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Sample records for laboratory studies extremely

  1. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters, Study 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance with the standard. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted two separate evaluations of the performance of extremity dosimeter processors to determine the appropriateness of the draft standard, as well as to obtain information regarding the performance of extremity dosimeters. Based on the information obtained during the facility visits and the results obtained from the performance testing, it was recommended that changes be made to ensure that the draft standard is appropriate for extremity dosimeters. The changes include: subdividing the mixture category and the beta particle category; eliminating the neutron category until appropriate flux-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are derived; and changing the tolerance level for the performance criterion to provide consistency with the performance criterion for whole body dosimeters, and to avoid making the draft standard overly difficult for processors of extremity dosimeters to pass. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  2. [Quality Management and Quality Specifications of Laboratory Tests in Clinical Studies--Challenges in Pre-Analytical Processes in Clinical Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The cost, speed, and quality are the three important factors recently indicated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for the purpose of accelerating clinical studies. Based on this background, the importance of laboratory tests is increasing, especially in the evaluation of clinical study participants' entry and safety, and drug efficacy. To assure the quality of laboratory tests, providing high-quality laboratory tests is mandatory. For providing adequate quality assurance in laboratory tests, quality control in the three fields of pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical processes is extremely important. There are, however, no detailed written requirements concerning specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping. Most laboratory tests for clinical studies are performed onsite in a local laboratory; however, a part of laboratory tests is done in offsite central laboratories after specimen shipping. As factors affecting laboratory tests, individual and inter-individual variations are well-known. Besides these factors, standardizing the factors of specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping, may improve and maintain the high quality of clinical studies in general. Furthermore, the analytical method, units, and reference interval are also important factors. It is concluded that, to overcome the problems derived from pre-analytical processes, it is necessary to standardize specimen handling in a broad sense.

  3. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  4. Feasibility study of extremity dosemeter based on polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) for neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Q.; Bruguier, P.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, some activities such as reprocessing, recycling and production of bare fuel rods expose the workers to mixed neutron-photon fields. For several workplaces, particularly in glove boxes, some workers expose their hands to mixed fields. The mastery of the photon extremity dosimetry is relatively good, whereas the neutron dosimetry still raises difficulties. In this context, the Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has proposed a study on a passive neutron extremity dosemeter based on chemically etched CR-39 (PADC: polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate), named PN-3, already used in routine practice for whole body dosimetry. This dosemeter is a chip of plastic sensitive to recoil protons. The chemical etching process amplifies the size of the impact. The reading system for tracks counting is composed of a microscope, a video camera and an image analyser. This system is combined with the dose evaluation algorithm. The performance of the dosemeter PN-3 has been largely studied and proved by several laboratories in terms of passive individual neutron dosemeter which is used in routine production by different companies. This study focuses on the sensitivity of the extremity dosemeter, as well as its performance in the function of the level of the neutron energy. The dosemeter was exposed to monoenergetic neutron fields in laboratory conditions and to mixed fields in glove boxes at workplaces. (authors)

  5. A laboratory evaluation of the influence of weighing gauges performance on extreme events statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The effects of inaccurate ground based rainfall measurements on the information derived from rain records is yet not much documented in the literature. La Barbera et al. (2002) investigated the propagation of the systematic mechanic errors of tipping bucket type rain gauges (TBR) into the most common statistics of rainfall extremes, e.g. in the assessment of the return period T (or the related non-exceedance probability) of short-duration/high intensity events. Colli et al. (2012) and Lanza et al. (2012) extended the analysis to a 22-years long precipitation data set obtained from a virtual weighing type gauge (WG). The artificial WG time series was obtained basing on real precipitation data measured at the meteo-station of the University of Genova and modelling the weighing gauge output as a linear dynamic system. This approximation was previously validated with dedicated laboratory experiments and is based on the evidence that the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions is mainly affected by the dynamic response of the gauge (as revealed during the last WMO Field Intercomparison of Rainfall Intensity Gauges). The investigation is now completed by analyzing actual measurements performed by two common weighing gauges, the OTT Pluvio2 load-cell gauge and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire gauge, since both these instruments demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts. A laboratory dynamic rainfall generation system has been arranged and validated in order to simulate a number of precipitation events with variable reference intensities. Such artificial events were generated basing on real world rainfall intensity (RI) records obtained from the meteo-station of the University of Genova so that the statistical structure of the time series is preserved. The influence of the WG RI measurements accuracy on the associated extreme events statistics is analyzed by comparing the original intensity

  6. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  7. Laboratory calibration of density-dependent lines in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Desai, P.; Bitter, M.; Roquemore, L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    We have been making spectral measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from different laboratory sources in order to investigate the electron density dependence of various astrophysically important emission lines and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. The measurement are being performed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap, the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which together span an electron density of four orders of magnitude and which allow us to test the various models at high and low density limits. Here we present measurements of Fe XXII and Ar XIV, which include new data from an ultra high resolution (λ/Δλ >4000) spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility. We found good agreement between the measurements and modeling calculations for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV.

  8. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  9. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Soummer, Remi; Macintosh, Bruce; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  10. The U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for testing the performance of extremity dosimetry systems: a summary of the program status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Carlson, R.D.; Gesell, T.F.; Loesch, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented a program to test the performance of its personnel whole-body dosimetry systems. This program was the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). The program parallels the performance testing program specified in the American National Standard for Dosimetry - Personnel Dosimetry Performance -Criteria for Testing (ANSI N13.11-1983), but also addresses the additional dosimetry needs of DOE facilities. As an extension of the whole-body performance testing program, the DOE is now developing a program to test the performance of personnel extremity dosimetry systems. The draft DOE standard for testing extremity dosimetry systems is much less complex than the whole-body dosimetry standard and reflects the limitations imposed on extremity dosimetry by dosimeter design and irradiation geometry. A pilot performance test session has been conducted to evaluate the proposed performance-testing standard. (author)

  11. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    OpenAIRE

    ?uhadar, Serap; K?seo?lu, Mehmet; ?inpolat, Yasemin; Bu?dayc?, G?ler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods: Base...

  12. 75 FR 80011 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    .... FDA-2010-N-0548] Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies AGENCY: Food and Drug... (FDA) is seeking comment on whether to amend the regulations governing good laboratory practices (GLPs..., 1978 (43 FR 60013). As stated in its scope (Sec. 58.1), this regulation prescribes good laboratory...

  13. User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET...User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Bolton, Charlotte E; Fawke, Joseph; Hennessy, Enid; Stocks, Janet; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R; Marlow, Neil

    2011-07-01

    The long-term consequences of extreme prematurity are becoming increasingly important, given recent improvements in neonatal intensive care. The aim of the current study was to examine the cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity in 11-year-olds born at or before 25 completed weeks of gestation. Age and sex-matched classmates were recruited as controls. Information concerning perinatal and maternal history was collected, and current anthropometric characteristics were measured in 219 children born extremely preterm and 153 classmates. A subset of the extremely preterm children (n = 68) and classmates (n = 90) then underwent detailed haemodynamic investigations, including measurement of supine blood pressure (BP), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, a measure of aortic stiffness) and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial pressure wave reflections). Seated brachial systolic and diastolic BP were not different between extremely preterm children and classmates (P = 0.3 for both), although there was a small, significant elevation in supine mean and diastolic BP in the extremely preterm children (P prematurity is associated with altered arterial haemodynamics in children, not evident from the examination of brachial BP alone. Moreover, the smaller, preresistance and resistance vessels rather than large elastic arteries appear to be most affected. Children born extremely preterm may be at increased future cardiovascular risk.

  15. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  16. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  17. The laboratory in higher science education: Problems, premises and objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Meester, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A university study in the natural sciences, devoid of a practical component such as laboratory work is virtually unthinkable. One could even go so far as saying that it is extremely rare for anyone to question the necessity of laboratory work in either high school or university science

  18. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hänsch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C and pH (2 to 4. Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus, indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches.

  19. Mathematics and Computer Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Applications Software Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Opportunities For Employees Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory Mathematics and Computer Science Tools

  20. Iterative Outlier Removal: A Method for Identifying Outliers in Laboratory Recalibration Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Couper, David; Wruck, Lisa M; Li, Danni; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-07-01

    Extreme values that arise for any reason, including those through nonlaboratory measurement procedure-related processes (inadequate mixing, evaporation, mislabeling), lead to outliers and inflate errors in recalibration studies. We present an approach termed iterative outlier removal (IOR) for identifying such outliers. We previously identified substantial laboratory drift in uric acid measurements in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study over time. Serum uric acid was originally measured in 1990-1992 on a Coulter DACOS instrument using an uricase-based measurement procedure. To recalibrate previous measured concentrations to a newer enzymatic colorimetric measurement procedure, uric acid was remeasured in 200 participants from stored plasma in 2011-2013 on a Beckman Olympus 480 autoanalyzer. To conduct IOR, we excluded data points >3 SDs from the mean difference. We continued this process using the resulting data until no outliers remained. IOR detected more outliers and yielded greater precision in simulation. The original mean difference (SD) in uric acid was 1.25 (0.62) mg/dL. After 4 iterations, 9 outliers were excluded, and the mean difference (SD) was 1.23 (0.45) mg/dL. Conducting only one round of outlier removal (standard approach) would have excluded 4 outliers [mean difference (SD) = 1.22 (0.51) mg/dL]. Applying the recalibration (derived from Deming regression) from each approach to the original measurements, the prevalence of hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was 28.5% before IOR and 8.5% after IOR. IOR is a useful method for removal of extreme outliers irrelevant to recalibrating laboratory measurements, and identifies more extraneous outliers than the standard approach. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1988-01-01

    The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied

  2. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 x 10 -8 to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for 252 Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms

  3. Bacterioruberin and salinixanthin carotenoids of extremely halophilic Archaea and Bacteria: A Raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, J.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Oren, A.

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory cultures of a number of red extremely halophilic Archaea (Halobacterium salinarum strains NRC-1 and R1, Halorubrum sodomense, Haloarcula valismortis) and of Salinibacter ruber, a red extremely halophilic member of the Bacteria, have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy using 514.5 nm excitation to characterize their carotenoids. The 50-carbon carotenoid α-bacterioruberin was detected as the major carotenoid in all archaeal strains. Raman spectroscopy also detected bacterioruberin as the main pigment in a red pellet of cells collected from a saltern crystallizer pond. Salinibacter contains the C40-carotenoid acyl glycoside salinixanthin (all-E, 2'S)-2'-hydroxy-1'-[6-O-(methyltetradecanoyl)-β-D-glycopyranosyloxy]-3',4'-didehydro-1',2'-dihydro-β,ψ-carotene-4-one), for which the Raman bands assignments of are given here for the first time.

  4. Climatic forecast: down-scaling and extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deque, M.; Li, L.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong demand for specifying the future climate at local scale and about extreme events. New methods, allowing a better output from the climate models, are currently being developed and French laboratories involved in the Escrime project are actively participating. (authors)

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Matter in extreme conditions belongs to Warm Dense Matter regime which lays between dense plasma regime and condensed matter. This regime is still not well known, indeed it is very complex to generate such plasma in the laboratory to get experimental data and validate models. The goal of this thesis is to study electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experimentally aluminum has reached high densities and high temperatures, up to now unexplored. An X-ray source has also been generated to probe highly compressed aluminum. Two spectrometers have recorded aluminum absorption spectra and aluminum density and temperature conditions have been deduced thanks to optical diagnostics. Experimental spectra have been compared to ab initio spectra, calculated in the same conditions. The theoretical goal was to validate the calculation method in high densities and high temperatures regime with the study of K-edge absorption modifications. We also used absorption spectra to study the metal-non metal transition which takes place at low density (density ≤ solid density). This transition could be study with electronic structure modifications of the system. (author) [fr

  6. Laboratory study of orographic cloud-like flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwar Nain; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-11-01

    Clouds are one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction, listed in ``the most urgent scientific problems requiring attention'' IPCC. Also, convective clouds are of utmost importance to study the dynamics of tropical meteorology and therefore, play a key role in understanding monsoons. The present work is to study the dynamics of orographic clouds. Parameterization of these clouds will help in forecasting the precipitation accurately. Also, one could validate laboratory results from our study by actually measuring cloud development along a sloping terrain. In this context a planar buoyant turbulent wall jet is considered as an appropriate low order fluid-dynamical model for studying the turbulence and entrainment in orographic-clouds. Flow is volumetrically heated to mimic the latent heat release due to condensation in an actual cloud. This is the first step in studying the entrainment dynamics of the evolving orographic cloud. We are going to present some results on the cloud development using techniques that allows us to construct a 3-dimensional flow field at each instance and its development over the time. By combining velocity field from PIV and flow volume from PLIF at successive instances, we estimate the entrainment coefficient. Since the life-cycle of a cloud is determined by the entrainment of ambient air, these results could be extremely helpful in understanding the dynamics of the clouds. Detailed results will be presented at the conference.

  7. The DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program 8 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Kershisnik, R.; Taylor, T.; Grothaus, G.; Loesch, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program was implemented in 1986. Currently, the program is conducting its seventeenth performance testing session for whole body personnel dosimeters. All but two DOE laboratories have gained accreditation for their whole body personnel dosimetry systems. Several test situations which were anticipated in the early stages of DOELAP have not materialized. In addition, the testing standard for whole body personnel dosimetry systems is under review and revision. In the near future, the accreditation programs for extremity dosimetry and bioassay will be implemented. This presentation summarizes the status and anticipated direction of the DOE whole body and extremity dosimetry and bioassay laboratory accreditation program

  8. Plasma creatinine in dogs: intra- and inter-laboratory variation in 10 European veterinary laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulleberg Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial variation in reported reference intervals for canine plasma creatinine among veterinary laboratories, thereby influencing the clinical assessment of analytical results. The aims of the study was to determine the inter- and intra-laboratory variation in plasma creatinine among 10 veterinary laboratories, and to compare results from each laboratory with the upper limit of its reference interval. Methods Samples were collected from 10 healthy dogs, 10 dogs with expected intermediate plasma creatinine concentrations, and 10 dogs with azotemia. Overlap was observed for the first two groups. The 30 samples were divided into 3 batches and shipped in random order by postal delivery for plasma creatinine determination. Statistical testing was performed in accordance with ISO standard methodology. Results Inter- and intra-laboratory variation was clinically acceptable as plasma creatinine values for most samples were usually of the same magnitude. A few extreme outliers caused three laboratories to fail statistical testing for consistency. Laboratory sample means above or below the overall sample mean, did not unequivocally reflect high or low reference intervals in that laboratory. Conclusions In spite of close analytical results, further standardization among laboratories is warranted. The discrepant reference intervals seem to largely reflect different populations used in establishing the reference intervals, rather than analytical variation due to different laboratory methods.

  9. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  10. Two case studies on NARCCAP precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Grant B.; Cooley, Daniel; Sain, Stephan R.; Bukovsky, Melissa S.; Mearns, Linda O.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce novel methodology to examine the ability of six regional climate models (RCMs) in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) ensemble to simulate past extreme precipitation events seen in the observational record over two different regions and seasons. Our primary objective is to examine the strength of daily correspondence of extreme precipitation events between observations and the output of both the RCMs and the driving reanalysis product. To explore this correspondence, we employ methods from multivariate extreme value theory. These methods require that we account for marginal behavior, and we first model and compare climatological quantities which describe tail behavior of daily precipitation for both the observations and model output before turning attention to quantifying the correspondence of the extreme events. Daily precipitation in a West Coast region of North America is analyzed in two seasons, and it is found that the simulated extreme events from the reanalysis-driven NARCCAP models exhibit strong daily correspondence to extreme events in the observational record. Precipitation over a central region of the United States is examined, and we find some daily correspondence between winter extremes simulated by reanalysis-driven NARCCAP models and those seen in observations, but no such correspondence is found for summer extremes. Furthermore, we find greater discrepancies among the NARCCAP models in the tail characteristics of the distribution of daily summer precipitation over this region than seen in precipitation over the West Coast region. We find that the models which employ spectral nudging exhibit stronger tail dependence to observations in the central region.

  11. Extremity individual monitoring: 30 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, Rosangela Pinto Guimaraes; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia de Pinho; Moura Junior, Jose; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Meira, Nilton Ferreira; Diz, Ricardo; Goncalves, Sergio Alves

    2002-01-01

    The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Departamento de Monitoracao Individual of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LDT/DEMIN/IRD) is one of the first extremity individual monitoring service in Brazil. In its 30 years of activities, the laboratory has ever made a great effort to be continuously updated. Equipment and procedures have been updated and optimized in order to guarantee the quality of all measurements. Nowadays, the extremity individual monitoring service evaluates monthly around 300 occupational doses in worker's hands of several Brazilian facilities in the fields of health, industry (including power reactor) and research. It is used a dosimetric ring with LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) from Harshaw/Bicron, named TLD-100. The Service helps the effective occupational control of the Brazilian works, which handle radioactive material or has their hands more exposed than the body. (author)

  12. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  13. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  14. Deep shaft high rate aerobic digestion: laboratory and pilot plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, F; Gannon, D

    1981-01-01

    The Deep Shaft is essentially an air-lift reactor, sunk deep in the ground (100-160 m); the resulting high hydrostatic pressure together with very efficient mixing in the shaft provide extremely high O transfer efficiencies (O.T.E.) of less than or equal to 90% vs. 4-20% in other aerators. This high O.T.E. suggests real potential for Deep-Shaft technology in the aerobic digestion of sludges and animal wastes: with conventional aerobic digesters an O.T.E. over 8% is extremely difficult to achieve. Laboratory and pilot plant Deep-Shaft aerobic digester studies carried out at Eco-Research's Pointe Claire, Quebec laboratories, and at the Paris, Ontario pilot Deep-Shaft digester are described.

  15. Use of a remote infrared thermography in experimental medicine at extreme influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an analysis of published data on the use of remote infrared thermography in medicine and veterinary science and evaluated the main opportunities, methods and ways of thermovision registration in experimental medical studies on biological objects, including at extreme influences. The following resources of the bibliographic electronic databases had been used: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science. Now methods of infrared thermography in insufficient degree are used in experimental medicine, including when studying adverse biological effect of various harmful and dangerous extreme factors, which main manifestation, especially in the early period after exposure, are systemic microvascular disorders, determining the state of capacity of human biomodels. These dynamic remote ther-mographic studies of experimental biological objects can be used to evaluate disorders of the peripheral circulation, working capacity and an emotional condition of the biomodels exposed to extreme factors, including early after experimental studies in laboratory and field work.

  16. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body......Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting......-illusions both in-lab and out-of-lab. The in-lab study was carried out as a traditional experiment with state-of-the-art VR equipment; 31 completed the study in our laboratory. The out-of-lab study was conducted by distributing commodity cardboard VR glasses to participants; 57 completed the study anywhere...

  17. The National Extreme Events Data and Research Center (NEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, J.; Kaiser, D. P.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Boden, T.; Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is establishing the National Extreme Events Data and Research Center (NEED), with the goal of transforming how the United States studies and prepares for extreme weather events in the context of a changing climate. NEED will encourage the myriad, distributed extreme events research communities to move toward the adoption of common practices and will develop a new database compiling global historical data on weather- and climate-related extreme events (e.g., heat waves, droughts, hurricanes, etc.) and related information about impacts, costs, recovery, and available research. Currently, extreme event information is not easy to access and is largely incompatible and inconsistent across web sites. NEED's database development will take into account differences in time frames, spatial scales, treatments of uncertainty, and other parameters and variables, and leverage informatics tools developed at ORNL (i.e., the Metadata Editor [1] and Mercury [2]) to generate standardized, robust documentation for each database along with a web-searchable catalog. In addition, NEED will facilitate convergence on commonly accepted definitions and standards for extreme events data and will enable integrated analyses of coupled threats, such as hurricanes/sea-level rise/flooding and droughts/wildfires. Our goal and vision is that NEED will become the premiere integrated resource for the general study of extreme events. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "OME: Tool for generating and managing metadata to handle BigData." Big Data (Big Data), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2014. [2] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system." Earth Science Informatics 3.1-2 (2010): 87-94.

  18. Effects of Extreme Events on Arsenic Cycling in Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Kristy; Capooci, Margaret; Seyfferth, Angelia L.

    2018-03-01

    Extreme events such as storm surges, intense precipitation, and supermoons cause anomalous and large fluctuations in water level in tidal salt marshes, which impacts the sediment biogeochemistry that dictates arsenic (As) cycling. In addition to changes in water level, which impacts soil redox potential, these extreme events may also change salinity due to freshwater inputs from precipitation or saltwater inputs due to surge. It is currently unknown how As mobility in tidal salt marshes will be impacted by extreme events, as fluctuations in salinity and redox potential may act synergistically to mobilize As. To investigate impacts of extreme events on As cycling in tidal salt marshes, we conducted a combined laboratory and field investigation. We monitored pore water and soil samples before, during, and after two extreme events: a supermoon lunar eclipse followed by a storm surge and precipitation induced by Hurricane Joaquin in fall 2015 at the St. Jones Reserve in Dover, Delaware, a representative tidal salt marsh in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We also conducted soil incubations of marsh sediments in batch and in flow-through experiments in which redox potential and/or salinity were manipulated. Field investigations showed that pore water As was inversely proportional to redox potential. During the extreme events, a distinct pulse of As was observed in the pore water with maximum salinity. Combined field and laboratory investigations revealed that this As pulse is likely due to rapid changes in salinity. These results have implications for As mobility in the face of extreme weather variability.

  19. An observational and modeling study of the August 2017 Florida climate extreme event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, R.; Singh, V.; Routray, A.

    2017-12-01

    A special report on the climate extremes by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) elucidates that the sole cause of disasters is due to the exposure and vulnerability of the human and natural system to the climate extremes. The cause of such a climate extreme could be anthropogenic or non-anthropogenic. Therefore, it is challenging to discern the critical factor of influence for a particular climate extreme. Such kind of perceptive study with reasonable confidence on climate extreme events is possible only if there exist any past case studies. A similar rarest climate extreme problem encountered in the case of Houston floods and extreme rainfall over Florida in August 2017. A continuum of hurricanes like Harvey and Irma targeted the Florida region and caused catastrophe. Due to the rarity of August 2017 Florida climate extreme event, it requires the in-depth study on this case. To understand the multi-faceted nature of the event, a study on the development of the Harvey hurricane and its progression and dynamics is significant. Current article focus on the observational and modeling study on the Harvey hurricane. A global model named as NCUM (The global UK Met office Unified Model (UM) operational at National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, India, was utilized to simulate the Harvey hurricane. The simulated rainfall and wind fields were compared with the observational datasets like Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall datasets and Era-Interim wind fields. The National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) automated tracking system was utilized to track the Harvey hurricane, and the tracks were analyzed statistically for different forecasts concerning the Harvey hurricane track of Joint Typhon Warning Centre. Further, the current study will be continued to investigate the atmospheric processes involved in the August 2017 Florida climate extreme event.

  20. Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Travis

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

  1. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1986-10-01

    Safeguarding our country's nuclear materials against theft or diversion is extremely important due to their significantly strategic value. In addition, nuclear materials also have an extremely high monetary value. The term ''safeguards'' is defined as an integrated system of physical protection, accountability, and material control measures designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession and use of special nuclear materials. An aggressive Safeguards program, therefore, employs both good security measures and a strong material control and accountability system. For effective internal control of nuclear materials, having people qualified in the many aspects of safeguards and accountability is essential. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), this goal is accomplished through a Laboratory-wide Safeguards Awareness Program. All PNL staff members receive a level of Safeguards training appropriate to their particular function within the Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the unique training opportunities this topic provides and how the training goals are accomplished through the various training courses given to the staff members

  2. Constraining Carbonaceous Aerosol Climate Forcing by Bridging Laboratory, Field and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Saleh, R.; Cappa, C. D.; Williams, L. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Gorkowski, K.; Ng, N. L.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Yokelson, R. J.; Allan, J. D.; Liu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass and fossil fuel combustion emits black (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) aerosols that absorb sunlight to warm climate and organic carbon (OC) aerosols that scatter sunlight to cool climate. The net forcing depends strongly on the composition, mixing state and transformations of these carbonaceous aerosols. Complexities from large variability of fuel types, combustion conditions and aging processes have confounded their treatment in models. We analyse recent laboratory and field measurements to uncover fundamental mechanism that control the chemical, optical and microphysical properties of carbonaceous aerosols that are elaborated below: Wavelength dependence of absorption and the single scattering albedo (ω) of fresh biomass burning aerosols produced from many fuels during FLAME-4 was analysed to determine the factors that control the variability in ω. Results show that ω varies strongly with fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCEFI)—higher MCEFI results in lower ω values and greater spectral dependence of ω (Liu et al GRL 2014). A parameterization of ω as a function of MCEFI for fresh BB aerosols is derived from the laboratory data and is evaluated by field data, including BBOP. Our laboratory studies also demonstrate that BrC production correlates with BC indicating that that they are produced by a common mechanism that is driven by MCEFI (Saleh et al NGeo 2014). We show that BrC absorption is concentrated in the extremely low volatility component that favours long-range transport. We observe substantial absorption enhancement for internally mixed BC from diesel and wood combustion near London during ClearFlo. While the absorption enhancement is due to BC particles coated by co-emitted OC in urban regions, it increases with photochemical age in rural areas and is simulated by core-shell models. We measure BrC absorption that is concentrated in the extremely low volatility components and attribute it to wood burning. Our results support

  3. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  4. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  5. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  6. Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svingor, E.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Mogyorosi, M.; Major, Z.; Bihari, A.; Vodila, G.; Janovics, R.; Papp, L.; Major, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction. The Hertelendi Laboratory for Environmental Studies (HEKAL) belongs to the Section of Environmental and Earth Sciences. It is a multidisciplinary laboratory dedicated to environmental research, to the development of nuclear analytical methods and to systems technology. During its existence of more than 15 years it has gained some reputation as a prime laboratory of analytical techniques, working with both radio- and stable isotopes. It has considerable expertise in isotope concentration measurements, radiocarbon dating, tritium measurements, in monitoring radioactivity around nuclear facilities and in modelling the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Many of its projects are within the scope of interest of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Our research activity is mainly concerned with the so-called environmental isotopes. This term denotes isotopes, both stable and radioactive, that are present in the natural environment either as a result of natural processes or of human activities. In environmental research isotopes are generally applied either as tracers or as age indicators. An ideal tracer is defined as a substance that behaves in the system studied exactly as the material to be traced as far as the examined parameters are concerned, but has at least one property that distinguishes it from the traced material. The mass number of an isotope is such an ideal indicator. In 2007 the laboratory assumed the name of Dr. Ede Hertelendi to honour the memory of the reputed environmental physicist who founded the group and headed it for many years. The current core of the laboratory staff is made up of his pupils and coworkers. This team was like a family to him. The group owes it to his fatherly figure that it did not fall apart after his death, but advanced with intense work and tenacity during the last decade. One of his first pupils, Mihaly Veres returned to the laboratory as a private entrepreneur and investor in 2005, and in the framework of

  7. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two extremely stressful temperatures (18°C and 32°C) and one standard ... and non-stressful environments on the morphological and life-history traits in males and ... Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, ...

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Energy Density Photon and Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The development of intense laser and particle beams has opened up new opportunities to study high energy density astrophysical processes in the Laboratory. With even higher laser intensities possible in the near future vacuum polarization processes such as photon - photon scattering with or without large magnetic fields may also be experimentally observed. In this talk I will review the status of laboratory experiments using intense beans to investigate extreme astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae explosions, gamma x-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic accelerators etc. Just as intense photon or electron beams can excite relativistic electron plasma waves or wakefields used in plasma acceleration, intense neutrino beams from type II supernovae can also excite wakefields or plasma waves. Other instabilities driven by intense beams relevant to perhaps x-ray bursts is the Weibel instability. Simulation results of extreme processes will also be presented.

  9. Performance of Portable Ventilators Following Storage at Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    In the current theater of operation, medical devices are often shipped and stored at ambient conditions. The effect of storage at hot and cold temperature extremes on ventilator performance is unknown. We evaluated three portable ventilators currently in use or being evaluated for use by the Department of Defense (731, Impact Instrumentation; T1, Hamilton Medical; and Revel, CareFusion) at temperature extremes in a laboratory setting. The ventilators were stored at temperatures of 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours and were allowed to acclimate to room temperature for 30 minutes before evaluation. The T1 required an extra 15 to 30 minutes of acclimation to room temperature before the ventilator would deliver breaths. All delivered tidal volumes at room temperature and after storage at temperature extremes were less than the ±10% American Society for Testing and Materials standard with the Revel. Delivered tidal volumes at the pediatric settings were less than the ±10% threshold after storage at both temperatures and at room temperature with the 731. Storage at extreme temperature affected the performance of the portable ventilators tested. This study showed that portable ventilators may need an hour or more of acclimation time at room temperature after storage at temperature extremes to operate as intended. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Clinical application of lower extremity CTA and lower extremity perfusion CT as a method of diagnostic for lower extremity atherosclerotic obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Eun Hoe [Dept. Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess clinical application of lower extremity CTA and lower extremity perfusion CT as a method of diagnostic for lower extremity atherosclerotic obliterans. From January to July 2016, 30 patients (mean age, 68) were studied with lower extremity CTA and lower extremity perfusion CT. 128 channel multi-detector row CT scans were acquired with a CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens medical solution, Germany) of lower extremity perfusion CT and lower extremity CTA. Acquired images were reconstructed with 3D workstation (Leonardo, Siemens, Germany). Site of lower extremity arterial occlusive and stenosis lesions were detected superficial femoral artery 36.6%, popliteal artery 23.4%, external iliac artery 16.7%, common femoral artery 13.3%, peroneal artery 10%. The mean total DLP comparison of lower extremity perfusion CT and lower extremity CTA, 650 mGy-cm and 675 mGy-cm, respectively. Lower extremity perfusion CT and lower extremity CTA were realized that were never be two examination that were exactly the same legions. Future through the development of lower extremity perfusion CT soft ware programs suggest possible clinical applications.

  11. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  12. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  13. Life at extreme conditions: neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, Joseph Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37 degC) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4 degC, 37 degC, 75 degC and 85 degC. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells. (author)

  14. Extreme-Scale Computing Project Aims to Advance Precision Oncology | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two government agencies and five national laboratories are collaborating to develop extremely high-performance computing capabilities that will analyze mountains of research and clinical data to improve scientific understanding of cancer, predict dru

  15. Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescent extreme obesity - acceptance and effects of structured care, short: Youth with Extreme Obesity Study (YES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin; Moss, Anja; Reinehr, Thomas; Wiegand, Susanna; Kiess, Wieland; Scherag, André; Holl, Reinhard; Holle, Rolf; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2013-08-29

    Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity have increased in German children and adolescents in the last three decades. Adolescents with extreme obesity represent a distinct risk group. On the basis of data obtained by the German Child and Youth Survey (KiGGS) and the German district military offices we estimate that the group of extremely obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) currently encompasses approximately 200.000 adolescents aged 14 to 21 yrs. Conventional approaches focusing on weight reduction have largely proven futile for them. In addition, only a small percentage of adolescents with extreme obesity seek actively treatment for obesity while contributing disproportionately strong to health care costs. Because of somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities and social problems adolescents with extreme obesity require special attention within the medical care system. We have initiated the project "Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescents with extreme obesity--acceptance and effects of structured care, short: 'Youths with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)'", which aims at improving the medical care and social support structures for youths with extreme obesity in Germany. We focus on identification of these subjects (baseline examination) and their acceptance of diagnostic and subsequent treatment procedures. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will investigate the effectiveness of a low key group intervention not focusing on weight loss but aimed at the provision of obesity related information, alleviation of social isolation, school and vocational integration and improvement of self-esteem in comparison to a control group treated in a conventional way with focus on weight loss. Interested individuals who fulfill current recommended criteria for weight loss surgery will be provided with a structured preparation and follow-up programs. All subjects will be monitored within a long-term observational study to elucidate medical and psychosocial outcomes

  16. The Gran Sasso underground laboratories (measurements of rock radioactivity and neutron fluxes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellotti, E.; Buraschi, M.; Fiorini, E.; Liguori, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on measurements of rock radioactivity and neutron flux performed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories of the INFN in Italy. The Gran Sasso' Laboratories of the INFN are located underground, in galleries which have been excavated under the Gran Sasso mountain range. The minimum rock thickness covering the laboratories is about 1400 m of rock of average density 2.8 g cm/sup -3/, corresponding to a thickness of some 4000 m of water equivalent. The laboratories are located at about 1000 m above sea level. The main destination of these laboratories is to shelter very huge particle detectors which shall detect extremely rare nuclear events of extraordinary interest for particle physics as well as for astrophysics and cosmology. In these laboratories, the radiation background is expected to be extremely low, which is the main condition for performing the proposed experiments

  17. Extreme temperature indices analyses: A case study of five meteorological stations in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Extreme temperature events affect many human and natural systems. Changes in extreme temperature events can be detected and monitored by developing the indices based on the extreme temperature data. As an effort to provide the understanding of these changes to the public, a study of extreme temperature indices is conducted at five meteorological stations in Peninsular Malaysia. In this study, changes in the means and extreme events of temperature are assessed and compared using the daily maximum and minimum temperature data for the period of 2004 to 2013. The absolute extreme temperature indices; TXx, TXn, TXn and TNn provided by Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) are utilized and linear trends of each index are extracted using least square likelihood method. The results indicate that there exist significant decreasing trend in the TXx index for Kota Bharu station and increasing trend in TNn index for Chuping and Kota Kinabalu stations. The comparison between the trend in mean and extreme temperatures show the same significant tendency for Kota Bharu and Kuala Terengganu stations.

  18. Evaluation of precipitation extremes over the Asian domain: observation and modelling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Won; Oh, Jaiho; Woo, Sumin; Kripalani, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a comparison in the precipitation extremes as exhibited by the seven reference datasets is made to ascertain whether the inferences based on these datasets agree or they differ. These seven datasets, roughly grouped in three categories i.e. rain-gauge based (APHRODITE, CPC-UNI), satellite-based (TRMM, GPCP1DD) and reanalysis based (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA55), having a common data period 1998-2007 are considered. Focus is to examine precipitation extremes in the summer monsoon rainfall over South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Measures of extreme precipitation include the percentile thresholds, frequency of extreme precipitation events and other quantities. Results reveal that the differences in displaying extremes among the datasets are small over South Asia and East Asia but large differences among the datasets are displayed over the Southeast Asian region including the maritime continent. Furthermore, precipitation data appear to be more consistent over East Asia among the seven datasets. Decadal trends in extreme precipitation are consistent with known results over South and East Asia. No trends in extreme precipitation events are exhibited over Southeast Asia. Outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulation data are categorized as high, medium and low-resolution models. The regions displaying maximum intensity of extreme precipitation appear to be dependent on model resolution. High-resolution models simulate maximum intensity of extreme precipitation over the Indian sub-continent, medium-resolution models over northeast India and South China and the low-resolution models over Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. In summary, there are differences in displaying extreme precipitation statistics among the seven datasets considered here and among the 29 CMIP5 model data outputs.

  19. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  20. Overview of theory and simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex

    2007-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  1. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Eugenio, E-mail: coccia@lngs.infn.i [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  2. US Department of Energy Laboratory Accredition Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, F.M.; Carlson, R.D.; Loesch, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Accreditation of personnel dosimetry systems is required for laboratories that conduct personnel dosimetry for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Accreditation is a two-step process which requires the participant to pass a proficiency test and an onsite assessment. The DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is a measurement quality assurance program for DOE laboratories. Currently, the DOELAP addresses only dosimetry systems used to assess the whole body dose to personnel. A pilot extremity DOELAP has been completed and routine testing is expected to begin in January 1994. It is expected that participation in the extremity program will be a regulatory requirement by January 1996.

  3. Extreme-Scale Computing Project Aims to Advance Precision Oncology | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two government agencies and five national laboratories are collaborating to develop extremely high-performance computing capabilities that will analyze mountains of research and clinical data to improve scientific understanding of cancer, predict dru

  4. Extreme-Scale Computing Project Aims to Advance Precision Oncology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two government agencies and five national laboratories are collaborating to develop extremely high-performance computing capabilities that will analyze mountains of research and clinical data to improve scientific understanding of cancer, predict drug response, and improve treatments for patients.

  5. Noninvasive study of extremity perfusion by 43K scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, A.T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Maxwell, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    In nine patients with lower extremity symptoms of arterial insufficiency, potassium chloride 43 K was injected intravenously during rest, reactive hyperemia, or exercise. Decreased radioactivity in muscle tissue was observed to correspond with symptoms, physical findings, Doppler ultrasound pressures, and angiographic findings in all six who had the procedure. Studies following surgical endarterectomies in two, a bypass procedure in one, and exploration without attempted reconstruction in one showed good correlation with postoperative symptoms, physical findings, and pressure measurements using Doppler ultrasound in three of four patients. The fourth patient showed no change on the postoperative study despite clinical improvement. These findings suggest that intravenously administered radioactive potassium provides a noninvasive means for demonstrating the perfused muscle mass of the extremities with delineation of ischemic areas. The risk of arterial puncture is eliminated, and the ability to visualize perfusion patterns during exercise is unique to this method. (U.S.)

  6. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  7. Parameter uncertainty in simulations of extreme precipitation and attribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, B.; Collins, W. D.; O'Brien, T. A.; Risser, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The attribution of extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, to anthropogenic influence involves the analysis of their probability in simulations of climate. The climate models used however, such as the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), employ approximate physics that gives rise to "parameter uncertainty"—uncertainty about the most accurate or optimal values of numerical parameters within the model. In particular, approximate parameterisations for convective processes are well known to be influential in the simulation of precipitation extremes. Towards examining the impact of this source of uncertainty on attribution studies, we investigate the importance of components—through their associated tuning parameters—of parameterisations relating to deep and shallow convection, and cloud and aerosol microphysics in CAM. We hypothesise that as numerical resolution is increased the change in proportion of variance induced by perturbed parameters associated with the respective components is consistent with the decreasing applicability of the underlying hydrostatic assumptions. For example, that the relative influence of deep convection should diminish as resolution approaches that where convection can be resolved numerically ( 10 km). We quantify the relationship between the relative proportion of variance induced and numerical resolution by conducting computer experiments that examine precipitation extremes over the contiguous U.S. In order to mitigate the enormous computational burden of running ensembles of long climate simulations, we use variable-resolution CAM and employ both extreme value theory and surrogate modelling techniques ("emulators"). We discuss the implications of the relationship between parameterised convective processes and resolution both in the context of attribution studies and progression towards models that fully resolve convection.

  8. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  9. Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescent extreme obesity – acceptance and effects of structured care, short: Youth with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity have increased in German children and adolescents in the last three decades. Adolescents with extreme obesity represent a distinct risk group. On the basis of data obtained by the German Child and Youth Survey (KiGGS) and the German district military offices we estimate that the group of extremely obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) currently encompasses approximately 200.000 adolescents aged 14 to 21 yrs. Conventional approaches focusing on weight reduction have largely proven futile for them. In addition, only a small percentage of adolescents with extreme obesity seek actively treatment for obesity while contributing disproportionately strong to health care costs. Because of somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities and social problems adolescents with extreme obesity require special attention within the medical care system. We have initiated the project “Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescents with extreme obesity - acceptance and effects of structured care, short: ‘Youths with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)’”, which aims at improving the medical care and social support structures for youths with extreme obesity in Germany. Methods/Design We focus on identification of these subjects (baseline examination) and their acceptance of diagnostic and subsequent treatment procedures. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will investigate the effectiveness of a low key group intervention not focusing on weight loss but aimed at the provision of obesity related information, alleviation of social isolation, school and vocational integration and improvement of self-esteem in comparison to a control group treated in a conventional way with focus on weight loss. Interested individuals who fulfill current recommended criteria for weight loss surgery will be provided with a structured preparation and follow-up programs. All subjects will be monitored within a long-term observational study to

  10. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much ...

  11. Far-Infrared Radiation Thermotherapy Improves Tissue Fibrosis in Chronic Extremity Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Sadigh, Parviz; Evans, Verity Joyce; Zhou, Huihong; Gao, Weiqing; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-09-29

    Fibrosis can enhance the exacerbation of lymphedema, which becomes obvious in late stage II-III lymphedema. However, whether far-infrared radiation thermotherapy (FIRT) can cure lymphedema fibrosis is still lack of research. This research was to investigate the therapeutic effect of FIRT on tissue fibrosis in the treatment of Late stage II-III lymphedema. Patients accepted only FIRT for a total of 20 sessions. The treatment session duration was 2 hours, and a stable machine temperature of 42°C was maintained throughout treatments. Clinical evaluation and laboratory evaluation were conducted before and after FIRT. Clinical outcome measures included circumference of affected extremity, skin elasticity, ultrasound, patients' subjective assessment, and quality of life (QOL). Laboratory outcome measures included serum and local lymphedema tissue fluid concentrations of fibrosis associated cytokines, tissue growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-18, and caspase-1. Between 2015 and 2016, clinical evaluation of 64 patients with late stage II-III lymphedema was conducted. From this group, 12 cases (18.75%) underwent simultaneous laboratory evaluation. Circumferences of affected extremities improved significantly following treatment (p pain, discomfort, and numbness (p effective treatment for lymphedema tissue fibrosis; it reduces the concentration of fibrosis cytokines in local lymphedema tissues. Consequently, this treatment can reduce the density of fibrosed tissue in the affected extremity, increase skin elasticity, significantly improve clinical symptoms, and improve QOL of patients.

  12. Global patterns of NDVI-indicated vegetation extremes and their sensitivity to climate extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guo; Liu Hongyan; Yin Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extremes in climate have significant impacts on ecosystems and are expected to increase under future climate change. Extremes in vegetation could capture such impacts and indicate the vulnerability of ecosystems, but currently have not received a global long-term assessment. In this study, a robust method has been developed to detect significant extremes (low values) in biweekly time series of global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2006 and thus to acquire a global pattern of vegetation extreme frequency. This pattern coincides with vegetation vulnerability patterns suggested by earlier studies using different methods over different time spans, indicating a consistent mechanism of regulation. Vegetation extremes were found to aggregate in Amazonia and in the semi-arid and semi-humid regions in low and middle latitudes, while they seldom occurred in high latitudes. Among the environmental variables studied, extreme low precipitation has the highest slope against extreme vegetation. For the eight biomes analyzed, these slopes are highest in temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland, suggesting a higher sensitivity in these environments. The results presented here contradict the hypothesis that vegetation in water-limited semi-arid and semi-humid regions might be adapted to drought and suggest that vegetation in these regions (especially temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland) is highly prone to vegetation extreme events under more severe precipitation extremes. It is also suggested here that more attention be paid to precipitation-induced vegetation changes than to temperature-induced events. (letter)

  13. Case Studies in Sustainability Used in an Introductory Laboratory Course to Enhance Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, Stephanie; Hargrove-Leak, Sirena; Gibson, Willietta; Leak, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This educational research seeks to develop novel laboratory modules by using Case Studies in the Science Teaching method to introduce sustainability and environmental engineering laboratory concepts to 21st century learners. The increased interest in "going green" has led to a surge in the number of engineering students studying…

  14. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  15. Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: Preliminary results of a European study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merce, M. S.; Ruiz, N.; Barth, I.; Carnicer, A.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fulop, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Krim, S.; Mariotti, F.; Ortega, X.; Rimpler, A.; Vanhavere, F.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: 99m Tc) and 18 F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin R and DOTATOC (both labelled with 90 Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. (authors)

  16. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  17. Evaluation of the analytic performance of laboratories: inter-laboratorial study of the spectroscopy of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Wong, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The author made an inter-laboratorial study, with the participation of 18 national laboratories, that have spectrophotometer of atomic absorption. To evaluate the methods of analysis of lead, sodium, potasium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in the ambit of mg/l. The samples, distributed in four rounds to the laboratories, were prepared from primary patterns, deionized and distilled water. The study evaluated the homogeneity and stability, and verified its concentration, using as a reference method, the spectrometry method of Inductively Coupled Plasma emission (1CP). To obtain the characteristics of analytic performance, it applied the norm ASTM E 691. To evaluated the analytic performance, it used harmonized protocol of the International Union of Pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC). The study obtained the 29% of the laboratories had a satisfactory analytic performance, 9% had a questionable performance and 62% made an unsatisfactory analytic performance, according to the IUPAC norm. The results of the values of the characteristic performance method, show that there is no intercomparability between the laboratories, which is attributed to the different methodologies of analysis. (S. Grainger)

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis, laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory studies on radioinduced carcinogenesis are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: radioinduced neoplasia in relation to life shortening; dose-response relationships; induction of skin tumors in rats by alpha particles and electrons; effects of hormones on tumor response; effects of low LET radiations delivered at low dose-rates; effects of fractionated neutron radiation; interaction of RBE and dose rate effects; and estimates of risks for humans from animal data. (U.S.)

  19. Hospital costs for patients with lower extremity cellulitis: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Douglas; Marcelin, Jasmine; Visscher, Sue; Baddour, Larry

    2017-12-01

    Hospital admissions for non-purulent lower extremity cellulitis (NLEC) are common and can be prolonged and costly. Newer treatment options and preventive strategies are expected to result in cost savings before implementation, but few studies have quantified the cost of conventional treatment. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the incidence of NLEC in Olmsted County, MN in 2013 was 176.6 per 100,000 persons. The subset of patients who required hospitalization for NLEC in 2013 was determined. Hospital admissions were analyzed retrospectively using standardized cost analysis within several relevant categories. Thirty-four patients had an average hospital length of stay of 4.7 days. The median total inpatient cost was $7,341. The median cost per day was $2,087, with 49% due to room and board. Antibiotics administered for treatment of NLEC contributed a median cost of $75 per day of hospitalization, and laboratory and imaging test costs were $73 and $44, respectively, per day of hospitalization. Hospitalizations for NLEC can be costly and prolonged with room and board accounting for much of the cost. Therefore, newer management strategies should seek to reduce hospital length of stay and/or avoid inpatient admission to reduce cost.

  20. Study of Environmental Data Complexity using Extreme Learning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    The main goals of environmental data science using machine learning algorithm deal, in a broad sense, around the calibration, the prediction and the visualization of hidden relationship between input and output variables. In order to optimize the models and to understand the phenomenon under study, the characterization of the complexity (at different levels) should be taken into account. Therefore, the identification of the linear or non-linear behavior between input and output variables adds valuable information for the knowledge of the phenomenon complexity. The present research highlights and investigates the different issues that can occur when identifying the complexity (linear/non-linear) of environmental data using machine learning algorithm. In particular, the main attention is paid to the description of a self-consistent methodology for the use of Extreme Learning Machines (ELM, Huang et al., 2006), which recently gained a great popularity. By applying two ELM models (with linear and non-linear activation functions) and by comparing their efficiency, quantification of the linearity can be evaluated. The considered approach is accompanied by simulated and real high dimensional and multivariate data case studies. In conclusion, the current challenges and future development in complexity quantification using environmental data mining are discussed. References - Huang, G.-B., Zhu, Q.-Y., Siew, C.-K., 2006. Extreme learning machine: theory and applications. Neurocomputing 70 (1-3), 489-501. - Kanevski, M., Pozdnoukhov, A., Timonin, V., 2009. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. EPFL Press; Lausanne, Switzerland, p.392. - Leuenberger, M., Kanevski, M., 2015. Extreme Learning Machines for spatial environmental data. Computers and Geosciences 85, 64-73.

  1. Functional studies in 79-year-olds. II. Upper extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Lindquist, B; Sperling, L

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Study of 79-year-old people in Göteborg, a representative subsample comprising 112 women and 93 men took part in a study of upper extremity function. Thirty-eight per cent of the women and 37% of the men had disorders in the upper extremities. The investigation included tests of co-ordination, static strength in the key-grip and the transversal volar grip, power capacity in opening jars and a bottle, basal movements in the upper extremities in personal hygiene and dressing activities, function in the kitchen e.g. reaching shelves, manual tasks including tests of pronation and supination of the forearm. In the key-grip as well as in the transversal volar grip men showed a generally larger decrease in strength with age than women compared to 70-year-olds in a previous population study. Significant correlations were found between strength in the key-grip and the performance time in the test of co-ordination. Women produced about 66% of the muscular force of the men when opening jars. Significant correlations were found between strength in the transversal volar grip and the maximal torque for opening the jars. Female and male subjects who were not capable of handling the electric plug in the manual ability test had significantly weaker strength in the key-grip. The importance of designing products and adapting the environment so as to correspond to the functional capacity of the elderly, is emphasized.

  2. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight...

  3. Laboratory studies on the adsorption kinetics of 137Cs in sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, T.J.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear reactor, extreme care is taken to minimize the release of radionuclides to the environment. Low level radioactive liquid waste generated is treated and released to the nearest water body after monitoring to ensure that the activity levels are well within the regulatory limits. Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESL) attached to power plants carry out a systematic environmental monitoring and impact assessment to ensure that the dose to the member of public is well within the limits. This paper presents the results of a systematic laboratory study carried out at ESL, Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) on the adsorption kinetics of 137 Cs in sediment. The study is to evaluate the sorption kinetics of 137 Cs + onto site specific sediment. Sets of adsorption experiments were conducted at specific time intervals for two different 137 Cs + concentrations, keeping other experimental conditions same. The kinetics of 137 Cs + adsorption on sediment is analyzed using pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. The pseudo-second order kinetic model is better correlated with the kinetics data compared with the pseudo first-order model. This indicates 137 Cs + ions can be involved in chemical bonding during the adsorption process to the analysed sediment. This chemi-sorption processes show a good compliance with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. It is also evident that lower concentration exhibits greater adsorption rate (k 2 value is 1.85 x 10 -5 Bq g -1 min -1 for 1245 Bq sets and 1.05 x 10 -5 Bq g -1 min -1 for 2456 Bq sets) from the pseudo second order model. Intra-particle diffusion rate constants (K id ) were also obtained by two different models for both the concentrations and found to be higher for higher concentration. (author)

  4. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  5. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  6. Iatrogenic Lower Extremity Subcutaneous Emphysema after Prolonged Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hagan Vetter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a known complication of carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy. The literature contains reports of hypercarbia, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. However, isolated lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema remains a seldom-reported complication. We report a case of unilateral lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema following robotic-assisted hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy, staging, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy for carcinosarcoma and vaginal prolapse. On postoperative day 1, the patient developed tender crepitus and bruising of her right ankle. Radiography confirmed presence of subcutaneous air. Vital signs and laboratory findings were unremarkable. Her symptoms spontaneously improved over time, and she was discharged in good condition on day 2. In stable patients with postoperative extremity swelling or pain with crepitus on exam, the diagnosis of iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema must be considered.

  7. EMA beamline at SIRIUS: extreme condition X-ray methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Neto, Narcizo

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The EMA beamline (Extreme condition X-ray Methods of Analysis) is one of the hard x-ray undulator beamlines within the first phase of the new synchrotron source in Brazil (Sirius project). This beamline is thought to make a difference where a high brilliance (high flux of up to 2 x 10 14 photons/sec with beam size down to 0.5 x 0.5 μm 2 ) is essential, which is the case for extreme pressures that require small focus and time-resolved that require high photon flux. With that in mind we propose the beamline to have two experimental hutches to cover most of the extreme condition techniques today employed at synchrotron laboratories worldwide. These two stations are thought to provide the general infrastructure for magnets and lasers experiments, which may evolve as new scientific problems appear. In addition to the hutches, support laboratories will be strongly linked and supportive to the experiments at the beamline, covering high pressure instrumentations using diamond anvil cells and pump-and-probe requirements for ultrafast and high power lasers. Along these lines, we will describe the following techniques covered at this beamline: magnetic spectroscopy (XMCD) and scattering (XRMS) under high pressure and very low temperature in order to fully probe both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials and the dependence with pressure; extreme pressure and temperature XRD and XAS experiments using very small diamond culet anvils and high power lasers. (author)

  8. EMA beamline at SIRIUS: extreme condition X-ray methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Neto, Narcizo, E-mail: narcizo.souza@lnls.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The EMA beamline (Extreme condition X-ray Methods of Analysis) is one of the hard x-ray undulator beamlines within the first phase of the new synchrotron source in Brazil (Sirius project). This beamline is thought to make a difference where a high brilliance (high flux of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} photons/sec with beam size down to 0.5 x 0.5 μm{sup 2}) is essential, which is the case for extreme pressures that require small focus and time-resolved that require high photon flux. With that in mind we propose the beamline to have two experimental hutches to cover most of the extreme condition techniques today employed at synchrotron laboratories worldwide. These two stations are thought to provide the general infrastructure for magnets and lasers experiments, which may evolve as new scientific problems appear. In addition to the hutches, support laboratories will be strongly linked and supportive to the experiments at the beamline, covering high pressure instrumentations using diamond anvil cells and pump-and-probe requirements for ultrafast and high power lasers. Along these lines, we will describe the following techniques covered at this beamline: magnetic spectroscopy (XMCD) and scattering (XRMS) under high pressure and very low temperature in order to fully probe both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials and the dependence with pressure; extreme pressure and temperature XRD and XAS experiments using very small diamond culet anvils and high power lasers. (author)

  9. The creation of radiation dominated plasmas using laboratory extreme ultra-violet lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallents, G. J.; Wilson, S.; West, A.; Aslanyan, V.; Lolley, J.; Rossall, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Ionization in experiments where solid targets are irradiated by high irradiance extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers is examined. Free electron degeneracy effects on ionization in the presence of a high EUV flux of radiation is shown to be important. Overlap of the physics of such plasmas with plasma material under compression in indirect inertial fusion is explored. The design of the focusing optics needed to achieve high irradiance (up to 1014 Wcm-2) using an EUV capillary laser is presented.

  10. Scaling law in laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art lasers makes it possible to produce, in the laboratory, the extreme conditions similar to those in astrophysical processes. The introduction of astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma interaction experiments is propitious to the understanding of astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between laser-produced plasma and astrophysical objects makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author presents the physical reasons for modeling astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. This allows the creation of experimental test beds where observation and models can be quantitatively compared with laboratory data

  11. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    OpenAIRE

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic stations (airports) of North Germany (Bremen, Hamburg and Hannover) were considered for the construction of time series of daily maximum wind speeds. All daily wind extremes were found to be linked...

  12. The influence of wheelchair propulsion technique on upper extremity muscle demand: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Kwarciak, Andrew M; Richter, W Mark; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-11-01

    The majority of manual wheelchair users will experience upper extremity injuries or pain, in part due to the high force requirements, repetitive motion and extreme joint postures associated with wheelchair propulsion. Recent studies have identified cadence, contact angle and peak force as important factors for reducing upper extremity demand during propulsion. However, studies often make comparisons between populations (e.g., able-bodied vs. paraplegic) or do not investigate specific measures of upper extremity demand. The purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model and forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion to investigate how altering cadence, peak force and contact angle influence individual muscle demand. Forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion were generated to emulate group-averaged experimental data during four conditions: 1) self-selected propulsion technique, and while 2) minimizing cadence, 3) maximizing contact angle, and 4) minimizing peak force using biofeedback. Simulations were used to determine individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of muscle demand. Minimizing peak force and cadence had the lowest muscle power requirements. However, minimizing peak force increased cadence and recovery power, while minimizing cadence increased average muscle stress. Maximizing contact angle increased muscle stress and had the highest muscle power requirements. Minimizing cadence appears to have the most potential for reducing muscle demand and fatigue, which could decrease upper extremity injuries and pain. However, altering any of these variables to extreme values appears to be less effective; instead small to moderate changes may better reduce overall muscle demand. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  14. Musculoskeletal extremity pain in Danish school children - how often and for how long? The CHAMPS study-DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglkjær, Signe; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels; Boyle, Eleanor; Jespersen, Eva; Junge, Tina; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-11-25

    Musculoskeletal pain is common in childhood and adolescence, and may be long-lasting and recurrent. Musculoskeletal problems tend to follow adolescents into adulthood, and therefore it is important to design better prevention strategies and early effective treatment. To this end, we need in-depth knowledge about the epidemiology of musculoskeletal extremity problems in this age group, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, frequency and course of musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities in a cohort of Danish school children aged 8-14 years at baseline. This was a prospective 3-year school-based cohort study, with information about musculoskeletal pain collected in two ways. Parents answered weekly mobile phone text messages about the presence or absence of musculoskeletal pain in their children, and a clinical consultation was performed in a subset of the children. We found that approximately half the children had lower extremity pain every study year. This pain lasted on average for 8 weeks out of a study year, and the children had on average two and a half episodes per study year. Approximately one quarter of the children had upper extremity pain every study year that lasted on average 3 weeks during a study year, with one and a half episodes being the average. In general, there were more non-traumatic pain episodes compared with traumatic episodes in the lower extremities, whereas the opposite was true in the upper extremities. The most common anatomical pain sites were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'. Lower extremity pain among children and adolescents is common, recurrent and most often of non-traumatic origin. Upper extremity pain is less common, with fewer and shorter episodes, and usually with a traumatic onset. Girls more frequently reported upper extremity pain, whereas there was no sex-related difference in the lower extremities. The most frequently reported locations were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.

  15. Studying extremely peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatyga, M.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion facilities have been proposed (and in some cases constructed) with an intent to search for a new state of matter, a quark gluon plasma. As with all tools in the experimental physics, one should always search for ways in which relativistic heavy ions can be used to study physical phenomena beyond this original goal. New possibilities for a study of higher order photonuclear excitations in extremely peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions are discussed in this contribution. Data on the electromagnetic and nuclear fragmentation of a 14.6Gev/nucleon 28 Si projectile are presented

  16. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control.

  17. Lung function after extremely preterm birth-A population-based cohort study (EXPRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, Per; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Winberg, Anna; Fellman, Vineta; Domellöf, Magnus; Melén, Erik; Norman, Mikael; Hallberg, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. Associations to gestational age, smallness for gestational age (SGA), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were assessed. Children born extremely preterm had lower forced vital capacity (FVC, z-score: -0.7, 95%CI: -1.0;-0.4), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , z-score: -1.1, 95%CI: -1.4; -0.8), higher frequency-dependence of resistance (R 5-20 , 0.09, 95%CI: 0.05; 0.12 kPa · L -1  · s -1 ) and larger area under the reactance curve (AX, 0.78, 95%CI: 0.49; 1.07 kPa · L -1 ) than controls. In children born at 22-24 weeks of gestation, 24% had FVC and 44% had FEV 1 below the lower limit of normal. SGA and severe BPD only marginally contributed to pulmonary outcomes. Asthma-like disease was reported in 40% of extremely preterm children and 15% of controls. Many children born extremely preterm have altered airway mechanics and significant obstructive reduction in lung function. This warrants consideration for treatment and continued follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (plaboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (plaboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  19. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  20. Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton training: Case studies for complete spinal cord injury walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Edward D; Smith, Andrew J; Herbert-Copley, Andrew; Sreenivasan, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in exoskeleton technology has made lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) a viable treatment tool to restore upright walking mobility to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Evaluate ARKE exoskeleton training within a rehabilitation centre environment. Case studies are presented for two male participants, age 41 and 30, motor complete SCI at T6 (N01) and T12 (N02), respectively, as they progress from new LEPE users to independent walking. The ARKE 2.0 LEPE (Bionik Laboratories Inc., Toronto, Canada) was used for all training (hip and knee powered, forearm crutches, control tablet). Data were collected on session times, activity metrics from ARKE system logs, and qualitative questionnaire feedback. N01 required 18, 30-minute training sessions to achieve independent walking. N01 walked independently within the 12 session target. Foot strikes were frequently before the end of the programmed swing phase, which were handled by the ARKE control system. Subjective ratings of LEPE learning, comfort, pain, fatigue, and overall experience were high for sitting-standing and moderate to high for walking. This reflected the complexity of learning to safely walk. Qualitative feedback supported the continuation of LEPE use in rehabilitation settings based on end-user desire for upright mobility.

  1. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Modeling annual extreme temperature using generalized extreme value distribution: A case study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salam, Norfatin; Kassim, Suraiya

    2013-04-01

    Extreme temperature of several stations in Malaysia is modeled by fitting the annual maximum to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) tests are used to detect stochastic trends among the stations. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test suggests a non-stationary model. Three models are considered for stations with trend and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. The results show that Subang and Bayan Lepas stations favour a model which is linear for the location parameters while Kota Kinabalu and Sibu stations are suitable with a model in the logarithm of the scale parameters. The return level is the level of events (maximum temperature) which is expected to be exceeded once, on average, in a given number of years, is obtained.

  3. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the

  4. A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Reis, Délia; Guerreiro Lopes, Luiz; Mendonça, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island's rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results obtained highlight the influence of the island's complex topography on the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island.

  5. Extremity fractures associated with ATVs and dirt bikes: a 10-year national epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, D J; Jelsema, T; Gambone, A; Weisman, M; Petersen-Fitts, G; Whaley, J D; Sabesan, V J

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity and mortality of all-terrain vehicles and dirt bikes have been studied, as well as the association of helmet use and head injury. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the patterns of extremity fractures associated with ATVs and dirt bikes. We believe there will be unique and potentially preventable injury patterns associated with dirt bikes and three-wheeled ATVs due to the poor stability of these vehicles. Descriptive epidemiology study. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data for extremity fractures related to ATV (three wheels, four wheels, and number of wheels undefined) and dirt bike use from 2007 to 2012. Nationwide estimation of injury incidence was determined using NEISS weight calculations. The database yielded an estimate of 229,362 extremity fractures from 2007 to 2012. The incidence rates of extremity fractures associated with ATV and dirt bike use were 3.87 and 6.85 per 1000 participant-years. The largest proportion of all fractures occurred in the shoulder (27.2%), followed by the wrist and lower leg (13.8 and 12.4%, respectively). There were no differences in the distribution of the location of fractures among four-wheeled or unspecified ATVs. However, three-wheeled ATVs and dirt bikes had much larger proportion of lower leg, foot, and ankle fractures compared to the other vehicle types. While upper extremity fractures were the most commonly observed in this database, three-wheeled ATVs and dirt bikes showed increased proportions of lower extremity fractures. Several organizations have previously advocated for better regulation of the sale and use of these specific vehicles due to increased risks. These findings help illustrate some of the specific risks associated with these commonly used vehicles.

  6. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability of Ultrasonography in Detection of Different Extremity Bone Fractures; a Case Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi, Farzad; Shayesteh Azar, Massoud; Montazer, Seyed Hossein; Chabra, Aroona; Heidari, Seyed Farshad; Khalilian, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Despite radiography being the gold standard in evaluation of orthopedic injuries, using bedside ultrasonography has several potential supremacies such as avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation, availability in pre-hospital settings, being extensively accessible, and ability to be used on the bedside. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of extremity bone fractures. This study is a case series study, which was prospectively conducted on multiple blunt trauma patients, who were 18 years old or older, had stable hemodynamic, Glasgow coma scale 15, and signs or symptoms of a possible extremity bone fracture. After initial assessment, ultrasonography of suspected bones was performed by a trained emergency medicine resident and prevalence of true positive and false negative findings were calculated compared to plain radiology. 108 patients with the mean age of 44.6 ± 20.4 years were studied (67.6% male). Analysis was done on 158 sites of fracture, which were confirmed with plain radiography. 91 (57.6%) cases were suspected to have upper extremity fracture(s) and 67 (42.4%) to have lower ones. The most frequent site of injuries were forearm (36.7%) in upper limbs and leg (27.8%) in lower limbs. Prevalence of true positive and false negative cases for fractures detected by ultrasonography were 59 (64.8%) and 32 (35.52%) for upper and 49 (73.1%) and 18 (26.9%) for lower extremities, respectively. In addition, prevalence of true positive and false negative detected cases for intra-articular fractures were 24 (48%) and 26 (52%), respectively. The present study shows the moderate sensitivity (68.3%) of ultrasonography in detection of different extremity bone fractures. Ultrasonography showed the best sensitivity in detection of femur (100%) and humerus (76.2%) fractures, respectively. It had low sensitivity in detection of in intra-articular fractures.

  8. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  9. Extremity dosimetry trial: Devonport royal dockyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, R.; Collison, R.

    2008-01-01

    This trial was undertaken to assess extremity dosemeters, which were made available to Devonport Royal Dockyard and determine the most suitable to the site. The trial included operational and laboratory-based exposures. Operational exposures were within a submarine reactor compartment and a waste storage area. Laboratory exposures were undertaken using 241 Am, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources to compare and contrast the dosemeters energy response. In addition, the low dose response and the response if placed in the incorrect orientation were also assessed. Ten passive and two active dosemeters were tested, with three highlighted as the most technically suitable, DSTL Harshaw DXT-RAD, HPA Harshaw EXT-RAD and the AMEC Panasonic UD-807A. The most technically suitable dosemeter was the DSTL Harshaw DXT-RAD, due to good responses within all aspects of the trial and the user's preference for the ring type design. The John Caunt ED2 electronic dosemeter 2 (ED2) also performed well, but suffered radio frequency interference. (authors)

  10. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic...... regimes. Overall, it becomes clear that the first indications of an extreme wind event might come from the ECMWF deterministic and/or probabilistic components capturing very intense weather systems (possible windstorms) in the medium term. For early warnings, all available EPS Extreme Forecast Index (EFI......) formulations were used, by linking daily maximum wind speeds to EFI values for different forecast horizons. From all possible EFI schemes deployed for issuing early warnings, the highest skill was found for the Gust Factor formulation (EFI-10FGI). Using EFI-10FGI, the corresponding 99% threshold could provide...

  11. Laboratory Oxidation Stability Study on B10 Biodiesel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelen, B. [and others

    2013-11-15

    A laboratory oxidation stability study has been completed jointly by CONCAWE and DGMK on three biodiesel blends containing 10% v/v (B10) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). The results of the study are compared to measurements from an in-vehicle storage stability study on similar B10 diesel fuels that had been conducted previously in a Joint Industry Study. This laboratory study monitored the oxidation stability of the three B10 blends during six weeks of laboratory storage under ambient (25C) and elevated temperature (43C) conditions. Various test methods were used to monitor oxidation stability changes in the B10 diesel fuel blends including electrical conductivity, viscosity, Rancimat oxidation stability (EN 15751), PetroOxy oxidation stability (EN 16091), acid number (EN 14104), Delta Total Acid Number (Delta TAN), and peroxide number (ISO 3960). Elemental analyses by ICP were also completed on the FAME and B10 blends at the start and end of the laboratory study. The concentrations of dissolved metals were very low in all cases except for silicon which was found to be between about 600-700 ppb in the B10 blends. A limited study was also conducted on one neat FAME sample (B100) to investigate the effect of air/oxygen exposure on the rate of decrease in oxidation stability.

  12. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  13. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  14. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Tara; Switzman, Harris; Arain, Altaf; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with the development of extreme weather frequency and intensity indices at the local scale. Several different global climate models, downscaling methods, and emission scenarios were used to develop extreme temperature and precipitation indices at the local scale in the Hamilton region, Ontario, Canada. Uncertainty associated with historical and future trends in extreme indices and future climate projectio...

  15. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, Mark A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernshein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, Jacqueline M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  16. Distributing urban resilience to extreme precipitation events with green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, F. A.; Catalano De Sousa, M.; Yu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    New urban green spaces are being designed to manage stormwater, but their performance in a changing climate is untested. Key questions pertain to the ability of these systems to mitigate flood and sewer overflow concerns during impact of extreme events on, and to withstand (biologically and physically) increased frequency and intensity of drought and flood conditions. In this presentation, we present field data characterizing performance of a bioretention area, a stormwater treatment wetland, and a green roof under Hurricane Irene (2011), Superstorm Sandy (2012), and a variety of extreme precipitation events during the summer of 2013. Specifically, we characterize the fate and volume of incident runon and/or precipitation to the facilities during these extreme events, and compare them to long term monitored performance metrics. We also present laboratory test results documenting how vegetation in these facilities stands up to simulated flood and drought conditions. The results are discussed in the context of predicted climate change, specifically associated with the amount and timing of precipitation.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N.; Ikeda, H.; Ando, M.

    1991-10-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), as the research facilities, there are Photon Factory, the facility for utilizing the booster and University of Tokyo Meson Science Research Center. For the research on physical properties, it is very important to do structural analysis in a broad sense and to observe the behavior of quasiparticles in solids. The X-ray and pulsed neutrons required for these researches can be obtained in a single laboratory in KEK, and it is rare in the world. At this opportunity of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions, it is hoped that the positive interchange between both PF and booster groups will be carried out. The research on magnetic substances using X-ray is a most noteworthy utilization of synchrotron radiation. The discovery of X-ray resonance magnetic scattering by K. Namikawa is one of the remarkable researches using synchrotron radiation in the world. When the extreme conditions around samples are prepared, the quality of signals for the research on physical properties is to be heightened. In this report, the researches on physical properties under ultrahigh pressure and ultralow temperature are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS): A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Karen S.; Auping, Judith V.; Megargle, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    In the late 70's, a refurbishment of the analytical laboratories serving the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was to be included. Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the best choice in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled down version of the original design has been in operation since 1984. The LIMS, a combination of computer hardware, provides the chemical characterization laboratory with an information data base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved in designing and implementing that LIMS.

  19. Extreme events and predictability of catastrophic failure in composite materials and in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I.; Naylor, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite all attempts to isolate and predict extreme earthquakes, these nearly always occur without obvious warning in real time: fully deterministic earthquake prediction is very much a `black swan'. On the other hand engineering-scale samples of rocks and other composite materials often show clear precursors to dynamic failure under controlled conditions in the laboratory, and successful evacuations have occurred before several volcanic eruptions. This may be because extreme earthquakes are not statistically special, being an emergent property of the process of dynamic rupture. Nevertheless, probabilistic forecasting of event rate above a given size, based on the tendency of earthquakes to cluster in space and time, can have significant skill compared to say random failure, even in real-time mode. We address several questions in this debate, using examples from the Earth (earthquakes, volcanoes) and the laboratory, including the following. How can we identify `characteristic' events, i.e. beyond the power law, in model selection (do dragon-kings exist)? How do we discriminate quantitatively between stationary and non-stationary hazard models (is a dragon likely to come soon)? Does the system size (the size of the dragon's domain) matter? Are there localising signals of imminent catastrophic failure we may not be able to access (is the dragon effectively invisible on approach)? We focus on the effect of sampling effects and statistical uncertainty in the identification of extreme events and their predictability, and highlight the strong influence of scaling in space and time as an outstanding issue to be addressed by quantitative studies, experimentation and models.

  20. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10 MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  1. A Three-Year Feedback Study of a Remote Laboratory Used in Control Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Amélie; Copot, Cosmin; Ionescu, Clara; De Keyser, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a feedback study for a remote laboratory used in the education of control engineering students. The goal is to show the effectiveness of the remote laboratory on examination results. To provide an overview, the two applications of the remote laboratory are addressed: 1) the Stewart platform, and 2) the quadruple…

  2. Design of laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A condensed description of methods used in laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology is presented showing also the difficulties which may be encountered in order to obtain realistic and comparable information on the general behaviour of radionuclides in marine organisms. Practical guidance on the choice of the biological material and how to setup laboratory experiments and to control properly important experimental conditions are given. Key parameters like concentration factors and biological half-lives are defined and the theoretical estimation and practical determination of input, uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides in marine biota are formulated by the aid of mathematical equations. Examples of uptake and loss curves obtained in the laboratory are shown. The importance of some environmental factors (temperature, food, growth) on uptake and loss of radionuclides are demonstrated. Comparison of experimental and field data of concentration factors is reported to show the difficulty in extrapolating from laboratory experiments to nature. (author)

  3. Exploring extreme plasma physics in the laboratory and in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. O.; Grismayer, T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Cruz, F.; Gaudio, F. D.; Martins, J. L.; Vieira, J.; Vranic, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of ultra intense fields with plasmas is at the confluence of several sub-fields ranging from QED, and nuclear physics to high energy astrophysics, and fundamental plasma processes. It requires novel theoretical tools, highly optimised numerical codes and algorithms tailored to these complex scenarios, where physical mechanisms at very disparate temporal and spatial scales are self-consistently coupled in multidimensional geometries. The key developments implemented in Osiris will be presented along with some examples of problems, relevant for laboratory or astrophysical scenarios, that are being addressed resorting to the combination of massively parallel simulations with theoretical models. The relevance for near future experimental facilities such as ELI will also be presented. Work supported by the European Research Council (ERC-AdG-2015 InPairs Grant No. 695088).

  4. A note on extreme sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Cymer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In decomposition theory, extreme sets have been studied extensively due to its connection to perfect matchings in a graph. In this paper, we first define extreme sets with respect to degree-matchings and next investigate some of their properties. In particular, we prove the generalized Decomposition Theorem and give a characterization for the set of all extreme vertices in a graph.

  5. Successful Sampling Strategy Advances Laboratory Studies of NMR Logging in Unconsolidated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Ahmad A.; Knight, Rosemary; Müller-Petke, Mike; Auken, Esben; Barfod, Adrian A. S.; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Vilhelmsen, Troels N.; Johnson, Carole D.; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique has become popular in groundwater studies because it responds directly to the presence and mobility of water in a porous medium. There is a need to conduct laboratory experiments to aid in the development of NMR hydraulic conductivity models, as is typically done in the petroleum industry. However, the challenge has been obtaining high-quality laboratory samples from unconsolidated aquifers. At a study site in Denmark, we employed sonic drilling, which minimizes the disturbance of the surrounding material, and extracted twelve 7.6 cm diameter samples for laboratory measurements. We present a detailed comparison of the acquired laboratory and logging NMR data. The agreement observed between the laboratory and logging data suggests that the methodologies proposed in this study provide good conditions for studying NMR measurements of unconsolidated near-surface aquifers. Finally, we show how laboratory sample size and condition impact the NMR measurements.

  6. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  7. Concussion May Increase the Risk of Subsequent Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel C; Jones, Debi; Harrison, Ashley; Moser, Michael; Tillman, Susan; Farmer, Kevin; Pass, Anthony; Clugston, James R; Hernandez, Jorge; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory-based studies on neuromuscular control after concussion and epidemiological studies suggest that concussion may increase the risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if athletes have an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play from a concussion. Injury data were collected from 2006 to 2013 for men's football and for women's basketball, soccer and lacrosse at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Ninety cases of in-season concussion in 73 athletes (52 male, 21 female) with return to play at least 30 days prior to the end of the season were identified. A period of up to 90 days of in-season competition following return to play was reviewed for time-loss injury. The same period was studied in up to two control athletes who had no concussion within the prior year and were matched for sport, starting status and position. Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a higher rate in the concussed athletes (45/90 or 50 %) than in the non-concussed athletes (30/148 or 20 %; P relationship between concussion and an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play, and may have implications for current medical practice standards regarding evaluation and management of concussion injuries.

  8. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  9. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  10. Factors associated with upper extremity contractures after cervical spinal cord injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Dustin; Bryden, Anne; Kubec, Gina; Kilgore, Kevin

    2018-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of joint contractures in the upper limb and association with voluntary strength, innervation status, functional status, and demographics in a convenience sample of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury to inform future prospective studies. Cross-sectional convenience sampled pilot study. Department of Veterans Affairs Research Laboratory. Thirty-eight participants with cervical level spinal cord injury. Not applicable. Contractures were measured with goniometric passive range of motion. Every joint in the upper extremity was evaluated bilaterally. Muscle strength was measured with manual muscle testing. Innervation status was determined clinically with surface electrical stimulation. Functional independence was measured with the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM-III). Every participant tested had multiple joints with contractures and, on average, participants were unable to achieve the normative values of passive movement in 52% of the joints tested. Contractures were most common in the shoulder and hand. There was a weak negative relationship between percentage of contractures and time post-injury and a moderate positive relationship between percentage of contractures and age. There was a strong negative correlation between SCIM-III score and percentage of contractures. Joint contractures were noted in over half of the joints tested. These joint contractures were associated with decreased functional ability as measured by the SCIM-III. This highlights the need the need for detailed evaluation of the arm and hand early after injury as well as continued monitoring of joint characteristics throughout the life course of the individual with tetraplegia.

  11. The Importance of Studying Past Extreme Floods to Prepare for Uncertain Future Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hoyt and Langbein, 1955 in their book `Floods' wrote: " ..meteorologic and hydrologic conditions will combine to produce superfloods of unprecedented magnitude. We have every reason to believe that in most rivers past floods may not be an accurate measure of ultimate flood potentialities. It is this superflood with which we are always most concerned". I provide several examples to offer some historical perspective on assessing extreme floods. In one example, flooding in the Miami Valley, OH in 1913 claimed 350 lives. The engineering and socio-economic challenges facing the Morgan Engineering Co in how to mitigate against future flood damage and loss of life when limited information was available provide guidance about ways to face an uncertain hydroclimate future, particularly one of a changed climate. A second example forces us to examine mixed flood populations and illustrates the huge uncertainty in assigning flood magnitude and exceedance probability to extreme floods in such cases. There is large uncertainty in flood frequency estimates; knowledge of the total flood hydrograph, not the peak flood flow rate alone, is what is needed for hazard mitigation assessment or design. Some challenges in estimating the complete flood hydrograph in an uncertain future climate, including demands on hydrologic models and their inputs, are addressed.

  12. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  13. Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.

    2018-01-01

    The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human

  14. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  15. The Spanish tourist sector facing extreme climate events: a case study of domestic tourism in the heat wave of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, M. Belén; Armesto-López, Xosé A.; Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    This research explores, by means of a questionnaire-based survey, public knowledge and perception as well as the behaviour of young Spanish tourists before, during and after the summer holiday period affected by an episode of extreme heat in 2003. The survey was administered between November and December 2004. The extraordinary heat wave of the summer of 2003 can be seen as an example of a normal episode in terms of the predicted intensity and duration of European summers towards the end of the twenty-first century. It can therefore be used as the laboratory setting for this study. In this context, the use of the climate analogue approach allows us to obtain novel perspectives regarding the future impact that this type of event could have on tourist demand, based on a real experience. Likewise, such an approach allows the strategies of adaptation implemented by the different elements in the tourist system in order to cope with the atmospheric episode to be evaluated. Such strategies could prove useful in reducing vulnerability when faced with similar episodes in the future. The main results indicate that Spanish tourists (young segment market) are flexible in adapting to episodes of extremely high temperatures. Their personal perception of the phenomenon, their behaviour and the adaptation measures implemented to a greater or lesser extent before that time, reduce the vulnerability of the sector when faced with this type of event, at least from the point of view of this young segment of the internal national market. In Spain, the episode of extreme heat of 2003 has led to the implementation or improvement of some adaptive measures after the event, especially in the fields of management, policy and education.

  16. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  17. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine services using thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebhah, D.; Djeffal, S.; Badreddine, A.; Medjahed, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Radiation Protection and Safety Centre in Algiers provides two types of dosemeters, one for monitoring doses to the whole body and skin and the other one for monitoring doses to the extremities of the body. In nuclear medicine services and radiopharmaceutical laboratories, hands and arms are often closer to a given radiation source than the main part of the body and therefore receive greater doses. In this context, extremity doses have been measured by a ring dosemeter and by a fingertip ultra-thin dosemeter. The ring dosemeter consists of a metallic ring with a circular indentation to hold a LiF chip which is covered with a 10 mg.cm -2 shrinkable black polyamide layer. The ultra-thin dosemeter contains a 5 mg.cm -2 LiF element for measuring doses at a depth of 7 mg.cm -2 . These extremity dosemeters have been characterised before their use in the field. They have also been tested using radioisotopes of various energies. The doses received by the monitored workers were correlated with the amount of the handled activity. The doses obtained using the fingertip and the ring dosemeters are presented and discussed from a radiological point of view. (author)

  18. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS OF TOURISTS TOWARDS EXTREME SPORTS IN NEPAL : Case Study: Paragliding-Pokhara

    OpenAIRE

    Moktan , Dweej

    2017-01-01

    The motive of this thesis is to find the role of extreme sports in Nepal. It is mainly targeted to understand the current attitude and behavior of the participants towards the extreme sports and what further suggestions and recommendations could be viable for additional improvement and progress of attitude and behavior of the participants towards the sport. The case study of Pokhara city has been taken as the research project to analyze and interpret the significance of attitude and behavior ...

  19. Upper Extremity Multifocal Neuropathy in a 10-Year-Old Boy Associated With NS6S Disaccharide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Frederick; Naddaf, Elie; Waclawik, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We present a 10-year-old boy with a predominantly motor multifocal neuropathy with demyelinating and axonal changes with sensory involvement, affecting only one upper extremity. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated titer of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against the NS6S antigen. He responded to treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins. Focal or multifocal immune-mediated neuropathies are not common in children and may be underdiagnosed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires nonspecialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate was found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory results

  1. Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke.

  2. Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Villeneuve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Music-supported therapy (MST is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3, prior to (week6 and after the intervention (week9, and at 3-week follow-up (week12. Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test and gross (box and block test manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test. Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke.

  3. STATISTICAL STUDY OF STRONG AND EXTREME GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND SOLAR CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Olspert, N.; Grigorievskiy, A.; Käpylä, M. J.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Pelt, J.; Miyahara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Liu, Y. D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between strong and extreme geomagnetic storms and solar cycle characteristics. The analysis uses an extensive geomagnetic index AA data set spanning over 150 yr complemented by the Kakioka magnetometer recordings. We apply Pearson correlation statistics and estimate the significance of the correlation with a bootstrapping technique. We show that the correlation between the storm occurrence and the strength of the solar cycle decreases from a clear positive correlation with increasing storm magnitude toward a negligible relationship. Hence, the quieter Sun can also launch superstorms that may lead to significant societal and economic impact. Our results show that while weaker storms occur most frequently in the declining phase, the stronger storms have the tendency to occur near solar maximum. Our analysis suggests that the most extreme solar eruptions do not have a direct connection between the solar large-scale dynamo-generated magnetic field, but are rather associated with smaller-scale dynamo and resulting turbulent magnetic fields. The phase distributions of sunspots and storms becoming increasingly in phase with increasing storm strength, on the other hand, may indicate that the extreme storms are related to the toroidal component of the solar large-scale field

  4. STATISTICAL STUDY OF STRONG AND EXTREME GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND SOLAR CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University Helsinki (Finland); Olspert, N.; Grigorievskiy, A.; Käpylä, M. J.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Pelt, J. [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto Univeristy (Finland); Miyahara, H. [Musashino Art University, 1-736 Ogawa-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 187-8505 (Japan); Kataoka, R. [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Liu, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-20

    We study the relation between strong and extreme geomagnetic storms and solar cycle characteristics. The analysis uses an extensive geomagnetic index AA data set spanning over 150 yr complemented by the Kakioka magnetometer recordings. We apply Pearson correlation statistics and estimate the significance of the correlation with a bootstrapping technique. We show that the correlation between the storm occurrence and the strength of the solar cycle decreases from a clear positive correlation with increasing storm magnitude toward a negligible relationship. Hence, the quieter Sun can also launch superstorms that may lead to significant societal and economic impact. Our results show that while weaker storms occur most frequently in the declining phase, the stronger storms have the tendency to occur near solar maximum. Our analysis suggests that the most extreme solar eruptions do not have a direct connection between the solar large-scale dynamo-generated magnetic field, but are rather associated with smaller-scale dynamo and resulting turbulent magnetic fields. The phase distributions of sunspots and storms becoming increasingly in phase with increasing storm strength, on the other hand, may indicate that the extreme storms are related to the toroidal component of the solar large-scale field.

  5. Laboratory Approaches to Studying Occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Andreas; Andersen, Rune; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    is high and a large number of physical, physiological, and psychological quantities can be monitored. This chapter gives an overview of various types of test facilities in the world and their main features in terms of experimental opportunities. It then presents typical technical equipment and sensor......Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments...

  6. Army agrees to new study of biowarfare laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Jeffrey

    1985-02-08

    As a result of a lawsuit initiated by Washington activist Jeremy Rifkin and joined by the attorney general for the state of Utah, the U.S. Army has agreed to defer construction, pending a study of potential environmental hazards, of a new laboratory that was authorized by a small number of Congressmen under an unusual procedure in December 1984. The laboratory, intended for tests of highly infectious and lethal biological aerosols, has aroused controversy because of fears that the data gathered there might be used to develop offensive biological weapons.

  7. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-01-01

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices

  8. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  9. Documentary evidence of economic character as a source for the study of hydrometeorological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.

    2009-04-01

    Various human activities, such as agriculture, forestry and water management, have always been influenced by climate variability and hydrometeorological extremes. From this reason historical economic records often include information about contemporaneous weather as well as descriptions of its impacts. This study deals with the interpretation of hydrometeorological extremes for the territory of Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic) derived from taxation records and reports of domain and estate administrators. Information obtained reflects the occurrence of floods, convective storms (including hailstorms), windstorms, late spring and early autumn frosts. Based on data from eight domains or estates, frequency series of floods and convective storms (including hailstorms) were compiled for the period 1650-1849. Detail analysis of disastrous weather event from 10 August 1694 in the Pernštejn domain is used to demonstrate the potential of such data for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts on human activity. Another example is analysis of data about tax reduction due to hailstorm damage on agriculture crops in Moravia in the period 1896-1906.

  10. Thermodynamics of extremal rotating thin shells in an extremal BTZ spacetime and the extremal black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2017-02-01

    In a (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, the thermodynamics and the entropy of an extremal rotating thin shell, i.e., an extremal rotating ring, are investigated. The outer and inner regions with respect to the shell are taken to be the Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime and the vacuum ground state anti-de Sitter spacetime, respectively. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the extremal thin shell, one shows that the entropy of the shell is an arbitrary well-behaved function of the gravitational area A+ alone, S =S (A+). When the thin shell approaches its own gravitational radius r+ and turns into an extremal rotating BTZ black hole, it is found that the entropy of the spacetime remains such a function of A+, both when the local temperature of the shell at the gravitational radius is zero and nonzero. It is thus vindicated by this analysis that extremal black holes, here extremal BTZ black holes, have different properties from the corresponding nonextremal black holes, which have a definite entropy, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S (A+)=A/+4G , where G is the gravitational constant. It is argued that for extremal black holes, in particular for extremal BTZ black holes, one should set 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+4G;i.e., the extremal black hole entropy has values in between zero and the maximum Bekenstein-Hawking entropy A/+4 G . Thus, rather than having just two entropies for extremal black holes, as previous results have debated, namely, 0 and A/+4 G , it is shown here that extremal black holes, in particular extremal BTZ black holes, may have a continuous range of entropies, limited by precisely those two entropies. Surely, the entropy that a particular extremal black hole picks must depend on past processes, notably on how it was formed. A remarkable relation between the third law of thermodynamics and the impossibility for a massive body to reach the velocity of light is also found. In addition, in the procedure, it

  11. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  12. Exploring new frontiers in the pulsed power laboratory: Recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adamenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental processes in the Universe, nucleosynthesis of elements drives energy production in stars as well as the creation of all atoms heavier than hydrogen. To harness this process and open new ways for energy production, we must recreate some of the extreme conditions in which it occurs. We present results of experiments using a pulsed power facility to induce collective nuclear interactions producing stable nuclei of virtually every element in the periodic table. A high-power electron beam pulse striking a small metallic target is used to create the extreme dynamic environment. Material analysis studies detect an anomalously high presence of new chemical elements in the remnants of the exploded target supporting theoretical conjectures of the experiment. These results provide strong motivation to continue our research looking for additional proofs that heavy element nucleosynthesis is possible in pulsed power laboratory.

  13. Variability of creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories: results from the CRIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Marshall; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I; Weir, Matthew; Landis, J R; Hamm, L Lee

    2010-01-01

    Estimating equations using serum creatinine (SCr) are often used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Such creatinine (Cr)-based formulae may produce biased estimates of GFR when using Cr measurements that have not been calibrated to reference laboratories. In this paper, we sought to examine the degree of this variation in Cr assays in several laboratories associated with academic medical centers affiliated with the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; to consider how best to correct for this variation, and to quantify the impact of such corrections on eligibility for participation in CRIC. Variability of Cr is of particular concern in the conduct of CRIC, a large multicenter study of subjects with chronic renal disease, because eligibility for the study depends on Cr-based assessment of GFR. A library of 5 large volume plasma specimens from apheresis patients was assembled, representing levels of plasma Cr from 0.8 to 2.4 mg/dl. Samples from this library were used for measurement of Cr at each of the 14 CRIC laboratories repetitively over time. We used graphical displays and linear regression methods to examine the variability in Cr, and used linear regression to develop calibration equations. We also examined the impact of the various calibration equations on the proportion of subjects screened as potential participants who were actually eligible for the study. There was substantial variability in Cr assays across laboratories and over time. We developed calibration equations for each laboratory; these equations varied substantially among laboratories and somewhat over time in some laboratories. The laboratory site contributed the most to variability (51% of the variance unexplained by the specimen) and variation with time accounted for another 15%. In some laboratories, calibration equations resulted in differences in eligibility for CRIC of as much as 20%. The substantial variability in SCr assays across laboratories necessitates calibration

  14. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    in warm/hot and dry environment where dehumidification of outdoor air is not needed. A laboratory experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the cooling effectiveness of this technology. The experiment was conducted in a twin-climate chamber. One chamber simulated warm/hot and dry outdoor...... evaporation. Two outdoor summer climates were simulated in the study, i.e. the design summer climate of Las Vegas and the extreme summer climate of Copenhagen represented hot/dry and warm/dry climates. The results showed that the flash evaporative cooling technology, a simple and green cooling technology......, is effective for ventilation and air-conditioning in warm/hot and dry climate zones. The technology can provide fresh outdoor air with a temperature of 4 to 7 °C lower than room air temperature....

  15. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  16. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  17. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  18. Fresh biological reference materials. Use in inter laboratory studies and as CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Biological reference materials were prepared and packed in tins and glass jars to be used in inter laboratory studies on chlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, and trace metals, respectively. The materials were homogenised, sterilised and packed as wet tissue, which is unique for the purpose of inter laboratory studies and offers the advantage of studying the extraction and destruction steps of the analytical methods. In addition to their use in inter laboratory studies, some materials have been prepared or are being prepared as certified reference material for chlorobiphenyl analysis. (author)

  19. Going GLP: Conducting Toxicology Studies in Compliance with Good Laboratory Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Erica Eggers

    2016-01-01

    Good laboratory practice standards are US federal regulations enacted as part of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (40 CFR Part 160), the Toxic Substance Control Act (40 CFR Part 792), and the Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (21 CFR Part 58) to support protection of public health in the areas of pesticides, chemicals, and drug investigations in response to allegations of inaccurate data acquisition. Essentially, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are a system of management controls for nonclinical research studies involving animals to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of data collected as part of chemical (including pharmaceuticals) tests, from in vitro through acute to chronic toxicity tests. The GLPs were established in the United States in 1978 as a result of the Industrial Bio-Test Laboratory scandal which led to congressional hearings and actions to prevent fraudulent data reporting and collection. Although the establishment of infrastructure for GLPs compliance is labor-intensive and time-consuming, achievement and maintenance of GLP compliance ensures the accuracy of the data collected from each study, which is critical for defending results, advancing science, and protecting human and animal health. This article describes how and why those in the US Army Medical Department responsible for protecting the public health of US Army and other military personnel made the policy decision to have its toxicology laboratory achieve complete compliance with GLP standards, the first such among US Army laboratories. The challenges faced and how they were overcome are detailed.

  20. The comparative study of conventional and innovative phlebographies in lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Gu Jianping; He Xu; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Song Jinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The clinical values of conventional phlebography via percutaneous dorsal pedal vein access with scalp puncture was compared with innovative phlebography via a percutaneous great saphenous approach with retained catheter in lower extremity for detection of venous diseases. Methods: Conventional and innovative phlebographies in lower extremity were performed in 34 suffering lower extremities of 30 patients, and the efficacy of the two methods was compared in demonstrating the venous diseases in lower extremities. Results: The rates of vascular display of the common iliac vein, the valve of saphenous-femoral vein and the first couple valve of femoral vein were 100%, 100% and 91.18% respectively with innovative phlebography while the rates of vascular display were 32.25%, 73.53% and 64.71% respectively with conventional phlebography. Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous valvular disfunction of saphenous-femoral vein and the venous valvular disfunction of the first couple valve of femoral vein were shown in 14, 25 and 21 cases respectively by innovative phlebography, and in 3, 14 and 12 cases respectively by conventional phlebography in patients suffering from varicose veins and chronic swelling of the lower extremities. There was significant difference between the innovative and conventional phlebographies (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The innovative phlebography possesses a higher efficacy in diagnosing IVCS, venous valvular disfunctions of saphenous-femoral vein and the first couple valve of femoral vein compared with conventional method. It would be an alternative method to the conventional one or percutaneous femoral venous approach. (authors)

  1. Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

    2008-01-01

    Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

  2. Semiconductor laser joint study program with Rome Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, William J.; Okeefe, Sean S.; Eastman, Lester F.

    1994-09-01

    A program to jointly study vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for high speed vertical optical interconnects (VOI) has been conducted under an ES&E between Rome Laboratory and Cornell University. Lasers were designed, grown, and fabricated at Cornell University. A VCSEL measurement laboratory has been designed, built, and utilized at Rome Laboratory. High quality VCSEL material was grown and characterized by fabricating conventional lateral cavity lasers that emitted at the design wavelength of 1.04 microns. The VCSEL's emit at 1.06 microns. Threshold currents of 16 mA at 4.8 volts were obtained for 30 microns diameter devices. Output powers of 5 mW were measured. This is 500 times higher power than from the light emitting diodes employed previously for vertical optical interconnects. A new form of compositional grading using a cosinusoidal function has been developed and is very successful for reducing diode series resistance for high speed interconnection applications. A flip-chip diamond package compatible with high speed operation of 16 VCSEL elements has been designed and characterized. A flip-chip device binding effort at Rome Laboratory was also designed and initiated. This report presents details of the one-year effort, including process recipes and results.

  3. Taxonomic study of extreme halophilic archaea isolated from the "Salar de Atacama", Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, C; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M; Prado, B; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Weckesser, J; Campos, V

    2001-11-01

    A large number of halophilic bacteria were isolated in 1984-1992 from the Atacama Saltern (North of Chile). For this study 82 strains of extreme halophilic archaea were selected. The characterization was performed by using the phenotypic characters including morphological, physiological, biochemical, nutritional and antimicrobial susceptibility test. The results, together with those from reference strains, were subjected to numerical analysis, using the Simple Matching (S(SM)) coefficient and clustered by the unweighted pair group method of association (UPGMA). Fifteen phena were obtained at an 70% similarity level. The results obtained reveal a high diversity among the halophilic archaea isolated. Representative strains from the phena were chosen to determine their DNA base composition and the percentage of DNA-DNA similarity compared to reference strains. The 16S rRNA studies showed that some of these strains constitutes a new taxa of extreme halophilic archaea.

  4. Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advantages of rapid diagnostic tests when compared with microscopy are simple to perform, fast, low ... The study was conducted to establish the performance of laboratory diagnosis of malaria in local Malawi .... Government of Malawi.

  5. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters

  6. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  7. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S. S.; Mozdarani, H.; Rezaei Tavirani, M.; Heydari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  8. Early studies reported extreme findings with large variability: a meta-epidemiologic study in the field of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Alahdab, Fares; Almasri, Jehad; Haydour, Qusay; Mohammed, Khaled; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Prokop, Larry J; Alfarkh, Wedad; Lakis, Sumaya; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the presence of extreme findings and fluctuation in effect size in endocrinology. We systematically identified all meta-analyses published in 2014 in the field of endocrinology. Within each meta-analysis, the effect size of the primary binary outcome was compared across studies according to their order of publication. We pooled studies using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I(2) and tau(2). Twelve percent of the included 100 meta-analyses reported the largest effect size in the very first published study. The largest effect size occurred in the first 2 earliest studies in 31% of meta-analyses. When the effect size was the largest in the first published study, it was three times larger than the final pooled effect (ratio of rates, 3.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 5.90). The largest heterogeneity measured by I(2) was observed in 18% of the included meta-analyses when combining the first 2 studies or 17% when combing the first 3 studies. In endocrinology, early studies reported extreme findings with large variability. This behavior of the evidence needs to be taken into account when used to formulate clinical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  10. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  11. Study of a pressure measurement method using laser ionization for extremely-high vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring pressures in the range of extremely-high vacuum (XHV) using the laser ionization has been studied. For this purpose, nonresonant multiphoton ionization of various kinds of gases has been studied, and highly-sensitive ion-detection systems and an extremely-high vacuum equipment were fabricated. These results are presented in detail. Two ion-detection systems were fabricated and tested: the one is based on the pulse-counting method, and the other utilizes the image-processing technique. The former is superior in detecting a few ions or less. The latter was processing technique. The former is superior in detecting a few ions or less. The latter was verified to able to count accurately the number of ions in the range of a few to several hundreds. To obtain the information on residual gases and test our pressure measurement system, an extremely-high vacuum system was fabricated in our own fashion, attained a pressure lower than 1 x 10 -10 Pa, measured with an extractor gauge. The outgassing rate of this vacuum vessel was measured to be 7.8 x 10 -11 Pa·m 3 /s·m 2 . The surface structures and the surface compositions of the raw material, the machined material, and the machined-and-outgased material were studied by SEM and AES. Besides, the pumping characteristics and the residual gases of the XHV system were investigated in detail at each pumping stage. On the course of these studies, the method of pressure measurement using the laser-ionization has been verified to be very effective for measuring pressures in XHV. (J.P.N.)

  12. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  13. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  14. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  15. Final Report: Spectral Analysis of L-shell Data in the Extreme Ultraviolet from Tokamak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jernigan, J. Garrett [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    We performed detailed analyses of extreme ultraviolet spectra taken by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and on the Alcator CKmod tokamak at the M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center. We focused on the emission of iron, carbon, and other elements in several spectral band pass regions covered by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We documented emission lines of carbon not found in currently used solar databases and demonstrated that this emission was due to charge exchange.

  16. On the design of experiments for the study of extreme field limits in the ultra-relativistic interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; Kando, Masaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Chen, Pisin; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Narozhny, Nikolay B.; Korn, Georg

    2011-06-01

    The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics, called also the Schwinger field, is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. Since the dawn of quantum electrodynamics, there has been a dream on how to reach it on Earth. With the rise of laser technology this field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. This is one of the most attractive motivations for extremely high power laser development, i.e. producing matter from vacuum by pure light in fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics in the nonperturbative regime. Recently it has been realized that a laser with intensity well below the Schwinger limit can create an avalanche of electron-positron pairs similar to a discharge before attaining the Schwinger field. It has also been realized that the Schwinger limit can be reached using an appropriate configuration of laser beams. In experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with electron bunches produced by a conventional accelerator and with laser wake field accelerated electrons the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is proposed. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely changes the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed. This will result in a new powerful source of high brightness gamma-rays. A possibility of the demonstration of the electronpositron pair creation in vacuum via multi-photon processes can be realized. This will allow modeling under terrestrial laboratory conditions neutron star magnetospheres, cosmological gamma ray bursts and the Leptonic Era of the Universe.

  17. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  18. Human risk relationships derived from epidemiology and laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Proven techniques are needed for incorporating the results of laboratory toxicology studies into human risk assessments. Two sample calculations of lung cancer risk factors for inhaled radioactive particles and diesel engine exhaust are given here to illustrate a toxicology information matrix approach. This approach combines the results of epidemiology and laboratory animal studies of the substance or agent of principal concern, along with similar information on other surrogate substances. Beyond the estimates of lung cancer risk factors derived by using this approach, an additional advantage is gained by having estimates of uncertainty that can be obtained by incorporating all available toxicology information into the analysis. This approach is recommended for both risk assessment and in designing follow-on toxicology studies to improve preliminary assessments for new potentially harmful agents entering our environment

  19. Are pushing and pulling work-related risk factors for upper extremity symptoms? A systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoozemans, M J M; Knelange, E B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Veeger, H E J; Kuijer, P P F M

    2014-11-01

    Systematically review observational studies concerning the question whether workers that perform pushing/pulling activities have an increased risk for upper extremity symptoms as compared to workers that perform no pushing/pulling activities. A search in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE was performed with work-related search terms combined with push/pushing/pull/pulling. Studies had to examine exposure to pushing/pulling in relation to upper extremity symptoms. Two authors performed the literature selection and assessment of the risk of bias in the studies independently. A best evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions in terms of strong, moderate or conflicting/insufficient evidence. The search resulted in 4764 studies. Seven studies were included, with three of them of low risk of bias, in total including 8279 participants. A positive significant relationship with upper extremity symptoms was observed in all four prospective cohort studies with effect sizes varying between 1.5 and 4.9. Two out of the three remaining studies also reported a positive association with upper extremity symptoms. In addition, significant positive associations with neck/shoulder symptoms were found in two prospective cohort studies with effect sizes of 1.5 and 1.6, and with shoulder symptoms in one of two cross-sectional studies with an effect size of 2.1. There is strong evidence that pushing/pulling is related to upper extremity symptoms, specifically for shoulder symptoms. There is insufficient or conflicting evidence that pushing/pulling is related to (combinations of) upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist or hand symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Perceptions and experiences of nutritional care following the overwhelming experience of lower extremity amputation; a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P S; Green, S M; Petersen, J

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Good nutritional care of people following major lower extremity amputation is essential as poor nutritional status can lead to delayed wound healing. Working with patients to identify their perspectives on food, views on nutritional care and the need for dietary counselling enables...... the development of optimised nutritional care. AIM: To explore hospital patients' perspectives on food, dietary counselling, and their experiences of nutritional care following lower extremity amputation. DESIGN: A qualitative, explorative study design was employed. METHOD: An inductive content analysis of semi......-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 17 people over 50 years of age, who had recently undergone major lower extremity amputation, was undertaken. The study was reported according to the COREQ guideline. FINDINGS: Three themes emerged; Responsible for own dietary intake, Diet based on preferences...

  1. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Extremely Low Probability of Rupture pilot study: xLPR framework model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    For the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) pilot study, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was tasked to develop and evaluate a probabilistic framework using a commercial software package for Version 1.0 of the xLPR Code. Version 1.0 of the xLPR code is focused assessing the probability of rupture due to primary water stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds in pressurizer surge nozzles. Future versions of this framework will expand the capabilities to other cracking mechanisms, and other piping systems for both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The goal of the pilot study project is to plan the xLPR framework transition from Version 1.0 to Version 2.0; hence the initial Version 1.0 framework and code development will be used to define the requirements for Version 2.0. The software documented in this report has been developed and tested solely for this purpose. This framework and demonstration problem will be used to evaluate the commercial software's capabilities and applicability for use in creating the final version of the xLPR framework. This report details the design, system requirements, and the steps necessary to use the commercial-code based xLPR framework developed by SNL.

  2. EXTREME SUBCULTURES: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sergeevich Shulgin

    2017-05-01

    Practical implications. The results of the research can be used in the scientific and practical sphere, as well as to expand scientific knowledge about the sociocultural foundations and forms of manifestation of extreme in modern society.

  3. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  4. Statistics of extremes theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beirlant, Jan; Segers, Johan; Teugels, Jozef; De Waal, Daniel; Ferro, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Research in the statistical analysis of extreme values has flourished over the past decade: new probability models, inference and data analysis techniques have been introduced; and new application areas have been explored. Statistics of Extremes comprehensively covers a wide range of models and application areas, including risk and insurance: a major area of interest and relevance to extreme value theory. Case studies are introduced providing a good balance of theory and application of each model discussed, incorporating many illustrated examples and plots of data. The last part of the book covers some interesting advanced topics, including  time series, regression, multivariate and Bayesian modelling of extremes, the use of which has huge potential.  

  5. Wellness Center use at Los Alamos National Laboratory: a descriptive study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggs, L.D.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Weber, C.

    1985-10-01

    This study describes employee participation during the first six months of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's corporate Wellness Program. We describe temporal patterns of use, preferred activities, frequency of use, and characteristics of employees participating in Wellness activities. Characteristics of Wellness participants are compared with characteristics of the Laboratory population. During this period the Wellness Center, a multi-use facility that houses Wellness Program activities, had 17,352 visits. Employees visiting the Wellness Center were typical of the Laboratory population in their racial and ethnic characteristics, but different in their sex and age composition. Wellness participants were younger and more likely to be female than the Laboratory population. 6 refs., 19 tabs.

  6. Definitive Diagnosis of Children Presenting to A Pediatric Emergency Department With Fever and Extremity Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiabasis, Nicolas V; Schlechter, John A

    2017-09-01

    Children who present to the emergency department (ED) with complaint of fever and new-onset joint or extremity pain can be a diagnostic dilemma for many emergency and consulting physicians. The purpose of our study was to identify the etiologies of pediatric fever and extremity pain presenting to a tertiary care pediatric ED and to define factors that were associated with advanced imaging, admission, and surgical intervention. The electronic medical records of children presenting to our institution's pediatric ED with fever and extremity pain were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included demographic characteristics, laboratory studies, diagnostic imaging, need for admission, and surgical procedures. The initial ED diagnosis was consistent with the definitive diagnosis 42% of the time. Children with the inability to bear weight on the affected limb were more likely to have a bacterial infection, such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or intramuscular abscess (p = 0.016). An erythrocyte sedimentation rate >36 mm/hour and C-reactive protein levels >60 mg/L were found in children with osteomyelitis or septic arthritis (p = 0.043 and diagnosis. The inability to bear weight, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are associated with bacterial infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful imaging modality in determining an accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  8. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion as an Extreme Example of Dynamic Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.

    2013-06-01

    Initiating and controlling thermonuclear burn at the national ignition facility (NIF) will require the manipulation of matter to extreme energy densities. We will discuss recent advances in both controlling the dynamic compression of ignition targets and our understanding of the physical states and processes leading to ignition. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Analyzing age-specific genetic effects on human extreme age survival in cohort-based longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...

  11. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  12. Analyzing extreme sea levels for broad-scale impact and adaptation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal impact and adaptation assessments require detailed knowledge on extreme sea levels (ESL), because increasing damage due to extreme events is one of the major consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) and climate change. Over the last few decades, substantial research efforts have been directed towards improved understanding of past and future SLR; different scenarios were developed with process-based or semi-empirical models and used for coastal impact studies at various temporal and spatial scales to guide coastal management and adaptation efforts. Uncertainties in future SLR are typically accounted for by analyzing the impacts associated with a range of scenarios and model ensembles. ESL distributions are then displaced vertically according to the SLR scenarios under the inherent assumption that we have perfect knowledge on the statistics of extremes. However, there is still a limited understanding of present-day ESL which is largely ignored in most impact and adaptation analyses. The two key uncertainties stem from: (1) numerical models that are used to generate long time series of storm surge water levels, and (2) statistical models used for determining present-day ESL exceedance probabilities. There is no universally accepted approach to obtain such values for broad-scale flood risk assessments and while substantial research has explored SLR uncertainties, we quantify, for the first time globally, key uncertainties in ESL estimates. We find that contemporary ESL uncertainties exceed those from SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century. Our results highlight the necessity to further improve our understanding of uncertainties in ESL estimates through (1) continued improvement of numerical and statistical models to simulate and analyze coastal water levels and (2) exploit the rich observational database and continue data archeology to obtain longer time series and remove model bias

  13. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SPECIFICITY OF SELF-PRESERVATION MOTIVATION IN EXTREME SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolevna Karacheva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study motivation of self-preservation in an extreme situation. Usually extreme situation unfold from the point of view of functioning, health, high negative level mental stress and tension. The extreme situation is the situation of human activity to which man acts, carrying out certain activities. The article provides an overview of russian and foreign authors dealing with this problem. Theoretical models of motivation of self-preservation Z. Freud, A. Maslow, G. Murray, M. Magomed-Eminov. The study explores the leading motivation in an extreme situation and analyzed the levels of motivation of self-preservation. The study was conducted in the Afghan veterans, using a method of unfinished sentences and other. Identified two levels of motivation of self-preservation: individual and personal. Revealed that the motivation of self-preservation is the leading motivation in an extreme situation.

  15. Global predictability of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Stephens, Elisabeth; Zsoter, Ervin; van den Hurk, Bart

    2018-05-01

    Extreme temperatures are one of the leading causes of death and disease in both developed and developing countries, and heat extremes are projected to rise in many regions. To reduce risk, heatwave plans and cold weather plans have been effectively implemented around the world. However, much of the world’s population is not yet protected by such systems, including many data-scarce but also highly vulnerable regions. In this study, we assess at a global level where such systems have the potential to be effective at reducing risk from temperature extremes, characterizing (1) long-term average occurrence of heatwaves and coldwaves, (2) seasonality of these extremes, and (3) short-term predictability of these extreme events three to ten days in advance. Using both the NOAA and ECMWF weather forecast models, we develop global maps indicating a first approximation of the locations that are likely to benefit from the development of seasonal preparedness plans and/or short-term early warning systems for extreme temperature. The extratropics generally show both short-term skill as well as strong seasonality; in the tropics, most locations do also demonstrate one or both. In fact, almost 5 billion people live in regions that have seasonality and predictability of heatwaves and/or coldwaves. Climate adaptation investments in these regions can take advantage of seasonality and predictability to reduce risks to vulnerable populations.

  16. Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2013-01-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken a...

  17. Long term oscillations in Danish rainfall extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    The frequent flooding of European cities within the last decade has motivated a vast number of studies, among others addressing the non-stationary behaviour of hydrological extremes driven by anthropogenic climate change. However, when considering future extremes it also becomes relevant to search...... for and understand natural variations on which the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in six 137-years-long diurnal rainfall series from Denmark and southern Sweden, focusing on extremes with a reoccurrence level relevant for Danish drainage design. By means of a Peak...

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of 'teaching laboratory' technicians towards laboratory safety and waste management: a pilot interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, A-H; El-Shaer, S; Khashaba, E; El-Dakroory, S A; Omar, N

    2017-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was performed on 20 technicians working in the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. The knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of laboratory technicians was measured before and two months after enrolling them in an intervention programme about laboratory best practice procedures. The programme addressed laboratory safety and medical waste management. The assessment was performed using a validated Arabic self-administered questionnaire. Pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using non-parametric tests. There are significant increases in the scores of KAP after implementation of the training programme. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts ( W max ) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  1. Mining of hospital laboratory information systems: a model study defining age- and gender-specific reference intervals and trajectories for plasma creatinine in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeby, Karen; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Werge, Thomas; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of physiological fluctuation and variation of even commonly used biochemical quantities in extreme age groups and during development is sparse. This challenges the clinical interpretation and utility of laboratory tests in these age groups. To explore the utility of hospital laboratory data as a source of information, we analyzed enzymatic plasma creatinine as a model analyte in two large pediatric hospital samples. Plasma creatinine measurements from 9700 children aged 0-18 years were obtained from hospital laboratory databases and partitioned into high-resolution gender- and age-groups. Normal probability plots were used to deduce parameters of the normal distributions from healthy creatinine values in the mixed hospital datasets. Furthermore, temporal trajectories were generated from repeated measurements to examine developmental patterns in periods of changing creatinine levels. Creatinine shows great age dependence from birth throughout childhood. We computed and replicated 95% reference intervals in narrow gender and age bins and showed them to be comparable to those determined in healthy population studies. We identified pronounced transitions in creatinine levels at different time points after birth and around the early teens, which challenges the establishment and usefulness of reference intervals in those age groups. The study documents that hospital laboratory data may inform on the developmental aspects of creatinine, on periods with pronounced heterogeneity and valid reference intervals. Furthermore, part of the heterogeneity in creatinine distribution is likely due to differences in biological and chronological age of children and should be considered when using age-specific reference intervals.

  2. Further outlooks: extremely uncomfortable; Die weiteren Aussichten: extrem ungemuetlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resenhoeft, T.

    2006-07-01

    Climate is changing extremely in the last decades. Scientists dealing with extreme weather, should not only stare at computer simulations. They have also to turn towards psyche, seriously personal experiences, knowing statistics, relativise supposed sensational reports and last not least collecting more data. (GL)

  3. VA Vascular Injury Study (VAVIS): VA-DoD extremity injury outcomes collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Paula K; Rasmussen, Todd E; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-02-03

    Limb injuries comprise 50-60% of U.S. Service member's casualties of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Combat-related vascular injuries are present in 12% of this cohort, a rate 5 times higher than in prior wars. Improvements in medical and surgical trauma care, including initial in-theatre limb salvage approaches (IILS) have resulted in improved survival and fewer amputations, however, the long-term outcomes such as morbidity, functional decline, and risk for late amputation of salvaged limbs using current process of care have not been studied. The long-term care of these injured warfighters poses a significant challenge to the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VA Vascular Injury Study (VAVIS): VA-DoD Extremity Injury Outcomes Collaborative, funded by the VA, Health Services Research and Development Service, is a longitudinal cohort study of Veterans with vascular extremity injuries. Enrollment will begin April, 2015 and continue for 3 years. Individuals with a validated extremity vascular injury in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry will be contacted and will complete a set of validated demographic, social, behavioral, and functional status measures during interview and online/ mailed survey. Primary outcome measures will: 1) Compare injury, demographic and geospatial characteristics of patients with IILS and identify late vascular surgery related limb complications and health care utilization in Veterans receiving VA vs. non-VA care, 2) Characterize the preventive services received by individuals with vascular repair and related outcomes, and 3) Describe patient-reported functional outcomes in Veterans with traumatic vascular limb injuries. This study will provide key information about the current process of care for Active Duty Service members and Veterans with polytrauma/vascular injuries at risk for persistent morbidity and late amputation. The results of this study will be the first step for clinicians in VA and

  4. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  5. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 1: Application of extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme value methods are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from extreme value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs and high (termed EHOs total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima, and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds. Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss, and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of extreme events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of extremes provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.

  6. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  7. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  8. Variability of extreme wet events over Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libanda Brigadier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of extreme wet events are well documented by several studies around the world. These effects are exacerbated in developing countries like Malawi that have insufficient risk reduction strategies and capacity to cope with extreme wet weather. Ardent monitoring of the variability of extreme wet events over Malawi is therefore imperative. The use of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI has been recommended by many studies as an effective way of quantifying extreme wet events. In this study, ETCCDI indices were used to examine the number of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall days; daily and five-day maximum rainfall; very wet and extremely wet days; annual wet days and simple daily intensity. The Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT was employed at 5% significance level before any statistical test was done. Trend analysis was done using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall statistical test. All stations were found to be homogeneous apart from Mimosa. Trend results show high temporal and spatial variability with the only significant results being: increase in daily maximum rainfall (Rx1day over Karonga and Bvumbwe, increase in five-day maximum rainfall (Rx5day over Bvumbwe. Mzimba and Chileka recorded a significant decrease in very wet days (R95p while a significant increase was observed over Thyolo. Chileka was the only station which observed a significant trend (decrease in extremely wet rainfall (R99p. Mzimba was the only station that reported a significant trend (decrease in annual wet-day rainfall total (PRCPTOT and Thyolo was the only station that reported a significant trend (increase in simple daily intensity (SDII. Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that, during wet years, Malawi is characterised by an anomalous convergence of strong south-easterly and north-easterly winds. This convergence is the main rain bringing mechanism to Malawi.

  9. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs

  10. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    reaction to causal amount of precipitation in the case of highly peaty areas, therefore more distinct runoff variability of streams draining peat land localities. These findings were affirmed by geochemical approach laboratory outcomes within the meaning of significant contribution of runoff from peat lands to the total runoff during extreme flood situations. An important component of rainfall-runoff process in source areas of czech rivers represented by snow conditions was analyses very in detail by means of monitoring of snow cover height and its water equivalent in chosen experimental catchments. Outcomes of this study should markedly help with significant precising of estimation of water storage retained in a snow cover. Consecutive runoff simulations using mathematical techniques would then improve a hydrological forecast. In terms of present dyking of former channels draining peat land represented by so called peat bog revitalization partial findings refer to positive effect during mean runoff situations but their considerably negative influence on runoff process in cases of extremely high discharges. In order to achieve retention potential enhancement in source areas of czech rivers an evaluation of possible former accumulative reservoirs (used for wood floating in former times) restoration which could function for example as dry (green) polders should be considered. The system of such small storage bins could function as an alternative and supplement to greater dam reservoirs. Possible spaces for water retention are measured by geodetic total station and modelled by suitable methods in GIS software. Existing outcomes advert to the fact that the effectiveness of such reservoir system would not have to be neglecting. By implementation of these unforceable measures realized in river headstream areas it could be contributed to reduction of peak flows and to increase of water resources during extreme droughts in future.

  11. Application of Lean-Six Sigma Approach in a Laboratory Experimental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Raza Rizvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments are a conventional activity performed at academic institutions, government and private organizations. These experimental studies provide the basis for new inventions in the field of science and engineering. Laboratory experiments are conducted on the basis of provided guidelines, already established by different standard organizations like ASTM, AASHTO etc. This article is based on a case study in which the process of an experiment is examined on the basis of Value Stream Maps (VSM and potential improvement possibilities have been identified. After determining the potential waste, appropriate Lean tools are selected to implement and observe the improvements. The process is examined after application of the Lean tools and a comparison is performed. University laboratory environment can be improved considerably by applying Lean Tools. MUDA application reduced the total work time from 90.75 hours and 10-CD to 63.75 hours and 7-CD hence saving, 27 hours and 3-CD for one experiment. This is remarkable achievement of this application. Heijunka application provided the students equal workload and they performed explicitly better than they used to. 5-S tool provided the students the opportunity to manage the laboratory in an effective and clean way. Safety of the students is a very major concern at university laboratory environment. 5-S not only upgraded the laboratory overall performance, but it significantly raised the safety standards of the laboratory. More application of the Lean Tools should be exercised explored to have more effective and efficient university laboratory experimental environment.

  12. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  13. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  14. Modulation of extreme temperatures in Europe under extreme values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin

    2018-03-10

    This paper reports on the influence that extreme values in the tails of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index probability density function (PDF) can exert on temperatures in Europe. When the NAO Index enters into its lowest (10% quantile or less) and highest (90% quantile or higher) modes, European temperatures often exhibit large negative or positive departures from their mean values, respectively. Analyses of the joint quantiles of the Index and temperatures (i.e., the simultaneous exceedance of particular quantile thresholds by the two variables) show that temperatures enter into the upper or lower tails of their PDF when the NAO Index also enters into its extreme tails, more often that could be expected from random statistics. Studies of this nature help further our understanding of the manner by which mechanisms of decadal-scale climate variability can influence extremes of temperature-and thus perhaps improve the forecasting of extreme temperatures in weather and climate models. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Epidemiology of Accidents in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, Part 2. Accident Intervention Study, Legal Aspects, and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a chemistry laboratory accident intervention study conducted throughout the state of Colorado. Addresses the results of an initial survey of institutions of higher learning. Discusses some legal aspects concerning academic chemistry accidents. Provides some observations about academic chemistry laboratory accidents on the whole. (TW)

  16. A web-based study of bipolarity and impulsivity in athletes engaging in extreme and high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Jaeschke, Rafał; Drozdowicz, Katarzyna; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Chrobak, Adrian A; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesised that men and women who engage in extreme or high-risk sports would score higher on standardised measures of bipolarity and impulsivity compared to age and gender matched controls. Four-hundred and eighty extreme or high-risk athletes (255 males and 225 females) and 235 age-matched control persons (107 males and 128 females) were enrolled into the web-based case-control study. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to screen for bipolarity and impulsive behaviours, respectively. Results indicated that extreme or high-risk athletes had significantly higher scores of bipolarity and impulsivity, and lower scores on cognitive complexity of the BIS-11, compared to controls. Further, there were positive correlations between the MDQ and BIS-11 scores. These results showed greater rates of bipolarity and impulsivity, in the extreme or high-risk athletes, suggesting these measures are sensitive to high-risk behaviours.

  17. NVN 5694 intra laboratory validation. Feasibility study for interlaboratory- validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Baard, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Within the project NORMSTAR 2 a number of Dutch prenormative protocols have been defined for radioactivity measurements. Some of these protocols, e.g. the Dutch prenormative protocol NVN 5694, titled Methods for radiochemical determination of polonium-210 and lead-210, have not been validated, neither by intralaboratory nor interlaboratory studies. Validation studies are conducted within the framework of the programme 'Normalisatie and Validatie van Milieumethoden 1993-1997' (Standardization and Validation of test methods for environmental parameters) of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment (VROM). The aims of this study were (a) a critical evaluation of the protocol, (b) investigation on the feasibility of an interlaboratory study, and (c) the interlaboratory validation of NVN 5694. The evaluation of the protocol resulted in a list of deficiencies varying from missing references to incorrect formulae. From the survey by interview it appeared that for each type of material, there are 4 to 7 laboratories willing to participate in a interlaboratory validation study. This reflects the situation in 1997. Consequently, if 4 or 6 (the minimal number) laboratories are participating and each laboratory analyses 3 subsamples, the uncertainty in the repeatability standard deviation is 49 or 40 %, respectively. If the ratio of reproducibility standard deviation to the repeatability standard deviation is equal to 1 or 2, then the uncertainty in the reproducibility standard deviation increases from 42 to 67 % and from 34 to 52 % for 4 or 6 laboratories, respectively. The intralaboratory validation was established on four different types of materials. Three types of materials (milkpowder condensate and filter) were prepared in the laboratory using the raw material and certified Pb-210 solutions, and one (sediment) was obtained from the IAEA. The ECN-prepared reference materials were used after testing on homogeneity. The pre-normative protocol can

  18. [Quality assessment of microscopic examination in tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek, Hülya; Ceyhan, Ismail; Tarhan, Gülnur; Güner, Uğur

    2010-10-01

    Recently, the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has based on smear microscopy in the Direct Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS) programme which provides the basis of treatment worldwide. Microscopic detection of AFB (Acid-Fast Bacilli) is one of the main components in the National TB Control Programmes (NTCP). Precision level in microscopy procedures and evaluations are the most important steps for accurate diagnosis of the disease and to initiate proper treatment. Therefore, the external quality assessment (EQA) is the most important implement to provide the reliability and validity of tests. In countries where NTCP are performed, this task is fulfilled by the National Reference Laboratories (NRL) according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). For this purpose a pilot study was initiated by the central NRL of Turkey for EQA of AFB smear microscopy as part of the NTCP on January 1, 2005. A total of 5 laboratories of which 2 were district TB laboratories (A, B), 2 were tuberculosis control dispensaries (C, D), 1 was a national reference laboratory (E), participated in this study. Blind re-checking method (re-examination of randomly selected slides) was used for the evaluation, and the slides were sent to the central NRL with 3 months interval, four times a year, selected according to LQAS (Lot Quality Assurance Sampling) guides. In the re-evaluation of the slides, false positivity (FP), false negativity (FN) and quantification errors (QE) were noted. Laboratory A, sent totally 525 slides between January 1, 2005 and April 1, 2008. In the result of re-checking, 514 (97.9%) slides were found concordant, and 11 (2.1%) were discordant (10 FP, 1 FN). Laboratory B, participated in the study between October 1, 2005 and July 1, 2006 and of the 67 re-examined slides, 60 (89.5%) were concordant and 7 (10.5%) were discordant (2 FP, 0 FN, 5 QE). Laboratory C, sent 235 slides between January 1, 2005 and April 1, 2006; of them 218 (92.8%) were detected

  19. Recent and future extreme precipitation over Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation extremes and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the extreme precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of extreme precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of extreme precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase

  20. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    In the context of ongoing climate change, extremes are likely to increase in magnitude and frequency. One of the most important consequences of these changes is that the associated ecological risks and impacts are potentially rising as well. In order to better anticipate and understand these impacts, it therefore becomes more and more crucial to understand the general connection between climate extremes and the response and functionality of ecosystems. Among other region of the world, Europe presents an excellent test case for studies concerning the interaction between climate and biosphere, since it lies in the transition region between cold polar and warm tropical air masses and thus covers a great variety of different climatic zones and associated terrestrial ecosystems. The large temperature differences across the continent make this region particularly interesting for investigating the effects of climate change on biosphere-climate interactions. However, previously used methods for defining an extreme event typically disregard the necessity of taking seasonality as well as seasonal variance appropriately into account. Furthermore, most studies have focused on the impacts of individual extreme events instead of considering a whole inventory of extremes with their respective spatio-temporal extents. In order to overcome the aforementioned research gaps, this work introduces a new approach to studying climate-biosphere interactions associated with extreme events, which comprises three consecutive steps: (1) Since Europe exhibits climatic conditions characterized by marked seasonality, a novel method is developed to define extreme events taking into account the seasonality in all quantiles of the probability distribution of the respective variable of interest. This is achieved by considering kernel density estimates individually for each observation date during the year, including the properly weighted information from adjacent dates. By this procedure, we obtain

  1. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  2. Extreme ocean acidification reduces the susceptibility of eastern oyster shells to a polydorid parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J C; Bourque, D; McLaughlin, J; Stephenson, M; Comeau, L A

    2017-11-01

    Ocean acidification poses a threat to marine organisms. While the physiological and behavioural effects of ocean acidification have received much attention, the effects of acidification on the susceptibility of farmed shellfish to parasitic infections are poorly understood. Here we describe the effects of moderate (pH 7.5) and extreme (pH 7.0) ocean acidification on the susceptibility of Crassostrea virginica shells to infection by a parasitic polydorid, Polydora websteri. Under laboratory conditions, shells were exposed to three pH treatments (7.0, 7.5 and 8.0) for 3- and 5-week periods. Treated shells were subsequently transferred to an oyster aquaculture site (which had recently reported an outbreak of P. websteri) for 50 days to test for effects of pH and exposure time on P. websteri recruitment to oyster shells. Results indicated that pH and exposure time did not affect the length, width or weight of the shells. Interestingly, P. websteri counts were significantly lower under extreme (pH 7.0; ~50% reduction), but not moderate (pH 7.5; ~20% reduction) acidification levels; exposure time had no effect. This study suggests that extreme levels - but not current and projected near-future levels - of acidification (∆pH ~1 unit) can reduce the susceptibility of eastern oyster shells to P. websteri infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mediatized Extreme Right Activism and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the German neo-fascist network The Immortals (Die Unsterblichen) who in 2011 performed a flash-mob disseminated on YouTube for the so- called ‘Become Immortal’ campaign. The street protest was designed for and adapted to the specific characteristics of online...... activism. It is a good example of how new contentious action repertoires in which online and street activism intertwine have also spread to extreme right groups. Despite its neo-fascist and extreme right content the ‘Become Immortal’ campaign serves as an illustrative case for the study of mediated...... and mediatized activism. In order to analyse of the protest form, the visual aesthetics and the discourse of ‘The Immortals’, the paper mobilises two concepts from media and communication studies: mediation and mediatization. It will be argued that that the current transformation of the extreme right: that is...

  4. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature ( Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days ( Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  5. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  6. [Localized Scleroderma of Lower Extremities:Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-dan; Wang, Hong-wei; Wu, Zhi-hong; Hou, Bo; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Feng; Jin, Zheng-yu; Yuan, Xie

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical and musculoskeletal characteristics of localized scleroderma with lower extremities affected. All the localized scleroderma patients,who received magnetic resonance (MR ) examinations of affected lower extremities at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from April 2013 to June 2014,were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinical data and laboratory results of antinuclear antibody,anti-double stranded-DNA antibody, and anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody were collected and analyzed. All the MR examinations were non-contrast imaging using Siemens Skyra 3.0T MR scanner. There were 16 localized scleroderma patients with lower extremities affected, 11 of whom were linear scleroderma, 4 generalized morphea, and 1 deep morphea. Female to male ratio was 1:2.2. The mean age was 22.5 years. The mean time span was 7.4 years. Four of the 14 patients (28.6%) who received antinuclear antibody test were positive. All the 10 patients who received anti-double stranded-DNA antibody test and the 7 patients who received anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody test were negative. The most common musculoskeletal MR features were subcutaneous septal thickening (16/16) and fascial thickening (11/16). The thickened speta and fascia could either be hypointenstiy or hyperintensity on turbo inversion recovery magnitude/proton density weighted imaging. Other MR manifestations were intramuscular speta thickening (3/16), muscular abnormal signals (1/16), and bone marrow abnormal signals (2/16). Musculoskeletal manifestations of the lower extremities with localized scleroderma can be well revealed using MR imaging.

  7. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Rover System Thermal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Keith S.; Kempenaar, Joshua E.; Liu, Yuanming; Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, NASA launched a large (900 kg) rover as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to Mars. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars on August 5, 2012. Prior to launch, the Rover was successfully operated in simulated mission extreme environments during a 16-day long Rover System Thermal Test (STT). This paper describes the MSL Rover STT, test planning, test execution, test results, thermal model correlation and flight predictions. The rover was tested in the JPL 25-Foot Diameter Space Simulator Facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Rover operated in simulated Cruise (vacuum) and Mars Surface environments (8 Torr nitrogen gas) with mission extreme hot and cold boundary conditions. A Xenon lamp solar simulator was used to impose simulated solar loads on the rover during a bounding hot case and during a simulated Mars diurnal test case. All thermal hardware was exercised and performed nominally. The Rover Heat Rejection System, a liquid-phase fluid loop used to transport heat in and out of the electronics boxes inside the rover chassis, performed better than predicted. Steady state and transient data were collected to allow correlation of analytical thermal models. These thermal models were subsequently used to predict rover thermal performance for the MSL Gale Crater landing site. Models predict that critical hardware temperatures will be maintained within allowable flight limits over the entire 669 Sol surface mission.

  9. Leisure-time sport and overuse injuries of extremities in children age 6–13, a 2.5 years prospective cohort study: the CHAMPS-study DK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objectives It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions. Design Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. Setting 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg. Participants 1270 children aged 6–13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Outcomes measures Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having an overuse injury of an extremity or not. The incidence of diagnosed overuse injury was calculated for each of the 9 most common sports in relation to 5-week periods. Incidence by frequency of sessions was calculated, and multivariable analysis was performed taking into account age, sex and frequency of physical education classes at school. Results Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose–response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury. Conclusions Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe activity for children. PMID:28087543

  10. Examine Precipitation Extremes in Terms of Storm Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Yu, Z.; Chen, L.; Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing potential of the extreme precipitation is of significant societal concern. Changes in precipitation extremes have been mostly examined using extreme precipitation indices or Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) analyses, which often fail to reveal the characteristics of an integrated precipitation event. In this study, we will examine the precipitation extremes in terms of storm properties including storm duration, storm intensity, total storm precipitation, and within storm pattern. Single storm event will be identified and storm properties will be determined based on the hourly precipitation time series in the selected locations in southwest United States. Three types of extreme precipitation event will be recognized using the criteria as (1) longest storm duration; (2) Highest storm intensity; and (3) largest total precipitation over a storm. The trend and variation of extreme precipitation events will be discussed for each criterion. Based on the comparisons of the characteristics of extreme precipitation events identified using different criteria, we will provide guidelines for choosing proper criteria for extreme precipitation analysis in specific location.

  11. Meaning and Forms of Political Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Backes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to contribute to the conceptualisation of political extremism and to lay a foundation for further theoretical studies which are explanatory in nature. A sketch of the history of the concepts follows a discussion of structural characteristics and then a typological examination of forms of extremism, particularly those of the 20th and 21st century.

  12. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  13. Leisure-time sport and overuse injuries of extremities in children age 6-13, a 2.5 years prospective cohort study: the CHAMPS-study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2017-01-13

    It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions. Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg. 1270 children aged 6-13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having an overuse injury of an extremity or not. The incidence of diagnosed overuse injury was calculated for each of the 9 most common sports in relation to 5-week periods. Incidence by frequency of sessions was calculated, and multivariable analysis was performed taking into account age, sex and frequency of physical education classes at school. Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose-response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury. Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe activity for children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Pore-water pressures associated with clogging of soil pipes: Numerical analysis of laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clogging of soil pipes due to excessive internal erosion has been hypothesized to cause extreme erosion events such as landslides, debris flows, and gullies, but confirmation of this phenomenon has been lacking. Laboratory and field measurements have failed to measure pore water pressures within pip...

  15. Laboratory X-ray Studies with Trapped Highly Charged Ions Using Synchrotrons and Free-electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.

    2018-06-01

    miniaturization of EBITs, laboratory astrophysics in the spectral domain of Chandra, XMM-Newton and the future Athena mission will be extremely simplified, enabling atomic and plasma physics studies and much-improved instrumental calibrations.

  16. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, H; Kaseva, J; Trnka, M

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather is increasing concomitant with changes in the global climate change. Although wheat is the most important food crop in Europe, there is currently no comprehensive empirical information available regarding the sensitivity of European wheat to extreme...... weather. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of European wheat yields to extreme weather related to phenology (sowing, heading) in cultivar trials across Europe (latitudes 37.21° to 61.34° and longitudes −6.02° to 26.24°) during the period 1991–2014. All the observed agro-climatic extremes (≥31 °C...... wheat cultivars that responded positively (+10%) to drought after sowing, or frost during winter (−15 °C and −20 °C). Positive responses to extremes were often shown by cultivars associated with specific regions, such as good performance under high temperatures by southern-origin cultivars. Consequently...

  17. Final report of the Multiprogram Laboratory Panel Energy Research Advisory Board. Volume II. Support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Guthrie, M.P.; Nichols, J.P.; Preston, E.L.; West, C.D.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Wilkes, B.Y.; Zerby, A.C.

    1982-09-01

    Volume II - support studies for nine national laboratories include: report of statistical data on the multiprogram laboratories; examples of national laboratory use in foreign countries; domestic models for national laboratory utilization; relationships of laboratories with industry and universities; uses of laboratories for training industrial R and D personnel; legal mandates and constraints on the national laboratories; with appendices on facts about Harwell, CEN-Saclay, TNO, Studsvik, and JAERI-Tokai; the Requirements Boards of the United Kingdom Department of Industry; impact of President's FY 1983 budget; and the PNL experiment

  18. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with c...

  19. Drastic Pressure Effect on the Extremely Large Magnetoresistance in WTe2: Quantum Oscillation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, P L; Hu, J; He, L P; Pan, J; Hong, X C; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J; Wei, J; Mao, Z Q; Li, S Y

    2015-07-31

    The quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance under ambient and high pressure have been studied for WTe2 single crystals, in which extremely large magnetoresistance was discovered recently. By analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, four Fermi surfaces are identified, and two of them are found to persist to high pressure. The sizes of these two pockets are comparable, but show increasing difference with pressure. At 0.3 K and in 14.5 T, the magnetoresistance decreases drastically from 1.25×10(5)% under ambient pressure to 7.47×10(3)% under 23.6 kbar, which is likely caused by the relative change of Fermi surfaces. These results support the scenario that the perfect balance between the electron and hole populations is the origin of the extremely large magnetoresistance in WTe2.

  20. COLAB: A Laboratory Environment for Studying Analyst Sensemaking and Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Clayton T; Cohen, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    COLAB is a laboratory for studying tools that facilitate collaboration and sensemaking among groups of human analysts as they build interpretations of unfolding situations based on accruing intelligence data...

  1. Designing instrumented walker to measure upper-extremity's efforts: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Mohammad; Baniasad, Mina Arab; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Zohoor, Hassan

    2018-02-26

    The high prevalence of shoulder pain in using walkers in patients who have spinal cord injury (SCI). Also, the limited options available to economically measure grip forces in walkers, which drove the need to create one. This article describes a method to obtain upper-extremities' forces and moments in a person with SCI by designing an appropriate instrumented walker. First, since the commercial multidirectional loadcells are too expensive, custom loadcells are fabricated. Ultimately, a complete gait analysis by means of VICON motion analysis and using inverse dynamic method has been held to measure upper-extremities' efforts. The results for a person with SCI using a two-wheel walker in low and high heights and a basic walker show that there are higher shoulder and elbow flexion-extension moments and also higher shoulder forces in superior-inferior direction and higher elbow and wrist forces in anterior-posterior directions. The results are not much different in using two different types of walker. By using the proposed method, upper-extremities' forces and moments were obtained and the results were compared to each other in using two different walkers.

  2. Effects of interactive metronome training on postural stability and upper extremity function in Parkinson's disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arim; Lee, Hye-Sun; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson's disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson's disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system. [Results] After training, the patient's static and dynamic balance, functional activity, and performance time of the upper extremity improved. Interactive metronome therapy improved the manual dexterity of both hands. Interactive metronome therapy also improved the limit of stability of the Parkinson's disease. [Conclusion] Though a case study, the results of this study suggest that IM therapy is effective at restoring the postural stability and upper extremity function of patients with Parkinson's disease.

  3. A comparative study of the systems for neutronics calculations used in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de.

    1980-11-01

    A comparative study of the systems for neutronics calculations used in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been performed using benchmark results available in the literature, in order to analyse tghe convenience of using the respective codes MINX/NJOY and ETOE/MC 2 -2 for performing neutronics calculations in course at the Divisao de Estudos Avancados. (Author) [pt

  4. Application of laboratory microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Anderson, P.; Wong, F.S.L.; Dowker, S.E.P.; Mercer, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The principles of microtomography are briefly presented and recent studies of mineralized tissues using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray sources are reviewed. Results are given of investigations undertaken with laboratory systems using either a 1 st generation (single beam of 15 mu m and energy dispersive detector) or a novel 4 th generation system with 2-D detector that can provide 3-D images with vowels of 38x38x38 mu m ''3 of specimens with diameter up to 40 mm. Studies include mineral concentration distributions in cortical bone trabecular structure in a human vertebral body, cracking of bone under compression in situ and root canal obturation and Er: YAG laser application to enamel and dentine. Future applications of microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues and their interaction with biomaterials are discussed.(Author) 31 refs

  5. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  6. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Extremely Low Probability of Rupture pilot study : xLPR framework model user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2010-12-01

    For the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) pilot study, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was tasked to develop and evaluate a probabilistic framework using a commercial software package for Version 1.0 of the xLPR Code. Version 1.0 of the xLPR code is focused assessing the probability of rupture due to primary water stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds in pressurizer surge nozzles. Future versions of this framework will expand the capabilities to other cracking mechanisms, and other piping systems for both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The goal of the pilot study project is to plan the xLPR framework transition from Version 1.0 to Version 2.0; hence the initial Version 1.0 framework and code development will be used to define the requirements for Version 2.0. The software documented in this report has been developed and tested solely for this purpose. This framework and demonstration problem will be used to evaluate the commercial software's capabilities and applicability for use in creating the final version of the xLPR framework. This report details the design, system requirements, and the steps necessary to use the commercial-code based xLPR framework developed by SNL.

  7. The Mesoscale Science of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Donald Raymond [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requires the ability to understand and test how material structures, defects, and interfaces determine performance in extreme environments such as in nuclear weapons. To do this, MaRIE will be an x-ray source that is laser-like and brilliant with very fl exible and fast pulses to see at weapons-relevant time scales, and with high enough energy to study critical materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined there is a mission need for MaRIE to deliver this capability. MaRIE can use some of the existing infrastructure of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its accelerator capability. MaRIE will be built as a strategic partnership of DOE national laboratories and university collaborators.

  8. Study on construction method of concrete in the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, Keshiro; Mikami, Tetsuji; Yasuoka, Tetsuji; Uegaki, Yoshiaki

    2001-05-01

    Although there are several types in low alkalinity cements, highly fly ash contained silicafume cement (HFSC) has been studied in JNC. It is demonstrated that pH of pore water of the cement indicates below 10.5 as results of other TRU study. However although chemical properties and basic mechanical behavior are well understood, workability so on in constructing is little investigated. Since the underground research laboratory plays a important role in investigating constructing technology, HFSC will be adopted for supporting rock cavern so on. It is required that workability of low alkalinity cements should be assessed. Major performance of workability in tunnel construction in rock will be investigated and R and D planning will be done toward the laboratory construction. Conclusion obtained in this study is described as followings. 1) As results of laboratory test, HFSC and LHHPC developed by AECL fulfil the requirements of shotcrete using by hardening accelerator with calcium-salpho-aluminate. It is concluded that HFSC and LHHPC can be applied for shotcrete. 2) The experiment upon corrosion of re-bars by facing saline water at a offshore is planned. 3) It is noted that pH decreases significantly with rise of silicafume content and that silicafume should be used as much as OPC. 4) It is investigated where the low alkalinity cement should be applied in a actual radio waste repository and R and D program in the laboratory is planned. (author)

  9. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, 85 Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas 137 Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less 137 Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 μm and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10 -3 m/s were calculated from the core measurements

  10. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  11. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  12. Annual report of Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the progress report of the research activities in the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies during the period from April, 1980, to March, 1981. The activities were carried out by the OULNS staffs and also by outsiders at the OULNS. In this period, the X-ray astrophysics group, the radiation physics group and the high energy physics group joined the OULNS. The main accelerators in the OULNS are a 110 cm variable energy cyclotron and a 4.7 MeV Van de Graaff machine. The detailed experimental studies on inbeam e-gamma spectroscopy and beta-decay were carried out at two accelerator laboratories. The radiochemistry facility and a mass spectrometer were fully used. The research activities extended to high energy physics by utilizing national facilities, such as a 230 cm cyclotron in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics and a proton synchrotron in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The theoretical studies on elementary particles and nuclear physics were carried out also. It is important that the facilities in the OULNS were used by the outsiders in Osaka University, such as solid state physics group and particle-induced X-ray group. The activities of the divisions of cyclotron, Van de Graaff, high energy physics, accelerator development and nuclear instrumentation, mass spectroscopy, radioisotope, solid state and theoretical physics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. The impact of anthropogenic land use and land cover change on regional climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, Kirsten L; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John P; Lintner, Benjamin R; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph A; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-10-20

    Land surface processes modulate the severity of heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. However, models show contrasting effects of land surface changes on extreme temperatures. Here, we use an earth system model from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to investigate regional impacts of land use and land cover change on combined extremes of temperature and humidity, namely aridity and moist enthalpy, quantities central to human physiological experience of near-surface climate. The model's near-surface temperature response to deforestation is consistent with recent observations, and conversion of mid-latitude natural forests to cropland and pastures is accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of hot-dry summers from once-in-a-decade to every 2-3 years. In the tropics, long time-scale oceanic variability precludes determination of how much of a small, but significant, increase in moist enthalpy throughout the year stems from the model's novel representation of historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation, and regrowth of secondary vegetation and how much is forced by internal variability within the tropical oceans.

  14. Wearing a Wetsuit Alters Upper Extremity Motion during Simulated Surfboard Paddling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Nessler

    Full Text Available Surfers often wear wetsuits while paddling in the ocean. This neoprene covering may be beneficial to upper extremity movement by helping to improve proprioceptive acuity, or it may be detrimental by providing increased resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of wearing a wetsuit on muscle activation, upper extremity motion, heart rate, and oxygen consumption during simulated surfboard paddling in the laboratory. Twelve male, recreational surfers performed two paddling trials at a constant workload on a swim bench ergometer both with and without a wetsuit. Kinematic data and EMG were acquired from the right arm via motion capture, and oxygen consumption and heart rate were recorded with a metabolic cart and heart rate monitor. Wearing a wetsuit had no significant effect on oxygen consumption or heart rate. A significant increase in EMG activation was observed for the middle deltoid but not for any of the other shoulder muscle evaluated. Finally, approximate entropy and estimates of the maximum Lyapunov exponent increased significantly for vertical trajectory of the right wrist (i.e. stroke height when a wetsuit was worn. These results suggest that a 2mm wetsuit has little effect on the energy cost of paddling at lower workloads but does affect arm motion. These changes may be the result of enhanced proprioceptive acuity due to mechanical compression from the wetsuit.

  15. Multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have anticipated a worldwide increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes and floods since the last decade(s). Natural variability by climate oscillations partly determines the observed evolution of precipitation extremes. Based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in extreme quantiles, it is shown that hydrological extremes have oscillatory behaviour at multidecadal time scales. Results are based on nearly independent extremes extracted from long-term historical time series of precipitation intensities and river flows. Study regions include Belgium - The Netherlands (Meuse basin), Ethiopia (Blue Nile basin) and Ecuador (Paute basin). For Belgium - The Netherlands, the past 100 years showed larger and more hydrological extremes around the 1910s, 1950-1960s, and more recently during the 1990-2000s. Interestingly, the oscillations for southwestern Europe are anti-correlated with these of northwestern Europe, thus with oscillation highs in the 1930-1940s and 1970s. The precipitation oscillation peaks are explained by persistence in atmospheric circulation patterns over the North Atlantic during periods of 10 to 15 years. References: Ntegeka V., Willems P. (2008), 'Trends and multidecadal oscillations in rainfall extremes, based on a more than 100 years time series of 10 minutes rainfall intensities at Uccle, Belgium', Water Resources Research, 44, W07402, doi:10.1029/2007WR006471 Mora, D., Willems, P. (2012), 'Decadal oscillations in rainfall and air temperature in the Paute River Basin - Southern Andes of Ecuador', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(1), 267-282, doi:0.1007/s00704-011-0527-4 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2011). 'Influence of climate variability on representative QDF predictions of the upper Blue Nile Basin', Journal of Hydrology, 411, 355-365, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.019 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2012). 'Temporal variability of hydro-climatic extremes in the Blue Nile basin', Water

  16. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  17. A study of 6S workplace improvement in Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, AD; Suryoputro, MR; Rahmillah, FI

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses 6S implementation in Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research is improvement project of 5S implementation in Ergonomic laboratory. Referring to the 5S implementation of the previous year, there have been improvements from environmental conditions or a more organized workplace however there is still a lack of safety aspects. There are several safeties problems such as equipment arrangement, potential hazards of room dividers that cause injury several times, placement of fire extinguisher, no evacuation path and assembly point in case of fire, as well as expired hydrant condition and lack of awareness of stakeholders related to safety. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 6S kaizen method to the Ergonomic laboratory to facilitate the work process, reduce waste, improve work safety and improve staff performance. Based on the score 6S assessment increased audit results by 32 points, before implementation is 75 point while after implementation is 107 point. This has implications for better use for mitigate people in laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials, safe workplace, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘6S’ on staff due to better and safetier working environment.

  18. Site study plan for routine laboratory rock mechanics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan for Routine Laboratory Rock Mechanics describes routine laboratory testing to be conducted on rock samples collected as part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. This study plan describes the early laboratory testing. Additional testing may be required and the type and scope of testing will be dependent upon the results of the early testing. This study provides for measurements of index, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical properties with tests which are standardized and used widely in geotechnical investigations. Another Site Study Plan for Nonroutine Laboratory Rock Mechanics describes laboratory testing of samples from the site to determine mechanical, thermomechanical, and thermal properties by less widely used methods, many of which have been developed specifically for characterization of the site. Data from laboratory tests will be used for characterization of rock strata, design of shafts and underground facilities, and modeling of repository behavior in support of resolution of both preclosure and postclosure issues. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT....... Objectives: To summarize the current equipoise and to outline the study protocol of the 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of extremely low birth-weight infants (ETTNO)' study. Methods: Review of the literature and design of a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial...... of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...

  20. Can animal habitat use patterns influence their vulnerability to extreme climate events? An estuarine sportfish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucek, Ross E; Heithaus, Michael R; Santos, Rolando; Stevens, Philip; Rehage, Jennifer S

    2017-10-01

    Global climate forecasts predict changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events (ECEs). The capacity for specific habitat patches within a landscape to modulate stressors from extreme climate events, and animal distribution throughout habitat matrices during events, could influence the degree of population level effects following the passage of ECEs. Here, we ask (i) does the intensity of stressors of an ECE vary across a landscape? And (ii) Do habitat use patterns of a mobile species influence their vulnerability to ECEs? Specifically, we measured how extreme cold spells might interact with temporal variability in habitat use to affect populations of a tropical, estuarine-dependent large-bodied fish Common Snook, within Everglades National Park estuaries (FL US). We examined temperature variation across the estuary during cold disturbances with different degrees of severity, including an extreme cold spell. Second, we quantified Snook distribution patterns when the passage of ECEs is most likely to occur from 2012 to 2016 using passive acoustic tracking. Our results revealed spatial heterogeneity in the intensity of temperature declines during cold disturbances, with some habitats being consistently 3-5°C colder than others. Surprisingly, Snook distributions during periods of greatest risk to experience an extreme cold event varied among years. During the winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 a greater proportion of Snook occurred in the colder habitats, while the winters of 2012-2013 and 2015-2016 featured more Snook observed in the warmest habitats. This study shows that Snook habitat use patterns could influence vulnerability to extreme cold events, however, whether Snook habitat use increases or decreases their vulnerability to disturbance depends on the year, creating temporally dynamic vulnerability. Faunal global change research should address the spatially explicit nature of extreme climate events and animal habitat use patterns to identify

  1. Extremal vectors and rectifiability | Enflo | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extremal vectors and rectifiability. ... The concept of extremal vectors of a linear operator with a dense range but not onto on a Hilbert space was introduced by P. Enflo in 1996 as a new approach to study invariant subspaces ... We show that in general curves that map numbers to backward minimal vectors are not rectifiable.

  2. Health related quality of life and return to work after minor extremity injuries: A longitudinal study comparing upper versus lower extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluys, Kerstin Prignitz; Shults, Justine; Richmond, Therese S

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) during the first year after minor extremity injury and to determine whether there is a difference in recovery patterns and return to work between upper extremity injuries (UEI) and lower extremity injuries (LEI). A total of 181 adults' age 18 years or older randomly selected from patients admitted to an emergency department with minor injuries were studied. HRQL was measured using the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ) at 1-2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12-months post-injury. Pre-injury FSQ scores were measured retrospectively at admission. A quasi-least square (QLS) model was constructed to examine differences of FSQ scores at each measuring point for UEI and LEI. Fractures of the knee/lower leg (25%) were the most frequently injured body area. Slips or falls (57%) and traffic-related events (22%) were the most common injury causes. The mean ISS was 4.2 (SD 0.86). Both groups had significant declines in the FSQ scores physical and social functioning at 1-2 weeks after injury. Patients with UEI made larger improvements in the first 3 months post-injury versus patients with LEI whose improvements extended over the first 6 months. None of the groups reached the pre-injury FSQ scores during the first post-injury year except in the subscale work performance where UEI exceeded the pre-injury scores. At 12 months post-injury, significant lower FSQ scores remained in the LEI group compared to the UEI group in intermediate activities of daily living (p=0.036, d 0.4) and work performance (p=0.004, d 0.7). The return to work at 3 months and 12 months were 76% and 88% for UEI and 58% and 77% for LEI. No significant differences were found between groups in the FSQ scale mental health and social interaction. LEI had the highest impact on HRQL and return to work during the first year which exceeded the consequences of UEI. These findings contribute to the information about the consequences of injury in order to give

  3. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. GeoBrain Computational Cyber-laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2009-12-01

    Computational approaches (e.g., computer-based data visualization, analysis and modeling) are critical for conducting increasingly data-intensive Earth science (ES) studies to understand functions and changes of the Earth system. However, currently Earth scientists, educators, and students have met two major barriers that prevent them from being effectively using computational approaches in their learning, research and application activities. The two barriers are: 1) difficulties in finding, obtaining, and using multi-source ES data; and 2) lack of analytic functions and computing resources (e.g., analysis software, computing models, and high performance computing systems) to analyze the data. Taking advantages of recent advances in cyberinfrastructure, Web service, and geospatial interoperability technologies, GeoBrain, a project funded by NASA, has developed a prototype computational cyber-laboratory to effectively remove the two barriers. The cyber-laboratory makes ES data and computational resources at large organizations in distributed locations available to and easily usable by the Earth science community through 1) enabling seamless discovery, access and retrieval of distributed data, 2) federating and enhancing data discovery with a catalogue federation service and a semantically-augmented catalogue service, 3) customizing data access and retrieval at user request with interoperable, personalized, and on-demand data access and services, 4) automating or semi-automating multi-source geospatial data integration, 5) developing a large number of analytic functions as value-added, interoperable, and dynamically chainable geospatial Web services and deploying them in high-performance computing facilities, 6) enabling the online geospatial process modeling and execution, and 7) building a user-friendly extensible web portal for users to access the cyber-laboratory resources. Users can interactively discover the needed data and perform on-demand data analysis and

  5. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  6. Ideologies and Discourses: Extreme Narratives in Extreme Metal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Radovanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in  different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.

  7. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  8. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young children by routine health service laboratories and a research laboratory: Diagnostic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Birnie

    Full Text Available To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory.We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard, was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the "index test", separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper pads.251 (5.2% and 88 (1.8% children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43, and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63 than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28. In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80 than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92. Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively than clean catch samples.The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples could be due to contamination. Health service laboratories should consider adopting procedures used

  10. Comparison of microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young children by routine health service laboratories and a research laboratory: Diagnostic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kate; Hay, Alastair D.; Wootton, Mandy; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Whiting, Penny; Lawton, Michael; Delaney, Brendan; Downing, Harriet; Dudley, Jan; Hollingworth, William; Lisles, Catherine; Little, Paul; O’Brien, Kathryn; Pickles, Timothy; Rumsby, Kate; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Van der Voort, Judith; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Harman, Kim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory. Population and methods We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard), was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the “index test”), separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper) pads. Results 251 (5.2%) and 88 (1.8%) children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43), and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63) than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28). In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80) than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92). Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively) than clean catch samples. Conclusions The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples) could be due to contamination. Health service

  11. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Virtual Laboratory "vs." Traditional Laboratory: Which Is More Effective for Teaching Electrochemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian; Phelps, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of virtual laboratories has become an increasing issue regarding science laboratories due to the increasing cost of hands-on laboratories, and the increase in distance education. Recent studies have looked at the use of virtual tools for laboratory to be used as supplements to the regular hands-on laboratories but many virtual tools have…

  13. Beat-wave accelerator studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The study carried out in 1982-83 at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to examine how one might use the beat-wave principle to construct a useful high energy accelerator is reviewed, and comments are made on later developments. A number of problems are evident to which solutions cannot at present be foreseen. (author)

  14. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  15. Annual report of Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, for fiscal 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report presents the research activities carried out by the members of the Laboratory and the users of the facilities. The major facilities of the Laboratory are a 110 cm variable energy cyclotron and a 4.7 MeV Van de Graaff. The cyclotron division has made extensive studies on nuclear physics, such as the pre-equilibrium process of neutron emission, inelastic proton scattering, He-3 induced reactions, and polarization experiments. The Van de Graaff division reports about the works on hyperfine interaction, mirror beta-decay, heavy element ion source, and nuclear spin alignment. Model magnet study on the future project has also been developed at the Laboratory. Other divisions of the Laboratory are the mass spectroscopy division, the radioisotope division, and the theoretical physics division. The works of the mass spectroscopy division concern the on-line mass separation of radioisotopes, the field desorption of mass spectra, and instrumentation. The works of the radioisotope division spread widely on the field of nuclear chemistry. At the end of this report, various works, which have been made by the theoretical physics division, are introduced. (Kato, T.)

  16. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in tuberculosis diagnostic process: a cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjanarko B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bagoes Widjanarko,1 Dyah Anantalia Widyastari,2 Martini Martini,3 Praba Ginandjar3 1Department of Health Education and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia Purpose: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians.Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables.Results: Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled.Conclusion: Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The

  17. Social media as a marketing tool for extreme-sport oriented companies

    OpenAIRE

    Korosuo, Saku

    2013-01-01

    Marketing in social media has been studied extensively in recent years, but not specifically for extreme-sport oriented companies. Even though most of the extreme-oriented companies are using social media for marketing, only a few pay special attention to its risks and possibilities. The purpose of this study is to identify extreme-sport oriented companies' practices to use social media as a marketing tool. I interviewed eight extreme- oriented companies and athletes. In addition to interview...

  18. Vertical structure of extreme currents in the Faroe-Bank Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carollo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme currents are studied with the aim of understanding their vertical and spatial structures in the Faroe-Bank Channel. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler time series recorded in 3 deployments in this channel were investigated. To understand the main features of extreme events, the measurements were separated into their components through filtering and tidal analysis before applying the extreme value theory to the surge component. The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution and the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were used to study the variation of surge extremes from near-surface to deep waters. It was found that this component alone is not able to explain the extremes measured in total currents, particularly below 500 m. Here the mean residual flow enhanced by tidal rectification was found to be the component feature dominating extremes. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration when applying the extreme value theory, not to underestimate the return level for total currents. Return value speeds up to 250 cm s–1 for 50/250 years return period were found for deep waters, where the flow is constrained by the topography at bearings near 300/330° It is also found that the UK Meteorological Office FOAM model is unable to reproduce either the magnitude or the form for the extremes, perhaps due to its coarse vertical and horizontal resolution, and is thus not suitable to model extremes on a regional scale. Keywords. Oceanography: Physical (Currents; General circulation; General or miscellaneous

  19. Association between frontal plane knee control and lower extremity injuries: a prospective study on young team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Kati; Krosshaug, Tron; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Heinonen, Ari; Kujala, Urho M; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim Poor frontal plane knee control can manifest as increased dynamic knee valgus during athletic tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frontal plane knee control and the risk of acute lower extremity injuries. In addition, we wanted to study if the single-leg squat (SLS) test can be used as a screening tool to identify athletes with an increased injury risk. Methods A total of 306 basketball and floorball players participated in the baseline SLS test and a 12-month injury registration follow-up. Acute lower extremity time-loss injuries were registered. Frontal plane knee projection angles (FPKPA) during the SLS were calculated using a two-dimensional video analysis. Results Athletes displaying a high FPKPA were 2.7 times more likely to sustain a lower extremity injury (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.23 to 5.83) and 2.4 times more likely to sustain an ankle injury (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13 to 4.98). There was no statistically significant association between FPKPA and knee injury (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.98). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated poor combined sensitivity and specificity when FPKPA was used as a screening test for lower extremity injuries (area under the curve of 0.59) and ankle injuries (area under the curve of 0.58). Conclusions Athletes displaying a large FPKPA in the SLS test had an elevated risk of acute lower extremity and ankle injuries. However, the SLS test is not sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening tool for future injury risk. PMID:29387448

  20. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in the tuberculosis diagnostic process? A cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Bagoes; Widyastari, Dyah Anantalia; Martini, Martini; Ginandjar, Praba

    2016-01-01

    Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables. Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%-75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled. Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients' treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The result may serve as a basic consideration to develop a policy for enhancing motivation of laboratory technicians in order to improve the TB control program.

  1. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory

  2. Productivity of Veterans Health Administration laboratories: a College of American Pathologists Laboratory Management Index Program (LMIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenstein, Paul N; Wang, Edward; O'Donohue, Tom

    2003-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) operates the largest integrated laboratory network in the United States. To assess whether the unique characteristics of VA laboratories impact efficiency of operations, we compared the productivity of VA and non-VA facilities. Financial and activity data were prospectively collected from 124 VA and 131 non-VA laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists Laboratory Management Index Program (LMIP) during 2002. In addition, secular trends in 5 productivity ratios were calculated for VA and non-VA laboratories enrolled in LMIP from 1997 through 2002. Veterans Health Administration and non-VA facilities did not differ significantly in size. Inpatients accounted for a lower percentage of testing at VA facilities than non-VA facilities (21.7% vs 37.3%; P benefits; P depreciation, and maintenance than their non-VA counterparts (all P <.001), resulting in lower overall cost per on-site test result (2.64 dollars vs 3.40 dollars; P <.001). Cost per referred (sent-out) test did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Analysis of 6-year trends showed significant increases in both VA (P <.001) and non-VA (P =.02) labor productivity (on-site tests/total FTE). Expenses at VA laboratories for labor per test, consumables per test, overall expense per test, and overall laboratory expense per discharge decreased significantly during the 6-year period (P <.001), while in non-VA facilities the corresponding ratios showed no significant change. Overall productivity of VA laboratories is superior to that of non-VA facilities enrolled in LMIP. The principal advantages enjoyed by the VA are higher-than-average labor productivity (tests/FTE) and lower-than-average consumable expenses.

  3. Study on the interaction mechanism between the special geological environment and their extreme geo-microbes in Dagang Oilfield by combined methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Geo-microbes and their function were widespread ever since life appeared on the earth. Geo-microbiological process has left a rich and colorful material record in the geological body of earth, the most critical record of which is all sorts of organic hieroglyph and various forms of organic matter derived from bio-organisms, and oil field is the most ideal geological location to preserve these organic matters. It have already produced or might produce petroleum and natural gas sedimentary rocks under natural conditions, also known as olefiant (gas) rock or the parent rock, which is the product of the interaction between the life-system and earth environmental system in the specific geological conditions and integrate the whole microbial ecosystem in the geological time. The microbial community under extreme geological environment of Dagang Oilfield is relatively simple, therefore it is quite easy to investigate the special relationship between geo-microbes and biogeochemistry. We have mastered a large number of information related with the geological condition and biological species of Dagang Oilfield; what's more we also have isolated a number of archimycetes strains with different extremophiles capacity from the core samples collected in the Dagang oil field. At present, we are to proceed with the cooperative research at Environment School of Yale University and Institute of the Earth's biosphere using these strains. In the future, we will work together to carry out geological surveys in the field using international first-class equipment and methods and study the geological environment of Dagang Oilfield utilizing isotope techniques and mineral phase analysis method. Meanwhile we are going to undertake the on-line monitoring of the overall microbial activity of these collected geological samples, the specific metabolic activity of these extreme strains of microorganisms and the biomarkers produced during their metabolic processes under laboratory conditions

  4. Lymphoscintigraphy of the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty one lower extremities of 26 normal healthy volunteers and 26 extremities of 13 patients with oedema have been studied. Dynamic quantitative lymphoscintigraphy using 99Tc-m antimony sulphide colloid during passive exercise as well as before and after active exercise was performed. parameters of lymphatic function including percentage of radioactivity cleared from the injection site, the percentage uptake by the inguinal lymph nodes, the time of arrival of activity at the regional lymph nodes and the lymphatic reserve index have been evaluated. The percentage clearance of activity from the injection site was found technically difficult to standardize and proved to be an unreliable parameter of lymphatic function. However, the quantitation of nodal uptake, the lymphatic transit time and the lymphatic reserve capacity accurately depicted the lymphatic functional status of an individual. The physiologic parameters of lymphatic function of the contralateral lower extremities were compared and a physiologic difference in the lymphatic capacity of the two limbs was scintigraphically documented. (author)

  5. Normalization Strategies for Enhancing Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Responses during Extreme Events: A Case Study based on Analysis of Four Extreme Events using Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ajayakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With social media becoming increasingly location-based, there has been a greater push from researchers across various domains including social science, public health, and disaster management, to tap in the spatial, temporal, and textual data available from these sources to analyze public response during extreme events such as an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster. Studies based on demographics and other socio-economic factors suggests that social media data could be highly skewed based on the variations of population density with respect to place. To capture the spatio-temporal variations in public response during extreme events we have developed the Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE. SEDE collects and integrates social media, news and environmental data to support exploration and assessment of public response to extreme events. For this study, using SEDE, we conduct spatio-temporal social media response analysis on four major extreme events in the United States including the “North American storm complex” in December 2015, the “snowstorm Jonas” in January 2016, the “West Virginia floods” in June 2016, and the “Hurricane Matthew” in October 2016. Analysis is conducted on geo-tagged social media data from Twitter and warnings from the storm events database provided by National Centers For Environmental Information (NCEI for analysis. Results demonstrate that, to support complex social media analyses, spatial and population-based normalization and filtering is necessary. The implications of these results suggests that, while developing software solutions to support analysis of non-conventional data sources such as social media, it is quintessential to identify the inherent biases associated with the data sources, and adapt techniques and enhance capabilities to mitigate the bias. The normalization strategies that we have developed and incorporated to SEDE will be helpful in reducing the population bias associated with

  6. Normalization Strategies for Enhancing Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Responses during Extreme Events: A Case Study based on Analysis of Four Extreme Events using Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayakumar, J.; Shook, E.; Turner, V. K.

    2017-10-01

    With social media becoming increasingly location-based, there has been a greater push from researchers across various domains including social science, public health, and disaster management, to tap in the spatial, temporal, and textual data available from these sources to analyze public response during extreme events such as an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster. Studies based on demographics and other socio-economic factors suggests that social media data could be highly skewed based on the variations of population density with respect to place. To capture the spatio-temporal variations in public response during extreme events we have developed the Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE). SEDE collects and integrates social media, news and environmental data to support exploration and assessment of public response to extreme events. For this study, using SEDE, we conduct spatio-temporal social media response analysis on four major extreme events in the United States including the "North American storm complex" in December 2015, the "snowstorm Jonas" in January 2016, the "West Virginia floods" in June 2016, and the "Hurricane Matthew" in October 2016. Analysis is conducted on geo-tagged social media data from Twitter and warnings from the storm events database provided by National Centers For Environmental Information (NCEI) for analysis. Results demonstrate that, to support complex social media analyses, spatial and population-based normalization and filtering is necessary. The implications of these results suggests that, while developing software solutions to support analysis of non-conventional data sources such as social media, it is quintessential to identify the inherent biases associated with the data sources, and adapt techniques and enhance capabilities to mitigate the bias. The normalization strategies that we have developed and incorporated to SEDE will be helpful in reducing the population bias associated with social media data and will be useful

  7. Covered Interest-Rate Parity Revisited: an Extreme Value Copula Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Ugando-Peñate

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studied the covered interest-rate parity (CIP condition under extreme market movements using extreme value theory and extreme value copulas to characterize dependence between extreme interest rate differentials and forward premium. The empirical analysis for the CIP between interest rates for the US dollar and the British pound indicates that there is strong co-movement between interest rate differentials and forward premium at different maturities and in both upper and lower tails. This conclusion would support the existence of the CIP condition under extreme market movements.

  8. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  10. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  11. Effects of interactive metronome training on postural stability and upper extremity function in Parkinson’s disease: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arim; Lee, Hye-Sun; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson’s disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson’s disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system. [Results] After training, the patient’s static and dynamic balance, functional activity, and performance time of the upper extremity improved. Interactive metronome therapy improved the manual dexterity of both hands. Interactive metronome therapy also improved the limit of stability of the Parkinson’s disease. [Conclusion] Though a case study, the results of this study suggest that IM therapy is effective at restoring the postural stability and upper extremity function of patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28210066

  12. An overview of the roles and structure of international high-security veterinary laboratories for infectious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P K

    1998-08-01

    The unique structure, role and operations of government high-security (HS) laboratories which work on animal diseases are described, with particular reference to the laboratories of nine countries. High-security laboratories provide cost-effective insurance against catastrophic losses which could occur following exotic disease outbreaks. The importance of these laboratories is reflected in the fact that several new laboratories have recently been constructed at considerable expense and older facilities have undergone major renovations. Biosecurity is fundamental to the operation of high-security laboratories, so good facility design and microbiological security practices are very important. High-security laboratories conduct exotic disease diagnosis, certification and surveillance, and also perform research into virology, disease pathogenesis and improvements to diagnostic tests and vaccines. The mandate of these laboratories includes the training of veterinarians in the recognition of exotic diseases. One extremely important role is the provision of expert advice on exotic diseases and participation (both nationally and internationally) in policy decisions regarding animal disease issues.

  13. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.

  14. An Exit for the Human Product: A Comparative Study of Extreme Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ying Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines from a comparative perspective six novels telling stories of extreme life experiences set in both Western and oriental cultures. The paper argues that in these extreme cases, the characters, subjected to absolute power domination, lose their individual identities and are transformed into “human products.” Their struggles for power will always remain futile unless they find a way to reverse the power relationships they are trapped in. Such a reversal allows the hope of an exit for the “human products” to escape the hopeless situation of perpetuated social, sexual, and mental enslavement.

  15. [Comparability study of analytical results between a group of clinical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius-Serra, A; Ballbé-Anglada, M; López-Yeste, M L; Buxeda-Figuerola, M; Guillén-Campuzano, E; Juan-Pereira, L; Colomé-Mallolas, C; Caballé-Martín, I

    2015-01-01

    To describe the study of the comparability of the measurements levels of biological tests processed in biochemistry in Catlab's 4 laboratories. Quality requirements, coefficients of variation and total error (CV% and TE %) were established. Controls were verified with the precision requirements (CV%) in each test and each individual laboratory analyser. Fresh serum samples were used for the comparability study. The differences were analysed using a Microsoft Access® application that produces modified Bland-Altman plots. The comparison of 32 biological parameters that are performed in more than one laboratory and/or analyser generated 306 Bland-Altman graphs. Of these, 101 (33.1%) fell within the accepted range of values based on biological variability, and 205 (66.9%) required revision. Data were re-analysed based on consensus minimum specifications for analytical quality (consensus of the Asociación Española de Farmacéuticos Analistas (AEFA), the Sociedad Española de Bioquímica Clínica y Patología Molecular (SEQC), the Asociación Española de Biopatología Médica (AEBM) and the Sociedad Española de Hematología y Hemoterapia (SEHH), October 2013). With the new specifications, 170 comparisons (56%) fitted the requirements and 136 (44%) required additional review. Taking into account the number of points that exceeded the requirement, random errors, range of results in which discrepancies were detected, and range of clinical decision, it was shown that the 44% that required review were acceptable, and the 32 tests were comparable in all laboratories and analysers. The analysis of the results showed that the consensus requirements of the 4 scientific societies were met. However, each laboratory should aim to meet stricter criteria for total error. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of trends in precipitation extremes in Zhejiang, east China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Ye; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Lin, Shengji; Zhang, Qingqing; Lou, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather exerts a huge impact on human beings and it is of vital importance to study the regular pattern of meteorological and hydrological factors. In this paper, a selection of seven extreme indices is used to analyze the trend of precipitation extremes of 18 meteorological stations located

  17. Meteorological and hydrological extremes derived from taxation records: case study for south-western Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (MHEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, similarly as it was in the past. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology and hydrology to find such information. Some of them are related to records connected with taxation system. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crops have been damaged by MHEs. The corresponding documents contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence; often also impacts on crops or land may be derived. The nature of events leading to damage include particularly hailstorms, torrential rain, flash floods, floods (in regions along larger rivers), less frequently windstorms, late frosts and in some cases also information about droughts or extreme snow depths. However, the results obtained are influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records - their temporal and spatial incompleteness, limitation of the MHEs occurrence in the period of main agricultural work (May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about MHEs was of secondary importance). All these aspects related to the study of MHEs from taxation records are demonstrated for five estates (Bítov, Budkov, Jemnice with Staré Hobzí, Nové Syrovice and Uherčice) in the south-western part of Moravia for the 18th-19th centuries. The analysis shows importance of taxation records for the study of past MHEs as well as great potential for their use.

  18. Modeling Spatial Dependence of Rainfall Extremes Across Multiple Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2018-03-01

    Determining the probability of a flood event in a catchment given that another flood has occurred in a nearby catchment is useful in the design of infrastructure such as road networks that have multiple river crossings. These conditional flood probabilities can be estimated by calculating conditional probabilities of extreme rainfall and then transforming rainfall to runoff through a hydrologic model. Each catchment's hydrological response times are unlikely to be the same, so in order to estimate these conditional probabilities one must consider the dependence of extreme rainfall both across space and across critical storm durations. To represent these types of dependence, this study proposes a new approach for combining extreme rainfall across different durations within a spatial extreme value model using max-stable process theory. This is achieved in a stepwise manner. The first step defines a set of common parameters for the marginal distributions across multiple durations. The parameters are then spatially interpolated to develop a spatial field. Storm-level dependence is represented through the max-stable process for rainfall extremes across different durations. The dependence model shows a reasonable fit between the observed pairwise extremal coefficients and the theoretical pairwise extremal coefficient function across all durations. The study demonstrates how the approach can be applied to develop conditional maps of the return period and return level across different durations.

  19. Parsimonious Wavelet Kernel Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a parsimonious scheme for wavelet kernel extreme learning machine (named PWKELM was introduced by combining wavelet theory and a parsimonious algorithm into kernel extreme learning machine (KELM. In the wavelet analysis, bases that were localized in time and frequency to represent various signals effectively were used. Wavelet kernel extreme learning machine (WELM maximized its capability to capture the essential features in “frequency-rich” signals. The proposed parsimonious algorithm also incorporated significant wavelet kernel functions via iteration in virtue of Householder matrix, thus producing a sparse solution that eased the computational burden and improved numerical stability. The experimental results achieved from the synthetic dataset and a gas furnace instance demonstrated that the proposed PWKELM is efficient and feasible in terms of improving generalization accuracy and real time performance.

  20. Extreme Wildfire Spread and Behaviour: Case Studies from North Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, M.; Arca, B.; Ager, A.; Fois, C.; Bacciu, V.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, fire seasons are usually characterized by the occurrence of one or more days with extreme environmental conditions, such as heat waves associated with strong winds. On these days, fires can quickly get out of hand originating large and severe wildfires. In these cases, containment and extinguishment phases are critical, considering that the imperative goal is to keep fire crews, people and animals safe. In this work we will present a set of large and severe wildfires occurred with extreme environmental conditions in the northern area of Sardinia. The most recent wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 13, 2011 in the Oschiri municipality (40°43' N; 9°06' E), and burned about 2,500 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods in few hours. The second wildfire we will present was ignited on July 23, 2009 in the Bonorva municipality (40°25' N; 8° 46' E), and was responsible for the death of two people and several damages to houses, animals and farms. This wildfire lasted on July 25, and burned about 10,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures; the most of the area was burned during the first day. The last wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 23, 2007 in the Oniferi municipality (40°16' N; 9° 16' E) and burned about 9,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods; about 8,000 ha were burned after 11 hours of propagation. All these wildfires were ignited in days characterized by very hot temperatures associated to the effect of air masses moving from inland North Africa to the Mediterranean Basin, and strong winds from west-south west. This is one of the typical weather pattern associated with large and severe wildfires in North Sardinia, and is well documented in the last years. Weather conditions, fuels and topography factors related to each case study will be accurately analyzed. Moreover, a detailed overview of observed fire spread and behavior and post-fire vegetation recovery will be presented. The fire spread and

  1. Are extreme hydro-meteorological events a prerequisite for extreme water quality impacts? Exploring climate impacts on inland and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, A. M.; Balaji, V.; Del Giudice, D.; Sinha, E.; Zhou, Y.; Ho, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Questions surrounding water sustainability, climate change, and extreme events are often framed around water quantity - whether too much or too little. The massive impacts of extreme water quality impairments are equally compelling, however. Recent years have provided a host of compelling examples, with unprecedented harmful algal blooms developing along the West coast, in Utah Lake, in Lake Erie, and off the Florida coast, and huge hypoxic dead zones continuing to form in regions such as Lake Erie, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico. Linkages between climate change, extreme events, and water quality impacts are not well understood, however. Several factors explain this lack of understanding, including the relative complexity of underlying processes, the spatial and temporal scale mismatch between hydrologists and climatologists, and observational uncertainty leading to ambiguities in the historical record. Here, we draw on a number of recent studies that aim to quantitatively link meteorological variability and water quality impacts to test the hypothesis that extreme water quality impairments are the result of extreme hydro-meteorological events. We find that extreme hydro-meteorological events are neither always a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the occurrence of extreme water quality impacts. Rather, extreme water quality impairments often occur in situations where multiple contributing factors compound, which complicates both attribution of historical events and the ability to predict the future incidence of such events. Given the critical societal importance of water quality projections, a concerted program of uncertainty reduction encompassing observational and modeling components will be needed to examine situations where extreme weather plays an important, but not solitary, role in the chain of cause and effect.

  2. PHASE QUANTIZATION STUDY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR FOR EXTREME HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing, E-mail: jpdou@niaot.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangpeidou@gmail.com [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10{sup -10}. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10{sup -10} in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  3. Vertical structure of extreme currents in the Faroe-Bank Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carollo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme currents are studied with the aim of understanding their vertical and spatial structures in the Faroe-Bank Channel. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler time series recorded in 3 deployments in this channel were investigated. To understand the main features of extreme events, the measurements were separated into their components through filtering and tidal analysis before applying the extreme value theory to the surge component. The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution and the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were used to study the variation of surge extremes from near-surface to deep waters. It was found that this component alone is not able to explain the extremes measured in total currents, particularly below 500 m. Here the mean residual flow enhanced by tidal rectification was found to be the component feature dominating extremes. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration when applying the extreme value theory, not to underestimate the return level for total currents. Return value speeds up to 250 cm s–1 for 50/250 years return period were found for deep waters, where the flow is constrained by the topography at bearings near 300/330° It is also found that the UK Meteorological Office FOAM model is unable to reproduce either the magnitude or the form for the extremes, perhaps due to its coarse vertical and horizontal resolution, and is thus not suitable to model extremes on a regional scale.

    Keywords. Oceanography: Physical (Currents; General circulation; General or miscellaneous

  4. Robust representation and recognition of facial emotions using extreme sparse learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeilangari, Seyedehsamaneh; Yau, Wei-Yun; Nandakumar, Karthik; Li, Jun; Teoh, Eam Khwang

    2015-07-01

    Recognition of natural emotions from human faces is an interesting topic with a wide range of potential applications, such as human-computer interaction, automated tutoring systems, image and video retrieval, smart environments, and driver warning systems. Traditionally, facial emotion recognition systems have been evaluated on laboratory controlled data, which is not representative of the environment faced in real-world applications. To robustly recognize the facial emotions in real-world natural situations, this paper proposes an approach called extreme sparse learning, which has the ability to jointly learn a dictionary (set of basis) and a nonlinear classification model. The proposed approach combines the discriminative power of extreme learning machine with the reconstruction property of sparse representation to enable accurate classification when presented with noisy signals and imperfect data recorded in natural settings. In addition, this paper presents a new local spatio-temporal descriptor that is distinctive and pose-invariant. The proposed framework is able to achieve the state-of-the-art recognition accuracy on both acted and spontaneous facial emotion databases.

  5. Extremity Fractures Associated With ATVs and Dirt Bikes: A 6 Year National Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Andrew; Lombardo, Daniel Joseph; Jelsema, Timothy; Sabesan, Vani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) and dirt bike use is increasing in the US and is associated with risk of traumatic injury. Extremity fractures are common injures associated with these vehicles. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the patterns extremity fractures associated with ATVs and dirt bikes. Our hypothesis is that these different vehicles will result in similar rates of high impact injuries, but differences in vehicle stability will result in greater proportions of upper extremity fractures associated with ATV use. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data for extremity fractures related to ATV (3-wheels, 4-wheels, and number of wheels undefined) and dirt bike use from 2007-2012. Locations were coded as shoulder, upper arm, elbow, lower arm, wrist, hand, upper leg, knee, lower leg, ankle, foot, and toe. The data were stratified according to age and gender for each year. Incidence rates were calculated on a per vehicle basis using previous estimates of the number of ATVs and dirt bikes in the country. Results: The database yielded an estimate of 229,362.52 extremity fractures from 2007-2012. An estimated total of 130,319.20 fractures were associated with ATVs, while 99,043.37 were associated with dirt bikes. The incidence rates of extremity fractures associated with ATV and dirt bike use were 3.87 and 6.85 per 1000 vehicle-years. Most fractures were in patients 10-19 years of age, after which the number of fractures decreased with age. The largest proportion of all fractures occurred in the shoulder (27.19%), followed by the wrist and lower leg (13.77% and 12.36%, respectively). This distribution of fractures was consistent among ATV use for all age groups except in the 0-9 year olds, where the lower arm and wrist were the most commonly fractured locations. Fracture distribution associated with dirt bike use also followed this general pattern, with the exception of 0-9 and 10-19 year

  6. Vascular Impulse Technology versus elevation in the treatment of posttraumatic swelling of extremity fractures: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzke, Marc; Swartman, Benedict; Bonnen, Isabel; Keil, Holger; Schüler, Svenja; Grützner, Paul A; Franke, Jochen

    2017-02-16

    Fractures of the extremities are often complicated by a variable degree of swelling secondary to hemorrhage and soft tissue injury. Patients typically require up to 7 days of inpatient bed rest and elevation to reduce swelling to an acceptable level for operative treatment with internal fixation. Alternatively, an intermittent pneumatic compression device, such as the Vascular Impulse Technology (VIT) system, can be used at the injured extremity to reduce the posttraumatic swelling. The VIT system consists of a pneumatic compressor that intermittently rapidly inflates a bladder positioned under the arch of the hand or the foot, which results in compression of the venous hand or foot plexus. That intermittent compression induces an increased venous velocity and aims to reduce the soft tissue swelling of the affected extremity. The VIT study is a prospective, monocenter, randomized controlled trial to compare the VIT system with elevation in the treatment of posttraumatic swelling in the case of a fracture of the upper and lower extremity. This study will include 280 patients with fractures of the upper and the lower extremity with nine different injury types. For each of the nine injury types a separate randomization to the two intervention groups (VIT group or control group) will be performed. The primary outcome parameter is the time taken for the swelling to resolve sufficiently to permit surgery. A separate analysis for each of the nine injury types will be performed. In the proposed study, the effectiveness of the VIT system in the treatment of posttraumatic swelling of upper and lower extremity fractures will be evaluated. German Clinical Trial Register, No. DRKS00010510 . Registered on 17 July 2016.

  7. Extreme values, regular variation and point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Resnick, Sidney I

    1987-01-01

    Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...

  8. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  9. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  10. The Effect of Shoulder Plyometric Training on Amortization Time and Upper-Extremity Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanik, Kathleen A; Thomas, Stephen J; Struminger, Aaron H; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Kelly, John D; Swanik, Charles B

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training is credited with providing benefits in performance and dynamic restraint. However, limited prospective data exist quantifying kinematic adaptations such as amortization time, glenohumeral rotation, and scapulothoracic position, which may underlie the efficacy of plyometric training for upper-extremity rehabilitation or performance enhancement. To measure upper-extremity kinematics and plyometric phase times before and after an 8-wk upper-extremity strength- and plyometric-training program. Randomized pretest-posttest design. Research laboratory. 40 recreationally active men (plyometric group, age 20.43 ± 1.40 y, height 180.00 ± 8.80 cm, weight 73.07 ± 7.21 kg; strength group, age 21.95 ± 3.40 y, height 173.98 ± 11.91 cm, weight 74.79 ± 13.55 kg). Participants were randomly assigned to either a strength-training group or a strength- and plyometric-training group. Each participant performed the assigned training for 8 wk. Dynamic and static glenohumeral and scapular-rotation measurements were taken before and after the training programs. Dynamic measurement of scapular rotation and time spent in each plyometric phase (concentric, eccentric, and amortization) during a ball-toss exercise were recorded while the subjects were fitted with an electromagnetic tracking system. Static measures included scapular upward rotation at 3 different glenohumeral-abduction angles, glenohumeral internal rotation, and glenohumeral external rotation. Posttesting showed that both groups significantly decreased the time spent in the amortization, concentric, and eccentric phases of a ball-toss exercise (P plyometric-training group exhibited an increase in internal rotation that was not present in the strength-training group (P plyometrics and strength training for reducing commonly identified upper-extremity-injury risk factors and improving upper-extremity performance.

  11. Effects of an extreme flood on river morphology (case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Mirzaee, Somayeh; Keesstra, Saskia; Surian, Nicola; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Zakizadeh, Hamid Reza; Tabibian, Sahar

    2018-01-01

    An extreme flood occurred on 14 April 2016 in the Karoon River, Iran. The occurred flood discharge was the highest discharge recorded over the last 60 years in the Karoon River. Using the OLI Landsat images taken on 8 April 2016 (before the flood) and 24 April 2016 (after the flood) the geomorphic

  12. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Diabetic Driving Studies-Part 1: Brake Response Time in Diabetic Drivers With Lower Extremity Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyr, Andrew J; Spiess, Kerianne E

    Although the effect of lower extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest, we are unaware of any analysis of the effect of lower extremity diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy on driving performance. The objective of the present case-control investigation was to assess the mean brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy compared with that of a control group and a brake response safety threshold. The driving performances of participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 25 active drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy and an experimental group of 25 active drivers with type 2 diabetes and lower extremity neuropathy. The experimental group demonstrated a 37.89% slower mean brake response time (0.757 ± 0.180 versus 0.549 ± 0.076 second; p time in the experimental group was slower than the reported safety brake response threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide original data with respect to abnormally delayed brake responses in diabetic patients with lower extremity neuropathy and might raise the potential for impaired driving function in this population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The waviness of the extratropical jet and daily weather extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Matthias; Martius, Olivia; Pfahl, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes have experienced a large number of weather extremes with substantial socio-economic impact, such as the European and Russian heat waves in 2003 and 2010, severe winter floods in the United Kingdom in 2013/2014 and devastating winter storms such as Lothar (1999) and Xynthia (2010) in Central Europe. These have triggered an engaged debate within the scientific community on the role of human induced climate change in the occurrence of such extremes. A key element of this debate is the hypothesis that the waviness of the extratropical jet is linked to the occurrence of weather extremes, with a wavier jet stream favouring more extremes. Previous work on this topic is expanded in this study by analyzing the linkage between a regional measure of jet waviness and daily temperature, precipitation and wind gust extremes. We show that indeed such a linkage exists in many regions of the world, however this waviness-extremes linkage varies spatially in strength and sign. Locally, it is strong only where the relevant weather systems, in which the extremes occur, are affected by the jet waviness. Its sign depends on how the frequency of occurrence of the relevant weather systems is correlated with the occurrence of high and low jet waviness. These results go beyond previous studies by noting that also a decrease in waviness could be associated with an enhanced number of some weather extremes, especially wind gust and precipitation extremes over western Europe.

  15. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  16. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  17. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research. PMID:28508070

  18. The shouted voice: A pilot study of laryngeal physiology under extreme aerodynamic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Galant, Camille; Amy de La Bretèque, Benoit; Meynadier, Yohann; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to study the behavior of the larynx during shouted voice production, when the larynx is exposed to extremely high subglottic pressure. The study involved electroglottographic, acoustic, and aerodynamic analyses of shouts produced at maximum effort by three male participants. Under a normal speaking voice, the voice sound pressure level (SPL) is proportional to the subglottic pressure. However, when the subglottic pressure reached high levels, the voice SPL reached a maximum value and then decreased as subglottic pressure increased further. Furthermore, the electroglottographic signal sometimes lost its periodicity during the shout, suggesting irregular vocal fold vibration.

  19. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  20. The Influence of Lower Extremity Lean Mass on Landing Biomechanics During Prolonged Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Melissa M; Tritsch, Amanda J; Cone, John R; Schmitz, Randy J; Henson, Robert A; Shultz, Sandra J

    2017-08-01

      The extent to which lower extremity lean mass (LELM) relative to total body mass influences one's ability to maintain safe landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise when injury incidence increases is unknown.   To examine the influence of LELM on (1) pre-exercise lower extremity biomechanics and (2) changes in biomechanics during an intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and (3) determine whether these relationships differ by sex. We hypothesized that less LELM would predict higher-risk baseline biomechanics and greater changes toward higher-risk biomechanics during the IEP.   Cohort study.   Controlled laboratory.   A total of 59 athletes (30 men: age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; 29 women: age = 20.6 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) participated.   Before completing an individualized 90-minute IEP designed to mimic a soccer match, participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing for LELM.   Three-dimensional lower extremity biomechanics were measured during drop-jump landings before the IEP and every 15 minutes thereafter. A previously reported principal components analysis reduced 40 biomechanical variables to 11 factors. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis then determined the extent to which sex and LELM predicted the baseline score and the change in each factor over time.   Lower extremity lean mass did not influence baseline biomechanics or the changes over time. Sex influenced the biomechanical factor representing knee loading at baseline (P = .04) and the changes in the anterior cruciate ligament-loading factor over time (P = .03). The LELM had an additional influence only on women who possessed less LELM (P = .03 and .02, respectively).   Lower extremity lean mass influenced knee loading during landing in women but not in men. The effect appeared to be stronger in women with less LELM. Continually decreasing knee loading over time may reflect a

  1. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  2. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R.

    1999-01-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm 3 covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  3. Selection criteria limit generalizability of smoking pharmacotherapy studies differentially across clinical trials and laboratory studies: A systematic review on varenicline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschman, Courtney A; Gass, Julie C; Wray, Jennifer M; Germeroth, Lisa J; Schlienz, Nicolas J; Munoz, Diana A; Moore, Faith E; Rhodes, Jessica D; Hawk, Larry W; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-12-01

    The selection criteria used in clinical trials for smoking cessation and in laboratory studies that seek to understand mechanisms responsible for treatment outcomes may limit their generalizability to one another and to the general population. We reviewed studies on varenicline versus placebo and compared eligibility criteria and participant characteristics of clinical trials (N=23) and laboratory studies (N=22) across study type and to nationally representative survey data on adult, daily USA smokers (2014 National Health Interview Survey; 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health). Relative to laboratory studies, clinical trials more commonly reported excluding smokers who were unmotivated to quit and for specific medical conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease, COPD), although both study types frequently reported excluding for general medical or psychiatric reasons. Laboratory versus clinical samples smoked less, had lower nicotine dependence, were younger, and more homogeneous with respect to smoking level and nicotine dependence. Application of common eligibility criteria to national survey data resulted in considerable elimination of the daily-smoking population for both clinical trials (≥47%) and laboratory studies (≥39%). Relative to the target population, studies in this review recruited participants who smoked considerably more and had a later smoking onset age, and were under-representative of Caucasians. Results suggest that selection criteria of varenicline studies limit generalizability in meaningful ways, and differences in criteria across study type may undermine efforts at translational research. Recommendations for improvements in participant selection and reporting standards are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of an extreme flood on river morphology (case study: Karoon River, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Mirzaee, Somayeh; Keesstra, Saskia; Surian, Nicola; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Zakizadeh, Hamid Reza; Tabibian, Sahar

    2018-03-01

    An extreme flood occurred on 14 April 2016 in the Karoon River, Iran. The occurred flood discharge was the highest discharge recorded over the last 60 years in the Karoon River. Using the OLI Landsat images taken on 8 April 2016 (before the flood) and 24 April 2016 (after the flood) the geomorphic effects were detected in different land cover types within the 155-km-long study reach. The results show that the flood significantly affected the channel width and the main effect was high mobilization of channel sediments and severe bank erosion in the meandering reaches. According to field surveys, the flood occupied the channel corridor and even the floodplain parts. However, the channel pattern was not significantly altered, although the results show that the average channel width increased from 192 to 256 m. Statistical results indicate a significant change for active channel width and sinuosity index at 99% confidence level for both indexes. The flood-induced morphological changes varied significantly for different land cover types along the Karoon River. Specifically, the channel has widened less in residential areas than in other land cover types because of the occurrence of bank protection structures. However, the value of bank retreat in residential and protected sides of the Karoon River is more than what we expected during the study of extreme flood.

  5. A Penning trap for advanced studies with particles in extreme laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, M.; Quint, W.; Paulus, G.G.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Penning trap as a tool for advanced studies of particles in extreme laser fields. Particularly, trap-specific manipulation techniques allow control over the confined particles’ localization and spatial density by use of trap electrodes as ‘electrostatic tweezers’ and by application of a ‘rotating wall’, respectively. It is thereby possible to select and prepare well-defined ion ensembles and to optimize the laser–particle interaction. Non-destructive detection of reaction educts and products with up to single-ion sensitivity supports advanced studies by maintaining the products for further studies at extended confinement times of minutes and above. The trap features endcaps with conical openings for applications with strongly focused lasers. We show that such a modification of a cylindrical trap is possible while harmonicity and tunability are maintained.

  6. A Penning trap for advanced studies with particles in extreme laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Quint, W.; Paulus, G. G.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Penning trap as a tool for advanced studies of particles in extreme laser fields. Particularly, trap-specific manipulation techniques allow control over the confined particles' localization and spatial density by use of trap electrodes as 'electrostatic tweezers' and by application of a 'rotating wall', respectively. It is thereby possible to select and prepare well-defined ion ensembles and to optimize the laser-particle interaction. Non-destructive detection of reaction educts and products with up to single-ion sensitivity supports advanced studies by maintaining the products for further studies at extended confinement times of minutes and above. The trap features endcaps with conical openings for applications with strongly focused lasers. We show that such a modification of a cylindrical trap is possible while harmonicity and tunability are maintained.

  7. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  8. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  9. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  10. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  11. An ECVAG inter-laboratory validation study of the comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersson, Clara; Møller, Peter; Forchhammer, Lykke

    2013-01-01

    of ionising radiation, inter-laboratory variation, intra-laboratory variation and residual variation contributed to 60.9, 19.4, 0.1 and 19.5%, respectively, of the total variation. In the coded PBMC samples, the inter-laboratory variation explained the largest fraction of the overall variation of DNA strand...

  12. The impact of laboratory quality assurance standards on laboratory operational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ratseou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become a trend for companies to implement and be certified to various quality management systems so as to improve consistency, reliability, and quality of product delivery to customers. The most common quality management systems adopted are the ISO 9000 series of standards for manufacturing and services related organisations, with ISO 17025 and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP standards adopted specifically by laboratories as quality assurance initiatives. There are various reports on the impact of the ISO 9000 series on organisational performance but no studies or reports have been done on the performance of laboratory standards. Therefore this article reports on a study conducted to investigate the impact of ISO 17025 and GLP on the operational performance of both commercial and non-commercial laboratories. A qualitative research study was conducted to examine the impact standards on the aspects of health and safety, supplier selection and performance, human resources, customer satisfaction and profitability of the laboratory. The data collected suggest that there is no difference in laboratory operational performance with or without the standards. In other words it appears that the basic fundamental requirements inherent with laboratories are sufficient to perform both operationally and optimally. This leads to the view that standards are implemented as a customer requirement and not as an operational requirement.

  13. Exploiting Laboratory and Heliophysics Plasma Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Dahlburg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in space-based heliospheric observations, laboratory experimentation, and plasma simulation codes are creating an exciting new cross-disciplinary opportunity for understanding fast energy release and transport mechanisms in heliophysics and laboratory plasma dynamics, which had not been previously accessible. This article provides an overview of some new observational, experimental, and computational assets, and discusses current and near-term activities towards exploitation of synergies involving those assets. This overview does not claim to be comprehensive, but instead covers mainly activities closely associated with the authors’ interests and reearch. Heliospheric observations reviewed include the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO mission, the first instrument to provide remote sensing imagery observations with spatial continuity extending from the Sun to the Earth, and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS on the Japanese Hinode spacecraft that is measuring spectroscopically physical parameters of the solar atmosphere towards obtaining plasma temperatures, densities, and mass motions. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO and the upcoming Solar Orbiter with the Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI on-board will also be discussed. Laboratory plasma experiments surveyed include the line-tied magnetic reconnection experiments at University of Wisconsin (relevant to coronal heating magnetic flux tube observations and simulations, and a dynamo facility under construction there; the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory that currently produces plasmas scalable to ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions and in the future also will be suited to study the physics of the solar corona; the Versatile Toroidal Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that

  14. Veterinary Laboratory Services Study - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    years. Many tests , such as ;uman pregnancy testing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation and :iers have been converted to in—vitro procedures. Sheep...assignment in laboratories and worked in chemistry , mic robiology , or diagnostic areas can be directly uti l ized with little additional orientation. They...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture

  15. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source Project at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, R.H. Sr.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is designed as a national synchrotron radiation user facility which will provide extremely bright, highly energetic x-rays for multidisciplinary research. When operational, the Advanced Photon Source will accelerate positrons to a nominal energy of 7 GeV. The positrons will be manipulated by insertion devices to produce x-rays 10,000 times brighter than any currently available for research. Accelerator components, insertion devices, optical elements, and optical-element cooling schemes have been and continue to be the subjects of intensive research and development. A call for Letters of Intent from prospective users of the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in a substantial response from industrial, university, and national laboratory researchers

  16. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  17. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  18. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  19. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  20. Can MOND type hypotheses be tested in a free fall laboratory environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurya; Patitsas, S. N.

    2013-05-01

    The extremely small accelerations of objects required for the onset of modified Newtonian dynamics, or modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), makes testing the hypothesis in conventional terrestrial laboratories virtually impossible. This is due to the large background acceleration of Earth, which is transmitted to the acceleration of test objects within an apparatus. We show, however, that it may be possible to test MOND-type hypotheses with experiments using a conventional apparatus capable of tracking very small accelerations of its components but performed in locally inertial frames such as artificial satellites and other freely falling laboratories. For example, experiments involving an optical interferometer or a torsion balance in these laboratories would show nonlinear dynamics and displacement amplitudes larger than expected. These experiments may also be able to test potential violations of the strong equivalence principle by MOND and to distinguish between its two possible interpretations (modified inertia and modified gravity).

  1. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  2. Safety in laboratories: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ajaz; Farooq, A Jan; Qadri, Gj; S A, Tabish

    2008-07-01

    Health and safety in clinical laboratories is becoming an increasingly important subject as a result of emergence of highly infectious diseases such as Hepatitis and HIV. A cross sectional study was carried out to study the safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories of India. Heads of laboratories of teaching hospitals of India were subjected to a standardized, pretested questionnaire. Response rate was 44.8%. only 60% of laboratories had person in-charge of safety in laboratory. Seventy three percent of laboratories had safety education program regarding hazards. In 91% of laboratories staff is using protective clothing while working in laboratories. Hazardous material regulations are followed in 78% of laboratories. Regular health check ups are carried among laboratory staff in 43.4% of laboratories.Safety manual is available in 56.5% of laboratories. 73.9% of laboratories are equipped with fire extinguishers. Fume cupboards are provided in 34.7% of laboratories and they are regularly checked in 87.5% of these laboratories. In 78.26% of laboratories suitable measures are taken to minimize formation of aerosols.In 95.6% of laboratories waste is disposed off as per bio-medical waste management handling rules. Laboratory of one private medical college was accredited with NABL and safety parameters were better in that laboratory. Installing safety engineered devices apparently contributes to significant decrease in injuries in laboratories; laboratory safety has to be a part of overall quality assurance programme in hospitals. Accreditation has to be made necessary for all laboratories.

  3. Seismic hazard studies for the high flux beam reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study

  4. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Davison, Anthony C.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  5. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  6. CD-Based Microfluidics for Primary Care in Extreme Point-of-Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the utility of centrifugal microfluidic technologies applied to point-of-care diagnosis in extremely under-resourced environments. The various challenges faced in these settings are showcased, using areas in India and Africa as examples. Measures for the ability of integrated devices to effectively address point-of-care challenges are highlighted, and centrifugal, often termed CD-based microfluidic technologies, technologies are presented as a promising platform to address these challenges. We describe the advantages of centrifugal liquid handling, as well as the ability of a standard CD player to perform a number of common laboratory tests, fulfilling the role of an integrated lab-on-a-CD. Innovative centrifugal approaches for point-of-care in extremely resource-poor settings are highlighted, including sensing and detection strategies, smart power sources and biomimetic inspiration for environmental control. The evolution of centrifugal microfluidics, along with examples of commercial and advanced prototype centrifugal microfluidic systems, is presented, illustrating the success of deployment at the point-of-care. A close fit of emerging centrifugal systems to address a critical panel of tests for under-resourced clinic settings, formulated by medical experts, is demonstrated. This emphasizes the potential of centrifugal microfluidic technologies to be applied effectively to extremely challenging point-of-care scenarios and in playing a role in improving primary care in resource-limited settings across the developing world.

  7. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  8. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  9. EU-INTACT-case studies: Impact of extreme weather on critical Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ruiten Kees

    2016-01-01

    One of the case studies is located in the Netherlands and deals with the port of Rotterdam. The situation in Rotterdam is representative for many other main ports in Europe. These ports are all situated in a delta area, near the sea and rivers or canals. Also, these ports are close to urban areas and industrial complexes. Finally, these ports have a multimodal transport infrastructure to and from its hinterland, which is also vulnerable for extreme weather events. The case study is not only significant for the development of methods and tools, but also of direct interest for the region itself. The combination of the National Water safety policy and the best practices from the INTACT cases offer challenges to create better adaptation options and coping capacity to these relatively unforeseen and unexpected impacts based on climate change scenario’s and socio-economic megatrends.

  10. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits-conceptually called "rock's habitable architecture." Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of adaptation.

  11. Analysis of long-term changes in extreme climatic indices: a case study of the Mediterranean climate, Marmara Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnia, Mohsen; Toros, Hüseyin

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze extreme temperature and precipitation indices at seven stations in the Marmara Region of Turkey for the period 1961-2016. The trend of temperature indices showed that the warm-spell duration and the numbers of summer days, tropical nights, warm nights, and warm days have increased, while the cold-spell duration and number of ice days, cool nights, and cool days have decreased across the Marmara Region. Additionally, the diurnal temperature range has slightly increased at most of the stations. A majority of stations have shown significant warming trends for warm days and warm nights throughout the study area, whereas warm extremes and night-time based temperature indices have shown stronger trends compared to cold extremes and day-time indices. The analysis of precipitation indices has mostly shown increasing trends in consecutive dry days and increasing trends in annual rainfall, rainfall intensity for inland and urban stations, especially for stations in Sariyer and Edirne, which are affected by a fast rate of urbanization. Overall, a large proportion of study stations have experienced an increase in annual precipitation and heavy precipitation events, although there was a low percentage of results that was significant. Therefore, it is expected that the rainfall events will tend to become shorter and more intense, the occurrence of temperature extremes will become more pronounced in favor of hotter events, and there will be an increase in the atmospheric moisture content over the Marmara Region. This provides regional evidence for the importance of ongoing research on climate change.

  12. Lower extremity joint moments of collegiate soccer players differ between genders during a forward jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2008-05-01

    Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.

  13. Probabilistic analysis of extreme wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    A vital task in wind engineering and meterology is to understand, measure, analyse and forecast extreme wind conditions, due to their significant effects on human activities and installations like buildings, bridges or wind turbines. The latest version of the IEC standard (1996) pays particular attention to the extreme wind events that have to be taken into account when designing or certifying a wind generator. Actually, the extreme wind events within a 50 year period are those which determine the ``static`` design of most of the wind turbine components. The extremes which are important for the safety of wind generators are those associated with the so-called ``survival wind speed``, the extreme operating gusts and the extreme wind direction changes. A probabilistic approach for the analysis of these events is proposed in this paper. Emphasis is put on establishing the relation between extreme values and physically meaningful ``site calibration`` parameters, like probability distribution of the annual wind speed, turbulence intensity and power spectra properties. (Author)

  14. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  15. Coastal flooding: impact of waves on storm surge during extremes – a case study for the German Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Staneva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the impact of wind, waves, tidal forcing and baroclinicity on the sea level of the German Bight during extreme storm events. The role of wave-induced processes, tides and baroclinicity is quantified, and the results are compared with in situ measurements and satellite data. A coupled high-resolution modelling system is used to simulate wind waves, the water level and the three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The models used are the wave model WAM and the circulation model GETM. The two-way coupling is performed via the OASIS3-MCT coupler. The effects of wind waves on sea level variability are studied, accounting for wave-dependent stress, wave-breaking parameterization and wave-induced effects on vertical mixing. The analyses of the coupled model results reveal a closer match with observations than for the stand-alone circulation model, especially during the extreme storm Xaver in December 2013. The predicted surge of the coupled model is significantly enhanced during extreme storm events when considering wave–current interaction processes. This wave-dependent approach yields a contribution of more than 30 % in some coastal areas during extreme storm events. The contribution of a fully three-dimensional model compared with a two-dimensional barotropic model showed up to 20 % differences in the water level of the coastal areas of the German Bight during Xaver. The improved skill resulting from the new developments justifies further use of the coupled-wave and three-dimensional circulation models in coastal flooding predictions.

  16. PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO STUDY LEARNING IN THE TERTIARY LEVEL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Sandi-Urena

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread notion amongst chemistry educators that the laboratory is essential to learn chemistry, it is often a neglected area of teaching and, arguably, of educational research. Research has typically focused on secondary education, single institutions, and isolated interventions that are mostly assessed quantitatively. It has also honed in on compartmentalised features instead of searching understanding of broader aspects of learning through experimentation. This paper contends there is a gap in subject specific, tertiary level research that is comprehensive and learning-centred instead of fragmented and instruction-based. A shift in focus requires consideration of methodological approaches that can effectively tackle the challenges of researching complex learning environments. This paper reckons qualitative approaches, specifically phenomenology, are better suited for this purpose. To illustrate this potential, it summarises an exemplar phenomenological study that investigated students’ experience of change in instructional style from an expository (traditional laboratory program to one that was cooperative and project-based (reformed. The study suggests the experience was characterised by a transition from a learning environment that promoted mindless behaviour to one in which students were mindfully engaged in their learning. Thus, this work puts forth the use of Mindfulness Theory to investigate and support design of laboratory experiences.

  17. Changing precipitation extremes and flood risk over the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    On the basis of first principles, precipitation extremes should increase in a warming climate. Effectively, the atmospheric "heat engine" is expected to turn over more rapidly as the climate warms, due to increased water holding capacity of the atmosphere. Most climate models reflect this behavior, and project that precipitation extremes should increase, at roughly the Clausius-Clapyron rate. From a societal standpoint though, changing precipitation extremes in and of themselves aren't necessarily a concern - rather, the question of societal interest is "are and/or will flood extremes change". Flood extremes of course respond to precipitation extremes, but they are affected by a number of other factors, among them being the duration of precipitation relative to catchment size and channel features, storm orientation relative to catchment orientation, soil characteristics, and antecedent hydrologic conditions. Various studies have shown that over both the conterminous U.S. and globally, there have been slight increases in precipitation extremes (i.e., more than would be expected due to chance. On the other hand, evidence for increases in flooding are less pervasive. I review past work in this area, and suggest the nature of studies that might be conducted going forward to better understand the likely signature of changing precipitation extremes on flooding.

  18. Variability of morphometric parameters of feet in various forms of lower extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnova O.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the various forms of lower extremities variability of linear and angular parameters of feet in girls aged 17-19 years. Material and Methods. The object of the study included 242 students from Saratov State Medical University, 17—19 years. Foot digital plantography photometric device-software complex «Plantvizor» and measuring distances between sibling points of lower extremities to highlight their forms have been used as a method of research. Results. 8 forms of lower extremities, among which half per cent occurs in isolated form, valgus-direct from the mil-lennim clearance opening and a trapezoidal shape of lower extremities varus. In all forms of lower extremities morphometric parameters of feet and ratio of statistically significant differences in various forms of lower extremities have been studied. Conclusion. Anatomical basis for operational adjustment of axial disorders of tibiae and its influence on morphofunctional state of foot can be resulted from the study.

  19. Models and Inference for Multivariate Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Vettori, Sabrina

    2017-12-07

    The development of flexible and interpretable statistical methods is necessary in order to provide appropriate risk assessment measures for extreme events and natural disasters. In this thesis, we address this challenge by contributing to the developing research field of Extreme-Value Theory. We initially study the performance of existing parametric and non-parametric estimators of extremal dependence for multivariate maxima. As the dimensionality increases, non-parametric estimators are more flexible than parametric methods but present some loss in efficiency that we quantify under various scenarios. We introduce a statistical tool which imposes the required shape constraints on non-parametric estimators in high dimensions, significantly improving their performance. Furthermore, by embedding the tree-based max-stable nested logistic distribution in the Bayesian framework, we develop a statistical algorithm that identifies the most likely tree structures representing the data\\'s extremal dependence using the reversible jump Monte Carlo Markov Chain method. A mixture of these trees is then used for uncertainty assessment in prediction through Bayesian model averaging. The computational complexity of full likelihood inference is significantly decreased by deriving a recursive formula for the nested logistic model likelihood. The algorithm performance is verified through simulation experiments which also compare different likelihood procedures. Finally, we extend the nested logistic representation to the spatial framework in order to jointly model multivariate variables collected across a spatial region. This situation emerges often in environmental applications but is not often considered in the current literature. Simulation experiments show that the new class of multivariate max-stable processes is able to detect both the cross and inner spatial dependence of a number of extreme variables at a relatively low computational cost, thanks to its Bayesian hierarchical

  20. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, Pierre; Bassler, Ursula; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2000-2001: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, hadronic physics, proton-antiproton physics, Neutrino beams, LEP, LHC, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  1. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoret-Campagne, Sylvie; Roos, Lydia; Schwemling, Philippe; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2002-2003: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, proton-antiproton physics, LHC, Neutrino beams, LEP, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - Appendix: staff

  2. Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya

    2014-09-01

    Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.

  3. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  4. ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index for water vapor transport: A forecast tool for atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David S.; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-11-01

    In winter, heavy precipitation and floods along the west coasts of midlatitude continents are largely caused by intense water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) within the atmospheric river of extratropical cyclones. This study builds on previous findings that showed that forecasts of IVT have higher predictability than precipitation, by applying and evaluating the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT in ensemble forecasts during three winters across Europe. We show that the IVT EFI is more able (than the precipitation EFI) to capture extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase; conversely, the precipitation EFI is better during the negative NAO phase and at shorter leads. An IVT EFI example for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlights its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes, which may prove useful to the user and forecasting communities.

  5. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  6. Risk factors for generally reduced productivity--a prospective cohort study of young adults with neck or upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Dellve, Lotta; Thomée, Sara; Hagberg, Mats

    2008-04-01

    This study prospectively assessed the importance of individual conditions and computer use during school or work and leisure time as risk factors for self-reported generally reduced productivity due to musculoskeletal complaints among young adults with musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck or upper extremities. A cohort of 2914 young adults (18-25 years, vocational school and college or university students) responded to an internet-based questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal symptoms related to individual conditions and computer use during school or work and leisure time that possibly affected general productivity. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to assess prospective risk factors for generally reduced productivity. The selected study sample (N=1051) had reported neck or upper-extremity symptoms. At baseline, 280 of them reported reduced productivity. A follow-up of the 771 who reported no reduced productivity was carried out after 1 year. Risk factors for self-reported generally reduced productivity for those followed-up were symptoms in two or three locations or dimensions for the upper back or neck and the shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands [PR 2.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.78], symptoms persisting longer than 90 days in the shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands (PR 2.50, 95% CI 1.12-5.58), current symptoms in the shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands (PR 1.78, 95% CI 1.10-2.90) and computer use 8-14 hours/week during leisure time (PR 2.32, 95% CI 1.20-4.47). A stronger relationship was found if three or four risk factors were present. For women, a relationship was found between generally reduced productivity and widespread and current symptoms in the upper extremities. The main risk factors for generally reduced productivity due to musculoskeletal symptoms among young adults in this study were chronic symptoms in the upper extremities and widespread symptoms in the neck and upper extremities.

  7. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Ganguly, Auroop R; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2015-01-01

    Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)

  8. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  9. Study of Extreme Weather Hazards Using GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shum, C. K.; Shang, K.; Guo, J.; Schwartz, F. W.; Akyılmaz, O.; Feng, W.; Forootan, E.; LIU, G.; Zhong, M.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather events significantly affect humans and economics in the region. Synoptic and timely observations of these abrupt meteoro-hydrological hazards would benefit disaster management and improve storm forecasting. Contemporary processing of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite data at monthly sampling would miss or under-sample abrupt events such as large ice storms with durations much shorter than a month. Here, we employ the energy balance approach processing GRACE Level 1 data, which is flexible to allow sub-monthly solutions at daily sampling covering the genesis and evolution of large winter storms. We studied the 2008 Southeast China snow and ice storm, which lasted from mid-January to mid-February, and affected 21 out of China's 34 provinces with heavy snows, ice and freezing rains, caused extensive damage and transportation disruption, displaced nearly 1.7 million people, and claimed 129 lives. We also investigated the devastating North America blizzard which occurred during late January through mid-February 2010. The massive accumulations of snow and ice in both storms slightly changed the gravity field of the Earth, and were sensitive to the GRACE satellite measurements, manifested as transient terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. We compared our solutions with other available high temporal frequency GRACE solutions. The GRACE observed total storage change for both storms are in good agreement with in situ precipitation measurements, and with GRACE observations clearly show the complex genesis, decline, strengthening and melting phases depicting the detailed evolution of these example large snow storms.

  10. Application of peer instruction in the laboratory task of measuring the effective mass of a spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Zhen-Yu; Si, Yu-Chang; Wen, Xiao-Qing; Tang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Peer instruction (PI) is an effective interactive approach to teaching and learning that has principally been used to modify the experience of learning in traditional physics lecture settings. This article further illustrates how the concept of PI can be effectively applied in the physics student laboratory setting. The setting used is a laboratory task that calls for the measurement of the effective mass of the spring of a Jolly balance. Through PI the students gain a better understanding of what is meant by the construct ‘effective mass of a spring’, and thereby competently work out how the mass, shape, wire diameter, and number of turns of the spring can all affect the effective mass of the spring. Furthermore, using stopwatches the students were also able to appreciate how recorded times at the equilibrium position had greater uncertainty than measurements made at the maximum displacement. This led to their calculations of the effective mass of the spring being impressively close to the theoretical value. Such laboratory tasks are extremely challenging to introductory level students and the success attained by the students in this study indicates that there is much potential in the application of PI in laboratory settings. PI should be used to teach in the laboratory and results should be reported in order for our community to build on these experiences. This article is a contribution to that effort.

  11. Case study: improving efficiency in a large hospital laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Marilynn

    2004-01-01

    Saint Francis Health System (SFHS) consists of three hospitals and one clinic: Saint Francis Hospital (SFH); Broken Arrow Medical Center; Laureate Psychiatric Hospital; and Warren Clinic. SFHS has 670 physicians on staff and serves medical (oncology, orthopedic, neurology, and renal), surgical, cardiac, women and infant, pediatric, transplant, and trauma patients in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, which has a population of 660,000. SFH incorporates 706 staffed beds, including 126 pediatric beds and 119 critical care beds. Each year, the health system averages 38,000 admissions, 70,000 emergency department visits, 25,000 surgeries, and 3,500 births. Saint Francis Laboratory is located within the main hospital facility (SFH) and functions as a core lab for the health system. The lab also coordinates lab services with Saint Francis Heart Hospital, a physician-system joint venture. The Optimal Equipment Configuration (OEC) Project was designed by the Clinical Laboratory Services division of Premier, a group purchasing organization, with the goal of determining whether laboratories could improve efficiency and decrease unit cost by using a single-source vendor. Participants included seven business partners (Abbott, Bayer, Beckman/Coulter, Dade/Behring, J&J/ Ortho, Olympus, and Roche) and 21 laboratory sites (a small, mid-sized, and large site for each vendor). SFH laboratory staff embraced Premier's concept and viewed the OEC project as an opportunity to "energize" laboratory operations. SFH partnered with Abbott, their primary equipment vendor, for the project. Using resources and tools made available through the project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing. Abbott and SFH shared a common vision for the project and enhanced their partnership through increased communication and problem solving. Abbott's area representatives provided for third

  12. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jonathan G; Lovato, Luis M; Jang, Timothy B

    2010-12-01

    Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity is an established method of detecting proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis when performed by a certified operator in a vascular laboratory. Our objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of bedside 2-point compression ultrasonography performed in the emergency department (ED) with portable vascular ultrasonography for the detection of proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. We did this by directly comparing emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to lower extremity duplex ultrasonography performed by the Department of Radiology. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study and diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of ED patients with a suspected lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, conducted at a single-center, urban, academic ED. All physicians had a 10-minute training session before enrolling patients. ED compression ultrasonography occurred before Department of Radiology ultrasonography and involved identification of 2 specific points: the common femoral and popliteal vessels, with subsequent compression of the common femoral and popliteal veins. The study result was considered positive for proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis if either vein was incompressible or a thrombus was visualized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with the final radiologist interpretation of the Department of Radiology ultrasonography as the criterion standard. A total of 47 physicians performed 199 2-point compression ultrasonographic examinations in the ED. Median number of examinations per physician was 2 (range 1 to 29 examinations; interquartile range 1 to 5 examinations). There were 45 proximal lower extremity deep venous thromboses observed on Department of Radiology evaluation, all correctly identified by ED 2-point compression ultrasonography. The 153 patients without proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis all had a negative ED compression

  13. International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Kezhi; Wu, Jonathan; Lendasse, Amaury; ELM 2015; Theory, Algorithms and Applications (I); Theory, Algorithms and Applications (II)

    2016-01-01

    This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015, which was held in Hangzhou, China, December 15-17, 2015. This conference brought together researchers and engineers to share and exchange R&D experience on both theoretical studies and practical applications of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) technique and brain learning. This book covers theories, algorithms ad applications of ELM. It gives readers a glance of the most recent advances of ELM. .

  14. Evaluation of climate change impact on extreme hydrological event ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Changes in hydrological extremes will have implications on the design of future hydraulic structures, flood plain development, and water resource management. This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on extreme hydrological events in the Akaki River catchment area in and around Addis Ababa city.

  15. Changes in extreme regional sea level under global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S. E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, Michael; Bal, Henri E.; Seinstra, Frank J.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to future changes in regional sea level extremes is due to the changes in intrinsic ocean variability, in particular ocean eddies. Here, we study a scenario of future dynamic sea level (DSL) extremes using a high-resolution version of the Parallel Ocean Program and

  16. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  17. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  18. Exploring the links between quality assurance and laboratory resources. An audit-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navjeevan; Panwar, Aru; Masih, Vipin Fazal; Arora, Vinod K; Bhatia, Arati

    2003-01-01

    To investigate and rectify the problems related to Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining in a cytology laboratory in the context of quality assurance. An audit based quality assurance study of 1,421 patients with clinical diagnoses of tubercular lymphadenopathy who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology. Data from 8 months were audited (group 1). Laboratory practices related to selection of smears for Z-N staining were studied. A 2-step corrective measure based on results of the audit was introduced for 2 months (group 2). Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi 2 test. Of 1,172 patients in group 1,368 had diagnoses other than tuberculosis. Overall acid-fast bacillus (AFB) positivity was 42%. AFB positivity in 249 patients in group 2 was 89% (P assurance. Solving everyday problems can have far-reaching benefits for the performance of laboratory personnel, resources and work flow.

  19. Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Marijana; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-12-27

    The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9-28) to 9 (6-16) minutes after TLA (P performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.

  20. Censored rainfall modelling for estimation of fine-scale extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David; Onof, Christian; Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Reliable estimation of rainfall extremes is essential for drainage system design, flood mitigation, and risk quantification. However, traditional techniques lack physical realism and extrapolation can be highly uncertain. In this study, we improve the physical basis for short-duration extreme rainfall estimation by simulating the heavy portion of the rainfall record mechanistically using the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP) model. Mechanistic rainfall models have had a tendency to underestimate rainfall extremes at fine temporal scales. Despite this, the simple process representation of rectangular pulse models is appealing in the context of extreme rainfall estimation because it emulates the known phenomenology of rainfall generation. A censored approach to Bartlett-Lewis model calibration is proposed and performed for single-site rainfall from two gauges in the UK and Germany. Extreme rainfall estimation is performed for each gauge at the 5, 15, and 60 min resolutions, and considerations for censor selection discussed.

  1. A comparison of observed extreme water levels at the German Bight elaborated through an extreme value analysis (EVA) with extremes derived from a regionally coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model (MPI-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of climate change atmospheric and oceanographic extremes and their potential impacts on coastal regions are of growing concern for governmental authorities responsible for the transportation infrastructure. Highest risks for shipping as well as for rail and road traffic originate from combined effects of extremes of storm surges and heavy rainfall which sometimes lead to insufficient dewatering of inland waterways. The German Ministry of Transport and digital Infrastructure therefore has tasked its Network of Experts to investigate the possible evolutions of extreme threats for low lands and especially for Kiel Canal, which is an important shortcut for shipping between the North and Baltic Seas. In this study we present results of a comparison of an Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) carried out on gauge observations and values derived from a coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model (MPI-OM). High water levels at the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas are one of the most important hazards which increase the risk of flooding of the low-lying land and prevents such areas from an adequate dewatering. In this study changes in the intensity (magnitude of the extremes) and duration of extreme water levels (above a selected threshold) are investigated for several gauge stations with data partly reaching back to 1843. Different methods are used for the extreme value statistics, (1) a stationary general Pareto distribution (GPD) model as well as (2) an instationary statistical model for better reproduction of the impact of climate change. Most gauge stations show an increase of the mean water level of about 1-2 mm/year, with a stronger increase of the highest water levels and a decrease (or lower increase) of the lowest water levels. Also, the duration of possible dewatering time intervals for the Kiel-Canal was analysed. The results for the historical gauge station observations are compared to the statistics of modelled water levels from the coupled

  2. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  3. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-04-01

    It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.

  5. Studying Human Disease Genes in "Caenorhabditis Elegans": A Molecular Genetics Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Paulson, Elisabeth A.; Grana, Theresa M.; Harris, Michelle A.; Batzli, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists routinely integrate information from various channels to explore topics under study. We designed a 4-wk undergraduate laboratory module that used a multifaceted approach to study a question in molecular genetics. Specifically, students investigated whether "Caenorhabditis elegans" can be a useful model system for studying genes…

  6. Predictability of Extreme Precipitations Over the Conterminous us, 1949-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Felzer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme precipitation plays an important role in regulating ecosystem services. Precipitation extremes vary in magnitude and duration both spatially and temporally, making it one of the most challenging climate variables to comprehend and predict. Using information theory, we provide an attempt to improve understanding of the predictability of extreme precipitation in the conterminous U.S. over the period of 1949-2010. We define predictability as the recurrent likelihood of patterns described by the measures of constancy and contingency, with the former describing the inter-annual variability and the latter describing the seasonality. This study shows that there are clear west-east contrasts of predictability over the U.S. landscape, with a generally decreasing gradient from the Northeast to the Southwest for intensity-based extremes and a generally increasing gradient from the West to the East for duration-based extremes. We further identify spatially heterogeneous patterns of temporal changes in predictability over the investigated timeframe. Finally, it is evident that constancy plays a heavier role in regulating predictability increases for both intensity and duration-based extremes and for predictability decreases for duration-based extremes, while contingency contributes equally with constancy to determining the decreases in predictability for intensity-based extremes.

  7. Extreme weather-related health needs of people who are homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; van Loon, Antonia; Kralik, Debbie; Arbon, Paul; Gilbert, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To identify the extreme weather-related health needs of homeless people and the response by homeless service providers in Adelaide, South Australia, a five-phased qualitative interpretive study was undertaken. (1) Literature review, followed by semi-structured interviews with 25 homeless people to ascertain health needs during extreme weather events. (2) Identification of homeless services. (3) Semi-structured interviews with 16 homeless service providers regarding their response to the health needs of homeless people at times of extreme weather. (4) Gap analysis. (5) Suggestions for policy and planning. People experiencing homelessness describe adverse health impacts more from extreme cold, than extreme hot weather. They considered their health suffered more, because of wet bedding, clothes and shoes. They felt more depressed and less able to keep themselves well during cold, wet winters. However, homeless service providers were more focussed on planning for extra service responses during times of extreme heat rather than extreme cold. Even though a city may be considered to have a temperate climate with a history of very hot summers, primary homeless populations have health needs during winter months. The experiences and needs of homeless people should be considered in extreme weather policy and when planning responses.

  8. Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Zhao; Meng, Yongchang; Luan, Yibo; Wang, Jiwei

    2017-09-01

    Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events on crop yield is of paramount importance to climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation. Previous studies lack systematic and explicit assessment of these three fundamental aspects of climate change on crop yield. This research attempts to separate out the impacts on rice yields of climatic trend (linear trend change related to mean value), fluctuations (variability surpassing the "fluctuation threshold" which defined as one standard deviation (1 SD) of the residual between the original data series and the linear trend value for each climatic variable), and extreme events (identified by absolute criterion for each kind of extreme events related to crop yield). The main idea of the research method was to construct climate scenarios combined with crop system simulation model. Comparable climate scenarios were designed to express the impact of each climate change component and, were input to the crop system model (CERES-Rice), which calculated the related simulated yield gap to quantify the percentage impacts of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events. Six Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) in Hunan province were selected to study the quantitatively impact of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events involving climatic variables (air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) on early rice yield during 1981-2012. The results showed that extreme events were found to have the greatest impact on early rice yield (-2.59 to -15.89%). Followed by climatic fluctuations with a range of -2.60 to -4.46%, and then the climatic trend (4.91-2.12%). Furthermore, the influence of climatic trend on early rice yield presented "trade-offs" among various climate variables and AMS. Climatic trend and extreme events associated with air temperature showed larger effects on early rice yield than other climatic variables, particularly for high-temperature events (-2.11 to -12

  9. Probability distribution of extreme share returns in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Safari, Muhammad Aslam Mohd; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Yie, Wendy Ling Shin

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the suitable probability distribution to model the extreme share returns in Malaysia. To achieve this, weekly and monthly maximum daily share returns are derived from share prices data obtained from Bursa Malaysia over the period of 2000 to 2012. The study starts with summary statistics of the data which will provide a clue on the likely candidates for the best fitting distribution. Next, the suitability of six extreme value distributions, namely the Gumbel, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO) and Generalized Pareto (GPA), the Lognormal (GNO) and the Pearson (PE3) distributions are evaluated. The method of L-moments is used in parameter estimation. Based on several goodness of fit tests and L-moment diagram test, the Generalized Pareto distribution and the Pearson distribution are found to be the best fitted distribution to represent the weekly and monthly maximum share returns in Malaysia stock market during the studied period, respectively.

  10. Computational discovery of extremal microstructure families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desai; Skouras, Mélina; Zhu, Bo; Matusik, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Modern fabrication techniques, such as additive manufacturing, can be used to create materials with complex custom internal structures. These engineered materials exhibit a much broader range of bulk properties than their base materials and are typically referred to as metamaterials or microstructures. Although metamaterials with extraordinary properties have many applications, designing them is very difficult and is generally done by hand. We propose a computational approach to discover families of microstructures with extremal macroscale properties automatically. Using efficient simulation and sampling techniques, we compute the space of mechanical properties covered by physically realizable microstructures. Our system then clusters microstructures with common topologies into families. Parameterized templates are eventually extracted from families to generate new microstructure designs. We demonstrate these capabilities on the computational design of mechanical metamaterials and present five auxetic microstructure families with extremal elastic material properties. Our study opens the way for the completely automated discovery of extremal microstructures across multiple domains of physics, including applications reliant on thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. PMID:29376124

  11. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  12. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  13. Leisure-time sport and overuse injuries of extremities in children age 6-13, a 2.5 years prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2017-01-01

    of physical education classes at school. RESULTS: Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose-response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball......Abstract OBJECTIVES: It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate...... MEASURES: Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having...

  14. Extreme climate in China. Facts, simulation and projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Jian-Qi; Chen, Huo-Po; Zhu, Ya-Li; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Da-Bang; Lang, Xian-Mei; Fan, Ke; Yu, En-Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics; Yang, Song [NOAA Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, studies on extreme climate in China including extreme temperature and precipitation, dust weather activity, tropical cyclone activity, intense snowfall and cold surge activity, floods, and droughts are reviewed based on the peer-reviewed publications in recent decades. The review is focused first on the climatological features, variability, and trends in the past half century and then on simulations and projections based on global and regional climate models. As the annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) increased throughout China, heat wave intensity and frequency overall increased in the past half century, with a large rate after the 1980s. The daily or yearly minimum SAT increased more significantly than the mean or maximum SAT. The long-term change in precipitation is predominantly characterized by the so-called southern flood and northern drought pattern in eastern China and by the overall increase over Northwest China. The interdecadal variation of monsoon, represented by the monsoon weakening in the end of 1970s, is largely responsible for this change in mean precipitation. Precipitation-related extreme events (e.g., heavy rainfall and intense snowfall) have become more frequent and intense generally over China in the recent years, with large spatial features. Dust weather activity, however, has become less frequent over northern China in the recent years, as result of weakened cold surge activity, reinforced precipitation, and improved vegetation condition. State-of-the-art climate models are capable of reproducing some features of the mean climate and extreme climate events. However, discrepancies among models in simulating and projecting the mean and extreme climate are also demonstrated by many recent studies. Regional models with higher resolutions often perform better than global models. To predict and project climate variations and extremes, many new approaches and schemes based on dynamical models, statistical methods, or their

  15. Rehabilitation Trends After Lower Extremity Amputations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Dilkas, Steven; Dance, Derry L; de Mestral, Charles; Forbes, Thomas L; Roche-Nagle, Graham

    2017-05-01

    The heterogeneity of medical complications that lead to amputation has resulted in a diverse patient population with differing rehabilitation needs; however, the rehabilitation trends for patients with lower extremity amputations across Canada have not been studied previously. To describe trends in rehabilitation after lower extremity amputations and the factors affecting rehabilitation length of stay in Canada. Retrospective cohort analysis. Canadian inpatient rehabilitation facilities that received persons with lower extremity amputations discharged from academic or community hospitals. Patients underwent lower extremity amputations between 2006 and 2009 for nontraumatic indications and were then discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Patients were identified from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database that includes hospital admissions across Canada except Quebec. Inpatient rehabilitation after lower extremity amputations. Length of stay, discharge destination, and change in total and motor function scores. The analysis included 5342 persons who underwent lower extremity amputations, 1904 of whom were transferred to a rehabilitation facility (36%). Patients most commonly underwent single below-knee (74%) and above-knee (17%) amputations. The duration of rehabilitation varied by whether the amputation was performed by a vascular (median = 36 days), orthopedic (median = 38 days), or general surgeon (median = 35 days). The overall median length of stay was 36 days. Most patients (72%) subsequently were discharged home and 9% were readmitted to hospital. Predictors of longer rehabilitation included amputation by an orthopedic surgeon (beta = 5.0, P ≤ .01), older age (beta = 0.2, P ≤ .01), and a history of ischemic heart disease (beta = 3.8, P = .03) or congestive heart failure (beta = 5, P = .04). Patients who spent Canada after lower extremity amputation varies by the type of surgeon performing the amputation. Advanced age

  16. Changes in Indices of Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extremes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It's a known fact that climate change will bring about increases in the occurrence of weather extreme events such as elevated temperature, drought, and floods; most especially in areas classified as hotspots to climate change – such as northwest Nigeria. This study investigates trends in extreme temperature and ...

  17. Quality system implementation in the Radiotoxicology Laboratory of IPEN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Caldeira Filho, J.S.; Todo, A.S.; Sanches, M.; Campos, L.L.

    2002-01-01

    The perception of assured quality is getting more transparence in the research and development areas. The Radiotoxicology Laboratory, LRT, of IPEN, operating since 1978, has as main attribution the development and implantation of analytical techniques for the measurements of different radionuclides in biological samples. Thus, the LRT considers being of extreme importance to have a management of the quality system to guarantee the reliability of the results and to obtain Accreditation Certificate of the National Institute of Metrology, INMETRO. With this objective the LRT has participated of projects of quality assurance for analytical laboratories since 1997, promoted by International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Currently the quality system of the LRT is in implementation phase, operating in compliance with the quality system of IPEN (consistent pair ISO 9001-9004:2000) and with NBR ISO/IEC 17025. The quality system implemented in the LRT is described in its Quality Manual, MQ-LRT and in complementary procedures that are in their first revision. The participation of the laboratory in intercomparison programs among national as international laboratories and the analysis of the results of internal as well as external audits has demonstrated that the LRT laboratory presents good performance and with suitable methodology and accurate and precise results. With the implementation of the quality system it was possible to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the tests carried out in the Radiotoxicology Laboratory. The project ARCAL XXVI was concluded in November 2001 and the LRT earned the Certificate of Recognition by IAEA. (author)

  18. Risk factors for lower-extremity injuries among contemporary dance students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, Christine; van Rijn, Rogier M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Stubbe, Janine H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether student characteristics, lower-extremity kinematics, and strength are risk factors for sustaining lower-extremity injuries in preprofessional contemporary dancers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Codarts University of the Arts. PATIENTS: Forty-five

  19. Laboratory studies of dissolved radiolabelled microcystin-LR in lake water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyenstrand, Per; Rohrlack, Thomas; Beattie, Kenneth A

    2003-01-01

    The fate of dissolved microcystin-LR was studied in laboratory experiments using surface water taken from a eutrophic lake. Based on initial range finding, a concentration of 50 microg l(-1) dissolved 14C-microcystin-LR was selected for subsequent time-course experiments. The first was performed ...... fractions. The study demonstrated that biodegradation of dissolved microcystin-LR occurred in water collected at a lake surface with carbon dioxide as a major end-product....

  20. Development, analysis, and evaluation of a commercial software framework for the study of Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) events at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) participated in a Pilot Study to examine the process and requirements to create a software system to assess the extremely low probability of pipe rupture (xLPR) in nuclear power plants. This project was tasked to develop a prototype xLPR model leveraging existing fracture mechanics models and codes coupled with a commercial software framework to determine the framework, model, and architecture requirements appropriate for building a modular-based code. The xLPR pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed developmental process and framework for a probabilistic code to address degradation mechanisms in piping system safety assessments. The pilot study includes a demonstration problem to assess the probability of rupture of DM pressurizer surge nozzle welds degraded by primary water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The pilot study was designed to define and develop the framework and model; then construct a prototype software system based on the proposed model. The second phase of the project will be a longer term program and code development effort focusing on the generic, primary piping integrity issues (xLPR code). The results and recommendations presented in this report will be used to help the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) define the requirements for the longer term program.

  1. Recent studies of transplutonium compounds: new directions and use of extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Begun, G.M.; Gibson, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The number of bulk-phase compounds prepared and characterized for each of the transplutonium (TPu) elements drops off precipitously with increasing atomic number. However, efforts have been made to increase the number of TPu compounds known and also the range of investigative methods applied to their characterization. The results of a worldwide survey to determine the status of the preparation of new TPu compounds and/or the application of new investigative techniques to the study of such compounds in bulk will be presented. The focus will then shift to Oak Ridge projects: extreme conditions of pressure and/or temperature are being used for synthesis and for absorption and raman spectral studies; single crystals of trihalides are being grown for spectral and magnetic studies; new ternary chalcogenide-halide compounds are being characterized; vaporization thermodynamics of TPu compounds are being determined; and attempts to stabilize unusual oxidation states are being carried out

  2. Climate change impact assessment of extreme precipitation on urban flash floods – case study, Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Rosbjerg, Dan

    projections for estimation of changes in extreme rainfall characteristics. Climate model projections from 20 regional climate models (RCM) from the ENSEMBLES data archive were used in the analysis. Two different estimation methods were applied, using, respectively, a direct estimation of the changes...... in the extreme value statistics of the RCM data, and application of a stochastic weather generator fitted to the changes in rainfall characteristics from the RCM data. The results show a large variability in the projected changes in extreme precipitation between the different RCMs and the two estimation methods...

  3. Results of a comparative study on insulin radioimmunoassay in 36 Italian laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, A; Lostia, O; Malvano, R; Rolleri, E; Taggi, F; Zucchelli, G C [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy))

    1975-12-01

    An interlaboratory study in which the insulin contents of five plasma samples were estimated in 36 italian laboratories was coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (National Institute of Health) and the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (National Research Council). A rather large between-laboratory variability resulted, though the ranking of samples according to their insulin concentrations was practically the same. A significant dependence of estimates on the method used was established. The analysis of data aimed at defining the possible reasons of the assay variability is reported and discussed.

  4. How extreme is enough to cause a threshold response of ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, S.; Zhang, F.; Yang, Q.; Song, B.; Sun, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation is a primary determinant of terrestrial ecosystem productivity over much of the globe. Recent studies have shown asymmetric or threshold responses of ecosystem productivity to precipitation gradient. However, it's not clear how extreme is enough to cause a threshold response of ecosystem. We conducted a global meta-analysis of precipitation experiments, a site level precipitation gradient experiment, and a remote sensing data mining on the relationship between precipitation extreme vs NDVI extreme. The meta-analysis shows that ANPP, BNPP, NEE, and other carbon cycle variables, showed similar response magnitudes to either precipitation increase or decrease when precipitation levels were normalized to the medium value of treatments (40%) across all the studies. Overall, the response ratios of these variables were linearly correlated with changes in precipitation amounts and soil water content. In the field gradient study with treatments of 1/12, 1/8. 1/4, 1/2, control, and 5/4 of ambient precipitation, the threshold of NPP, SR, NEE occurred when precipitation was reduced to the level of 1/8-1/12 of ambient precipitation. This means that only extreme drought can induce a threshold response of ecosystem. The regional remote sensing data showed that climate extremes with yearly low precipitation from 1982 to 2013 rarely cause extreme responses of vegetation, further suggesting that it is very difficult to detect threshold responses to natural climatic fluctuation. Our three studies together indicate that asymmetrical responses of vegetation to precipitation are likely detected, but only in very extreme precipitation events.

  5. "Lomonosov" Satellite—Space Observatory to Study Extreme Phenomena in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnichii, V. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Amelyushkin, A. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Benghin, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Klimov, P. A.; Khrenov, B. A.; Petrov, V. L.; Sharakin, S. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Zotov, M. Y.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.; Jeong, H. M.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Russell, C. T.; Runov, A.; Turner, D.; Strangeway, R. J.; Caron, R.; Biktemerova, S.; Grinyuk, A.; Lavrova, M.; Tkachev, L.; Tkachenko, A.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, E.

    2017-11-01

    The "Lomonosov" space project is lead by Lomonosov Moscow State University in collaboration with the following key partners: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, University of California, Los Angeles (USA), University of Pueblo (Mexico), Sungkyunkwan University (Republic of Korea) and with Russian space industry organizations to study some of extreme phenomena in space related to astrophysics, astroparticle physics, space physics, and space biology. The primary goals of this experiment are to study: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the energy range of the Greizen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff; Ultraviolet (UV) transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere; Multi-wavelength study of gamma-ray bursts in visible, UV, gamma, and X-rays; Energetic trapped and precipitated radiation (electrons and protons) at low-Earth orbit (LEO) in connection with global geomagnetic disturbances; Multicomponent radiation doses along the orbit of spacecraft under different geomagnetic conditions and testing of space segments of optical observations of space-debris and other space objects; Instrumental vestibular-sensor conflict of zero-gravity phenomena during space flight. This paper is directed towards the general description of both scientific goals of the project and scientific equipment on board the satellite. The following papers of this issue are devoted to detailed descriptions of scientific instruments.

  6. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Kuno, Nario; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2009-01-01

    We present a new observational study of the 12 CO(1-0) line emission as an H 2 gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H 2 , H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H 2 )/I CO factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled 12 CO(3-2) and 12 CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width ∼15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 μm and 450 μm dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary 12 CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T C ∼ 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of ∼5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy

  7. Imaging of upper extremity stress fractures in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark W

    2006-07-01

    Although it is much less common than injuries in the lower extremities, an upper extremity stress injury can have a significant impact on an athlete. If an accurate and timely diagnosis is to be made, the clinician must have a high index of suspicion of a stress fracture in any athlete who is involved in a throwing, weightlifting, or upper extremity weight-bearing sport and presents with chronic pain in the upper extremity. Imaging should play an integral role in the work-up of these patients; if initial radiographs are unrevealing, further cross-sectional imaging should be strongly considered. Although a three-phase bone scan is highly sensitive in this regard, MRI has become the study of choice at most centers.

  8. Influence of North Atlantic modes on European climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemmel, K.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the North Atlantic strongly influences European climate. Only few studies exist that focus on its impact on climate extremes. We are interested in these extremes and the processes and mechanisms behind it. For the analysis of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) we use simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The NAO has a strong impact especially on European winter and the changes in minimum temperature are even larger than in maximum temperature. The impact of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability (AMV) on climate extremes is analyzed in ECHAM6 simulations forced with AMV warm and AMV cold sea surface temperature patterns. We analyze different extreme indices and try to understand the processes.

  9. Modern clinical laboratory diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakhovskij, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis is auxillary medical discipline studying specific laboratory symptoms of diseases, revealed by investigations of materials taken from patients. The structure of laboratory servie in our country and abroad, items of laboratory investigations, organizational principles are described. Attention is being given to the cost of analyses, the amount of conducted investigations, methods of result presentation, problems of accuracy, quality control and information content

  10. Dynamic balance performance and noncontact lower extremity injury in college football players: an initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert J; Lehr, Michael E; Fink, Michael L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2013-09-01

    Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players. To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hypothesized that football players with lower performance and increased asymmetry in dynamic balance would be at an elevated risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-nine collegiate American football players volunteered for this study. Demographic information, injury history, and dynamic balance testing performance were collected, and noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded over the course of the season. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated based on performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), including composite score and asymmetry, to determine the population-specific risk cut-off point. Relative risk was then calculated based on these variables, as well as previous injury. A cut-off point of 89.6% composite score on the SEBT optimized the sensitivity (100%) and specificity (71.7%). A college football player who scored below 89.6% was 3.5 times more likely to get injured. Poor performance on the SEBT may be related to an increased risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury over the course of a competitive American football season. College football players should be screened preseason using the SEBT to identify those at an elevated risk for injury based upon dynamic balance performance to implement injury mitigation strategies to this specific subgroup of athletes.

  11. Extreme Weather and Climate: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam; Camargo, Suzana; Debucquoy, Wim; Deodatis, George; Gerrard, Michael; Hall, Timothy; Hallman, Robert; Keenan, Jesse; Lall, Upmanu; Levy, Marc; hide

    2016-01-01

    Extreme events are the aspects of climate to which human society is most sensitive. Due to both their severity and their rarity, extreme events can challenge the capacity of physical, social, economic and political infrastructures, turning natural events into human disasters. Yet, because they are low frequency events, the science of extreme events is very challenging. Among the challenges is the difficulty of connecting extreme events to longer-term, large-scale variability and trends in the climate system, including anthropogenic climate change. How can we best quantify the risks posed by extreme weather events, both in the current climate and in the warmer and different climates to come? How can we better predict them? What can we do to reduce the harm done by such events? In response to these questions, the Initiative on Extreme Weather and Climate has been created at Columbia University in New York City (extreme weather.columbia.edu). This Initiative is a University-wide activity focused on understanding the risks to human life, property, infrastructure, communities, institutions, ecosystems, and landscapes from extreme weather events, both in the present and future climates, and on developing solutions to mitigate those risks. In May 2015,the Initiative held its first science workshop, entitled Extreme Weather and Climate: Hazards, Impacts, Actions. The purpose of the workshop was to define the scope of the Initiative and tremendously broad intellectual footprint of the topic indicated by the titles of the presentations (see Table 1). The intent of the workshop was to stimulate thought across disciplinary lines by juxtaposing talks whose subjects differed dramatically. Each session concluded with question and answer panel sessions. Approximately, 150 people were in attendance throughout the day. Below is a brief synopsis of each presentation. The synopses collectively reflect the variety and richness of the emerging extreme event research agenda.

  12. Laboratory Studies Of Astrophysically-interesting Phosphorus-bearing Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.; Halfen, D. T.; Sun, M.; Clouthier, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past year, there has been a renewed interest in the presence of phosphorus-containing molecules in the interstellar medium. Recent observations have increased the number of known interstellar phosphorus-bearing species from two (PN, CP) to six with the identification of HCP, CCP, and PH3 in the carbon-rich circumstellar shell of IRC+10216 and PO in the oxygen-rich envelope of VY Canis Majoris. More species of this type may be present in the ISM, but laboratory rest frequencies, necessary for such detections, are not generally known for many potential molecules. To fill in this gap, we have been conducting measurements of the pure rotational spectra of phosphorus-containing molecules of astrophysical interest, using both millimeter/submm direct absorption and Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy. We have developed a new phosphorus source for this purpose. These methods cover the frequency ranges 65-850 GHz and 4-40 GHz, respectively. Our recent study of the CCP radical (X2Πr) using both of these techniques has resulted in its identification in IRC+10216. Rotational spectra of other molecules such as PCN, HPS, and CH3PH2 have been recorded. We will report on these species and additional new laboratory developments

  13. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N

    2009-07-01

    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  14. Daily extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on rice yield—A case study over the tropical island in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Luo, Wei; Li, Hailiang; Liu, Enping; Li, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    Frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on agricultural production. Tropical agriculture has been playing an important role in national economy in China. A precise understanding of variability in extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on crop yields are of great value for farmers and policy makers at county level, particularly in tropical China where almost all agriculture is rainfed. This research has studied observed trends in extreme precipitation indices (a total of 10) during 1988-2013 over Hainan island, tropical China. Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was adopted for trend detection and the results showed that most of precipitation indices showed increasing trend. Since rice is the most important staple food in Hainan island, the impacts of extreme precipitation indices on rice yields were also analyzed through simple correlations. In general, the rainy days and rain intensity in late rice growing season showed increasing trend over Hainan island. The rice yield presented ninth-degree polynomial technological trend at all stations and increasing trend for early rice yield. Late rice yield showed a decreasing trend in some parts of Hainan island. Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that the correlation was more pronounced between extreme precipitation indices and yields at Haikou site for early rice, and Haikou, Sanya, and Qionghai stations for late rice, respectively. Further results also indicated that there were statistically significant positive trends of R10 and R20 (number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm and precipitation ≥20 mm, respectively) from July to November at Haikou (located in north of Hainan island), and this positive trend may be a disadvantage for late rice yield. The cut-off value of extreme precipitation indices and its correlation with rice yield anomaly indices for Hainan island provided a foundation for vulnerability assessment as well as a contribution to set up

  15. DHM and serious games: a case-study oil and gas laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V; Zamberlan, M; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Guimarães, C; Pastura, F; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to present a research on the application of serious games for the design of laboratories in the oil and gas industries. The focus is in human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. The laboratory studies were simulated in Unity3D platform, which allows the users to control the DHM1 on the dynamic virtual scenario, in order to simulate work activities. This methodology can change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users, managers and human factor teams. That helps to better visualize future work settings and improve the level of participation between all stakeholders.

  16. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  17. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Verli, Fernando; Lopes, Humberto E.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  18. [New population curves in spanish extremely preterm neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; Figueras Aloy, J; Saavedra Santana, P

    2014-08-01

    Most anthropometric reference data for extremely preterm infants used in Spain are outdated and based on non-Spanish populations, or are derived from small hospital-based samples that failed to include neonates of borderline viability. To develop gender-specific, population-based curves for birth weight, length, and head circumference in extremely preterm Caucasian infants, using a large contemporary sample size of Spanish singletons. Anthropometric data from neonates ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age were collected between January 2002 and December 2010 using the Spanish database SEN1500. Gestational age was estimated according to obstetric data (early pregnancy ultrasound). The data were analyzed with the SPSS.20 package, and centile tables were created for males and females using the Cole and Green LMS method. This study presents the first population-based growth curves for extremely preterm infants, including those of borderline viability, in Spain. A sexual dimorphism is evident for all of the studied parameters, starting at early gestation. These new gender-specific and population-based data could be useful for the improvement of growth assessments of extremely preterm infants in our country, for the development of epidemiological studies, for the evaluation of temporal trends, and for clinical or public health interventions seeking to optimize fetal growth. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic and laboratory test ordering in Northern Portuguese Primary Health Care: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Luísa; Teixeira, Andreia Sofia Costa; Tavares, Fernando; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto Pinto; Santos, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the test ordering pattern in Northern Portugal and to investigate the influence of context-related factors, analysing the test ordered at the level of geographical groups of family physicians and at the level of different healthcare organisations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Northern Primary Health Care, Portugal. Participants Records about diagnostic and laboratory tests ordered from 2035 family physicians working at the Northern Regional Health Administration, who served approximately 3.5 million Portuguese patients, in 2014. Outcomes To determine the 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests in the Northern Regional Health Administration; to identify the presence and extent of variations in the 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests between the Groups of Primary Care Centres and between health units; and to study factors that may explain these variations. Results The 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests almost entirely comprise laboratory tests and account for 70.9% of the total tests requested. We can trace a major pattern of test ordering for haemogram, glucose, lipid profile, creatinine and urinalysis. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in test orders for all tests between Groups of Primary Care Centres and for all tests, except glycated haemoglobin (P=0.06), between health units. Generally, the Personalised Healthcare Units ordered more than Family Health Units. Conclusions The results from this study show that the most commonly ordered tests in Portugal are laboratory tests, that there is a tendency for overtesting and that there is a large variability in diagnostic and laboratory test ordering in different geographical and organisational Portuguese primary care practices, suggesting that there may be considerable potential for the rationalisation of test ordering. The existence of Family Health Units seems to be a strong determinant in decreasing test ordering by Portuguese family

  20. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.

    2018-02-01

    Reliable knowledge of the near-future climate change signal of extremes is important for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Especially compound extremes, like heat and drought occurring simultaneously, may have a greater impact on society than their univariate counterparts and have recently become an active field of study. In this paper, we use a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution (7 km) regional climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe to analyze the climate change signal and its uncertainty for compound heat and drought extremes in summer by two different measures: one describing absolute (i.e., number of exceedances of absolute thresholds like hot days), the other relative (i.e., number of exceedances of time series intrinsic thresholds) compound extreme events. Changes are assessed between a reference period (1971-2000) and a projection period (2021-2050). Our findings show an increase in the number of absolute compound events for the whole investigation area. The change signal of relative extremes is more region-dependent, but there is a strong signal change in the southern and eastern parts of Germany and the neighboring countries. Especially the Czech Republic shows strong change in absolute and relative extreme events.

  1. An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ralph G; Brown, James M; McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that people consistently remember seeing more of a studied scene than was physically present (e.g., Intraub & Richardson Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 179-187, 1989). This scene memory error, known as boundary extension, has been suggested to occur due to an observer's failure to differentiate between the contributing sources of information, including the sensory input, amodal continuation beyond the view boundaries, and contextual associations with the main objects and depicted scene locations (Intraub, 2010). Here, "scenes" made of abstract shapes on random-dot backgrounds, previously shown to elicit boundary extension (McDunn, Siddiqui, & Brown Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 370-375, 2014), were compared with versions made with extremal edges (Palmer & Ghose Psychological Science, 19, 77-84, 2008) added to their borders, in order to examine how boundary extension is influenced when amodal continuation at the borders' view boundaries is manipulated in this way. Extremal edges were expected to reduce boundary extension as compared to the same scenes without them, because extremal edge boundaries explicitly indicate an image's end (i.e., they do not continue past the view boundary). A large and a small difference (16 % and 40 %) between the close and wide-angle views shown during the experiment were tested to examine the effects of both boundary extension and normalization with and without extremal edges. Images without extremal edges elicited typical boundary extension for the 16 % size change condition, whereas the 40 % condition showed signs of normalization. With extremal edges, a reduced amount of boundary extension occurred for the 16 % condition, and only normalization was found for the 40 % condition. Our findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.

  2. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  3. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Heterogeneous Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, L. F.; Leu, M-T.

    1993-01-01

    In the laboratory, ice films formed by freezing from the liquid or more frequently by deposition from the vapor phase have been used to simulate stratospheric cloud surfaces for measurements of reaction and uptake rates. To obtain intrinsic surface reaction probabilities that can be used in atmospheric models, the area of the film surface that actually takes part in the reaction must be known. It is important to know not only the total surface area but also the film morphology in order to determine where and how the surface is situated and, thus, what fraction of it is available for reaction. Information on the structure of these ice films has been obtained by using several experimental methods. In the sections that follow, these methods will be discussed, then the results will be used to construct a working model of the ice films, and finally the model will be applied to an experimental study of HC1 uptake by H_2O ice.

  5. Prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson William

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication using duplex ultrasound in the patient population of a large urban medical center. Materials and Methods: The reports of all lower extremity venous ultrasound examinations performed at our institution between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 were reviewed. Ultrasound examinations that were performed for purposes other than the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis were excluded. The prevalence of duplication and its specific location were recorded. In addition, the prevalence of thrombus and its specific location were also recorded. Results: A total of 3118 exams were performed in 2664 patients. Of the 2664 patients, 2311 had only one examination performed during the study period; 353 patients had more than one examination performed. We found that 10.1% of patients (270/2664 had at least one venous segment duplicated and 5.4% of patients (143/2664 had a thrombus in at least one venous segment. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of both duplication and thrombus with a change in venous segment. Only 0.4% of patients (11/2664 had thrombus within a duplicated segment. Of those who had more than one examination performed, 15.3% (54/353 had the same venous segment(s seen on one examination but not another. Conclusion: Lower extremity venous duplication is a frequent anatomic variant that is seen in 10.1% of patients, but it may not be as common as is generally believed. It can result in a false negative result for deep vein thrombosis.

  6. Extreme E-waste generated from successful Operations Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Zhilyaev, Dmitry; Parajuly, Keshav

    This paper identifies how research in the field of Operations Management (OM) has been extremely successful in reducing costs for the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment by focusing on design for assembly and manufacturing. The downside is the generation of extreme amounts of e......-waste. Based on a literature survey, 2251 kg of e-waste and on case study, this research identifies the need to extend product lifetimes to drive down e-waste. The study concludes that more research is needed on designs for disassembly, repair, refurbishment, and remanufacturing to meet future requirements...

  7. What happens at the horizon(s) of an extreme black hole?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Keiju; Reall, Harvey S; Tanahashi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    A massless scalar field exhibits an instability at the event horizon of an extreme black hole. We study numerically the nonlinear evolution of this instability for spherically symmetric perturbations of an extreme Reissner–Nordstrom (RN) black hole. We find that generically the endpoint of the instability is a non-extreme RN solution. However, there exist fine-tuned initial perturbations for which the instability never decays. In this case, the perturbed spacetime describes a time-dependent extreme black hole. Such solutions settle down to extreme RN outside, but not on, the event horizon. The event horizon remains smooth but certain observers who cross it at late time experience large gradients there. Our results indicate that these dynamical extreme black holes admit a C 1 extension across an inner (Cauchy) horizon. (paper)

  8. Spatial extreme learning machines: An application on prediction of disease counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Marcos O

    2018-01-01

    Extreme learning machines have gained a lot of attention by the machine learning community because of its interesting properties and computational advantages. With the increase in collection of information nowadays, many sources of data have missing information making statistical analysis harder or unfeasible. In this paper, we present a new model, coined spatial extreme learning machine, that combine spatial modeling with extreme learning machines keeping the nice properties of both methodologies and making it very flexible and robust. As explained throughout the text, the spatial extreme learning machines have many advantages in comparison with the traditional extreme learning machines. By a simulation study and a real data analysis we present how the spatial extreme learning machine can be used to improve imputation of missing data and uncertainty prediction estimation.

  9. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, Pascal; Ben-Haim, Eli; Hardin, Delphine; Laporte, Didier; Maurin, David; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2006-2007: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific activities: Physics with accelerators (LHC, Tevatron, CP Violation, ILC, Neutrino Physics); Physics without accelerators (Cosmology, high-energy gamma astronomy, extreme energy cosmic radiation, theoretical physics, physics-biology interface); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, internships and PhDs); 5 - Internal activities (seminars, meetings..); 6 - External activities (Public information, relations with the industry, valorisation..)

  10. Perceptions of a medical microbiology service: a survey of laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M S

    1995-10-01

    To ascertain the perception of laboratory users regarding the quality of the medical microbiology services in a district general hospital. Detailed questionnaires were circulated to all clinicians in the locality, with headings covering the quality of medical advice provided, the availability of information on specimen collection, format of request forms, specimen transport arrangements, turnaround times, the quality and need for interpretative advice, and the overall impression of the quality of the services provided. Two hundred and thirty five replies were received, giving a response rate of 69%. Transportation of specimens and communication of reports were identified as priority areas for improvement. The overall quality of the service was perceived as satisfactory, although areas were identified where substantial improvements could be made, some at little or no cost to the laboratory. The survey focused clinicians' attention on the service, raised the profile of the laboratory, and resulted in improved communications and a better understanding of customer needs. Overall, the exercise was felt to be extremely useful, and worthwhile repeating to gauge the effect of the changes instituted as a result.

  11. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-01-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations-primarily safety driven-that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities

  12. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2016-03-03

    Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.

  13. Using Extreme Phenotype Sampling to Identify the Rare Causal Variants of Quantitative Traits in Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J.; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

    2011-01-01

    Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach fo...

  14. Portfolio optimization for heavy-tailed assets: Extreme Risk Index vs. Markowitz

    OpenAIRE

    Mainik, Georg; Mitov, Georgi; Rüschendorf, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Using daily returns of the S&P 500 stocks from 2001 to 2011, we perform a backtesting study of the portfolio optimization strategy based on the extreme risk index (ERI). This method uses multivariate extreme value theory to minimize the probability of large portfolio losses. With more than 400 stocks to choose from, our study seems to be the first application of extreme value techniques in portfolio management on a large scale. The primary aim of our investigation is the potential of ERI in p...

  15. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 3. Implementing Good Laboratory Practice in the Analytical Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Pires, Amanda; Fazzino, Lisa; Fransen, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratories submitting experimental results to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in support of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) nonclinical laboratory studies must conduct such work in compliance with the GLP regulations. To consistently meet these requirements, lab managers employ a "divide…

  16. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  17. Cognitive impairment and hypertension in older adults living in extreme poverty: a cross-sectional study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, Maria; Ortiz-Soriano, Victor; Moscoso-Porras, Miguel; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Málaga, German; Jaime Miranda, J

    2017-10-26

    Previous studies have shown that hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but whether this association is also present in extremely poor populations in Low Middle Income Countries settings remains to be studied. Understanding other drivers of cognitive impairment in this unique population also merits attention. We performed a secondary analysis using data from the "Encuesta de Salud y Bienestar del Adulto Mayor", a regional survey conducted in an extremely poor population of people older than 65 years old from 12 Peruvian cities in 2012. The outcome variable was cognitive impairment, determined by a score of ≤7 in the modified Mini-Mental State Examination. The exposure was self-reported hypertension status. Variables such as age, gender, controlled hypertension, education level, occupation, depression and area of living (rural/urban) were included in the adjusted analysis. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusting for confounders. Data from 3842 participants was analyzed, 51.8% were older than 70 years, and 45.6% were females. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%-2.1%). There was no significant difference on the prevalence of cognitive impairment between the group of individuals with hypertension in comparison with those without hypertension (PR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.33-1.23). The association described between hypertension and cognitive impairment was not found in a sample of extremely poor Peruvian older adults.

  18. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  19. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Hintz, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. We focus on early outcomes in the first 18-36 months of life, as the majority of large neonatal studies examining neurodevelopmental outcomes stop at this age. However, this early age is clearly just a first glimpse into lifetime outcomes; the neurodevelopmental effects of extreme prematurity may last through school age, adolescence, and beyond. Importantly, prematurity appears to be an independent risk factor for adverse development, but this population demonstrates considerable variability in the types and severity of impairments. Understanding both the nature and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm infants is important because it can lead to targeted interventions that in turn may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  1. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  2. Risk Factors for Lower-Extremity Injuries Among Contemporary Dance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Christine; van Rijn, Rogier M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Stubbe, Janine H

    2017-10-10

    To determine whether student characteristics, lower-extremity kinematics, and strength are risk factors for sustaining lower-extremity injuries in preprofessional contemporary dancers. Prospective cohort study. Codarts University of the Arts. Forty-five first-year students of Bachelor Dance and Bachelor Dance Teacher. At the beginning of the academic year, the injury history (only lower-extremity) and student characteristics (age, sex, educational program) were assessed using a questionnaire. Besides, lower-extremity kinematics [single-leg squat (SLS)], strength (countermovement jump) and height and weight (body mass index) were measured during a physical performance test. Substantial lower-extremity injuries during the academic year were defined as any problems leading to moderate or severe reductions in training volume or in performance, or complete inability to participate in dance at least once during follow-up as measured with the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems. Injuries were recorded on a monthly basis using a questionnaire. Analyses on leg-level were performed using generalized estimating equations to test the associations between substantial lower-extremity injuries and potential risk factors. The 1-year incidence of lower-extremity injuries was 82.2%. Of these, 51.4% was a substantial lower-extremity injury. Multivariate analyses identified that ankle dorsiflexion during the SLS (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.52) was a risk factor for a substantial lower-extremity injury. The findings indicate that contemporary dance students are at high risk for lower-extremity injuries. Therefore, the identified risk factor (ankle dorsiflexion) should be considered for prevention purposes.

  3. The Relationship Between Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis and Lower-Extremity Alignment, Joint Laxity, and Subjective Scores of Pain, Stiffness, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Little, Charlie A; Peindl, Richard D; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia J; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2016-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that affects an estimated 27 million Americans. Changes in lower-extremity alignment and joint laxity have been found to redistribute the medial and/or lateral loads at the joint. However, the effect that changes in anteroposterior knee-joint laxity have on lower-extremity alignment and function in individuals with knee OA remains unclear. To examine anteroposterior knee-joint laxity, lower-extremity alignment, and subjective pain, stiffness, and function scores in individuals with early-stage knee OA and matched controls and to determine if a relationship exists among these measures. Case control. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 18 participants with knee OA and 18 healthy matched controls. Participants completed the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis questionnaire and were tested for total anteroposterior knee-joint laxity (A-P) and knee-joint alignment (ALIGN). WOMAC scores, A-P (mm), and ALIGN (°). A significant multivariate main effect for group (Wilks' Λ = 0.30, F7,26 = 8.58, P Knee-OA participants differed in WOMAC scores (P knee OA had worse pain, stiffness, and functional outcome scores than the matched controls; however, ALIGN and A-P were no different. There was no association identified among participants' subjective scores, ALIGN, or A-P measures in this study.

  4. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  5. Study on the effectiveness of Extreme Cold Mist MQL system on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, A. S.; Hosokawa, A.; Furumoto, T.; Koyano, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting process of difficult-to-cut material such as stainless steel, generates immensely excessive heat, which is one of the major causes related to shortening tool life and lower quality of surface finish. It is proven that application of cutting fluid during the cutting process of difficult-to-cut material is able to improve the cutting performance, but excessive application of cutting fluid leads to another problem such as increasing processing cost and environmental hazardous pollution of workplace. In the study, Extreme Cold Mist system is designed and tested along with various Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) systems on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316. In the study, it is obtained that, Extreme Cold Mist system is able to reduce cutting force up to 60N and improve the surface roughness of the machined surface significantly.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY2011 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, W.; Sketchley, J.; Kotta, P.

    2012-01-01

    A premier applied-science laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has earned the reputation as a leader in providing science and technology solutions to the most pressing national and global security problems. The LDRD Program, established by Congress at all DOE national laboratories in 1991, is LLNL's most important single resource for fostering excellent science and technology for today's needs and tomorrow's challenges. The LDRD internally directed research and development funding at LLNL enables high-risk, potentially high-payoff projects at the forefront of science and technology. The LDRD Program at Livermore serves to: (1) Support the Laboratory's missions, strategic plan, and foundational science; (2) Maintain the Laboratory's science and technology vitality; (3) Promote recruiting and retention; (4) Pursue collaborations; (5) Generate intellectual property; and (6) Strengthen the U.S. economy. Myriad LDRD projects over the years have made important contributions to every facet of the Laboratory's mission and strategic plan, including its commitment to nuclear, global, and energy and environmental security, as well as cutting-edge science and technology and engineering in high-energy-density matter, high-performance computing and simulation, materials and chemistry at the extremes, information systems, measurements and experimental science, and energy manipulation. A summary of each project was submitted by the principal investigator. Project summaries include the scope, motivation, goals, relevance to DOE/NNSA and LLNL mission areas, the technical progress achieved in FY11, and a list of publications that resulted from the research. The projects are: (1) Nuclear Threat Reduction; (2) Biosecurity; (3) High-Performance Computing and Simulation; (4) Intelligence; (5) Cybersecurity; (6) Energy Security; (7) Carbon Capture; (8) Material Properties, Theory, and Design; (9) Radiochemistry; (10) High-Energy-Density Science; (11) Laser Inertial

  7. Optical studies of noctilucent clouds in the extreme ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hedin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand noctilucent clouds (NLC and their sensitivity to the variable environment of the polar mesosphere, more needs to be learned about the actual cloud particle population. Optical measurements are today the only means of obtaining information about the size of mesospheric ice particles. In order to efficiently access particle sizes, scattering experiments need to be performed in the Mie scattering regime, thus requiring wavelengths of the order of the particle size. Previous studies of NLC have been performed at wavelengths down to 355 nm from the ground and down to about 200 nm from rockets and satellites. However, from these measurements it is not possible to access the smaller particles in the mesospheric ice population. This current lack of knowledge is a major limitation when studying important questions about the nucleation and growth processes governing NLC and related particle phenomena in the mesosphere. We show that NLC measurements in the extreme ultraviolet, in particular using solar Lyman-α radiation at 121.57 nm, are an efficient way to further promote our understanding of NLC particle size distributions. This applies both to global measurements from satellites and to detailed in situ studies from sounding rockets. Here, we present examples from recent rocket-borne studies that demonstrate how ambiguities in the size retrieval at longer wavelengths can be removed by invoking Lyman-α. We discuss basic requirements and instrument concepts for future rocket-borne NLC missions. In order for Lyman-α radiation to reach NLC altitudes, high solar elevation and, hence, daytime conditions are needed. Considering the effects of Lyman-α on NLC in general, we argue that the traditional focus of rocket-borne NLC missions on twilight conditions has limited our ability to study the full complexity of the summer mesopause environment.

  8. Matrix diffusion studies by electrical conductivity methods. Comparison between laboratory and in-situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional laboratory diffusion experiments in rock material are time consuming, and quite small samples are generally used. Electrical conductivity measurements, on the other hand, provide a fast means for examining transport properties in rock and allow measurements on larger samples as well. Laboratory measurements using electrical conductivity give results that compare well to those from traditional diffusion experiments. The measurement of the electrical resistivity in the rock surrounding a borehole is a standard method for the detection of water conducting fractures. If these data could be correlated to matrix diffusion properties, in-situ diffusion data from large areas could be obtained. This would be valuable because it would make it possible to obtain data very early in future investigations of potentially suitable sites for a repository. This study compares laboratory electrical conductivity measurements with in-situ resistivity measurements from a borehole at Aespoe. The laboratory samples consist mainly of Aespoe diorite and fine-grained granite and the rock surrounding the borehole of Aespoe diorite, Smaaland granite and fine-grained granite. The comparison shows good agreement between laboratory measurements and in-situ data

  9. [The heart in extreme sports: hyperbaric activity and microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Umberto; Landolfi, Angelo; Patteri, Giovanna

    2008-10-01

    The study of the cardiovascular and respiratory modifications in extreme environments could be useful for the understanding of the adaptive mechanisms of the body in particular conditions. The knowledge of how different environmental conditions in terms of extreme pressure, temperature and gravity modify the neurovegetative and cardiovascular system could be useful in daily practice for hypobaric and hyperbaric sports.

  10. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  11. Biomechanics of fall arrest using the upper extremity: age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    This study tried to isolate critical biomechanical factors in fall arrests using the upper extremity during simulated forward falls. This study also attempted to find the differences in those factors between young and old age groups. The role of the upper extremity is not well defined despite its primary usage as a local shock absorber during fall impact. Comparative study in which two age groups underwent motion analysis.Methods. Ten healthy older males (mean age, 66.4 years) and 10 young males (mean age, 24.1 years) volunteered to perform self-initiated and cable-released falls at selected falling distances, while the joint motion and impact forces at the hand were recorded. Significant age differences were demonstrated in joint kinematics and impact force parameters at close distances. Excessive reflexive responses of the upper extremity in cable-released falls for the older adults resulted in 10-15 times higher peak impact forces and 2-3 times shorter body braking time than in self-initiated falls. Pre-impact activities of the upper extremity predispose the post-impact response during fall arrests. Suppressing excessive pre-impact reflexive activation of the arms could efficiently decrease the risk of fall-related injuries, which calls for securing sufficient arm movement time. Any fall prevention strategy that can increase arm movement time would be effective against injuries of the upper extremity during falling in the older adults. The findings will help to understand underlying mechanisms of fall arrest using the upper extremity for prevention of fall-related fractures.

  12. Weekly Versus Fortnightly Cryotherapy For Warts On Extremities - A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Annamma

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty two patients with verruca vulgaris on the extremities who attended the Government Wenlock Hospital and KMC, Attavar, were subjected to weekly and fortnightly cryotherapy. At the end of 8 weeks, it was found that of the 37 patients who were followed up, 94% in weekly group and 84% in fortnightly group responded to treatment.

  13. Automating the Analytical Laboratories Section, Lewis Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G.; Barton, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of computerized automation of the Analytical Laboratories Section at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Since that laboratory's duties are not routine, we set our automation goals with that in mind. We selected four instruments as the most likely automation candidates: an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an emission spectrometer, an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an x-ray diffraction unit. Our study describes two options for computer automation: a time-shared central computer and a system with microcomputers for each instrument connected to a central computer. A third option, presented for future planning, expands the microcomputer version. We determine costs and benefits for each option. We conclude that the microcomputer version best fits the goals and duties of the laboratory and that such an automated system is needed to meet the laboratory's future requirements

  14. Time-varying extreme value dependence with application to leading European stock markets

    KAUST Repository

    Castro-Camilo, Daniela; de Carvalho, Miguel; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Extremal dependence between international stock markets is of particular interest in today’s global financial landscape. However, previous studies have shown this dependence is not necessarily stationary over time. We concern ourselves with modeling extreme value dependence when that dependence is changing over time, or other suitable covariate. Working within a framework of asymptotic dependence, we introduce a regression model for the angular density of a bivariate extreme value distribution that allows us to assess how extremal dependence evolves over a covariate. We apply the proposed model to assess the dynamics governing extremal dependence of some leading European stock markets over the last three decades, and find evidence of an increase in extremal dependence over recent years.

  15. Time-varying extreme value dependence with application to leading European stock markets

    KAUST Repository

    Castro-Camilo, Daniela

    2018-03-09

    Extremal dependence between international stock markets is of particular interest in today’s global financial landscape. However, previous studies have shown this dependence is not necessarily stationary over time. We concern ourselves with modeling extreme value dependence when that dependence is changing over time, or other suitable covariate. Working within a framework of asymptotic dependence, we introduce a regression model for the angular density of a bivariate extreme value distribution that allows us to assess how extremal dependence evolves over a covariate. We apply the proposed model to assess the dynamics governing extremal dependence of some leading European stock markets over the last three decades, and find evidence of an increase in extremal dependence over recent years.

  16. Long term variations of extreme rainfall in Denmark and southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A high number of studies have detected changes in the observed heavy rainfall in Northern and Central Europe, all adding to the debate on anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on rainfall extremes. However, it is equally relevant to understand natural variations on which...... the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in daily rainfall extremes from Denmark and southern Sweden, with a recurrence level relevant for flood hazard analysis. Based on smoothed series it is concluded that the frequency of the extreme events shows both a general...

  17. Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulthess, J.L.; Rosenberg, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the efforts to ensure nuclear energy remains a viable option for the United States. A significant portion of these efforts are related to post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of highly activated fuel and materials that are subject to the extreme environment inside a nuclear reactor. As the lead national laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a rich history, experience, workforce and capabilities for performing PIE. However, new advances in tools and techniques for performing PIE now enable understanding the performance of fuels and materials at the nano-scale and smaller level. Examination at this level is critical since this is the scale at which irradiation damage occurs. The INL is on course to adopt these advanced tools and techniques to develop a comprehensive nuclear fuels and materials characterization capability that is unique in the world. Because INL has extensive PIE capabilities currently in place, a strong foundation exist to build upon as new capabilities are implemented and work load increases. In the recent past, INL has adopted significant capability to perform advanced PIE characterization. Looking forward, INL is planning for the addition of two facilities that will be built to meet the stringent demands of advanced tools and techniques for highly activated fuels and materials characterization. Dubbed the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) and Advanced Post Irradiation Examination Capability, these facilities are next generation PIE laboratories designed to perform the work of PIE that cannot be performed in current DOE facilities. In addition to physical capabilities, INL has recently added two significant contributors to the Advanced Test Reactor-National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF), Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley.

  18. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea in extremely obese subjects: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røislien Jo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common yet underdiagnosed condition. The aim of our study is to test whether prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 subjects. Methods One hundred and thirty seven consecutive extremely obese patients (99 females from a controlled clinical trial [MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104] underwent somnography with Embletta® and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. OSA was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≥ 5 events/hour. Patients were categorized into three groups according to criteria from the American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible determinants of OSA. Results The patients had a mean (SD age of 43 (11 years and a body mass index (BMI of 46.9 (5.7 kg/m2. Males had significantly higher AHI than females, 29 (25 vs 12 (17 events/hour, p Conclusions Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with OSA in extremely obese subjects. Trial registration MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104

  19. Extreme boundary of space semi-additive functionals on finite set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayratbay F. Djabbarov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to study of the extreme boundary of the convexcompact set of all semi-additive functionals on a finite-point compactum. We shall find some classes of extreme points of the space semi-additive functionals OS (n .

  20. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure

  1. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  2. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  3. The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variation in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been widely assumed. However, few studies have investigated the association between extreme temperatures and the incidence of TB. We collected data on cases of TB and mean temperature in Fukuoka, Japan for 2008-2012 and used time-series analyses to assess the possible relationship of extreme temperatures with TB incident cases, adjusting for seasonal and interannual variation. Our analysis revealed that the occurrence of extreme heat temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (relative risk (RR) 1.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.43). We also found that the occurrence of extreme cold temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.05-1.45). Sex and age did not modify the effect of either heat or cold extremes. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of TB cases increased significantly with extreme heat and cold temperatures. The results may help public health officials predict extreme temperature-related TB incidence and prepare for the implementation of preventive public health interventions.

  4. Laboratory studies and Pompe disease: from suspicion to therapy monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Savost’yanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD is a rare, progressive, commonly fatal inherited autosomal recessive disease that is difficult to diagnose due to its obvious clinical heterogeneity and low awareness among physicians. Access to the laboratory diagnosis of rare diseases increases every year. In the past several years, Russian and foreign laboratories have achieved considerable success in accelerating and improving the diagnostic accuracy of PD. Unfortunately, the Russian-language literature contains scarce relevant information on the laboratory diagnosis of PD. This review is to fill up this gap. 

  5. Solar Probe Cup: Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Paker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun at as close as 9.86 solar radii. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  6. Entropy, extremality, euclidean variations, and the equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor

    2018-01-01

    We study the Euclidean gravitational path integral computing the Rényi entropy and analyze its behavior under small variations. We argue that, in Einstein gravity, the extremality condition can be understood from the variational principle at the level of the action, without having to solve explicitly the equations of motion. This set-up is then generalized to arbitrary theories of gravity, where we show that the respective entanglement entropy functional needs to be extremized. We also extend this result to all orders in Newton's constant G N , providing a derivation of quantum extremality. Understanding quantum extremality for mixtures of states provides a generalization of the dual of the boundary modular Hamiltonian which is given by the bulk modular Hamiltonian plus the area operator, evaluated on the so-called modular extremal surface. This gives a bulk prescription for computing the relative entropies to all orders in G N . We also comment on how these ideas can be used to derive an integrated version of the equations of motion, linearized around arbitrary states.

  7. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  8. Australia's Unprecedented Future Temperature Extremes Under Paris Limits to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2017-10-01

    Record-breaking temperatures can detrimentally impact ecosystems, infrastructure, and human health. Previous studies show that climate change has influenced some observed extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under enhanced future warming. Understanding the magnitude, as a well as frequency, of such future extremes is critical for limiting detrimental impacts. We focus on temperature changes in Australian regions, including over a major coral reef-building area, and assess the potential magnitude of future extreme temperatures under Paris Agreement global warming targets (1.5°C and 2°C). Under these limits to global mean warming, we determine a set of projected high-magnitude unprecedented Australian temperature extremes. These include extremes unexpected based on observational temperatures, including current record-breaking events. For example, while the difference in global-average warming during the hottest Australian summer and the 2°C Paris target is 1.1°C, extremes of 2.4°C above the observed summer record are simulated. This example represents a more than doubling of the magnitude of extremes, compared with global mean change, and such temperatures are unexpected based on the observed record alone. Projected extremes do not necessarily scale linearly with mean global warming, and this effect demonstrates the significant potential benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared to 2°C or warmer.

  9. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme eigenvalues of sample covariance and correlation matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiny, Johannes

    This thesis is concerned with asymptotic properties of the eigenvalues of high-dimensional sample covariance and correlation matrices under an infinite fourth moment of the entries. In the first part, we study the joint distributional convergence of the largest eigenvalues of the sample covariance...... matrix of a p-dimensional heavy-tailed time series when p converges to infinity together with the sample size n. We generalize the growth rates of p existing in the literature. Assuming a regular variation condition with tail index ... eigenvalues are essentially determined by the extreme order statistics from an array of iid random variables. The asymptotic behavior of the extreme eigenvalues is then derived routinely from classical extreme value theory. The resulting approximations are strikingly simple considering the high dimension...

  11. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  12. Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Competencies in the Laboratory: A Cross-Grade Study in Solution Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F. O.

    2016-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for chemistry teacher candidates is to demonstrate certain laboratory skills. This article aims to determine and discuss the competencies of pre-service chemistry teachers in a chemistry laboratory context working with solution chemistry content. The participants in this study consisted of a group of pre-service chemistry…

  13. Calgary Laboratory Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Wright MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calgary Laboratory Services provides global hospital and community laboratory services for Calgary and surrounding areas (population 1.4 million and global academic support for the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine. It developed rapidly after the Alberta Provincial Government implemented an austerity program to address rising health care costs and to address Alberta’s debt and deficit in 1994. Over roughly the next year, all hospital and community laboratory test funding within the province was put into a single budget, fee codes for fee-for-service test billing were closed, roughly 40% of the provincial laboratory budget was cut, and roughly 40% of the pathologists left the province of Alberta. In Calgary, in the face of these abrupt changes in the laboratory environment, private laboratories, publicly funded hospital laboratories and the medical school department precipitously and reluctantly merged in 1996. The origin of Calgary Laboratory Services was likened to an “unhappy shotgun marriage” by all parties. Although such a structure could save money by eliminating duplicated services and excess capacity and could provide excellent city-wide clinical service by increasing standardization, it was less clear whether it could provide strong academic support for a medical school. Over the past decade, iterations of the Calgary Laboratory Services model have been implemented or are being considered in other Canadian jurisdictions. This case study analyzes the evolution of Calgary Laboratory Services, provides a metric-based review of academic performance over time, and demonstrates that this model, essentially arising as an unplanned experiment, has merit within a Canadian health care context.

  14. Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Auchmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze weather and climate during the "Year without Summer" 1816 using sub-daily data from Geneva, Switzerland, representing one of the climatically most severely affected regions. The record includes twice daily measurements and observations of air temperature, pressure, cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction as well as daily measurements of precipitation. Comparing 1816 to a contemporary reference period (1799–1821 reveals that the coldness of the summer of 1816 was most prominent in the afternoon, with a shift of the entire distribution function of temperature anomalies by 3–4 °C. Early morning temperature anomalies show a smaller change for the mean, a significant decrease in the variability, and no changes in negative extremes. Analyzing cloudy and cloud-free conditions separately suggests that an increase in the number of cloudy days was to a significant extent responsible for these features. A daily weather type classification based on pressure, pressure tendency, and wind direction shows extremely anomalous frequencies in summer 1816, with only one day (compared to 20 in an average summer classified as high-pressure situation but a tripling of low-pressure situations. The afternoon temperature anomalies expected from only a change in weather types was much stronger negative in summer 1816 than in any other year. For precipitation, our analysis shows that the 80% increase in summer precipitation compared to the reference period can be explained by 80% increase in the frequency of precipitation, while no change could be found neither in the average intensity of precipitation nor in the frequency distribution of extreme precipitation. In all, the analysis shows that the regional circulation and local cloud cover played a dominant role. It also shows that the summer of 1816 was an example of extreme climate, not extreme weather.

  15. Mortality associated with extremity injuries compared with other types of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches JEA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available José Eduardo Arantes Sanches1, José Maria Pereira de Godoy3, André Luciano Baitello2, Alceu Gomes Chueire11Departments of Orthopedic and Traumatology, 2Trauma, 3Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, São Jose do Rio Preto, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate one-month hospital mortality in victims with injuries of the extremities.Methods: All accident victims admitted to the Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, during the period from July 2004 to June 2005, were evaluated in an observational study. Patients were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS. Patients with severe injuries of the extremities (AIS 3–4 were compared with those without injuries or with minor extremity injuries (AIS 0–2.Results: A total of 3489 accident victims were evaluated; 3244 (92.98% did not suffer injuries or had minor injuries of the extremities (AIS 0–2 and 245 (7.02% had severe injuries (AIS 3–4. Of the 245 patients with AIS 3–4 extremity injuries, 13 (5.31% patients died, and of those without severe injuries to the extremities, 34 (1.05% died (Fisher’s Exact test P = 0.0000, relative risk 5.063, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.707–9.467.Conclusion: Patients with injuries of the extremities are at greater risk of death than accident victims with other types of trauma.Keywords: trauma, extremities, mortality, Brazil

  16. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  17. Knowledge and practices of pharmaceutical laboratory workers on laboratory safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Emerce

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratories are classified as very hazardous workplaces. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge and practice of laboratory safety by analysts and technicians in the laboratories of the Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency. Methods:  85.0% (n=93 of the workers (n=109 was reached. A pre-tested, laboratory safety oriented, self-administered questionnaire was completed under observation. Results: Participants were mostly female (66,7%, had 12.8±8.2 years of laboratory experience and worked 24.6±10.3 hours per week. 53.8% of the employees generally worked with flammable and explosive substances, 29.0% with acute toxic or carcinogenic chemicals and 30.1% with physical dangers. Of all surveyed, 14.0% had never received formal training on laboratory safety. The proportion of ‘always use’ of laboratory coats, gloves, and goggles were 84.9%, 66.7%, and 6.5% respectively. 11.9% of the participants had at least one serious injury throughout their working lives and 24.7% had at least one small injury within the last 6 months. Among these injuries, incisions, bites and tears requiring no stiches (21.0% and the inhalation of chemical vapors (16.1% took first place. The mean value for the number of correct responses to questions on basic safety knowledge was 65.4±26.5, out of a possible 100. Conclusion: Overall, the participants have failed in some safety practices and have been eager to get regular education on laboratory safety.  From this point onwards, it would be appropriate for the employers to organize periodic trainings on laboratory safety.Keywords: Health personnel, laboratory personnel, occupational health, occupational safety, pharmacy

  18. Radio Wavelength Studies of the Galactic Center Source N3, Spectroscopic Instrumentation For Robotic Telescope Systems, and Developing Active Learning Activities for Astronomy Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic Alesio

    2017-08-01

    The mysterious radio source N3 appears to be located within the vicinity of the Radio Arc region of the Galactic Center. To investigate the nature of this source, we have conducted radio observations with the VLA and the VLBA. Continuum observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is an extremely compact and bright source with a non-thermal spectrum. Molecular line observations with the VLA reveal a compact molecular cloud adjacent to N3 in projection. The properties of this cloud are consistent with other galactic center clouds. We are able to rule out several hypotheses for the nature of N3, though a micro-blazar origin cannot be ruled out. Robotic Telescope systems are now seeing widespread deployment as both teaching and research instruments. While these systems have traditionally been able to produce high quality images, these systems have lacked the capability to conduct spectroscopic observations. To enable spectroscopic observations on the Iowa Robotic Observatory, we have developed a low cost (˜ 500), low resolution (R ˜ 300) spectrometer which mounts inside a modified filter wheel and a moderate cost (˜ 5000), medium resolution (R ˜ 8000) fiber-fed spectrometer. Software has been developed to operate both instruments robotically and calibration pipelines are being developed to automate calibration of the data. The University of Iowa offers several introductory astronomy laboratory courses taken by many hundreds of students each semester. To improve student learning in these laboratory courses, we have worked to integrate active learning into laboratory activities. We present the pedagogical approaches used to develop and update the laboratory activities and present an inventory of the current laboratory exercises. Using the inventory, we make observations of the strengths and weaknesses of the current exercises and provide suggestions for future refinement of the astronomy laboratory curriculum.

  19. FY 2000 report on the investigational study on 'the development of micro laboratory for acceleration/manpower saving of the development of functional materials'; 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Kinosei zairyo kaihatsu kasokuka shoryokuka no tameno maikuro raboratori ni kaihatsu no kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study of micro laboratory was conducted in terms of its future needs, technical elements to be needed, image of a viable system, etc. As the needs for micro laboratory, the following were cited: In the creation of functional materials, there are a lot of synthetic parameters, and therefore, improvement in experimental efficiency is needed; For the synthesis under the high temperature atmosphere such as synthesis of ceramics, manpower saving/improvement of efficiency are needed in raising/lowering temperatures of furnace; In the creation of new materials, improvement of controllability is needed in such extreme situations as high temperature, high pressure, environment of hazardous materials and explosive reaction. The above-mentioned needs can be satisfied by making the experimental system smaller. The technical elements applicable to micro laboratory are technology pertaining to combinatorial chemistry and technology pertaining to nano/micro technology. As to the system image, the manufacturing process and system structure were studied for which characteristics of nano/micro technology and combinatorial chemistry were made use of. (NEDO)

  20. Structure of personality and motivation of extreme sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mahnič

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.

  1. Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked31Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, LebanonAim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years. The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years.Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001, pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001, treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001, and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084.Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia

  2. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  3. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for 99 Mo, the parent of 99m Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. 99m Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for 99 Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact

  4. Defining Extreme Events: A Cross-Disciplinary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Lauren E.; Chang, Heejun; Chester, Mikhail V.; Depietri, Yaella; Friedman, Erin; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kominoski, John S.; McPhearson, Timon; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Rosi, Emma J.; Shafiei Shiva, Javad

    2018-03-01

    Extreme events are of interest worldwide given their potential for substantial impacts on social, ecological, and technical systems. Many climate-related extreme events are increasing in frequency and/or magnitude due to anthropogenic climate change, and there is increased potential for impacts due to the location of urbanization and the expansion of urban centers and infrastructures. Many disciplines are engaged in research and management of these events. However, a lack of coherence exists in what constitutes and defines an extreme event across these fields, which impedes our ability to holistically understand and manage these events. Here, we review 10 years of academic literature and use text analysis to elucidate how six major disciplines—climatology, earth sciences, ecology, engineering, hydrology, and social sciences—define and communicate extreme events. Our results highlight critical disciplinary differences in the language used to communicate extreme events. Additionally, we found a wide range in definitions and thresholds, with more than half of examined papers not providing an explicit definition, and disagreement over whether impacts are included in the definition. We urge distinction between extreme events and their impacts, so that we can better assess when responses to extreme events have actually enhanced resilience. Additionally, we suggest that all researchers and managers of extreme events be more explicit in their definition of such events as well as be more cognizant of how they are communicating extreme events. We believe clearer and more consistent definitions and communication can support transdisciplinary understanding and management of extreme events.

  5. Management of the mangled extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Helfet, David L.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The management of a mangled extremity continues to be a matter of debate. With modern advances in trauma resuscitation, microvascular tissue transfer, and fracture fixation, severe traumatic extremity injuries that would historically have been amputated are often salvaged. Even if preserving a

  6. Does dance-based therapy increase gait speed in older adults with chronic lower extremity pain: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Jean; Wagner, Joanne M; Hawthorne, Kelly; Sanazaro, Deborah; Wong-Anuchit, Choochart; Budhathoki, Chakra; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Raaf, Soren

    2014-01-01

    A decreased gait speed in older adults can lead to dependency when the individuals are no longer able to participate in activities or do things for themselves. Thirty-seven senior apartment residents (31 females; Mean age=80.6 years; SD=8.9) with lower extremity pain/stiffness participated in a feasibility and preliminary efficacy study of 12 weeks (24 sessions). Healthy-Steps dance therapy compared to a wait-list control group. Small improvements in gait speed ([ES]=0.33) were noted for participants completing 19-24 dance sessions. Improvements in gait speed measured by a 10 Meter Walk Test (0.0517 m/s) exceeded 0.05 m/s, a value deemed to be meaningful in community dwelling older adults. These feasibility study findings support the need for additional research using dance-based therapy for older adults with lower extremity pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Bari (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ferroli, R. Baldini [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Batignani, G. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bencivenni, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Bossini, E. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN Gruppo Collegato di Siena and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Siena (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cicalo, C. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cifarelli, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Coccia, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Corvaglia, A. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); and others

    2016-04-21

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  8. A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  9. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.

  10. Sister chromatid exchange analysis and chromosoma aberration studies in interventional cardiology laboratory workers. One year follow up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, M.K.; Oztas, S.; Bozkurt, E.; Karakelleoglu, S.

    2002-01-01

    Invasive cardiology laboratory workers are occupationally exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. It is known that ionizing radiation has a damaging effect on chromosomes. In present study, we investigated the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in 11 invasive cardiology laboratory workers and 11 healthy controls. After a vacation period, we took blood sa