 90.9%, 97.0%, 83.4%, 92.2% and 90.0%, respectively; removal rate of Pb, Zn and Cu were 98.4%, 94.1% and 93.6%, respectively. The effluent met the grade III. Results showed that there was remarkable treatment performance of industrial catchment rain runoff when BCW system was used, which also can withstand strong shock load. Moreover, a modest variation of temperature affected the removal of pollutants in the BCW insignificantly.

  20. Swine Farm Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetland Planted with Vetiver Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Pongthornpruek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine farm wastewater with Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash (Sri Lanka ecotype in a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The SFCW units were set up to 3 treatments at 10, 15 and 30 cm water levels to find the proper depth for vetiver grass in wastewater treatment. The water quality indicator such as pH, temperature (T, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total phosphorus (TP and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn were analyzed and compared with terms of removal efficiency. The 30 cm water depth has a better removal efficiency of organic substance treatment (BOD and COD. The BOD, COD, TKN and TP removal efficiency had no statistically significant differences between the water depths. TP has the best removal efficiency with average 95.18-96.53%. The treatment of heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn with vetiver grass in different water depths was showed no statistical significance since it can reduce only a small number of these metals. However, the results showed that the effluent from all the treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TKN and pH that followed Thailand’s swine wastewater quality standard.

  1. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators.

  2. Effect of cultivated species and retention time on the performance of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Antover Panazzolo; Borges, Alisson Carraro; de Matos, Antonio Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and cultivated species in vertical-flow constructed wetlands (CW) on the removal of pollutants found in swine wastewater. The applied organic loading per unit area was 20 g m(-2) d(-1) of COD in nine cylindrical CW planted with Cyperus sp., Heliconia rostrata and Hedychium coronarium, and three controls containing only gravel. The HRT tested were 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The following parameters of the CW influent and effluent were analysed: pH, ORP, turbidity, alkalinity, COD, TN, TKN, NH(x), N-NO3(-), TP, K and Na. Statistical analysis was performed at a 1% level of probability according to the Tukey test. It was noted that the greatest reductions were observed when CW were operated at higher HRT. TKN removals were 1.3 times greater than in unplanted CW. The best combination was CW planted with Cyperus sp. operating with a 72 h HRT, presenting the highest average mass removals with values of 69.1% (COD), 56.5% (TKN), 61.7% (NH(x)), 64.3% (TP) and 55.0% (K).

  3. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the influent. The high biomass production plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata could generate the high oxidative environment. Amount of N and P accumulations in plant tissue were increased with the increase of plant biomass production. The system did not show any significantly different on N and P accumulations among the tested-emergent plant species. But the amount of accumulated-N and P were increased with the increase of HRT. N accumulations in plant tissue, effluent, sediment and media of the system with the tested-emergent plant species under HRT of 1-5 days were in the range of 2.17-43.80%, 7.91-27.75%, 19.62-36.86% and 14.39-31.88%, respectively. Also, P accumulations were 0.79-17.01%, 20.35-28.37%, 40.96-56.27% and 9.09-20.47%, respectively.

  4. Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) processing in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often variable, and the contribution to N loss and retention by various pathways (nitrification/denitrification, plant uptake and sediment storage) remains unclear. We studied the seasonal variation of the effects of artificial aeration and three different macrophyte species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Phalaris arundinacea) on N processing (removal rates, transformations and export) using experimental CW mesocosms. Removal of total nitrogen (TN) was higher in summer and in planted and aerated units, with the highest mean removal in units planted with T. angustifolia. Export of ammonium (NH(4)(+)), a proxy for nitrification limitation, was higher in winter, and in unplanted and non-aerated units. Planted and aerated units had the highest export of oxidized nitrogen (NO(y)), a proxy for reduced denitrification. Redox potential, evapotranspiration (ETP) rates and hydraulic retention times (HRT) were all predictors of TN, NH(4)(+) and NO(y) export, and significantly affected by plants. Denitrification was the main N sink in most treatments accounting for 47-62% of TN removal, while sediment storage was dominant in unplanted non-aerated units and units planted with P. arundinacea. Plant uptake accounted for less than 20% of the removal. Uncertainties about the long-term fate of the N stored in sediments suggest that the fraction attributed to denitrification losses could be underestimated in this study.

  5. [Effect of Intermittent Aeration on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Huai-zheng; Zhen, Bao-chong; Liu, Zhen-dong

    2016-03-15

    One-stage vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat effluent from grit chamber in municipal wastewater treatment plant. The CW was divided into aerobic zone and anoxic zone by means of raising the effluent level and installing a perforated pipe. Two parameters (the ratio of aeration time and nonaeration time, aeration cycle) were optimized in the experiment to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. The results suggested that the removal rates of COD and NH₄⁺-N increased while TN showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing ratio. When the ratio was 3:1, the C/N value in the anoxic zone was 4. 8. And the TN effluent concentration was 15.8 mg · L⁻¹ with the highest removal rate (62.1%), which was increased by 12.7% compared with continuous aeration. As the extension of the aeration cycle, the DO effluent concentration as well as the removal rates of COD and NH: -N declined gradually. The TN removal rate reached the maximum (65.5%) when the aeration cycle was 6h. However, the TN removal rate dropped rapidly when the cycle exceeded the hydraulic retention time in the anoxic zone.

  6. Intermittent aeration to improve wastewater treatment efficiency in pilot-scale constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I; Trabi, Christophe L; Hawes, Patrick; Puigagut, Jaume; García, Joan

    2016-07-15

    Forced aeration of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) is nowadays a recognized method to improve treatment efficiency, mainly in terms of ammonium removal. While numerous investigations have been reported testing constant aeration, scarce information can be found about the efficiency of intermittent aeration. This study aims at comparing continuous and intermittent aeration, establishing if there is an optimal regime that will increase treatment efficiency of HSSF CWs whilst minimizing the energy requirement. Full and intermittent aeration were tested in a pilot plant of three HSSF CWs (2.64m(2) each) fed with primary treated wastewater. One unit was fully aerated; one intermittently aerated (i.e. by setting a limit of 0.5mg/L dissolved oxygen within the bed) with the remaining unit not aerated as a control. Results indicated that intermittent aeration was the most successful operating method. Indeed, the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic conditions promoted by the intermittent aeration resulted in the highest COD (66%), ammonium (99%) and total nitrogen (79%) removals. On the other hand, continuous aeration promotes ammonium removal (99%), but resulted in nitrate concentrations in the effluent of up to 27mg/L. This study demonstrates the high potential of the intermittent aeration to increase wastewater treatment efficiency of CWs providing an extreme benefit in terms of the energy consumption.

  7. Application of the removal of pollutants from textile industry wastewater in constructed wetlands using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda; Postalcioglu, Seda

    2017-02-01

    There are more than a hundred textile industries in Turkey that discharge large quantities of dye-rich wastewater, resulting in water pollution. Such effluents must be treated to meet discharge limits imposed by the Water Framework Directive in Turkey. Industrial treatment facilities must be required to monitor operations, keep them cost-effective, prevent operational faults, discharge-limit infringements, and water pollution. This paper proposes the treatment of actual textile wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) systems operation and monitoring effluent wastewater quality using fuzzy logic with a graphical user interface. The treatment performance of VFCW is investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content, color, and pH parameters during a 75-day period of operation. A computer program was developed with a fuzzy logic system (a decision- making tool) to graphically present (via a status analysis chart) the quality of treated textile effluent in relation to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. Fuzzy logic is used in the evaluation of data obtained from the VFCW systems and for notification of critical states exceeding the discharge limits. This creates a warning chart that reports any errors encountered in a reactor during the collection of any sample to the concerned party.

  8. Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, B; Kern, J

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater (TP 45 mg l(-1)) was percolated through buckets planted with reed (volume 9.1 l; hydraulic load 151 m(-2) d(-1)). One group of buckets was kept under aerobic conditions and the other group under anaerobic conditions, monitored by continuous redox potential measurements. Even at high mass loading rates of 0.65 g P m(-1) d(-1) the slag provided 98% removal efficiency and showed no decrease in performance with time. However, phosphorus fractionation data indicate that the high phosphorus retention capacity under aerobic conditions is to a great extent attributable to unstable sorption onto calcium compounds (NH4Cl-P). Phosphorus sorption of both the slag (200 microg P g(-1)) and the iron-ore (140 microg P g(-1)) was promoted by predominantly anaerobic conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth.

  9. Purification of landscape water by using an innovative application of subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyan, Jih Ming; Lu, Chien Chang; Shiu, Ruei Feng; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to purify eutrophic landscape water under a low pollutant concentration and high hydraulic volume loading using an embedded subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland (CW). Three species of aquatic plants (i.e., Cyperus alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis, Canna indica, and Hydrocotyle verticillata) were found to be conducive to the requirements of purifying the low-polluted water. Field results of nearly 2 years of experiments showed that SSF CW purified the eutrophic water and maintained the landscape water in a visibly clear condition. In an environment approaching the SSF CW background concentration, pollutant removal processes were divided into modulation and optimum performance periods. Average concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), and total phosphorous (TP) in the optimum performance period were 0.69-1.00, 0.35-1.42, and 0.19-0.23 mg/L, respectively. Almost 500 days of BOD and NH4 (+)-N removals were necessary to perform optimally. A shorter period, 350 days, was required for TP optimum removal. This feature of two stage removals was not found in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended solids (SS), whose averages were 11.86-17.98 and 13.30 μg/L, respectively. Filter cleaning and water replacement were unnecessary, while only water recharging was needed to compensate for the water lost by evapotranspiration. The field SSF CW has maintained its performance level for over 7 years.

  10. Stormwater Treatment Evaluation of a Constructed Floating Wetland after Two Years Operation in an Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFW for stormwater treatment are increasingly used to treat urban runoff. However, studies of large-scale systems and the long-term evaluation of their treatment efficiency are scarce. This article presents the final results of a two-year study of the pollutant removal performance of a CFW in a stormwater pond capturing runoff from a low-residential catchment in South-East Queensland (Australia under subtropical conditions. Although the CFW treatment area to catchment ratio was only 0.14%, the results demonstrated a significant removal of both Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Phosphorus (TP from the stormwater inflows by the CFW. The efficiency ratios for TSS and TP were 81% and 52%, respectively. While the removal rate for total nitrogen was not significant for the CFW evaluated in this study, the ER was still 17%. However, the ERs for nitrate and nitrogen oxide were both 47%. The study results suggest that it may be possible to increase the pollution removal performance of the CFW by upsizing the system and including intermittent re-aeration zones in the surrounding stormwater pond. The results of this research study clearly demonstrate that CFW can be an effective treatment solution for the removal of pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  11. Modelling and evaluation of nitrogen removal performance in subsurface flow and free water surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsiper, B; Ayaz, S C; Akça, L

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of protecting drinking water sources in rural regions, pilot-scale subsurface water flow (SSF) and free water surface flow (FWS) constructed wetland systems were evaluated for removal efficiencies of nitrogenous pollutants in tertiary stage treated wastewaters (effluent from the Pasaköy biological nutrient removal plant). Five different hydraulic application rates and emergent (Canna, Cyperus, Typhia sp., Phragmites sp., Juncus, Poaceae, Paspalum and Iris) and floating (Pistia, Salvina and Lemna) plant species were assayed. The average annual NH4-N, NO3-N and organic-N treatment efficiencies were 81, 40 and 74% in SSFs and 76, 59 and 75% in FWSs, respectively. Two types of the models (first-order plug flow and multiple regression) were tried to estimate the system performances. Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification rate constants (k20) values in SSF and FWS systems were 0.898 d-1 and 0.541 d(-1), 0.486 d(-1) and 0.502 d(-1), 0.986 d(-1) and 0.908, respectively. Results show that the first-order plug flow model clearly estimates slightly higher or lower values than observed when compared with the other model.

  12. Comparison of the treatment performance of hybrid constructed wetlands treating stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Maniquiz-Redillas, M C; Hong, J S; Lee, S Y; Kim, L H

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the treatment performance of two hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) in treating stormwater runoff. The hybrid CWs were composed of a combination of free water surface (FWS) and horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs. Based on the results, strong correlation exists between potential runoff impacts and stormwater characteristics; however, the low correlations also suggest that not only the monitored parameters contribute to stormwater event mean concentrations (EMC) of pollutants, but other factors should also be considered as well. In the hydraulic and treatment performance of the hybrid CWs, a small surface area to catchment area (SA/CA) ratio, receiving a high concentration of influent EMC, will find it hard to achieve great removal efficiency; also a large SA/CA ratio, receiving low concentration of influent EMC, will find it hard to achieve great removal efficiency. With this, SA/CA ratio and influent characteristics such as EMC or load should be considered among the design factors of CWs. The performance data of the two CWs were used to consider the most cost-effective design of a hybrid CW. The optimum facility capacity (ratio of total runoff volume to storage volume) that is applicable for a target volume reduction and removal efficiency was provided in this study.

  13. TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

  14. Comparative study of microbial community structure in different filter media of constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Qiaohong; Tao, Min; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhenbin

    2010-01-01

    Comparisons of microbial community structure, in eight filter media of zeolites, anthracite, shale, vermiculite, ceramic filter media, gravel, steel slag and bio-ceramic, were undertaken by analyzing the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. A total of 20 fatty acids in the range of C11 to C20 were determined but only 13 PLFAs were detected in steel slag. They consist of saturated fatty acids, branched fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The variation of fatty acids was revealed in the relative proportions of these fatty acids in different media. The aerobic prokaryotes were the predominant group in all media. The PLFA composition showed significant differences among the eight different media by Tukey's honestly test. It was found that steel slag was significantly different in the microbial community as compared to other filter media, probably due to its alkaline effluent. Steel slag alone is probably not a good choice of substratum in constructed wetlands. The principle components analysis (PCA) showed that zeolites, bio-ceramic, shale and vermiculite had a similar microbial community structure while steel slag and ceramic filter media were distinct from other media.

  15. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-09-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter.

  16. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lihua; Ouyang, Ying; Yang, Weizhi; Huang, Zhujian; Xu, Qiaoling; Yu, Guangwei

    2015-04-15

    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Results showed that the optimal HRT was two days for maximal removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent among the four CWs. At this HRT, the Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 CWs removed, respectively, 49.93, 58.50, 46.01 and 44.44% of TN as well as 87.82, 93.23, 95.97 and 91.30% of TP. Our study further revealed that the Z3 CW was the best design for overall removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent due to its hybrid flow directions with better oxygen supply inside the CW system.

  17. Optimization of performance assessment and design characteristics in constructed wetlands for the removal of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Bécares, Eloy

    2010-10-01

    Some of the most used constructed wetland (CW) configurations [conventional and modified free-water (FW) flow, surface flow, conventional horizontal subsurface flow (SSF) and soilless systems with floating macrophytes (FM)] were assessed in order to compare their efficiencies for the removal of organic pollutants [COD, filtered COD (FCOD), BOD and total suspended solids (TSS)] from urban sewage under the same climatic and wastewater conditions. The removal performance was calculated using three approaches: effluent concentrations, areal removed loads and mass removal. Results were very different depending on the approach, which indicates that the way to present CW efficiency should be considered carefully. All CW-configurations obtained BOD effluent concentrations below 25 mg L(-1) in summer, with a FW-CW with effluent leaving through the bottom of the tank being the only one maintaining low BOD effluent concentrations even in winter and under high organic loading conditions. In this kind of CW, the presence of plants favoured pollutant removal. SSF-CWs were the most efficient for the removal of COD. FM systems can be as efficient as some gravel bed CWs. Typhaangustifolia worked better than Phragmitesaustralis, at least when the systems were at the beginning of their operation period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient and organic matter removal from low strength sewage treated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, D; Carvalho, K Q; Passig, F H; Freire, F B; Borges, A C; Lima, M X; Marcelino, G R

    2017-09-11

    In this study, the role of Eichhornia crassipes for removing pollutants from low strength sewage was evaluated. For that, three pilot scale constructed wetlands (CW) were built: CW 1, planted with E. crassipes in a filter media; CW 2, unplanted, composed only by filter media; and CW 3 composed only of E. crassipes floating on the sewage. The operation of these systems was divided in three stages varying the nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) in: (I) 24 h; (II) 48 h; and (III) 72 h. Temporal sampling profiles were carried out with collection of samples from the influent and effluent of the CWs to determine temperature, pH, COD, TKN and TP. Contents of TP and TN were analyzed in the plant tissue of the macrophyte. The best removal efficiency for phosphorus, and TKN were obtained in CW 3 38% (72 h) and 47% (72 h), respectively. The highest COD removal was observed in the CW 2 with 80% for HRT 48 h. The macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes contributed to the absorption process with uptake rate percentages of 8.3% (CW 1) and 9.0% (CW 3) for TN and 0.78% (CW 1) and 1.56% (CW 3) for TP on the dry matter of the plant. The chosen species planted in the systems contributed to the achievement of higher nutrient removal.

  19. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Treatment of Raw and Constructed-Wetland Pretreated Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Mahne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 15% of the total textile colorant production is estimated to be lost during dyeing and processing of textile fibres. If left untreated, these wastewaters can represent a serious environmental threat. In the present paper a combination of photocatalytic and biological degradation of prepared textile wastewaters (simulation of real textile effluent is presented. Samples have been monitored through the course of photocatalytic experiments: change in UV-VIS absorbance spectra and complete decolouration were achieved for all three tested dyed wastewaters; however, only partial COD removal was achieved with photocatalytic oxidation (PCOx and photocatalytic ozonation (PCOz. Toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri of untreated and pretreated (constructed wetland, CW samples showed a decrease in toxicity values only for the red-dyed wastewater. Comparison of efficiency of PCOx and PCOz for decolouration and mineralization of three structurally different dyes (anthraquinone and two azo dyes has been done. CW pretreatment caused faster decolouration and substantial COD removal in PCOx (up to 45%. Pretreatment also accelerated decolouration during PCOz, but it accelerated COD removal only in the case of red-dyed wastewater due to short irradiation times applied.

  20. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter. PMID:27646687

  1. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hua; Luo, Shi-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Zhen; Liu, Ying-Hu

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the tre