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Sample records for laboratory mice offspring

  1. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-Ichi; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-02

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1(+/-) male mice. Healthy Prm1(+/-) offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1(+/-) mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles.

  2. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  3. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Takeda; Kazuya Yoshinaga; Kenryo Furushima; Kazufumi Takamune; Zhenghua Li; Shin-ichi Abe; Shin-ichi Aizawa; Ken-ichi Yamamura

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1 +/− male mice. Healthy Prm1 +/− offspring were then produced by transferr...

  4. Maternal preconceptional nutrition leads to variable fat deposition and gut dimensions of adult offspring mice (C57BL/6JBom)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Elna Louise Krogh; Wang, Tobias; Malte, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background:   Maternal nutrition during pregnancy or lactation may affect the chance of offspring becoming obese as adults, but little is known regarding the possible role of maternal nutrition before conception. In this study, we investigate how variable protein and carbohydrate content......, females were mated and fed a standard laboratory chow diet (22.5% protein) throughout periods of mating, gestation, lactation and weaning. Offspring mice were fed the same standard diet up to 46 days of age. Then offspring were killed and measures of dissected fat deposits and of the digestive system were...... taken. Results:   Fat deposition of the offspring was significantly affected by preconceptional maternal nutrition and the effects differed between sexes. Male offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the LP diet, whereas female offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the ST diet...

  5. Genetic variation in offspring indirectly influences the quality of maternal behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, David George; Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-12-23

    Conflict over parental investment between parent and offspring is predicted to lead to selection on genes expressed in offspring for traits influencing maternal investment, and on parentally expressed genes affecting offspring behaviour. However, the specific genetic variants that indirectly modify maternal or offspring behaviour remain largely unknown. Using a cross-fostered population of mice, we map maternal behaviour in genetically uniform mothers as a function of genetic variation in offspring and identify loci on offspring chromosomes 5 and 7 that modify maternal behaviour. Conversely, we found that genetic variation among mothers influences offspring development, independent of offspring genotype. Offspring solicitation and maternal behaviour show signs of coadaptation as they are negatively correlated between mothers and their biological offspring, which may be linked to costs of increased solicitation on growth found in our study. Overall, our results show levels of parental provisioning and offspring solicitation are unique to specific genotypes.

  6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda L; Bodin, Lennart; Wennborg, Helena

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laboratory work may constitute a possible health hazard for workers as well as for their offspring, and involves a wide range of exposures, such as organic solvents, carcinogenic agents, ionizing radiation, and/or microbiological agents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in the offspring...... of male employees in biomedical research laboratories are examined. METHODS: Offspring to males employed 1970-1989 at four Swedish universities were identified via the Medical Birth Register (MBR), along with other pregnancy parameters. Offspring of fathers with laboratory work (n = 2,281) is considered...

  7. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

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    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. FINDINGS: Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. CONCLUSIONS: Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  8. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses between inbred mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Purushothaman; R. W. Elliott; A. Ruvinsky

    2008-08-01

    Equal transmission of the two alleles at a locus from a heterozygote parent to the offspring is rarely violated. Beside the differential embryonic mortality, nondisjunction and gene conversion that are rather irregular forms of transmission–ratio distortion (TRD), there are two major forms of departure from Mendelian segregation. The first, found in females, based on the asymmetric nature of female meiosis, is usually referred to as meiotic drive, and has been well documented in a few cases. The second is segregation distortion found in males. There are several known male-related segregation distortion systems that are caused by different fertilizing capacity of sperm cells carrying alternative alleles at a particular locus. Observation of TRD effects requires a sufficient number of offspring produced by a parental pair. As individuals in a population most likely have different genotypes in TRD affecting loci, the total transmission ratio is close to the expected Mendelian ratio and masks potential TRD effects. Highly inbred strains of laboratory mice provide a very good model for studying this phenomenon, because comparing two mice strains is effectively similar as comparison of two individuals in a population. This study tests both forms of TRD in progeny of F1 hybrids from reciprocal crosses of inbred mice. Three previously unknown instances of TRD in females were observed. Therefore, this study concludes that some genes in females may carry alleles that can cause segregation distortion.

  9. Effectiveness of zinc in modulating perinatal effects of arsenic on the teratological effects in mice offspring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Wadaa, Mohammad A M; Farooq, Muhammad; Daghestani, Maha H; Sami, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that arsenic exposure during pregnancy affects embryogenesis and offspring development in rats and mice...

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in offspring born to chagasic C3H/He mice

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    Silvana Marques de Araújo

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection induced in C3H/He male and female mice born to chagasic mice. An experimental model was established infecting female C3H/He mice with a low virulent T. cruzi clone. In this model, mating, fertilization, pregnancy evolution and delivery was carried out successfully. The offspring was infected at four, six and eigth weeks of age. The results showed that the offspring born to chagasic mothers present decreased resistance to acquired T. cruzi infection. This decreased resistance was expressed by higher levels of parasitaemia and higher mortality rates in offspring born to chagasic mothers than in controls. Age and sex were shown to be important factors of this phenomenon. The results suggest that maternal immune system products can modulate the immune response of the offspring.

  11. Comprehensive Survey of Intestinal Microbiota Changes in Offspring of Human Microbiota-Associated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Klitzing, Eliane; Öz, Fulya; Ekmekciu, Ira; Escher, Ulrike; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water. Within 1 week post weaning, fecal loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci had decreased, whereas obligate anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides/Prevotella species and clostridia were stably colonizing the intestines of hma offspring at high loads. Lactobacilli numbers were successively increasing until 18 weeks post weaning in both hma offspring and mothers, whereas by then, bifidobacteria were virtually undetectable in the former only. Interestingly, fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were higher in mothers as compared to their offspring at 5 and 18 weeks post weaning. We conclude that the intestinal microbiota composition changes in offspring of hma mice, but also their mothers over time particularly affecting aerobic and microaerobic species. PMID:28386472

  12. AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LABORATORY MICE

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    D. Cinghiţă

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study agonistic behavior of laboratory white mice when they are kept in captivity. For all this experimental work we used direct observation of mice, in small lists, because we need a reduced space to emphasize characteristics of agonistic behavior. Relations between members of the same species that live in organized groups are based in most cases on hierarchical structure. Relations between leader and subservient, decided by fighting, involve a thorough observation between individuals. Each member of a group has its own place on the ierarchical scale depending on resultes of fhights – it can be leader or it can be subsurvient, depending on if it wines or looses the fight. Once hierarchical scale made, every animal will adjust its behavior. After analyzing the obtained data we have enough reasons to believe that after fights the winner, usually, is the massive mouse, but it is also very important the sexual ripeness, so the immature male will be beaten. The leader male had a big exploring area and it checks up all territory.The females can be more aggressive, its fights are more brutal, than male fights are, when they fight for supremacy, but in this case fights are not as frequent as in the case of males. Always the superior female, on hierarchical scale, shows males its own statute, so the strongest genes will be perpetuated.

  13. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

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    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological and behavioral responses in offspring mice following maternal exposure to sulfamonomethoxine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Ye, Kui; Liu, Kaiyong; Sheng, Jie; Liu, Yehao; Hu, Chunqiu; Ruan, Liang; Li, Li; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-06-15

    Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), a veterinary antibiotic, is widely used in China. However, the impacts of maternal SMM exposure on neurobehavioral development in early life remain little known. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal SMM exposure during pregnancy on behavioral and physiological responses in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three SMM-treated groups, namely low-(10mg/kg/day), medium-(50mg/kg/day), and high-dose (200mg/kg/day), and a control group. The pregnant mice in the SMM-treated groups received SMM by gavage daily from gestational day 1-18, whereas those in the control received normal saline. On postnatal day (PND) 50, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and anxiety was measured using the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. The results showed significantly increased blood glucose in pups whose mothers received a high SMM dose. In addition, maternal SMM exposure increased anxiety-related activities among the offspring; spatial learning and memory were impaired more severely in the male offspring. The contents of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) on PND 22 were significantly reduced in the male offspring of the high-dose group compared with the controls. These findings indicate that SMM may be identified as a risk factor for cognitive and behavioral development on the basis of gender and that it may be associated with diminished BH4 and BDNF levels early in life.

  15. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

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    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  16. Effectiveness of zinc in modulating perinatal effects of arsenic on the teratological effects in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Wadaa, Mohammad A M; Farooq, Muhammad; Daghestani, Maha H; Sami, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that arsenic exposure during pregnancy affects embryogenesis and offspring development in rats and mice. Zinc as a micronutrient regulates many physiological functions, including an antioxidative role under various toxic conditions. However, studies on the perinatal protective effect of zinc on offspring need further attention. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc in mitigating the adverse effects in the offspring of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. The arsenic (40mg/kg body weight) and zinc (4% w/v) doses formed the only drinking fluid source for the experimental groups of dams during the perinatal period of the experiment. The early development of sensory motor coordination reflexes together with morphological development in the male pups was measured during the weaning period. In adolescence, the offspring were tested for their motor behavior. The enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and the oxidative stress indices like reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were also estimated in the serum of the young adult male mice. Perinatal arsenic exposure caused depletion in body weight gain, delay in morphological development and retardation in the development of all sensory motor reflexes of the pups. In young adults, significant decrease in motor behavior with significant decrease in GSH level in the serum was observed. On the other hand, γ-GT and TBARS were significantly increased in the serum due to arsenic treatment. However, animals exposed to arsenic in the presence of zinc showed a remarkable ameliorating effect of zinc on all observed teratological and biochemical arsenic toxicity in male offspring. It was observed that zinc has an antioxidative role in the perinatal toxicity of arsenic. It is concluded from the present study that zinc consumed during the perinatal period of pregnancy can ameliorate

  17. Effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol AF on emotional behaviors in adolescent mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Miao; Huai, Ziqing; Song, Han; Cui, Lingyu; Guo, Qingjun; Shao, Juan; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Haishui

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one kind of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs), exerted significantly detrimental effects on neuro-endocrinological system and related disorders, such as memory dysfunction and depression. Bisphenol AF (BPAF),a newly introduced chemical structurally related to BPA, is used extensively. BPAF has stronger estrogenic activities than BPA. However, the potential neurotoxicological effects of BPAF are still elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of maternal BPAF exposure during pregnancy on emotional behaviors of adolescent mice offspring. In male adolescent offspring, maternal exposure to BPAF (0.4, 4.0 mg kg(-1), intragastrically administration) induced significant anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, assessed by open field test (OFT), novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSF), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In female adolescent offspring, BPAF exposure at 0.4 mg kg(-1) dose reduced the latency to feeding in the NSF test, while increased the floating time in the FST. Maternal BPAF exposure decreased the recognition index in the long term memory (LTM) test in both sexes, while only decreased the freezing time of male offspring in the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task. These results indicate that maternal exposure to BPAF significantly affect emotion-related behaviors in adolescent mice offspring, and the male offspring with a higher probability to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression and to suffer memory impairment after maternal exposure to BPAF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Paraquat exposure induces neurobehavioral and cognitive changes in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Bali, Yassine; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed. In offspring, the PQ was responsible for an overall delay of innate reflexes and a deficit in motor development. All exposed animals showed a decrease in the level of locomotor activity, increased levels of anxiety-like behavior and pronounced cognitive impairment in adulthood. These results demonstrated that Paraquat led to the onset of many behavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes in prenatally exposed mice.

  19. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  20. Supplementation of Mice with Specific Nondigestible Oligosaccharides during Pregnancy or Lactation Leads to Diminished Sensitization and Allergy in the Female Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, Astrid; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; van Esch, Betty C A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether development of food allergy in offspring is affected by supplementing pregnant or lactating sensitized or nonsensitized mice with a mixture of nondigestible

  1. The effects of breeding protocol in C57BL/6J mice on adult offspring behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    Full Text Available Animal experiments have demonstrated that a wide range of prenatal exposures can impact on the behaviour of the offspring. However, there is a lack of evidence as to whether the duration of sire exposure could affect such outcomes. We compared two widely used methods for breeding offspring for behavioural studies. The first involved housing male and female C57Bl/6J mice together for a period of time (usually 10-12 days and checking for pregnancy by the presence of a distended abdomen (Pair-housed; PH. The second involved daily introduction of female breeders to the male homecage followed by daily checks for pregnancy by the presence of vaginal plugs (Time-mated; TM. Male and female offspring were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, active avoidance and extinction, tests for nociception and for prepulse inhibition (PPI of the acoustic startle response. We found that length of sire exposure (LSE had no significant effects on offspring behaviour, suggesting that the two breeding protocols do not differentially affect the behavioural outcomes of interest. The absence of LSE effects on the selected variables examined does not detract from the relevance of this study. Information regarding the potential influences of breeding protocol is not only absent from the literature, but also likely to be of particular interest to researchers studying the influence of prenatal manipulations on adult behaviour.

  2. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

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    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data.

  3. Behavioral profile assessment in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Melo, Roberto; da Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra; de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Fernando; da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; da Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães; da Rocha, Fábio Fagundes; Reis, Luís Carlos; Côrtes, Wellington da Silva

    2016-10-01

    The association between caffeine consumption and various psychiatric manifestations has long been observed. The objective was to assess the behavioral profile in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine. For this purpose, two groups (n = 6 each and BW ~ 35 g) of female mice were treated during pregnancy and lactation by: tap water and caffeine solution at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL through oral route. The offspring obtained, by completing 70 days of life, was underwent a behavioral battery test. Statistical analysis was performed by student t test and the different significance adopted was p tests. In anxiety related responses however, the mice of caffeine group had greater number of fecal pellets (178 %, p = 0.001) in the open field test, higher number of attempts (51 %, p = 0.03) in light-dark box and decreased percentage of entries in open arms (41 %, p = 0.01) in elevated plus maze test. Moreover, in the marble burying test, there was a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared with controls (110 %, p = 0,002). In the meantime, in the von Frey test, it was observed an exacerbation of mechanical allodynia both in basal conditions and after the carrageenan administration (p < 0.001). Furthermore, caffeine treatment during pregnancy and lactation causes long-term behavioral changes in the mice offspring that manifest later in life.

  4. The long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice.

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    Wei, Zeng-Tao; Lu, Xi-Lan; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Li, Hua; Jia, Gui-Hua; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice. The mice were superovaluted, and the fertility of male offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were evaluated in terms of the percentage of plugs and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm motility. Furthermore, the sexual behavior of male offspring and sex ratio (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. There were no significant differences in the percentage of plug and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, sperm motilities and sex ratio between the offspring in naturally conceived group and superovulation groups (both F1 generation and F2 generation). The sperm hyperactivity at 90 min after incubation of F1 generation in naturally conceived group were higher than that of F1 generation in superovulation group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The offspring produced by superovaluted oocytes (both F1 generation and F2 generation) did not exhibit significant alterations in sexual behavior. No significant alterations were found in fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  5. Maternal high-fat diet during lactation impairs thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in offspring mice

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    Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Lupei; Maricelli, Joseph W; Rodgers, Buel D.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Due to uncoupling, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy via heat generation, mitigating obesity and diabetes. The lactation stage is a manageable period for improving the health of offspring of obese mothers, but the impact of maternal HFD during lactation on offspring BAT function is unknown. To determine, female mice were fed either a control or HFD during lactation. At weaning, HFD offspring gained more body weight and had greater body fat mass compared to the control, and these differences maintained into adulthood, which correlated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD offspring. Adaptive thermogenesis of BAT was impaired in HFD offspring at weaning. In adulthood, HFD offspring BAT had lower Ucp1 expression and thermogenic activity. Mechanistically, maternal HFD feeding during lactation elevated peripheral serotonin, which decreased the sensitivity of BAT to sympathetic β3-adrenergic signaling. Importantly, early postnatal metformin administration decreased serotonin concentration and ameliorated the impairment of offspring BAT due to maternal HFD. Our data suggest that attenuation of BAT thermogenic function may be a key mechanism linking maternal HFD during lactation to persisted metabolic disorder in the offspring. PMID:27686741

  6. Sexual dimorphism in fat distribution and metabolic profile in mice offspring from diet-induced obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Mello, Vanessa Souza; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2013-10-06

    To investigate whether the effects of diet-induced obesity in mothers are passed on to their offspring fed a control diet in a gender-specific manner. Mother mice received either standard chow (SC; 17% energy from fat) or high-fat (HF; 49% energy from fat) diet for eight weeks pre-pregnancy until lactation. After weaning (at 21 days of age), offspring received SC diet and were divided into four groups according to the mother's diet (Mo): male Mo-SC, female Mo-SC, male Mo-HF, and female Mo-HF. Stereology, Elisa and western blotting were performed. HF diet-fed mothers were overweight, and had metabolic abnormalities, all of which were found in their adult offspring. Male Mo-HF offspring had higher cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin and insulin levels and lower circulating adiponectin than female Mo-HF offspring. Mo-HF offspring of both genders had higher expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and leptin and lower expression of adiponectin than Mo-SC offspring; however, male Mo-HF were more affected than female Mo-HF offspring for these variables, demonstrating sexual dimorphism. Exposure to HF diet is effective in inducing obesity and metabolic alterations in mothers, and this phenotype can be passed on to their offspring. An adverse pattern in the body fat distribution in males probably has favored the intensification of a pro-inflammatory profile compared with females. In adulthood, the male offspring responds to the maternal obesity more than the female offspring, indicating a relevant sexual dimorphism that is a novel finding in this animal study. © 2013.

  7. Detraining in pregnancy and/or lactation modulates neuropeptidergic hypothalamic systems in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leandro; Calegare, Bruno F A; Cavalcante-Silva, Vanessa; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-12-01

    Manipulations in metabolic parameters during pregnancy/lactation can impact the development of short- and long-term energy control mechanisms, which are mainly modulated by neural and hormonal inputs to the hypothalamus. Thus, we tested how mice training and detraining during pregnancy and lactation affect hypothalamus gene expression and change biometric and metabolic profiles of the offspring. Three-month-old female Swiss mice were submitted to an 8-week exercise program (swimming 5 times/week, 1 h/day). Following this physical exercise protocol, these conditioned animals and the control group were submitted to matting. After pregnancy verification, the animals were distributed into four groups: training during pregnancy and lactation (T); detraining after pregnancy confirmation (DP); detraining during lactation (DL); and control (CT), without interventions. After weaning, the offspring of the four groups were derived into these as follows: TO, DPO, DLO, and CTO, respectively. The body weight was lower in conditioned females compared to control at weeks 4-8 of the exercise regimen. No statistical difference in dam's body weight was observed during pregnancy. Related to offspring, at post-natal day 90, the animals were euthanized and DPO and DLO showed decrease in Npy and Cart expression in hypothalamus, and DLO also had increased Lep gene expression in white adipose tissue. Additionally, DPO showed increase in plasma triglycerides levels, total liver weight, and decrease in brown adipose tissue compared to CTO. Together, these results support that detraining during critical periods of development leads to altered gene expression in hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems.

  8. Youth offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder have altered stress reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor.

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    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Hankin, Benjamin L; Badanes, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    Parental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), particularly maternal PTSD, confers risk for stress-related psychopathology among offspring. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is one mechanism proposed to explain transmission of this intergenerational risk. Investigation of this mechanism has been largely limited to general stress response (e.g., diurnal cortisol), rather than reactivity in response to an acute stressor. We examined cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor among offspring of mothers with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD (n=36) and age- and gender- matched control offspring of mothers without PTSD (n=36). Youth (67% girls; mean age=11.4, SD=2.6) participated in a developmentally sensitive laboratory stressor and had salivary cortisol assessed five times (one pre-stress, one immediate post-stress, and three recovery measures, spaced 15min apart). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit a dysregulated, blunted cortisol reactivity profile, and control offspring would display the expected adaptive peak in cortisol response to challenge profile. Findings were maintained after controlling for youth traumatic event history, physical anxiety symptoms, and depression, as well as maternal depression. This finding contributes to the existing literature indicating that attenuated HPA axis functioning, inclusive of hyposecretion of cortisol in response to acute stress, is robust among youth of mothers with PTSD. Future research is warranted in elucidating cortisol reactivity as a link between maternal PTSD and stress-related psychopathology vulnerability among offspring.

  9. The Effect of Saffron Decoction Consumption on Pregnant Mice and Their Offspring

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    Oveisi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional medicine, saffron is used as a drug for treating many diseases. However there are many documents and evidences concerning its abortive and teratogenic effect especially in high doses. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of saffron decoction consumption on pregnant mice and their offspring. Methods: In this study, 20 female mice after breeding and observation of vaginal plaque, randomly and equally divided into two groups. During pregnancy, animals were housed under the same environmental and nutritional condition while the test group received 0.5% saffron decoction as their drinks instead of tape water for control group. The pregnant mice were weighted during pregnancy and after delivery. Following the parturition, the number of live kids, their weight and sex and any pretended obvious abnormality were assigned. Results: The duration of pregnancy period and the number of live kids in test group were significantly less than control group while the mean infant’s weight in test group was more than control group. There was obvious one-eye blindness in 4 kids from saffron consumed group. In the case of mother's weight and sex ratio of live kids there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that saffron has a specific teratogenic effect on visual system and causes preterm labor and reduces the number of live infants which may be due to its abortive effect. Keywords: Saffron, Pregnancy, Infant, Teratogen, Mice

  10. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  11. High Dietary Fat Intake during Lactation Promotes the Development of Social Stress-Induced Obesity in the Offspring of Mice

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    Tsuyoshi Tsuduki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stress influence the susceptibility of offspring to the development of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a commercial diet (CD during pregnancy and a CD or HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at three weeks of age, fed a CD until seven weeks of age, and fed a CD or HD until 11 weeks of age. Offspring were housed alone (isolation stress or at six per cage (ordinary circumstances. Thus, offspring were assigned to one of eight groups: dams fed a CD or HD during lactation and offspring fed a CD or HD and housed under ordinary circumstances or isolation stress. Serum corticosterone level was significantly elevated by isolation stress. High-fat feeding of offspring reduced their serum corticosterone level, which was significantly elevated by a maternal HD. A maternal HD and isolation stress had combined effects in elevating the serum corticosterone level. These findings suggest that a maternal HD during lactation enhances the stress sensitivity of offspring. White adipose tissue weights were significantly increased by a maternal HD and isolation stress and by their combination. In addition, significant adipocyte hypertrophy was induced by a maternal HD and isolation stress and exacerbated by their combination. Thus, a maternal HD and isolation stress promote visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy, accelerating the progression of obesity through their combined effects. The mechanism may involve enhanced fatty acid synthesis and lipid influx from blood into adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that a maternal HD during lactation may increase the susceptibility of offspring to the development of stress-induced obesity.

  12. Zoopharmacognosy in diseased laboratory mice: conflicting evidence.

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    Minesh Kapadia

    Full Text Available Zoopharmacognosy denotes a constellation of learned ingestive responses that promote healing and survival of infected or poisoned animals. A similar self-medication phenomenon was reported in diseased laboratory rodents. In particular, a series of studies revealed that autoimmune MRL/lpr mice readily consume solutions paired or laced with cyclophosphamide (CY, an immunosuppressive drug that prevents inflammatory damage to internal organs. However, due to design limitations, it could not be elucidated whether such a response reflects the learned therapeutic effect of CY, or a deficit in sensory input. We presently assess the behavioural effects of prolonged consumption of CY-laced, 16% sucrose solution in a continuous choice paradigm, with tap water available ad lib. Contrary to overall expectation, MRL/lpr mice did not increase their intake of CY with disease progression. Moreover, they ingested lower doses of CY and preferred less CY-laced sucrose solution than age-matched controls. The results obtained could not confirm zoopharmacognosy in diseased MRL/lpr mice, likely due to impaired responsiveness to palatable stimulation, or attenuated survival mechanisms after prolonged inbreeding in captivity. However, by revealing the effectiveness of unrestricted drinking of drug-laced sucrose solution on behavior and immunity, the current study supports broader use of such an administration route in behavioural studies sensitive to external stressors.

  13. Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.

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    Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

    2012-05-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ≤ 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy.

  14. Paternal long-term exercise programs offspring for low energy expenditure and increased risk for obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Alexander K; Pak, Elena S; Koury, Michael; Ajmera, Ajay; Jeyakumar, Maneesh; Parker, Matthew; Williams, Oksana; Ding, Jian; Walters, Dianne; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 yr. The association between metabolic disorders in offspring of obese mothers with diabetes has long been known; however, a growing body of research indicates that fathers play a significant role through presently unknown mechanisms. Recent observations have shown that changes in paternal diet may result in transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype. Although diet-induced epigenetic reprogramming via paternal lineage has recently received much attention in the literature, the effect of paternal physical activity on offspring metabolism has not been adequately addressed. In the current study, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel-running in C57BL/6J male mice on their offspring's predisposition to insulin resistance. Our observations revealed that fathers subjected to wheel-running for 12 wk produced offspring that were more susceptible to the adverse effects of a high-fat diet, manifested in increased body weight and adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated insulin levels. Long-term paternal exercise also altered expression of several metabolic genes, including Ogt, Oga, Pdk4, H19, Glut4, and Ptpn1, in offspring skeletal muscle. Finally, prolonged exercise affected gene methylation patterns and micro-RNA content in the sperm of fathers, providing a potential mechanism for the transgenerational inheritance. These findings suggest that paternal exercise produces offspring with a thrifty phenotype, potentially via miRNA-induced modification of sperm. © FASEB.

  15. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice

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    Garner, Joseph P.; Gaskill, Brianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male’s territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female’s dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p infanticide was seen in any cages, so the mechanism of reproductive suppression in trio matings may occur before birth. PMID:27148872

  16. Maternal Hyperleptinemia Is Associated with Male Offspring's Altered Vascular Function and Structure in Mice.

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    Kathleen A Pennington

    Full Text Available Children of mothers with gestational diabetes have greater risk of developing hypertension but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high maternal concentrations of leptin during pregnancy, which are present in mothers with gestational diabetes and/or obesity, alter blood pressure, vascular structure and vascular function in offspring. Wildtype (WT offspring of hyperleptinemic, normoglycemic, Leprdb/+ dams were compared to genotype matched offspring of WT-control dams. Vascular function was assessed in male offspring at 6, and at 31 weeks of age after half the offspring had been fed a high fat, high sucrose diet (HFD for 6 weeks. Blood pressure was increased by HFD but not affected by maternal hyperleptinemia. On a standard diet, offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had outwardly remodeled mesenteric arteries and an enhanced vasodilatory response to insulin. In offspring of WT but not Leprdb/+ dams, HFD induced vessel hypertrophy and enhanced vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, while HFD reduced insulin responsiveness in offspring of hyperleptinemic dams. Offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had stiffer arteries regardless of diet. Therefore, while maternal hyperleptinemia was largely beneficial to offspring vascular health under a standard diet, it had detrimental effects in offspring fed HFD. These results suggest that circulating maternal leptin concentrations may interact with other factors in the pre- and post -natal environments to contribute to altered vascular function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies.

  17. Investigation of possible teratogenic effects in the offspring of mice exposed to methylphenidate during pregnancy.

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    Costa, Gabriel de Araújo; Galvão, Talita Cristina; Bacchi, André Demambre; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Salles, Maria José Sparça

    2016-02-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central nervous system stimulant drug that increases concentration and energy level. The safety of MPH use during pregnancy is not well established. Considering the high rate of unplanned pregnancy among young women, potential for accidental exposure to MPH in early pregnancy is high. This study aimed to investigate if MPH administered during pregnancy would induce maternotoxicity, teratogenicity in mice, or both. Pregnant Swiss mice were treated with MPH (5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 0.9% saline (control group) from the 5th to the 17th day of pregnancy. In the MPH-treated group, a significant increase in the total number of resorptions with a consequent increase in post-implantation loss and a decrease in fetal viability were detected (all P < 0.05). A total of 91.43% of resorptions were classified as early resorptions. The group treated with MPH presented significant external (polydactyly P < 0.01), skeletal (incomplete ossification of the skull P < 0.01) and visceral (dilated ventricles P < 0.05) malformations. Behavioural effects (motor activity, memory of habituation and anxiety) were not observed in both male and female offspring evaluated at postnatal days 22, 35 and 75. The results suggest that MPH is an embryotoxic and teratogenic drug.

  18. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    In nature, mice live in burrows with nest chambers where they breed and may hide from predators. In the laboratory, a shelter or refuge is an easily applicable form of enrichment which may enhance the welfare of laboratory mice by giving them more control over their environment. Six nest boxes made

  19. Effects of the use of assisted reproductive technologies and an obesogenic environment on resistance artery function and diabetes biomarkers in mice offspring.

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    Francisco I Ramirez-Perez

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers.

  20. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  1. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

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    Michele La Merrill

    Full Text Available Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  2. Prenatal metformin exposure in mice programs the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during a high fat diet at adulthood.

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    Henriikka Salomäki

    Full Text Available AIMS: The antidiabetic drug metformin is currently used prior and during pregnancy for polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as during gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during adulthood in mice. METHODS: Metformin (300 mg/kg or vehicle was administered orally to dams on regular diet from the embryonic day E0.5 to E17.5. Gene expression profiles in liver and brain were analysed from 4-day old offspring by microarray. Body weight development and several metabolic parameters of offspring were monitored both during regular diet (RD-phase and high fat diet (HFD-phase. At the end of the study, two doses of metformin or vehicle were given acutely to mice at the age of 20 weeks, and Insig-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in liver and fat tissue were analysed using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Metformin exposed fetuses were lighter at E18.5. There was no effect of metformin on the maternal body weight development or food intake. Metformin exposed offspring gained more body weight and mesenteric fat during the HFD-phase. The male offspring also had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated fasting glucose during the HFD-phase. Moreover, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was down-regulated in epididymal fat in male offspring prenatally exposed to metformin. Based on the microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR analyses, the expression of Insig-1 was changed in the liver of neonatal mice exposed to metformin prenatally. Furthermore, metformin up-regulated the expression of Insig-1 later in development. Gene set enrichment analysis based on preliminary microarray data identified several differentially enriched pathways both in control and metformin exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that prenatal metformin exposure causes long-term programming effects on the metabolic phenotype during high fat diet in mice. This should be taken into consideration when using metformin as a

  3. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Garner

    Full Text Available Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6 and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1 were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F or trios (M:2F of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female's dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001. Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis

  4. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

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    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  5. Maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation in mice reduces maternal behavior and increases anxiety-like behavior in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Vanessa Barbosa; Batista, Tatiane Helena; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia Alves Freire; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2017-05-01

    Dipyrone (metamizole), a powerful drug, is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic; however, the safety of its use during lactation and the potential impact on the offspring are not well established. This study aimed to determine the effect of maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation on offspring development and emotional behavior and on the dam's maternal behavior. Hence, on postnatal day (PND) 2, drinking water only or drinking water containing dipyrone at doses of 100, 300, and 500mg/kg/day, were offered to lactating mothers up to PND9. Thereafter, all mice were provided regular drinking water. On PND2, all litters were culled to 8 pups (4 males and 4 females). Maternal behavior was evaluated at PND3, 6, 9, and 12, and at PND7 we evaluated locomotor activity in the open field. Reflex parameters and physical development of offspring were evaluated during lactation. At PND7, analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was performed. When the animals reached adolescence, we evaluated their performance in the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), and marble burying. Our data demonstrated that maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation not only altered maternal behavior and the onset of physical and neurodevelopmental landmarks but also had an impact on anxiety-like behavior in offspring. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation.

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    Cortese, R; Khalyfa, A; Bao, R; Andrade, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or sleep control during LG (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice per group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs 28.8 g; P=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs 497.0 mg; P=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs 250.1 mg; P=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs 87.6 mg dl(-1); P=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs 84.1 mg dl(-1); P=0.003) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values (8.1 vs 6.1; P=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs LG-SC; P<0.0001, model-based analysis of tilling-arrays algorithm). A large proportion of the DMR-associated genes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1 and so on. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways

  7. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

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    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  8. Preference Testing as Environmental Enrichment Assessment for Laboratory Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navakanit Sachanonta; Waridtha Sa-ngeunreung; Somchai Sa-ing-kaew; Raywadee Butraporn

    2013-01-01

      In the field of biomedical research, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are available for laboratory mice to fulfill its physiological and behavioral needs which influence the outcome...

  9. REVIEW - Thermal Physiology of Laboratory Mice: Defining Thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...

  10. Interaction between maternal and offspring diet to impair vascular function and oxidative balance in high fat fed male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Torrens

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring. METHODS: Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age. RESULTS: There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (p<0.004, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026 and endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh (p = 0.004 and NO production (p = 0.005 measured in the femoral artery. With control for maternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001 and reduce endothelium-dependent relaxation (p = 0.022 and ACh-mediated NO production (p = 0.007. There was also a significant impact of age (p<0.005. Redox balance was perturbed, with altered regulation of vascular enzymes involved in ROS/NO signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life.

  11. Induction of antibodies reactive to cardiac myosin and development of heart alterations in cruzipain-immunized mice and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, L; Maldonado, C; Rivarola, H W; Iosa, D; Girones, N; Fresno, M; Gea, S

    2000-11-01

    Human and murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is usually accompanied by strong humoral and cellular immune response to cruzipain, a parasite immunodominant antigen. In the present study we report that the immunization of mice with cruzipain devoid of enzymatic activity, was able to induce antibodies which bind to a 223-kDa antigen from a mouse heart extract. We identified this protein as the mouse cardiac myosin heavy chain by sequencing analysis. The study of IgG isotype profile revealed the occurrence of all IgG isotypes against cruzipain and myosin. IgG1 showed the strongest reactivity against cruzipain, whereas IgG2a was the main isotype against myosin. Anti-cruzipain antibodies purified by immunoabsorption recognized the cardiac myosin heavy chain, suggesting cross-reactive epitopes between cruzipain and myosin. Autoimmune response in mice immunized with cruzipain was associated to heart conduction disturbances. In addition, ultrastructural findings revealed severe alterations of cardiomyocytes and IgG deposit on heart tissue of immunized mice. We investigated whether antibodies induced by cruzipain transferred from immunized mothers to their offsprings could alter the heart function in the pups. All IgG isotypes against cruzipain derived from transplacental crossing were detected in pups' sera. Electrocardiographic studies performed in the offsprings born to immunized mothers revealed conduction abnormalities. These results provide strong evidence for a pathogenic role of autoimmune response induced by a purified T. cruzi antigen in the development of experimental Chagas' disease.

  12. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling.

  13. Maternal obesity programs offspring non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through disruption of 24-h rhythms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouralidarane, A; Soeda, J; Sugden, D; Bocianowska, A; Carter, R; Ray, S; Saraswati, R; Cordero, P; Novelli, M; Fusai, G; Vinciguerra, M; Poston, L; Taylor, P D; Oben, J A

    2015-09-01

    Maternal obesity increases offspring propensity to metabolic dysfunctions and to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which may lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. The circadian clock is a transcriptional/epigenetic molecular machinery synchronising physiological processes to coordinate energy utilisation within a 24-h light/dark period. Alterations in rhythmicity have profound effects on metabolic pathways, which we sought to investigate in offspring with programmed NAFLD. Mice were fed a standard or an obesogenic diet (OD), before and throughout pregnancy, and during lactation. Offspring were weaned onto standard or an OD at 3 weeks postpartum and housed in 12:12 light/dark conditions. Biochemical and histological indicators of NAFLD and fibrosis, analysis of canonical clock genes with methylation status and locomotor activity were investigated at 6 months. We show that maternal obesity interacts with an obesogenic post-weaning diet to promote the development of NAFLD with disruption of canonical metabolic rhythmicity gene expression in the liver. We demonstrate hypermethylation of BMAL-1 (brain and muscle Arnt like-1) and Per2 promoter regions and altered 24-h rhythmicity of hepatic pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators. These data implicate disordered circadian rhythms in NAFLD and suggest that disruption of this system during critical developmental periods may be responsible for the onset of chronic liver disease in adulthood.

  14. Combined parental obesity augments single-parent obesity effects on hypothalamus inflammation, leptin signaling (JAK/STAT), hyperphagia, and obesity in the adult mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal and/or paternal obesity on offspring body mass, leptin signaling, appetite-regulating neurotransmitters and local inflammatory markers. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow (SC, lean groups) or high-fat diet (HF, obese groups) starting from one month of age. At three months, HF mice became obese relative to SC mice. They were then mated as follows: lean mother and lean father, lean mother and obese father, obese mother and lean father, and obese mother and obese father. The offspring received the SC diet from weaning until three months of age, when they were sacrificed. In the offspring, paternal obesity did not lead to changes in the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activation of the transcription (STAT) pathway or feeding behavior but did induce hypothalamic inflammation. On the other hand, maternal obesity resulted in increased weight gain, hyperleptinemia, decreased leptin OBRb receptor expression, JAK/STAT pathway impairment, and increased SOCS3 signaling in the offspring. In addition, maternal obesity elevated inflammatory markers and altered NPY and POMC expression in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, combined parental obesity exacerbated the deleterious outcomes compared to single-parent obesity. In conclusion, while maternal obesity is known to program metabolic changes and obesity in offspring, the current study demonstrated that obese fathers induce hypothalamus inflammation in offspring, which may contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes in adulthood.

  15. Superovulation does not affect the endocrine activity nor increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zong; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Lu, Xi-Lan; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the dual effects of superovulation on the endocrine activity and susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice The mice were superovaluted. The relative uterine weight, ERα protein expression, and endocrine activity of female offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. Furthermore, proliferative lesion of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) was assessed by histopathologic examinations. There were no significant differences in relative uterine weight, ERα protein expression, incidence of proliferative lesion in mammary glands, and incidence of atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma, and squamous metaplasia in uterine among the offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) in each group. Likewise, there were no significant intergroup differences in the serum levels of sex related hormones. No significant alterations were found in the endocrine activity and susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  16. Superovulation in mice alters the methylation pattern of imprinted genes in the sperm of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouder, Christelle; Deutsch, Samuel; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2009-12-01

    Some steps of the assisted reproduction techniques, such as superovulation, may interfere with imprinting reprogramming. In the present study, superovulation was induced in the mouse and its possible effects on the differentially methylated domains of 2 paternally (H19 and Gtl2) and 3 maternally (Peg1, Snrpn and Peg3) imprinted genes were tested in the male offspring over 2 generations. The CpGs methylation status was analyzed by pyro- and bisulfite sequencing. In liver, skeletal muscle and tail, no effect of superovulation could be observed. In the sperm, however, a significant 6% decrease in the number of methylated CpGs of H19 and significant 2.8- and 7.0-fold increases in those of Peg1 and Snrpn, respectively were observed following superovulation. The changes were still present in the H19 and Snrpn genes of the second generation offspring. This suggests that superovulation in the mother transgenerationally affects the offspring sperm methylation pattern.

  17. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior. Copyright

  18. Behavioural disturbances in adult CD-1 mice and absence of effects on their offspring upon SO{sub 2} exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, S. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Dell`Omo, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Fiore, M. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Chiarotti, F. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Bignami, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Alleva, E. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    Adult male and female CD-1 mice were exposed to different SO{sub 2} concentrations (0, 5, 12, or 30 ppm) for 24 days, from 9 days before the formation of breeding pairs to pregnancy day 12-14. This exposure was near-continuous, covering about 80% of the total time. The offspring of exposed dams were cross-fostered shortly after birth to dams not previously exposed. Videorecordings of the adult subjects` activities during the first hour after the start of exposure showed marked, acute transient behavioural effects such as increase of rearing and social interactions, which were more pronounced in males than in females. Subsequent activity tests on exposure days 3, 6, and 9 showed subacute effects including a dose-dependent decrease of grooming and an increase of digging as well as changes in chamber crossing and wall-rearing which were not dose-dependent; most of these effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Food and water consumption and body weight declined in a dose-dependent fashion only after the formation of breeding pairs, when consummatory responses were enhanced in the controls. Reproductive performance as well as postnatal somatic and neurobehavioural development of the offspring (the latter assessed by an observational test battery including eight reflexes and responses) were not affected by SO{sub 2}. Passive avoidance acquisition and retention at the young adult stage (60 days) and response changes produced by repeated apparatus exposure in non-reinforced animals (habituation) were similarly unaffected. The data indicate that SO{sub 2} produces transient, acute behavioural disturbances and more subtle subacute response changes in adult mice which may be due, at least partly, to a functional interference with olfactory modulation of mouse behaviour. The absence of effects on reproductive performance and neurobehavioural development of the offspring suggests that the risk to the developing organism from gestational SO{sub 2} exposure is low.

  19. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant non-obese diabetic mice leads to altered gut microbiota and intestinal immunological changes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo-Badia, N; Håkansson, Å; Vasudevan, K; Molin, G; Ahrné, S; Cilio, C M

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota is important for tolerance induction through mucosal immunological responses. The composition of the gut microbiota of an infant is affected by environmental factors such as diet, disease and antibiotic treatment. However, already in utero, these environmental factors can affect the immunological development of the foetus and influence the future gut microbiota of the infant. To investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers on the offspring's gut microbiome and diabetes development, we treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with a cocktail of antibiotics during gestation and the composition of the gut microbiota, diabetes incidence and major gut-related T lymphocyte populations were investigated in the offspring. We observed a persistent reduction in the general diversity of the gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. In addition, by clustering the present bacterial taxa with principal component analysis, we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. Offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation also showed some immunological alterations in the gut immune system, which could be related to the diversity of the gut microbiome and influence modulation of diabetes development at 20 weeks. Our data point out maternal derangement of the intestinal microbiota as a potential environmental risk factor for T1D development.

  20. Maternal high fat feeding and gestational dietary restriction: effects on offspring body weight, food intake and hypothalamic gene expression over three generations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Silvia Q; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Proctor, Lindsey; Wickwire, Kathie; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and maternal obesity have both been associated with increased incidence of obesity and metabolic disorder in offspring in both humans and animal models. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether mild gestational food restriction during the third trimester (GFR) would alter food intake and growth parameters of offspring, (2) whether effects of GFR depended on diet (high fat [HF] vs chow), (3) whether effects of excessive gestational weight gain (WG) would become magnified across generations, and (4) whether diet and GFR would alter hypothalamic gene expression in adult offspring. Three generations of female C57BL/6 mice were fed chow or HF diet, mated at 11 weeks of age and assigned to ad libitum feeding or 25% GFR. Offspring were fed the same diet as their mothers. Results showed (1) maternal gestational WG was positively correlated with offspring WG. (2) HF offspring weighed less (pfood restriction of obese mothers during pregnancy may have beneficial effects in reducing the risk or degree of obesity in offspring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Thaís de; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; Souza, Monique de; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure.

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Orellana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins (hemichannels and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 hemichannels in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of iNOS, COX2 and EP1, P2X7 and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced ATP and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter release through Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels may participate in brain alterations observed in offspring of mothers exposed to tobacco smoke

  3. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, whereas...... it was reduced by only 20% with taurine supplementation. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. By unknown mechanisms, taurine partially or fully prevented 30 and 46% of these expression changes, respectively....... Mitochondrial genes, in particular genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed in LP offspring, with primarily up-regulation in liver but down-regulation in skeletal muscle. In both tissues, citrate synthase activity remained unchanged. Taurine preferentially rescued changes...

  4. Effect of maternal morphine sulfate exposure on neuronal plasticity of dentate gyrus in Balb/c mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, M J; Ghafari, S; Kafshgiri, S Kaboli; Moghadam, M H Latifi; Moharri, A R

    2013-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21), 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice, the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45 +/- 4.2 and 174.51 +/- 3.1 cells in control group to 153.32 +/- 2.8 and 151.23 +/- 3.2 cells in 10000 microm2 area of granular layer in treated group (p dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31 +/- 4.1 and 153.77 +/- 3.4 in control group to 138.33 +/- 4.5 and 135.13 +/- 4.3 in treated group, respectively (p dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

  5. Gestational and lactational exposure to low-dose bisphenol A increases Th17 cells in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shimeng; Li, Yun; Li, Yingpei; Zhu, Qixing; Jiang, Jianhua; Wu, Changhao; Shen, Tong

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that perinatal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) can cause immune disorders throughout the life span. However, the biological basis for these immune disorders is poorly understood and the effects of exposure to BPA on Th17 development are unknown. The present study sought to characterize alterations of Th17 cells in childhood and adulthood following gestational and lactational exposure to environmentally relevant low-dose of BPA and the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant dams were exposed to BPA (10, 100 or 1000nM) via drinking water from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 21. At PNDs 21 and 42, offspring mice were anesthetized, blood was obtained for cytokine assay and spleens were collected for Th17 cell frequency and RORγt mRNA expression analysis. Perinatal exposure to low-dose BPA resulted in a dose-dependent and gender-specific persistent rise in Th17 cells accompanied by an increase of RORγt mRNA expression in the offsprings. The contents of major Th17 cell-derived cytokines (IL-17 and IL-21) and those essential for Th17 cell differentiation (IL-6 and IL-23) were also increased compared to those in controls. These changes were more pronounced in female than in male offsprings. However, perinatal exposure to low-dose BPA had little effect on serum TGF-β, another key regulator for Th17 cell development. Our results suggest that gestational and lactational exposure to a low-dose of BPA can affect Th17 cell development via an action on its transcription factor and the regulatory cytokines. These findings provide novel insight into sustained immune disorders by BPA exposure during development.

  6. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) increases aggression and modulates maternal behavior in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Natali; Levy, Sigal; Avitsur, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. SSRIs cross the placental barrier and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus. Although no gross SSRI-related teratogenic effects were reported, infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are at higher risk for various developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI on social and maternal behavior in mice. To this end, pregnant female dams were exposed to saline or fluoxetine (FLX) throughout pregnancy, and the behavior of the offspring was examined. The results indicate that in utero FLX increased aggression in adult males and delayed emergence of maternal behavior in adult females. Social exploration and recognition memory were not affected by prenatal FLX exposure. These findings support the notion that alterations in the development of serotonergic pathways following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are associated with changes in social and maternal behavior throughout life.

  7. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  8. Alpha linolenic acid in maternal diet halts the lipid disarray due to saturated fatty acids in the liver of mice offspring at weaning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3) in maternal diets has been shown to attenuate obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring in mice. The objective in the present study was to detect the early effects of maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and their partial substitution with ω-3 ALA, docosa hexenoic acid (DHA,22:6) and eicosapentenoic acid 20:5 (EPA,20:5) on the HOMA index, liver lipids and fatty acid desaturases in the offspring at weaning. Methods 3 month...

  9. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    Effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to carbon black (Printex 90) on gestation, lactation and DNA strand breaks were evaluated. Time-mated C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed by inhalation to 42 mg/m3 Printex 90 for 1 h/day on gestation days (GD) 8–18, or by four intratracheal instillations on GD 7...... cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  10. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  11. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  12. Effect of breastfeeding piperine on the learning of offspring mice: interaction with caffeine and diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Zangoori, Vahid; Zargar-Nattaj ,Seyed Sadegh; Tayebi, Pooya; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali

    2010-01-01

    Piperine, the main alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum), has been suggested to display several pharmacological properties, including pain relief, anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like, antianxiety, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of piperine on learning in mice and the interaction of the effect with caffeine and diazepam. Piperine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was injected into the mouse mothers or nursing dams during breastfeeding f...

  13. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; Busso, Dolores; Ramírez, Gigliola; Campos, Marlys; Rigotti, Attilio; Eugenín, Jaime; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins hemichannels (HCs) and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control) solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of connexin 43 (Cx43) and pannexin 1 (Panx1) unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 HCs in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), ionotropic ATP receptor type 7 (P2X7) and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter

  14. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko (Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan). Department of Radiation Research); Okada, Shigefumi (Kyoto University (Japan). Radiation Biology Center); Sawada, Syozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-08-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F[sub 1] fetuses after F[sub 0] male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10[sup -4]/gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F[sub 1] fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  15. Protein Malnutrition during Pregnancy in C57BL/6J Mice Results in Offspring with Altered Circadian Physiology before Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Gregory M.; Centanni, Armand V.; Butler, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms linking intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with adulthood obesity and diabetes are unclear. These studies investigated energy homeostasis in 8- and 20-wk-old male and female mice subjected to protein deficiency in utero. Pregnant C57BL/6J female mice were fed a protein-deficient diet (6% protein). Undernourished offspring (UO) and controls (CO) were cross-fostered to lactating dams fed a 20% control diet. The 24-h profiles of energy expenditure, feeding behavior, physical activity, and whole-body substrate preference was assessed using 8-wk UO and CO weaned onto control diet. Blood chemistries, glucose tolerance, and expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed in 8- and 20-wk-old CO and UO fed control or a high-fat diet. UO exhibited IUGR with catch-up growth at 8 wk of age and increased severity of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by 20 wk of age. Therefore, fetal malnutrition in the C57BL/6J mouse increases sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. Abnormal daily rhythms in food intake and metabolism, increased lipogenesis, and inflammation preceded obesity in the UO group. Arrhythmic expression of circadian oscillator genes was evident in brain, liver, and muscle of UO at 8 and 20 wk of age. Expression of the clock-associated nuclear receptor and transcription repressor Rev-erbα was reduced in liver and muscle of UO. Altered circadian physiology may be symptomatic of the metabolic dysregulation associated with IUGR, and altered feeding behavior and substrate metabolism may contribute to the obese phenotype. PMID:20160133

  16. Comparative toxicity of acephate in laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The LD50 (95% confidence limits) of the organophosphorus insecticide acephate was estimated to be 351, 380, and 321 mg/kg (295?416, 280?516, and 266?388 mg/kg) for CD-1 laboratory mice (Mus musculus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respectively. In a second study, these species were provided mash containing 0, 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for five days. Brain and plasma cholinesterase activities were reduced in a dose-dependent manner to a similar extent in the three species (inhibition of brain acetyl-cholinesterase averaged for each species ranged from 13 to 22% at 25 ppm, 33 to 42% at 100 ppm, and 56 to 57% at 400 ppm). Mash intake, body or liver weight, plasma enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase), hepatic enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and glutathione S-transferase), and cytochrome content (P-450 and b5) were not affected by acephate ingestion, although values differed among species. In a third experiment, mice and voles received 400 ppm acephate for 5 days followed by untreated food for up to 2 weeks. Mean inhibition of brain acetylcholin-esterase for the three species ranged from 47 to 58% on day 5, but by days 12 and 19, activity had recovered to 66 to 76% and 81 to 88% of concurrent control values. These findings indicate that CD-1 laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles are equally sensitive to acephate when maintained under uniform laboratory conditions. Several factors (e.g., behavior, food preference, habitat) could affect routes and degree of exposure in the field, thereby rendering some species of wild rodents ecologically more vulnerable to organophosphorus insecticides.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15 ± 1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4 ± 3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and

  18. Effect of breastfeeding piperine on the learning of offspring mice: interaction with caffeine and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Zangoori, Vahid; Zargar-Nattaj, Seyed Sadegh; Tayebi, Pooya; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali

    2010-01-01

    Piperine, the main alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum), has been suggested to display several pharmacological properties, including pain relief, anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like, antianxiety, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of piperine on learning in mice and the interaction of the effect with caffeine and diazepam. Piperine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was injected into the mouse mothers or nursing dams during breastfeeding for 25 days at five-day intervals. After feeding the newborn mice, their learning was evaluated using a step-through passive avoidance task. Mouse learning was assessed 1 hr and 24 hr and 1 week after a training session. Piperine increased learning in the first (1 hr: 243.33 s vs 55.17 s, P = 0.002) and third assessments (1 week: 226 s vs 97 s, P effect of a low dose of caffeine (25 mg/kg intraperitoneally after a shock of 2 s duration) in a first assessment (295.17 s vs 149.17 s, P = 0.026) compared to a higher dose of caffeine. Piperine reversed diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) suppression of learning 24 hours after training by a 4 s shock (298 s vs 135.67 s, P = 0.03). According to the results, piperine alone significantly increased learning 1 hour and 1 week after training assessments, and learning can be improved in the short term when followed by piperine administration. It was also shown that piperine can potentiate the effect of a low dose of caffeine and can reverse the effect of diazepam.

  19. Female White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Trade Off Offspring Skeletal Quality for Self-Maintenance When Dietary Calcium Intake is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina M; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-11-01

    During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet. Calcium is the most abundant element in bone, and exogenous calcium appears to be limiting for many species. Thus, we expected that females would adjust mineral allocation to offspring relative to calcium abundance in the diet. We provided breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) with a low-calcium (0.1% Ca) or a standard diet (0.85% Ca) for approximately 1 year. Body mass and skeletal size of pups did not differ between diets. Relative to pups from females on the standard diet, pups from females on the low-calcium diet had less calcium and phosphorus in their femurs and humeri, less body calcium content, reduced mass of their femurs and humeri, and had femurs with a reduced width. Reproducing white-footed mice mobilize more bone when calcium intake is low; however, our results suggest that this does not completely compensate for a reduction in calcium intake. Thus, it appears that when calcium availability is low, female white-footed mice reduce the quantity of mineral allocated per offspring as a means of maintaining their own skeletal condition.

  20. Transgenerational impairment of hippocampal Akt-mTOR signaling and behavioral deficits in the offspring of mice that experience postpartum depression-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruyan; Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Zou, Zhilu; Lu, Cai; Xia, Baomei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Gang

    2017-02-06

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on offspring and increases their vulnerability to psychiatric disorders such as depression. Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus is implicated in depression but its role in the behavioral deficits in PPD offspring remains unknown. By using a prepregnancy stress model of PPD in which Balb/c females that experience chronic stress before pregnancy show long-lasting PPD-like behaviors, we tested depression-like behaviors in PPD offspring (PPD-F1) at juvenile and adult ages as well as in the second generation (PPD-F2) produced by cross of male PPD-F1 with naïve females. Hippocampal Akt-mTOR signaling was examined in the F1 and F2 generations of PPD, as well as in PPD-F1 mice treated with a single dose of the antidepressant ketamine. PPD-F1 showed depression-like behaviors at juvenile and adult stages, evidenced by reduced sucrose preference (SP), increased immobility time in the forced swim test (FST), and a longer latency to feed and reduced food consumption in the novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) test. PPD-F1 mice showed Akt-mTOR signaling deficiency in the hippocampus, with down-regulated expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-p70S6K. A single dose of ketamine reversed the behavior deficits and the impairment in Akt-mTOR signaling in PPD-F1. Furthermore, the PPD-F2 mice remained deficient in the SP and NSF test and hippocampal Akt-mTOR signaling, although the performance in FST was normal. The present study demonstrated both long-term and transgenerational effects of PPD on the depression-like behaviors of offspring, and suggested impaired Akt-mTOR signaling may play a part. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy disturbs temporal sex determination regulation in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou

    2015-10-02

    Animal researches and clinical studies have supported the relevance between phthalates exposure and testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). These disorders may comprise common origin in fetal life, especially during sex determination and differentiation, where the mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluated the disturbances in gene regulatory networks of sex determination in fetal mouse by in utero Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure. Temporal expression of key sex determination genes were examined during the critical narrow time window, using whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative-PCR. DEHP exposure resulted in significant reduction in mRNA of Sry during sex determination from gestation day (GD) 11.0 to 11.5 in male fetal mice, and the increasing of Sry expression to threshold level on GD 11.5 was delayed. Meanwhile, Gadd45g and Gata4, the upstream genes of Sry, and downstream gene Sox9 were also significantly downregulated in expression. In fetal females, the expression of Wnt4 and beta-catenin were up-regulated by DEHP exposure. Taken together, the results suggest that the potential mechanism of gonadal development disorder by DEHP may origin from repression of important male sex determination signaling pathway, involving Gadd45g → Gata4 → Sry → Sox9. The results would promote a better understanding of the association between phthalate esters (PAEs) exposure and the reductive disorder.

  2. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (Pgroup at 24 and 32 weeks of age (Pgroup. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (Pgroups was also significantly larger than C-C group (Pgroups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (Pgroups (Pgroups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (Pinteraction predisposes the offspring to aberrant glucose metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota in later life. Our study is novel in focusing on the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life.

  3. Exposure to Low Dose of Cinnabar (a Naturally Occurring Mercuric Sulfide (HgS Caused Neurotoxicological Effects in Offspring Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fa Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS, has long been used in Chinese mineral medicine for more than 2000 years. Although mercury is well-known for its toxicity, whether cinnabar induces neurotoxicity, especially in infants and children, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the neurotoxic effects of low-dose of cinnabar (10 mg/kg/day on developing mice. The results revealed neurobehavioral defects in F1-C-Cin group, which were associated with Hg accumulation, increased NOx levels in whole blood, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in brain tissues. F1- and F2-Cin-V groups were found to increase brain Hg contents and prominent neurobehavioral defects compared with F1-C-V group, suggesting that the fetal brain was more susceptible to irreversible effects for cinnabar-induced damage. Moreover, F1- and F2-Cin-Cin groups had severely neurobehavioral dysfunctions, closely correlated with the further alteration of NOx levels and Na+/K+-ATPase activities than F1- and F2-C-Cin groups. Effects in F2-Cin-Cin group were more significant than those in F1-Cin-Cin group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to low-dose of cinnabar during the perinatal and developmental stages results in irreversible and severe injuries of the neurotoxicity in offspring, and NOx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities may exist potential and useful biomarkers for neurotoxicity-induced by low-doses of mercuric compounds.

  4. Examining the potential benefits of (--epicatechin, (+-catechin, and rutin on maternal and offspring cardiovascular outcomes in LDLr-/-mice exposed to an atherogenic environment during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. R. Lesser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutritional status can impact numerous early developmental processes. In certain cases, these effects can influence the risk their off spring can have for select chronic diseases later in life. Consequently, in this article were port on the effects of maternal consumption of high levels of certain flavonoids on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD in an atherosclerosis-prone mutant mouse model.Methods:LDLr -/-mutant mice were fed a control fat (CF, high fat (HF, or the HFdiet supplemented with epicatechin and catechin (HFEC or rutin (HFRU, prior to pregnancy and during lactation, in order to explore whether the flavonoids influenced markers of vascular health in the lactating dams (lactation day (LD 21. Post-weaning (postnatal day(PND22, offspring were challenged with an atherogenic environment (HF diet in the absence of flavonoids and vascular health markers were assessed in the adult offspring (PND 60. Results:Dams fed the HF diet had elevated markers of atherosclerosisonLD 21whencompared to the dams fed with the control diet. Flavonoid consumption prior to pregnancy and during lactation had inconsistent effects on maternal markers of atherosclerosis (plasma cholesterol, aortic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers at LD21 compared to dams fed the HF diet without flavonoids.At PND 60, there were no differences in vascular health markers among the groups of LDLr -/-offspring whose mothers consumed the CF or the HF diet with or without flavonoids during lactation. Conclusions: Maternal consumption of the flavonoid-supplemented HF diets had modest effects on maternal markers of atherosclerosis. The exposure of offspring to the flavonoid-supplemented HF diets during early lactation had little effect on the cardiovascular parameters assessed in the adult offspring.

  5. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response-Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniel; Grumann, Dorothee; Trübe, Patricia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Johnson, Sarah; Reppschläger, Kevin; Gumz, Janine; Sundaramoorthy, Nandakumar; Michalik, Stephan; Berg, Sabine; van den Brandt, Jens; Fister, Richard; Monecke, Stefan; Uy, Benedict; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Wiles, Siouxsie; Holtfreter, Silva

    2017-01-01

    Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%), followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored.

  6. Variations in the postnatal maternal environment in mice: effects on maternal behaviour and behavioural and endocrine responses in the adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Würbel, Hanno

    2008-01-28

    According to the maternal mediation hypothesis, brain and behavioural development in rodents is affected by environment-dependent variations in maternal care. Thus, it has been shown that early handling results in reduced behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and that these effects are associated with increased maternal care received during infancy. To investigate this further in mice, we chose a less artificial paradigm that is not confounded by human manipulation and reflects a more natural form of early environmental variation. We housed lactating C57BL/6 dams and their litters in cage systems composed of a nest cage (NC) and a foraging cage (FC) connected by a tunnel, and varied the dams' access to food by providing food either in the NC (NC dams) or FC (FC dams) until postnatal day 14. FC dams were more frequently observed in the FC than NC dams, and although the frequency of the dams being in physical contact with the pups did not differ between the two treatments, FC dams showed lower levels of active nursing than NC dams during the first week of lactation. These environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour had sex-specific effects on the adult offspring's behavioural and HPA responses to stressors and altered their social behaviour in the home cage, with NC offspring showing higher levels of socio-positive behaviours than FC offspring. These results provide further independent evidence for the maternal mediation hypothesis and demonstrate that even subtle variations of the maternal environment can affect maternal care and induce persistent changes in offspring phenotype.

  7. Effect of vitamin B deprivation during pregnancy and lactation on homocysteine metabolism and related metabolites in brain and plasma of mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cavalcante da Silva

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine (Hcy metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. To this end, the dams were submitted to experimental diet one month before and during pregnancy or pregnancy/lactation. After birth, the offspring were organized into the following groups: control (CT, deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation (DPL and deficient diet during pregnancy (DP. The mice were euthanized at various stages of development. Hcy, cysteine, glutathione (GSH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in the plasma and/or brain. At postnatal day (PND 0, total brain of female and male offspring exhibited decreased SAM/SAH ratios. Moreover, at PND 28, we observed decreased GSH/GSSG ratios in both females and males in the DPL group. Exposure to a Vitamin B-deficient diet during the ontogenic plasticity period had a negative impact on plasma folate and brain cortex SAM concentrations in aged DPL males. We also observed decreased plasma GSH concentrations in both DP and DPL males (PND 210. Additionally, this manipulation seemed to affect the female and male offspring differently. The decreased plasma GSH concentration may reflect redox changes in tissues and the decreased brain cortex SAM may be involved in changes of gene expression, which could contribute to neurodegenerative diseases over the long term.

  8. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  9. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviou

  10. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific

  11. Helicobacter Infection Significantly Alters Pregnancy Success in Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Tara C; Cooper, Caitlin A; Ali, Zil; Truong, Ha; Moore, Julie M

    2017-05-01

    Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator. Outcomes of timed-mating experiments were compared among Helicobacter spp.-infected and uninfected mice of the same strain; Helicobacter infection was eradicated from the colony through fostering with uninfected dams. Although Helicobacter infection affected fecundity in only one strain of transgenic mouse, the total number of embryos per gravid uterus was significantly reduced in C57BL/6J mice that were infected with a single Helicobacter species, H. typhlonius. Helicobacter infection was also associated with a significant increase in the number of resorbing embryos per uterus and significant decreases in pregnancy-associated weight gain relative to uninfected mice in C57BL6/J mice and one transgenic strain. Helicobacter spp.-infected mice of all tested strains exhibited higher frequency of intrauterine hemorrhaging relative to uninfected mice. These results indicate that naturally-acquired Helicobacter infection not only reduces the productivity of a research animal breeding colony, but also negatively impacts embryo health. Despite these deleterious effects, these data suggest that colonies can be rederived to be Helicobacter-free by Cesarean section and fostering with uninfected dams. This paper provides the first evidence that H. typhlonius infection is sufficient to interfere with reproductive success

  12. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  13. A laboratory cage for foster nursing newborn mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marques-de-Araújo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.

  14. Chikungunya virus transmission between Aedes albopictus and laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Leon E; Prow, Natalie A; Tang, Bing; Devine, Greg; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2016-10-19

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody. CHIKV-infected mosquitoes were used to infect adult C57BL/6 and interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7(-/-)) mice. Feeding mosquitoes on blood meals with CHIKV titres > 5 log10CCID50/ml, either by membrane feeding or feeding on infected mice, resulted in  ≥ 50 % of mosquitoes becoming infected. However, CHIKV titres in blood meals  ≥ 7 log10CCID50/ml were required before salivary glands showed significant levels of immunofluorescent staining with an anti-CHIKV antibody. Mosquitoes fed on blood meals of 7.5 (but not 5.9) log10CCID50/ml were able efficiently to transmit virus to adult C57BL/6 and IRF3/7(-/-) mice, with the latter mice showing overt signs of arthritis post-infection. The results provide a simple in vivo model for studying transmission of CHIKV from mosquitoes to mammals and also argue against a resistance barrier to CHIKV infection in adult mice.

  15. Standardisation of environmental enrichment for laboratory mice and rats: Utilisation, practicality and variation in experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van; Pham, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rats and mice are the most commonly used species as laboratory animal models of diseases in biomedical research. Environmental factors such as cage size, number of cage mates and cage structure such as environmental enrichment can affect the physiology and behavioural development of laboratory anima

  16. Assessment of the use of two commercially available environmental enrichments by laboratory mice by preference testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, P.L. van; Blom, H.J.; Meijer, M.K.; Baumans, V.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of biomedical research, the demand for standardization of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is growing. For laboratory mice, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are commercially available. Most of these comply with the demands for standardization, hygiene and

  17. Differences in ultrasonic vocalizations between wild and laboratory California mice (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matina C Kalcounis-Rueppell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs emitted by muroid rodents, including laboratory mice and rats, are used as phenotypic markers in behavioral assays and biomedical research. Interpretation of these USVs depends on understanding the significance of USV production by rodents in the wild. However, there has never been a study of muroid rodent ultrasound function in the wild and comparisons of USVs produced by wild and laboratory rodents are lacking to date. Here, we report the first comparison of wild and captive rodent USVs recorded from the same species, Peromyscus californicus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used standard ultrasound recording techniques to measure USVs from California mice in the laboratory (Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center, SC, USA and the wild (Hastings Natural History Reserve, CA, USA. To determine which California mouse in the wild was vocalizing, we used a remote sensing method that used a 12-microphone acoustic localization array coupled with automated radio telemetry of all resident Peromyscus californicus in the area of the acoustic localization array. California mice in the laboratory and the wild produced the same types of USV motifs. However, wild California mice produced USVs that were 2-8 kHz higher in median frequency and significantly more variable in frequency than laboratory California mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The similarity in overall form of USVs from wild and laboratory California mice demonstrates that production of USVs by captive Peromyscus is not an artifact of captivity. Our study validates the widespread use of USVs in laboratory rodents as behavioral indicators but highlights that particular characteristics of laboratory USVs may not reflect natural conditions.

  18. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  19. Natural infection of murine norovirus in conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eOhsugi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses cause most cases of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture infection model for human norovirus necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict norovirus inactivation. Murine norovirus (MNV may be used to construct a small animal model for studying the biology and pathogenesis of noroviruses because MNV is the only norovirus that replicates in cell culture and a small animal model. However, recent studies have shown that natural MNV infection is widespread in laboratory mouse colonies. We investigated MNV infection in both conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF genetically modified mice from Japan and the US, and commercial mice from several animal breeders in Japan, using serological and molecular techniques. MNV antibodies were detected in 67.3% of conventional mice and 39.1% of SPF mice from Japan and 62.5% of conventional mice from the US. MNV antibodies were also found in 20% of commercial SPF C57BL/6 mice from one of three breeders. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that the isolates were homologous to reported MNV sequences. These results suggest that both conventional and SPF laboratory mice, including commercial mice, are widely infected with MNV, which might require considerable attention as an animal model of human disease.

  20. Environmental enrichment for laboratory mice: preferences and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, Heleen Ariane van de

    2001-01-01

    Current laboratory housing systems have mainly been developed on the basis of ergonomic and economic factors. These systems provide adequate, basic physiological requirements of animals, but only marginally fulfil other needs, such as the performance of natural behaviour or social interactions. M

  1. LITTER COMPOSITION AFFECTS PARENTAL CARE, OFFSPRING GROWTH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGGRESSIVE-BEHAVIOR IN WILD HOUSE MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MENDL, M; PAUL, ES

    1991-01-01

    Male mice pups reared with female siblings only are known to develop into more aggressive adults than males reared with males only. The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in experience of sibling competition and/or parental behaviour might underlie these differences in adult be

  2. Offspring of xenogeneically-reconstituted scid scid mice are capable of a primary xenogeneic immune response to DNP-KLH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, JD; Bos, NA; Croy, BA

    1996-01-01

    Human peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice has provided a small animal model system (hu-PBL-SCID) useful for the study of the human immune system and disease pathogenesis. Transfer of xenogeneic PBL from donors other than humans has also been

  3. Offspring of xenogeneically-reconstituted scid scid mice are capable of a primary xenogeneic immune response to DNP-KLH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, JD; Bos, NA; Croy, BA

    1996-01-01

    Human peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice has provided a small animal model system (hu-PBL-SCID) useful for the study of the human immune system and disease pathogenesis. Transfer of xenogeneic PBL from donors other than humans has also been

  4. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  5. Development of animal model for Chandipura virus in laboratory mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raut; CG; Jadi; RS; Chinchwale; AS; Daware; MM

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there was a outbreak of Chandipura virus(CHPV)in Sothern part of India causing encephalitis and acutedeathin children of age group of2.5months to15years withthe mortality rate of55.6%.As this disease is of acutedeath nature in humans no data available on pathogenesis.To understandthe pathogenesis of the disease caused by CHPV,experimental infection in laboratory swiss albino micewas conducted.Animals of age upto one weekfound highlysusceptible to all the routes of inoculation.For further stu...

  6. Production of the first offspring from oocytes derived from fresh and cryopreserved pre-antral follicles of adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagawa, Norika; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nakata, Kumiko

    2007-01-01

    transplanted beneath the kidney capsule of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Within 10 days of in-vivo culture, 138 full size oocytes developed from the 456 transplanted pre-antral follicles. In-vivo growth of follicles was followed by in-vitro oocyte maturation, in-vitro fertilization...... and subsequent embryo transfer, leading to the birth of 10 healthy pups. These results may lead to increasing the availability and cryopreservation possibilities for the preservation of fertility using ovarian tissue...

  7. Maternal Antibiotic Treatment Protects Offspring from Diabetes Development in Nonobese Diabetic Mice by Generation of Tolerogenic APCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjia; Peng, Jian; Tai, Ningwen; Hu, Changyun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that involves the slow, progressive destruction of islet β cells and loss of insulin production, as a result of interaction with environmental factors, in genetically susceptible individuals. The gut microbiome is established very early in life. Commensal microbiota establish mutualism with the host and form an important part of the environment to which individuals are exposed in the gut, providing nutrients and shaping immune responses. In this study, we studied the impact of targeting most Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of NOD mice at different time points in their life, using a combination of three antibiotics--neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin--on diabetes development. We found that the prenatal period is a critical time for shaping the immune tolerance in the progeny, influencing development of autoimmune diabetes. Prenatal neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin treatment protected NOD mice from diabetes development through alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as induction of tolerogenic APCs, which led to reduced activation of diabetogenic CD8 T cells. Most importantly, we found that the protective effect was age dependent, and the most profound protection was found when the mice were treated before birth. This indicates the importance of the prenatal environment and early exposure to commensal bacteria in shaping the host immune system and health.

  8. Identification of an astrovirus commonly infecting laboratory mice in the US and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Uchida, Ritsuki; Cha, Yunhee; Beyer, Ashley I; Wong, Walt; Pesavento, Patricia A; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Muench, Marcus O; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Mice (Mus musculus) are the most commonly used laboratory animals. Viral metagenomics on tissues of immunodeficient mice revealed sequences of a novel mammalian astrovirus. Using PCR, we screened mice from 4 breeders, 4 pharmaceutical companies, 14 research institutes and 30 universities in the US and Japan. Mice from one US breeder tested positive while none from Japanese breeders were positive for MuAstV. Mice in over half of the universities (19/30), institutes (7/14) and pharmaceutical animal facilities (2/4) investigated revealed the presence of MuAstV. Nine mice strains tested positive including both immunodeficient strains (NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3 (-/-), and uPA-NOG) and immunocompetent strains (B6J, ICR, Bash2, BALB/c). Our data indicates that MuAstV has a wide geographical, institutional and host strain distribution. Comparison of the MuAstV RdRp sequences showed numerous mutations indicating ongoing viral divergence in different facilities. This study demonstrates the need for metagenomic screening of laboratory animals to identify adventitious infections that may affect experimental outcomes.

  9. Identification of an astrovirus commonly infecting laboratory mice in the US and Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Mice (Mus musculus are the most commonly used laboratory animals. Viral metagenomics on tissues of immunodeficient mice revealed sequences of a novel mammalian astrovirus. Using PCR, we screened mice from 4 breeders, 4 pharmaceutical companies, 14 research institutes and 30 universities in the US and Japan. Mice from one US breeder tested positive while none from Japanese breeders were positive for MuAstV. Mice in over half of the universities (19/30, institutes (7/14 and pharmaceutical animal facilities (2/4 investigated revealed the presence of MuAstV. Nine mice strains tested positive including both immunodeficient strains (NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3 (-/-, and uPA-NOG and immunocompetent strains (B6J, ICR, Bash2, BALB/c. Our data indicates that MuAstV has a wide geographical, institutional and host strain distribution. Comparison of the MuAstV RdRp sequences showed numerous mutations indicating ongoing viral divergence in different facilities. This study demonstrates the need for metagenomic screening of laboratory animals to identify adventitious infections that may affect experimental outcomes.

  10. Genetically modified laboratory mice with sebaceous glands abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Carmen; Schneider, Marlon R

    2016-12-01

    Sebaceous glands (SG) are exocrine glands that release their product by holocrine secretion, meaning that the whole cell becomes a secretion following disruption of the membrane. SG may be found in association with a hair follicle, forming the pilosebaceous unit, or as modified SG at different body sites such as the eyelids (Meibomian glands) or the preputial glands. Depending on their location, SG fulfill a number of functions, including protection of the skin and fur, thermoregulation, formation of the tear lipid film, and pheromone-based communication. Accordingly, SG abnormalities are associated with several diseases such as acne, cicatricial alopecia, and dry eye disease. An increasing number of genetically modified laboratory mouse lines develop SG abnormalities, and their study may provide important clues regarding the molecular pathways regulating SG development, physiology, and pathology. Here, we summarize in tabulated form the available mouse lines with SG abnormalities and, focusing on selected examples, discuss the insights they provide into SG biology and pathology. We hope this survey will become a helpful information source for researchers with a primary interest in SG but also as for researchers from unrelated fields that are unexpectedly confronted with a SG phenotype in newly generated mouse lines.

  11. Analysis of Radiation Impact on White Mice through Radiation Dose Mapping in Medical Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Madnasri; Susilo; Arya Wijayanti, Riza

    2016-08-01

    A study about X-ray radiation impact on the white mice through radiation dose mapping in Medical Physic Laboratory is already done. The purpose of this research is to determine the minimum distance of radiologist to X-ray instrument through treatment on the white mice. The radiation exposure doses are measured on the some points in the distance from radiation source between 30 cm up to 80 with interval of 30 cm. The impact of radiation exposure on the white mice and the effects of radiation measurement in different directions are investigated. It is founded that minimum distance of radiation worker to radiation source is 180 cm and X-ray has decreased leukocyte number and haemoglobin and has increased thrombocyte number in the blood of white mice.

  12. In utero exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles affects spatial learning and memory with reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the hippocampus of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Sato, Akira; Umezawa, Masakazu; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Diesel exhaust consists of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and gaseous compounds. Previous studies reported that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affects the central nervous system. However, there was no clear evidence that these effects were caused by diesel exhaust particles themselves, gaseous compounds, or both. Here, we explored the effects of in utero exposure to DEPs on learning and memory in male ICR mice. DEP solutions were administered subcutaneously to pregnant ICR mice at a dose of 0 or 200 μg/kg body weight on gestation days 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. We examined learning and memory in 9-to-10-week-old male offspring using the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Immediately after the behavioral tests, hippocampi were isolated. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) expression was also measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Mice exposed to DEPs in utero showed deficits in the Morris water maze test, but their performance was not significantly different from that of control mice in the passive avoidance test. In addition, DEP-exposed mice exhibited decreased hippocampal NR2A expression. The present results indicate that maternal DEP exposure disrupts learning and memory in male offspring, which is associated with reduced hippocampal NR2A expression.

  13. Targeting of CD25 and glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related gene-expressing T cells differentially modulates asthma risk in offspring of asthmatic and normal mother mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeau, Cedric; Apostolou, Irina; Kobzik, Lester

    2007-02-01

    Immunological mechanisms leading to increased asthma susceptibility in early life remain obscure. In this study, we examined the effects of neonatal Ab treatments targeting T cell populations on the development of an asthma syndrome. We used a model of increased asthma susceptibility where offspring of asthmatic BALB/c mother mice are more prone (than normal pups) to develop the disease. Neonatal pretreatment of naive pups with mAb directed against the IL-2Ralpha chain (CD25), the costimulatory molecule glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family related gene, and the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 elicited contrasting effects in offspring depending on the mother's asthma status. Specifically, neonatal CD25(high) T cell depletion stimulated asthma susceptibility in normal offspring whereas it ameliorated the condition of pups born of asthmatic mothers. Conversely, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family related gene ligation as a primary signal reduced the spleen cellularity and largely abrogated asthma susceptibility in asthma-prone offspring, without inducing disease in normal pups. Striking changes in Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, especially IL-4, followed mAb pretreatment and were consistent with the impact on asthma susceptibility. These results point to major differences in neonatal T cell population and responsiveness related to maternal asthma history. Interventions that temporarily remove and/or inactivate specific T cell subsets may therefore prove useful to attenuate early life asthma susceptibility and prevent the development of Th2-driven allergic airway disease.

  14. Effect of long-term administration of zinc after scrotal heating on mice spermatozoa and subsequent offspring quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, N; Babaei, H; Azizallahi, S; Kheradmand, A

    2009-08-01

    This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of heat on spermatozoa and subsequent foetuses could be prevented by long-term zinc administration. The scrotums of animals were immersed in water at either 43 degrees C (heat group) or 23 degrees C (control group). Half of the heat and control mice were given 10 mg kg(-1) zinc every other day for 60 days and the others received sterile saline instead of zinc. Heat stress significantly reduced sperm motility, concentration, hypoosmotic swelling-water test (HOS-WT) positive and chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3)) negative spermatozoa at the first 15 days, and the greatest decrease occurred at 30 days (P spermatozoa were also reduced initially in the zinc administered group, but we did not observe any further decrease in the above mentioned parameters on day 30 (P zinc therapy caused a partial recovery (P > 0.05). This study demonstrates that the adverse effects of hyperthermia on semen parameters may be prevented by zinc therapy. Likewise, long-term administration of zinc could improve quality of litter obtained from the females mated with scrotal heat treatment males.

  15. Effect of Benzene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Splenic Lymphocytes in Mother Generation and Offspring Mice%苯对母鼠和子鼠脾淋巴细胞的增殖与凋亡影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷亦乐; 李纯颖; 杨双波; 李紫; 吴成秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of benzene on proliferation and apoptceis of splenic lymphocytes in mother generation and offspring mice. Methods Forty pregnant mice were divided averagely into 4 groups at random. From the 7th day after pregnancy, each of group was exposed to benzene vapour until to parturition (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/m3,respectively), 2 hours par day. At the 1st and 7th days after parturition, 5 mother generation mice end 5 offspring mice of each group were killed to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes in mother generation and offspring mice by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Results During the 1st day and 7th day after parturition, the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes of mother generation and offspring mice in the middle - and high - concentration of benzene groups was inhibited significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<O. 05). The cell cycle of splenic lymphocytes of mother generation and offspring mice was blocked in G0/G1 phase in the middle - and high - concentration of benzene groups. The quantity of splenic lymphocytes apoptosis was increased significantly in a concentration- dependent manner in each benzene group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Benzene exposure during pregnancy can damage the immunological function of mother generation mice and offspring mice.%目的 探讨妊娠期接触苯对母鼠及其子鼠免疫功能的影响.方法 40只孕鼠被随机等分为空气对照组和5.0、10.0、15.0 mg/m3三个不同浓度的苯染毒组,各组从孕7 d开始,连续染毒至分娩,每天染毒2 h.分别在分娩后的1 d及7 d,每组取5只母鼠和5只子鼠处死,取脾制备脾淋巴细胞;检测母鼠和子鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖力、细胞周期及细胞凋亡.结果 在分娩后1 d及7 d,中、高浓度苯染毒组母鼠及子鼠的脾淋巴细胞增殖力均低于对照组(P<0.05),并有明显的剂量-效应关系(P<0.05);子鼠与母鼠的淋巴细胞增殖抑制

  16. As-resistance in laboratory-reared F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting an As-contaminated mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J., E-mail: clangdon1@btinternet.co [C/O The Open University in the North, Baltic Buiness Quarter, Abbots Hill, Gateshead NE8 3DF (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J., E-mail: morganaj1@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF11 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M., E-mail: john.charnock@manchester.ac.u [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Semple, K.T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.u [Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Lowe, C.N., E-mail: cnlowe@uclan.ac.u [School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Previous studies provided no unequivocal evidence demonstrating that field populations of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (1843), exhibit genetically inherited resistance to As-toxicity. In this study F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring derived from adults inhabiting As-contaminated field soil were resistant when exposed to 2000 mg kg{sup -1} sodium arsenate. The offspring of uncontaminated adults were not As-resistant. Cocoon viability was 80% for F1 and 82% for F2 offspring from As-contaminated adults and 59% in the F1 control population. High energy synchrotron analysis was used to determine whether ligand complexation of As differed in samples of: resistant mine-site adults, the resistant F1 and F2 offspring of the mine-site earthworms exposed to the LC{sub 25} sodium arsenate (700 mg kg{sup -1}) of the F1 parental generation; and adult L. rubellus from an uncontaminated site exposed to LC{sub 25} concentrations of sodium arsenate (50 mg kg{sup -1}). XANES and EXAFS indicated that As was present as a sulfur-coordinated species. - As-resistance in F1, F2 and F3 offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  17. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns.

  18. General parity between trio and pairwise breeding of laboratory mice in static caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedl, Ross M; Wysocki, Lawrence J; Janssen, William J; Born, Willi K; Rosenbaum, Matthew D; Granowski, Julia; Kench, Jennifer A; Fong, Derek L; Switzer, Lisa A; Cruse, Margaret; Huang, Hua; Jakubzick, Claudia V; Kosmider, Beata; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Stranova, Thomas J; Klumm, Randal C; Delgado, Christine; Tummala, Saigiridhar; De Langhe, Stijn; Cambier, John; Haskins, Katherine; Lenz, Laurel L; Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2014-11-15

    Changes made in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals included new recommendations for the amount of space for breeding female mice. Adopting the new recommendations required, in essence, the elimination of trio breeding practices for all institutions. Both public opinion and published data did not readily support the new recommendations. In response, the National Jewish Health Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee established a program to directly compare the effects of breeding format on mouse pup survival and growth. Our study showed an overall parity between trio and pairwise breeding formats on the survival and growth of the litters, suggesting that the housing recommendations for breeding female mice as stated in the current Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals should be reconsidered.

  19. Helicobacter ganmani sp nov., a urease-negative anaerobe isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Vandamme, P.

    2001-01-01

    Spiral bacteria were isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice during a study examining the presence of Helicobacter species and other spiral organisms naturally infecting mice maintained at four different animal facilities in Sydney, Australia. One group of 17 isolates, cultured from mice...... from three of the four facilities, were found to be helicobacters but did not fall within any of the 18 currently recognized species. These isolates were unusual in that they only grew anaerobically at 37 degreesC and were incapable of growth under microaerobic conditions. Like Helicobacter rodentium...... and found to be identical to one another. H. rodentium was the most closely related species in terms of 16S rDNA sequence similarity (98.2%). Numerical analysis of whole-cell proteins by SDS-PAGE for nine isolates was carried out with a comparison to all known Helicobacter species, including newly...

  20. The injustice of excluding laboratory rats, mice, and birds from the Animal Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F Barbara

    2000-09-01

    A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation -- rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.

  1. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  2. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Higuchi

    Full Text Available In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture. We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-, A (Membrane/activin+, M (Matrigel/activin-, and M+A (Matrigel/activin+. We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A. Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A. In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian

  3. Inter-laboratory comparisons of assessment of the allergenic potential of proteins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herouet-Guicheney, C; Aldemir, H; Bars, R; de Barbeyrac, D; Kennel, P; Rouquié, D; Stahl, B U; Kimber, I; Dearman, R J

    2009-03-01

    Assessment of the potential allergenicity of novel proteins, including those expressed in genetically modified plants, is an important issue. In previous studies, we have shown that the IgE measurement induced by systemic exposure of BALB/c mice to a range of proteins correlates broadly with what is known of their allergenic potential in humans. The approach used a homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay that reflects IgE-dependent biological activity and is of sufficient sensitivity to detect IgE production in the absence of adjuvant. In previous studies, the immunization phase was conducted independently in two separate facilities, and the subsequent analytical work (PCA) conducted in a single facility. The purpose here was to further evaluate the transferability of this approach. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to a range of doses of peanut agglutinin or ovalbumin, allergenic proteins of peanut and hen's egg, respectively, in two independent laboratories. Serial doubling dilutions of serum pooled for each treatment group were analyzed for specific IgE. At higher doses of allergen very similar, or identical, IgE titers were achieved in both laboratories, although at lower doses, responses were somewhat more variable. These data demonstrate that, although technically demanding, the measurement of protein allergen-induced IgE antibody production in mice using PCA is relatively robust and is transferable and reproducible between laboratories. This approach may provide a useful tool for the safety assessment of novel proteins and suggests that continued evaluation of the approach with a wider range of protein allergens and non-sensitising proteins is justified.

  4. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sangeetha K.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP) or a control protein (20% protein, C) diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein) and single-housed until 8–12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration), depression (tail suspension and forced swim test), sociability (three-chamber), repetitive (marble burying), learning and memory (fear conditioning), and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles). We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03), less energy expenditure (P = 0.004), less rearing activity (P = 0.04) and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03) compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01) but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02). There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  5. Modelo centinela en colonia de ratones de laboratorio. (Sentinel model in a colony of laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Itamis C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn colonias de ratones de laboratorio es vital preservar la salud de los mismos y el estado microbiológico por el riesgo de infecciones, que pueden ser inaparentes e influyen en los resultados de la experimentación o contaminan los productos biológicos derivados de ellos.AbstractIn laboratory mice colonies is vital to preserve the health of the latter and the microbiological state by infection risk, which can be unapparent and influence in the results of experimentation or contaminate the biological products derived from them.

  6. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants.

  7. Routine habitat change: a source of unrecognized transient alteration of intestinal microbiota in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Betty W; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Castillo, Patricia A; Kananurak, Anchasa; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A; Bevins, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute and chronic diseases. Valuable insights on the association of the microbiota with disease critically depend on investigation of mouse models. Like in humans, the microbial community in the mouse intestine is relatively stable and resilient, yet can be influenced by environmental factors. An often-overlooked variable in research is basic animal husbandry, which can potentially alter mouse physiology and experimental outcomes. This study examined the effects of common husbandry practices, including food and bedding alterations, as well as facility and cage changes, on the gut microbiota over a short time course of five days using three culture-independent techniques, quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). This study detected a substantial transient alteration in microbiota after the common practice of a short cross-campus facility transfer, but found no comparable alterations in microbiota within 5 days of switches in common laboratory food or bedding, or following an isolated cage change in mice acclimated to their housing facility. Our results highlight the importance of an acclimation period following even simple transfer of mice between campus facilities, and highlights that occult changes in microbiota should be considered when imposing husbandry variables on laboratory animals.

  8. Validation of the dimensionality emergence assay for the measurement of innate anxiety in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Apar; Dvorkin, Anna; Fonio, Ehud; Golani, Ilan; Gross, Cornelius T

    2012-02-01

    The open field test is a common tool to measure innate anxiety in rodents. In the usual configuration of this test the animal is forced to explore the open arena and its behavior includes both anxiety and non-anxiety responses. However, the open arena is generally small and allows only limited expression of exploratory behavior. The recently developed dimensionality emergence assay in which an animal is housed in a home cage with free access to a large circular arena elicits graded exploration and promises to serve as a more ethological test of anxiety. Here we examined the predictive validity of this assay for anxiety-related measures in mice. First, we compared their behavior in the presence or absence of access to the home cage and found that mice with access to the home cage exhibited a gradual build-up in exploration of the arena while those without did not. Then we identified behavioral measures that responded to treatment with the anxiolytic drug diazepam. Diazepam altered several classical measures of innate anxiety, such as distance traveled and thigmotaxis, but also led to a dose-dependent acceleration of the build-up as reflected in a significantly reduced latency to attain several exploratory landmarks. Finally, we tested the utility of the dimensionality emergence assay in assessing alterations in innate anxiety reported in mice carrying a knockout allele for the serotonin 1A receptor (Htr1a). Our findings support the validity of the dimensionality emergence assay as a method to extract an expanded repertoire of behavioral measures for the assessment of anxiety in laboratory mice.

  9. Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Semba, Yuki; Endo, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.

  10. Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Yanai

    Full Text Available A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.

  11. Remarkable Changes in Behavior and Physiology of Laboratory Mice after the Massive 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Semba, Yuki; Endo, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake’s epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology. PMID:22957073

  12. The effects of lactational maternal stress on neuronal behavior of adolescent offspring in mice%哺乳期母源应激对子代小鼠青春期神经行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹希; 牛建; 史海水

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of lactational maternal stress on neurobehavioral development of offsprings.Methods Maternal mice were divided into normal control,maternal deprivation and maternal stress group.A 5-min/day cold water swimming was used as maternal stress for continuously of 14 day since the 7th postnatal day.The increasing bodyweight and neurobehavior of adolescent offspring mice were assessed by forced swimming test,tail suspension test and locomotor activity in the 35th postnatal day.Results Maternal chronic stress in lactational stage significantly increased the vulnerability of offspring to acute stress,which was reflected by significantly increased immobility time of adolescent offspring in forced swimming test (female:(139±6) s,(138±9) s,(96±9) s respectively; male:(139±9) s,(112±9) s,(96±9) s respectively) and in tail suspension test (femal:(127±8) s,(123±8) s,(98±6) s respectively ; male:(141 ±7) s,(105±5) s,(92±6) s respectively).Meanwhile,sexual difference occurred for adolescent offspring to acute stress,and the female offspring were more vulnerable to acute stress.Conclusion Lactational maternal stress may be important factors for development of adolescent depression.Our findings highlight the area of early prevention and intervention for adolescent depression.%目的 探讨哺乳期母源应激对子代小鼠青春期神经行为发育的影响.方法 哺乳期母鼠随机分为应激组、分离组、对照组,小鼠出生7d后,应激组母鼠每天进行5 min的冷水游泳应激,持续14 d,采用强迫游泳、悬尾实验、自发活动等方法对子代小鼠青春期(35 d)体质量、神经行为进行评定.结果 哺乳期母源慢性应激显著增加青春期子代小鼠对应激的易感性,表现为对强迫游泳漂浮不动时间的显著增加[雌性:应激组、分离组和对照组分别为(139±6)s,(138±9)s和(96±9)s;雄性:3组分别为(139±9)s,(112±9)s和(96±9)s]和悬尾测试中小鼠不动时间

  13. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  14. "Personality" in laboratory mice used for biomedical research: a way of understanding variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Zipser, Benjamin; Sachser, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    The mouse, including countless lines of transgenic and knockout mice, has become the most prominent model organism in biomedical research. Behavioral characterization is often conducted in batteries of short tests on locomotion, anxiety, learning and memory, etc. In such tests, any individual differences within groups are usually considered to be disturbing variance. In order to reduce variance in experimental animal research enormous efforts of standardization have been made. While a substantial reduction of variability has been reached compared to the earlier years of experimental animal studies a considerable amount of inter-individual differences still seems to escape standardization. This effect is demonstrated and evaluated by re-analyzing data from two experiments conducted in our laboratory with inbred mice. Interestingly, behavioral patterns of individual animals seem to be correlated across context and time. In evolutionary biology, "animal personalities" have been discussed recently to comprise such stable patterns. We argue here, that nonrandom behavioral correlations across contexts and time might underlie the variability commonly found in biomedical mouse studies.

  15. Reproductive and developmental outcomes, and influence on maternal and offspring tissue mineral concentrations, of (−-epicatechin, (+-catechin, and rutin ingestion prior to, and during pregnancy and lactation in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N.R. Lesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition can have a significant effect on developmental processes during pregnancy and lactation. While certain flavonoids have been postulated to be beneficial for health, little is known about the effects of ingestion during pregnancy and lactation on the mother and progeny. We report on the effects of maternal consumption of high levels of certain flavonoids on reproductive and developmental outcomes in a mouse model. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control diet (CT, the CT diet supplemented with 1% or 2% of a mix of epicatechin and catechin (EC1, EC2, or rutin (RU1, RU2 prior to, during pregnancy, and lactation. A subset of dams was killed on gestation day (GD 18.5 to evaluate fetal outcomes and the remainder was allowed to deliver to evaluate offspring. Maternal food intake, body and tissue weight did not differ among groups. The number of resorptions, implantations, litter size, postnatal survival, body weight, and skeletal development were also similar. Alterations in maternal and offspring liver mineral concentrations were observed. The current results indicate that consumption of high amounts of epicatechin, catechin, and rutin during gestation and lactation is not associated with any marked developmental effects, although changes in liver mineral concentrations were noted.

  16. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  17. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lindsay G; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Wilkerson, Donald C; Tobia, Christine M; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H; Charnigo, Richard J; Esser, Karyn A; Egan, Josephine M; de Cabo, Rafael; Pearson, Kevin J

    2012-10-15

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P wheels (P nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring.

  18. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  19. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  20. Illumination of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 cycle reveals a sexual transmission route from females to males in laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie François

    Full Text Available Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent

  1. Helicobacter sp. MIT 01-6451 infection during fetal and neonatal life in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hitoki; Nakanishi, Tai; Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Kubo, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Takemoto, Takahira; Ohsawa, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter sp. MIT 01-6451 has been detected in SPF mice kept in Japan. To characterize strain MIT 01-6451, its infection route during fetal and neonatal life and effects on pregnancy were investigated using immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and SCID). MIT 01-6451 was detected in the uterus, vagina, and mammary glands of 50% of infected SCID mice, whereas these tissues were all negative in immunocompetent mice. No fetal infections with MIT 01-6451 were detected at 16-18 days after pregnancy in any mouse strain. In newborn mice, MIT 01-6451 was detected in intestinal tissue of C57BL/6 and SCID mice at 9-11 days after birth, but not in BALB/c mice. The IgA and IgG titers to MIT 01-6451 in sera of C57BL/6 female mice were significantly lower than those of BALB/c mice. Although no significant differences in the number of newborns per litter were observed between MIT 01-6451-infected and MIT 01-6451-free dams, the birth rate was lower in infected SCID mice than in control SCID mice. The present results indicated that MIT 01-6451 infects newborn mice after birth rather than by vertical transmission to the fetus via the placenta and that MIT 01-6451 infection shows opportunistically negative effects on the birth rate. In addition, the maternal immune response may affect infection of newborn mice with MIT 01-6451 through breast milk.

  2. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0......Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... appropriate for immunological studies of food proteins. Although the small quantity of BLG in the milk-free diet did not induce detectable oral tolerance in the present study, it is strongly recommended that the potential effect of contaminating dietary antigen is considered in future studies on food proteins...

  3. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal and Offspring Thyroxine in Rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and laboratory data have demonstrated that disruption of maternal thyroid hormones during fetal developmental may result in irreversible neurological consequences in offspring. In a short-term exposure paradigm, triclosan decreased systemic thyroxine (T4) concentr...

  4. Stressful presentations: mild cold stress in laboratory mice influences phenotype of dendritic cells in naïve and tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokolus, Kathleen M; Spangler, Haley M; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Farren, Matthew R; Lee, Kelvin P; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8(+) T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8(+) T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function.

  5. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram. First experimental results are shown.

  6. Effects of maternal exposure to vehicle exhaust on the reproductive system and DNA methylation in male offspring mice%孕鼠交通性污染物暴露对其子代雄性睾丸DNA甲基化水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐旭; 夏茵茵; 唐靖媛; 代华; 刘星灿; 程淑群; 孟盼; 张瑞源

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of exposure to vehicle exhaust in pregnant mice on the reproductive function and DNA methylation in male offspring mice. Methods Twenty pregnant mice were randomized into control group and vehicle exhaust exposure group (n=10) and exposed to routine laboratory condition and to vehicle exhaust for 10 consecutive days (8 h per day) in a tunnel with a heavy traffic, where the concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOX and the decibel of noise were measured. The offspring mice were raised till reaching maturity, and the epididymides of the male mice were collected to test the weight coefficients, DNA methylation level, and mRNA levels of Aldh7a1 and Rpe. Results The body weight and the weight coefficients of the epididymides and testes differed significantly between the exposure group and the control group (P>0.05). The concentrations of TSP, PM2.5, PM10 and NOx and the decibel of noise were significantly higher in the traffic environment and the control environment (P<0.05). Reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) and Gene ontology (GO) showed that 58 genes had significantly different methylation levels between the two groups, mostly relating to the process of spermatogenesis (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, Aldh7a1 and Rpe mRNA expressions in the testes were down-regulated significantly in the exposure group (P<0.05). Conclusion Exposure of pregnant mice to vehicle exhaust causes damages of the reproductive function in the male offspring mice.%目的:探讨孕鼠交通性污染物暴露对其雄性子代生殖系统和睾丸细胞DNA甲基化水平的影响。方法将孕鼠随机分为对照组和暴露组,暴露组孕鼠置于重庆市主城区某主要交通枢纽的隧道,从受孕第4天(d4)至d14每天染毒8 h,子代分娩后饲养至性成熟。在孕鼠染毒的d4、d8、d12、d14+对交通要道进行交通性污染物的采集和检测。暴露组和对照组各取3只子代雄鼠睾

  7. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase.

  8. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of minute virus of mice and mouse parvovirus infections in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K W; Chueh, L L; Wang, M H; Huang, Y T; Fang, B H; Chang, C Y; Fang, M C; Chou, J Y; Hsieh, S C; Wan, C H

    2013-04-01

    Mouse parvoviruses are among the most prevalent infectious pathogens in contemporary mouse colonies. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for mouse parvovirus infections, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the VP gene was developed. The assay detected minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse parvovirus (MPV) and a mouse housekeeping gene (α-actin) and was able to specifically detect MVM and MPV at levels as low as 50 copies. Co-infection with the two viruses with up to 200-fold differences in viral concentrations can easily be detected. The multiplex PCR assay developed here could be a useful tool for monitoring mouse health and the viral contamination of biological materials.

  9. A rapid method for the infection of laboratory mice with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, N A; Webbe, G

    1982-01-01

    Known numbers of medium-suspended cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum were injected either intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously into mice and were compared for infectivity with S. japonicum cercariae that had been administered percutaneously. The injected cercariae appeared to be no less infective or fecund even after their maintenance in vitro for up to six hours. The intraperitoneal route of inoculation was preferred as it facilitated the rapid infection of mice and furthermore was much safer than conventional percutaneous application of cercariae.

  10. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Retro-bulbar sinus puncture and facial vein phlebotomy are two widely used methods for blood sampling in laboratory mice. However, the animal welfare implications associated with these techniques are currently debated, and the possible physiological and pathological implications of blood sampling...... using these methods have been sparsely investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess and compare the impacts of blood sampling by retro-bulbar sinus puncture and facial vein phlebotomy. Blood was obtained from either the retro-bulbar sinus or the facial vein from male C57BL/6J mice at two...... time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...

  11. Quantitative effects of diet on fecal corticosterone metabolites in two strains of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of glucocorticoids excreted in feces is becoming a widespread technique for determining animal wellbeing in a wide variety of settings. In the present study an extraction protocol and an ELISA assay for quantifying fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in BALB/c and C57bl/6 mice were validated. Lower ratios of solvent (ethanol) to mass of fecal sample were found to be sufficient in extracting FCM compared to what has been reported previously. Feeding mice a high energy diet, high in fat content (60% of calories from fat), significantly lowered the FCM excretion, approximately halving the FCM output. This diet also reduced the fecal mass voided to approximately a third of that of the regular diet. The two reductions were not correlated. A difference in defecation pattern was seen between the two strains, with the BALB/c mice having a more pronounced diurnal rhythm compared to the C57bl/6 mice. Furthermore, throughout the experiment, the C57bl/6 mice excreted significantly higher levels of FCM compared to the BALB/c mice. The mice were also challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dexamethasone (DEX). The effect of the challenges could readily be detected, but had a considerably lesser impact on data than did the difference in diet. The study demonstrates some problematic consequences of expressing FCM excretion as a measure of fecal dry mass. The study also serves to emphasize the caution that must be exercised when interpreting FCM excretion in conjunction with an uncontrolled or varied diet, or perturbations of gastro-intestinal functioning.

  12. Study on the toxicity of LAS to male mice and male offspring spermatogenic function%LAS对雄性小鼠及其子代生精功能毒性作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海艳; 任春娥; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡; 张茂翔

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the toxicities impact of the linear alkylbenzene sulfonates on the male mice and offspring male reproductive function.Methods:All of the 120 Kunming male mice were divided into four groups randomly and every group was 30.Group A was treated P.O.with LAS 630mg/kg,one time per day,for eight weeks and then mated with female mice (the proportion was 1∶1).Group B was treated P.O.with LAS 630mg/kg,one time per day,for eight weeks and stopped treating for 4 weeks,then mated with female mice (the proportion was 1 ∶ 1).Both of the male mice of the group A and group B were pulled neck to death after mating.Group a and group b were the contrast groups of group A and group B separately.They were treated with physiological saline solution and pulled neck to death after mating.The offspring male mice of the group A,B,a,b was group A1,B1,a1,b1 separately and pulled neck to death when they growed upto 6 ~ 8 weeks.The weight of the body and testicle,concentration and vitality of sperm,sperm forms,histophthology and electron transmission microscopy of the testis were assayed.Results:Compared with the controls,lower of sperm concentration and vitality and higher malformation were obvious.The histology revealed that each spermatocytes and spermids obviously reduced,spermatogenic cells arranged chaoticly.Determination revealed that the morphology of mitochondria in spermospore,leydig cells and sertoli cells from the experimental group showed a greater variance than that in mice from the control group.Furthermore,there showed no obvious recovery of all the morphological abnormalities after be stopped treating with LAS for 4 weeks.Conclusion:LAS has evident toxicities impact on the male animals reproductive function,and the damage the LAS has made could not recovery in a short time.%目的:探讨十二烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)对雄性小鼠及其子代雄性小鼠生精功能的毒性作用.方法:将120只昆明种雄性小鼠随机分为4组,每组30只.实验A

  13. Quantitative effects of diet on fecal corticosterone metabolites in two strains of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of glucocorticoids excreted in feces is becoming a widespread technique for determining animal wellbeing in a wide variety of settings. In the present study an extraction protocol and an ELISA assay for quantifying fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in BALB/c and C57bl/6 mice were...... validated. Lower ratios of solvent (ethanol) to mass of fecal sample were found to be sufficient in extracting FCM compared to what has been reported previously. Feeding mice a high energy diet, high in fat content (60% of calories from fat), significantly lowered the FCM excretion, approximately halving...... the FCM output. This diet also reduced the fecal mass voided to approximately a third of that of the regular diet. The two reductions were not correlated. A difference in defecation pattern was seen between the two strains, with the BALB/c mice having a more pronounced diurnal rhythm compared to the C57bl...

  14. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  15. 妊娠期和哺乳期双酚A暴露对幼年子代小鼠焦虑和抑郁行为的影响%Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Anxiety- and Depression-Behaviors in Young Offspring Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇杰; 徐晓虹; 洪星; 谢灵丹; 余奇静; 田栋

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogenic disrupter widely used in the production of plastics, and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to public health. There has been a growing concern about the effect of early-life exposure to low doses of BPA. This study was to investigate the behavior difference of mice which exposed to BPA in gestation period or lactation period separately. After acclimatization for one week, adult female ICR mice were placed with males (two females : one male) and vaginal smears were examined daily. A sperm-positive smear determined gestational day (GD) 1. Pregnant mice were divided into 2 groups randomly. One group was orally exposed to BPA dissolved in peanut oil (0.4 or 4 mg/kg ·d) or only peanut oil as vehicle control from GD8 until offspring mice born. The other group was exposed to BPA with the same method from offspring mice born to postnatal day (PND) 14. At PND21 of age, open field, dark/light transition, mirror chamber, elevated plus-maze, forced swim and step-down were respectively used to test spontaneous activity, exploratory behavior, anxiety, depression, and passive avoidance memory in offspring mice. The results showed that gestational or lactational exposure to BPA differently affects behaviors in offspring mice. Gestational exposure to BPA weakened anxiety and increased spontaneous activity of young offspring, as well as enhanced exploratory behavior of male offspring and passive avoidance memory of female offspring. Lactational exposure to BPA decreased the spontaneous activity of young offspring, but no significant effect on anxiety was found in offspring mice. Both gestational and lactational exposure to BPA strengthened depression in male and female offspring mice. These results suggested that non-reproductive behaviors in offspring mice, such as anxiety, depression, passive avoidance memory, were affected by both gestational and lactational exposure to BPA, while

  16. The applicability of a gel delivery system for self-administration of buprenorphine to laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovard, A. M. B.; Teilmann, A. C.; Hau, J.

    2015-01-01

    have previously demonstrated sticky nut and chocolate paste to be well-liked by mice and readily ingested in most cases. However, a disadvantage with nut and chocolate paste is its high content of fat and sugar, which may have undesirable effects in some experimental models. Alternatively, a delivery...

  17. Exposure of Laboratory Mice to Domestic Cooking Gas: - Implications for Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu D. Ibegbu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of domestic cooking gas to induce hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity in mice was studied. The mice were exposed to domestic gas for twenty-one days at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively. The positive control group of mice were given sodium arsenite intraperitoneously at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight. While the negative control group had only distilled water, sodium arsenite significantly (p < 0.05 induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs, serum and liver gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities respectively as compared with the observations made in the negative control group. Similarly, the domestic gas significantly (p<0.05 induced mPCEs formation, serum and liver, γGT and AP activities. The degree of induction was in the order of 100 mg/kg < 200 mg/kg < 300 mg/kg. However, when compared with the positive control group, the domestic cooking gas at the tested doses was not as potent as sodium arsenite in its ability to induce enzyme activity and mPCEs formation. Limited histopathological analysis of liver samples from treated and untreated mice showed distended blood vessels, necrosis and hepatocellular degeneration in the groups treated with high doses of domestic gas or sodium arsenite as compared with the untreated group. Our findings suggest that the domestic cooking gas has some degree of clastogenic and hepatotoxic activities in mice. Health risks may therefore be associated with long-term occupational and / or domestic exposure in humans.

  18. Investment Decisions and Offspring Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Bogan, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Economic research has documented many economic affects of offspring gender on parental behavior. However, an open question exists as to whether offspring gender has any influence on parental investment decision making. Specifically, I investigate whether female offspring have an impact on investment decisions with respect to stock and bondholding. Using a panel data set, I find that for male respondents, having only female offspring increases the probability of stockholding by over 17%. In co...

  19. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3-8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice.

  20. Quantitative effects of diet on fecal corticosterone metabolites in two strains of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte;

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of glucocorticoids excreted in feces is becoming a widespread technique for determining animal wellbeing in a wide variety of settings. In the present study an extraction protocol and an ELISA assay for quantifying fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in BALB/c and C57bl/6 mice were...... validated. Lower ratios of solvent (ethanol) to mass of fecal sample were found to be sufficient in extracting FCM compared to what has been reported previously. Feeding mice a high energy diet, high in fat content (60% of calories from fat), significantly lowered the FCM excretion, approximately halving......, but had a considerably lesser impact on data than did the difference in diet. The study demonstrates some problematic consequences of expressing FCM excretion as a measure of fecal dry mass. The study also serves to emphasize the caution that must be exercised when interpreting FCM excretion...

  1. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  2. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) is not horizontally transmitted amongst laboratory mice by cage contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligo, Jason; Brosnan, Kerry; Walker, Mindi; Emmell, Eva; Mikkelsen, S Rochelle; Burleson, Gary R; Burleson, Florence G; Volk, Amy; Weinstock, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68), a natural pathogen of mice, is being evaluated as a model of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection for use in investigation of the effects of immunomodulatory therapy on herpesvirus pathogenesis in humans. Immunosuppressive agents are used for treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases as well as for prevention of tissue rejection after organ transplantation and can result in recrudescence of latent herpesvirus infections. Prior to examination of MHV-68 as a suitable model for EBV, better characterization of the MHV-68 model was desirable. Characterization of the MHV-68 model involved development of assays for detecting virus and for demonstration of safety when present in murine colonies. Limited information is available in the literature regarding MHV-68 transmission, although recent reports indicate the virus is not horizontally spread in research facilities. To further determine transmission potential, immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice were infected with MHV-68 and co-habitated with naïve animals. Molecular pathology assays were developed to characterize the MHV-68 model and to determine viral transmission. Horizontal transmission of virus was not observed from infected animals to naïve cagemates after fluorescence microscopy assays and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Serologic analysis complemented these studies and was used as a method of monitoring infection amongst murine colonies. Overall, these findings demonstrate that MHV-68 infection can be controlled and monitored in murine research facilities, and the potential for unintentional infection is low.

  3. Assessment of post-laparotomy pain in laboratory mice by telemetric recording of heart rate and heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasermann Hans P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. Results Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with pain treatment (carprofen or flunixin, 5 mg/kg s/c bid, for 1 day or without pain relief. Controls received anesthesia and analgesics or vehicle only. Telemetrically measured locomotor activity was undisturbed in all animals, thus confirming that any pain experienced was of the intended mild level. No symptoms of pain were registered in any of the groups by scoring the animals' outer appearance or spontaneous and provoked behavior. In contrast, the group receiving no analgesic treatment after laparotomy demonstrated significant changes in telemetry electrocardiogram recordings: increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability parameters pointed to sympathetic activation and pain lasting for 24 hours. In addition, core body temperature was elevated. Body weight and food intake were reduced for 3 and 2 days, respectively. Moreover, unstructured cage territory and destroyed nests appeared for 1–2 days in an increased number of animals in this group only. In controls these parameters were not affected. Conclusion In conclusion, real-time telemetric recordings of heart rate and heart rate variability were indicative of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain and could define its duration in our mouse model. This level of pain cannot easily be detected by direct observation.

  4. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  5. Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the β1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring.

  6. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.

  7. Patterns of infection with the nematodes Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera in conventionally maintained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Bazzano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the frequency, distribution and mean intensity of the helminth fauna recovered from outbred and inbred mice conventionally maintained in Brazilian animal houses, are reported. The oxyurid nematodes Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera presented overall frequencies of 91.5% and 8.5%, respectively. The frequency of S. obvelata in animals of three groups out of the four investigated ranged from 9% to 74% and A. tetraptera from 17% to 83%, since animals of one of the groups were negative for helminths. Infections due to a single species were observed in 62% of the animals, compared to 16% related to associations. The frequency of single infections in each group varied from 58.6% to 100% whereas associations varied from 24.1% to 41.4%. The analysis of specific mean intensities showed that S. obvelata was represented by 13.35 to 66.58 specimens/host and A. tetraptera by 5.85 to 16.75 specimens/host.

  8. Chronic prenatal stress exacerbates learning and memory impairments in adult male APPswe/PS1 dE9 offspring mice who also suffer chronic stress%产前应激加剧慢性子代应激诱导的子鼠学习记忆能力损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 王正玉; 程娟; 韩振敏; 姚余有

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether chronic prenatal stress could exacerbate learning and memory impair-ments in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice who also suffer chronic stress, and if so, what the un-derlying mechanism is. Methods There were four groups: the prenatal control-offspring control group ( CC group), the prenatal control-chronic offspring stress group (CT group), the chronic prenatal stress-offspring control group ( TC group) , and the chronic prenatal stress-chronic offspring stress group ( TT group) . Morris water maze was used to investigate learning and memory impairments in mice, and the histopathologic changes in CA3 field of the hippocampus ( HE stain and Congo red stain) in hippocampus were examined under a light microscope. Fur-thermore, western blot was used to observe the expression levels of amyloid precursor protein ( APP) ,β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-βprotein (Aβ42) in hippocampus. Additionally, we also used ELISA to examine the serum levels of corticosterone in the offspring mice. Results Compared with the CC group, the results showed that CT group mice had more escape latency and swimming distance ( P  和游泳距离延长(P<0.05),平台象限游泳时间和穿越平台次数减少(P<0.05);海马CA3区损伤的神经元数目明显增加(P<0.05),排列疏松紊乱,脱失现象明显,核固缩、浓染;脑组织淀粉样斑块数目增多;海马组织APP、BACE1和Aβ42的表达量升高( P <0.05);血清皮质酮浓度升高(P<0.05)。与CT组相比, TT组小鼠的逃避潜伏期和游泳距离进一步延长(P<0.05),平台象限游泳时间和穿越平台次数进一步减少( P <0.05);脑组织淀粉样斑块和海马CA3区损伤的神经元数目进一步增加(P<0.05);海马组织APP、BACE1和Aβ42的表达量和血清皮质酮浓度进一步升高(P<0.05)。结论产前应激进一步加剧慢性应激所致的子鼠学习记忆损伤,其机制可能

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 孕期炎症刺激对子代小鼠脂质代谢及 FAT/CD36表达的影响%Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in lipid metabolism and FAT/CD36 expression in mice offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦书刚; 陈新; 贾乙; 周见至; 苏敏; 李晓辉

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the effect of prenatal expo-sure to lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) on lipid metabolism in mice offspring from the starting point of FAT/CD36 expression.Methods 8-week old C57 mice mated 2∶1, then they were caged separately , marked as preg-nancy 0 d.The pregnant mice were given single intrap-eritoneal injection of 75 μg・ kg -1 LPS, and the con-trol received injections of 0.2 mL saline .The perirenal adipose of female mice and epididymis adipose of male mice were collected in 4 w,8 w,12 w,respectively. The weight of visceral adipose tissue and the free fatty acid( FFA) and triglyceride ( TG) of adipose tissue and FAT/CD36 of offspring mice were quantitated .Results The body weight of offspring of LPS group was also significantly higher than that of NS group , and LPS group offspring displayed increased adipose tissue wet weights , the expression of TG and FFA was increased in LPS group compared with NS .Especially , prenatal exposure to inflammatory stimulation resulted in marked increase of FAT/CD36 and abnormal adipocyte development .Conclusions Inflammation induced by prenatal exposure to LPS results in increased body weight , adipose coefficient and FAT/CD36 that might develop into obesity in adult mice .These results are relevant in that anomalous local adipose tissue and FAT/CD36 regulation may be an important mechanism underlying obesity .%目的:以FAT/CD36为切入点,研究母体孕期炎症刺激对子代脂质代谢的影响。方法8周龄C57小鼠,♀♂2∶1合笼配种,d 2♀鼠分笼饲养记为在孕0 d,在孕11 d给予孕鼠一次性腹腔注射脂多糖(LPS)(75μg・ kg-1),对照组注射0.2 mL的生理盐水。分别于子鼠4、8、12周取材(♀鼠取肾周脂肪、♂鼠取附睾周围脂肪),对子代小鼠体重、内脏脂肪重量、脂肪组织和细胞中游离脂肪酸( FFA)、甘油三酯( TG)、FAT/CD36表达量进行检测。结果与NS组相比, LPS组小鼠体重、内

  11. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  12. Investigation and identification of etiologies involved in the development of acquired hydronephrosis in aged laboratory mice with the use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A. Springer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory mice develop naturally occurring lesions that affect biomedical research. Hydronephrosis is a recognized pathologic abnormality of the mouse kidney. Acquired hydronephrosis can affect any mouse, as it is caused by any naturally occurring disease that impairs free urine flow. Many etiologies leading to this condition are of particular significance to aging mice. Non-invasive ultrasound imaging detects renal pelvic dilation, renal enlargement, and parenchymal loss for pre-mortem identification of this condition. High-frequency ultrasound transducers produce high-resolution images of small structures, ideal for detecting organ pathology in mice. Using a 40 MHz linear array transducer, we obtained high-resolution images of a diversity of pathologic lesions occurring within the abdomen of seven geriatric mice with acquired hydronephrosis that enabled a determination of the underlying etiology. Etiologies diagnosed from the imaging results include pyelonephritis, neoplasia, urolithiasis, mouse urologic syndrome, and spontaneous hydronephrosis, and were confirmed at necropsy. A retrospective review of abdominal scans from an additional 149 aging mice shows that the most common etiologies associated with acquired hydronephrosis are mouse urologic syndrome and abdominal neoplasia. This report highlights the utility of high-frequency ultrasound for surveying research mice for age-related pathology, and is the first comprehensive report of multiple cases of acquired hydronephrosis in mice.

  13. 丹参素改善子痫前期模型小鼠仔代发育的实验评价%Trail Assessment of Favorable Effects of Danshensu on Offspring Growth in Preeclampsia Mice Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈杨; 胡娅莉; 张焱; 谈勇

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the favorable effects of Danshensu on offspring growth in PS/PC induced pre-eclampsia mice model. METHODS Forty-seven ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups. From days 5.5 to 16. 5 of pregnancy, each group was respectively treated as follows: control group of 12 injected with 100 μL of filtered phosphate-buffered saline into the tail vein every day; preeclampsia model group of 15 injected in the same way with 100 μL of filtered PS/PC vesicle suspension; group treated with low-dose Danshensu of 10 injected with 10 μg/g Danshensu; and group treated with high-dose Danshensu of 10 injected with 30 (μ/g Danshensu. the number of potentially viable fetuses, weight of fetuses and placentas, weight of fetal brains, nose-breech length, ponderal index (PI), cerebral index (CI) and neurons with hematoxylin-eosin(H/E) and toluidine blue-eosin (Nissl's) staining were all evaluated as indices for fetal syndrome. RESULTS We found the following changes: increased fetal body weight and length in every Danshensu treated groups, greater amelioration on maternal body weight, fetal nose-breech length and fetal brain weight in group treated with high-dose Danshensu, better changes on survival fetal number in group treated with low-dose Danshensu, and more corrected brain development in both Danshensu treated groups.CONCLUSION Conclusions: Danshensu has been proven effective in ameliorating the prognosis of fetal syndrome (FGR, fetal death and absorbed fetal) and improving curative effect of cerebral dysgenesis in the preeclampsia mice model. Moreover, it is suggested the high-dose Danshensu is moreeffective to relieving FGR in general.%目的 结合PS/PC诱导的子痫前期样小鼠模型,探讨丹参素对子痫前期模型小鼠仔代发育的改善作用.方法 随机将47只妊娠ICR鼠分为4组,模型组(12只)于妊娠第5.5天(gd 5.5)起,尾静脉给0.1 mL PS/PC至gd 16.5;对照组(15只)于gd5.5起,尾静脉给生理盐水至gd 16.5

  14. Identification and sequencing of a novel rodent gammaherpesvirus that establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Joy; Zhao, Guoyan; Nelson, Christopher A; Coder, Penny; Droit, Lindsay; Handley, Scott A; Johnson, L Steven; Vachharajani, Punit; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Wang, David; Fremont, Daved H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2011-03-01

    Gammaherpesviruses encode numerous immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to their ability to evade the host immune response and establish persistent, lifelong infections. As the human gammaherpesviruses are strictly species specific, small animal models of gammaherpesvirus infection, such as murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (γHV68) infection, are important for studying the roles of gammaherpesvirus immune evasion genes in in vivo infection and pathogenesis. We report here the genome sequence and characterization of a novel rodent gammaherpesvirus, designated rodent herpesvirus Peru (RHVP), that shares conserved genes and genome organization with γHV68 and the primate gammaherpesviruses but is phylogenetically distinct from γHV68. RHVP establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice. Additionally, RHVP contains multiple open reading frames (ORFs) not present in γHV68 that have sequence similarity to primate gammaherpesvirus immunomodulatory genes or cellular genes. These include ORFs with similarity to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), C-type lectins, and the mouse mammary tumor virus and herpesvirus saimiri superantigens. As these ORFs may function as immunomodulatory or virulence factors, RHVP presents new opportunities for the study of mechanisms of immune evasion by gammaherpesviruses.

  15. 产前应激促进慢性应激诱导的子代鼠海马β-淀粉样蛋白形成%Prenatal stress promotes formation of chronic stress-induced hippocampal amyloid β protein in offspring mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正玉; 韩振敏; 唐伟; 姚余有

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨产前应激是否能促进慢性应激诱导的6月龄雄性子代鼠海马β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)形成及其作用机制. 方法 以APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因小鼠为研究对象,将雄性APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因子代鼠根据产前是否应激和子代鼠是否慢性应激分为产前应激-子代慢性应激(TT)组、产前应激-子代正常处理(TC)组、产前正常处理-子代慢性应激(CT)组和产前正常处理-子代正常处理(CC)组,每组18只.采用刚果红染色检查子代鼠脑组织的淀粉样斑块;采用Western blotting检测海马组织磷酸化真核翻译起始因子2的α亚单位(p-eIF2α)、磷酸化蛋白激酶R样内质网激酶(p-PERK)、葡萄糖调节蛋白78(Grp78)和淀粉样前体蛋白β位点分裂酶1(BACE1)的表达水平;采用ELISA法检测Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平;采用荧光酶标仪检测BACE1活性. 结果 与CC组相比,CT组、TT组、TC组小鼠脑组织淀粉样斑块数目增多.与CC组相比,CT组小鼠海马组织p-eIF2α、p-PERK、Grp78、BACE1、Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与CT组相比,TT组海马组织p-eIF2α、p-PERK、Grp78、BACE1、Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平进一步升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).各组小鼠海马组织BACE1活性比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 产前应激可促进慢性应激诱导的6月龄雄性APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因小鼠子代鼠Aβ生成增多,其机制可能是产前应激通过促进子代鼠海马神经元内质网应激,激活PERK,引起eIF2α磷酸化,促进BACE1表达增加,从而促进Aβ生成.%Objective To explore whether prenatal stress promotes formation of chronic stress-induced hippocampal amyloid β (Aβ) protein in 6-month-old male offspring mice and its mechanism.Methods The APPswe/PSIdE9 double transgenic mice were divided into 4 groups according to the prenatal stress and offspring mice stress:prenatal control-offspring control group (CC

  16. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in

  17. A specific polymerase chain reaction based on the gyrB gene sequence and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Pasteurella pneumotropica isolates from laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Ueno, Masami; Takakura, Akira; Itoh, Toshio

    2007-03-01

    For a molecular identification and typing tool, we developed a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the gyrB gene sequence and a subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using the products amplified from the specific PCR to facilitate discrimination of biotypes of Pasteurella pneumotropica from laboratory mice. Appropriate PCR products, a 1039-basepair fragment for biotype Jawetz and a 1033-basepair fragment for biotype Heyl, were amplified by use of the primers CZO-1 and NJO-2 from all 105 P. pneumotropica isolates tested and the 2 reference strains but not from other bacterial species tested. MspI digestion of PCR-generated products showed 3 RFLP patterns among the 105 isolates, and these patterns correlated with the biotype of the isolate (RFLP pattern 1, biotype Jawetz; RFLP pattern 2, biotype Heyl; and RFLP pattern 3, biotype Jawetz with Beta-hemolytic activity). Our procedure identifies and biotypes isolates of P. pneumotropica from laboratory mice, using simple PCR and enzymatic restriction techniques. Therefore, this procedure is useful as a rapid identification and biotyping tool for isolates of P. pneumotropica from laboratory mice.

  18. Novel Helicobacter species H.japonicum isolated from laboratory mice from Japan induces typhlocolitis and lower bowel carcinoma in C57BL/129 IL10-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zeli; Feng, Yan; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Sheh, Alexander; Cheaney, Lenzie E; Kaufman, Christian A; Gong, Guanyu; Paster, Bruce J; Fox, James G

    2016-12-01

    A novel Helicobacter species Helicobacter japonicum was isolated from the stomach and intestines of clinically normal mice received from three institutes from Japan. The novel Helicobacter sp. was microaerobic, grew at 37°C and 42°C, was catalase and oxidase positive, but urease negative. It is most closely related to the 16S rRNA gene of H.muridarum (98.6%); to the 23S rRNA gene of H.hepaticus (97.9%); to the hsp60 gene of H.typhlonius (87%). The novel Helicobacter sp. has in vitro cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) activity; its cdtB gene sequence has 83.8% identity with that of H.hepaticus The whole genome sequence of H.japonicum MIT 01-6451 has a 2.06-Mb genome length with a 37.5% G + C content. When the organism was inoculated into C57BL/129 IL10(-/-) mice, it was cultured from the stomach, colon and cecum of infected mice at 6 and 10 weeks post-infection. The cecum had the highest H.japonicum colonization levels by quantitative PCR. The histopathology of the lower bowel was characterized by moderate to severe inflammation, mild edema, epithelial defects, mild to severe hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. Inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL17a, as well as iNOS were significantly upregulated in the cecal tissue of infected mice. These results demonstrate that the novel H.japonicum can induce inflammatory bowel disease and carcinoma in IL10(-/-) mice and highlights the importance of identifying novel Helicobacter spp. especially when they are introduced from outside mouse colonies from different geographic locations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Chronic maternal inflammation or high-fat-feeding programs offspring obesity in a sex-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, A; Hougaard, K S; Kjølby, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current world-wide obesity epidemic partially results from a vicious circle whereby maternal obesity during pregnancy predisposes the offspring for accelerated weight gain and development of metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether low-grade inflammation......, characteristic of the obese state, provides a causal role for this disastrous fetal programming in mice. METHODS: We exposed pregnant and lactating C57BL/6JBom female mice to either high-fat diet (HFD), or continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent trigger of innate immunity, and studied offspring...... phenotypes. RESULTS: Both maternal LPS or HFD treatments rendered the offspring hyperphagic and inept of coping with a HFD challenge during adulthood, increasing their adiposity and weight gain. The metabolic effects were more pronounced in female offspring, while exposed male offspring mounted a larger...

  20. Implantation of radiotelemetry transmitters yielding data on ECG, heart rate, core body temperature and activity in free-moving laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarovic, Nikola; Jirkof, Paulin; Rettich, Andreas; Arras, Margarete

    2011-11-21

    The laboratory mouse is the animal species of choice for most biomedical research, in both the academic sphere and the pharmaceutical industry. Mice are a manageable size and relatively easy to house. These factors, together with the availability of a wealth of spontaneous and experimentally induced mutants, make laboratory mice ideally suited to a wide variety of research areas. In cardiovascular, pharmacological and toxicological research, accurate measurement of parameters relating to the circulatory system of laboratory animals is often required. Determination of heart rate, heart rate variability, and duration of PQ and QT intervals are based on electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. However, obtaining reliable ECG curves as well as physiological data such as core body temperature in mice can be difficult using conventional measurement techniques, which require connecting sensors and lead wires to a restrained, tethered, or even anaesthetized animal. Data obtained in this fashion must be interpreted with caution, as it is well known that restraining and anesthesia can have a major artifactual influence on physiological parameters. Radiotelemetry enables data to be collected from conscious and untethered animals. Measurements can be conducted even in freely moving animals, and without requiring the investigator to be in the proximity of the animal. Thus, known sources of artifacts are avoided, and accurate and reliable measurements are assured. This methodology also reduces interanimal variability, thus reducing the number of animals used, rendering this technology the most humane method of monitoring physiological parameters in laboratory animals. Constant advancements in data acquisition technology and implant miniaturization mean that it is now possible to record physiological parameters and locomotor activity continuously and in realtime over longer periods such as hours, days or even weeks. Here, we describe a surgical technique for implantation of a

  1. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...

  2. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  3. Perinatal caffeine, acting on maternal adenosine A(1 receptors, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that pregnant wild type (WT mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1 receptor gene (A(1RHz. In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1 receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1 receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1 receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.

  4. Maternal obesity alters endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in offspring pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Jumpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Kapur, Sabrina R; Pombo, Joaquim; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is increasing in parallel with obesity rates. Stress-related alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), are associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate ER imbalance in the pancreas of a mice model of adult and perinatal diet-induced obesity. Twenty female C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control (Con) or obesogenic (Ob) diets prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring were weaned onto Con or Ob diets up to 6 months post-partum. Then, after sacrifice, plasma biochemical analyses, gene expression, and protein concentrations were measured in pancreata. Offspring of Ob-fed mice had significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001) and plasma leptin (p < 0.001) and decreased insulin (p < 0.01) levels. Maternal obesogenic diet decreased the total and phosphorylated Eif2α and increased spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Pancreatic gene expression of downstream regulators of UPR (EDEM, homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident (HERP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3BI/LC3BII) were differently disrupted by obesogenic feeding in both mothers and offspring (from p < 0.1 to p < 0.001). Maternal obesity and Ob feeding in their offspring alter UPR in NAFPD, with involvement of proapoptotic and autophagy-related markers. Upstream and downstream regulators of PERK, IRE1α, and ATF6 pathways were affected differently following the obesogenic insults.

  5. Offspring of Depressed Parents: 20 Years Later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weissman, Myrna M; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Nomura, Yoko; Pilowsky, Daniel; Verdeli, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. Method...

  6. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, Kyle J.; Julie M. Wells; Kho, Alvin T.; Philip, Vivek M.; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H.; Bult, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns w...

  7. Helminth Parasites of Conventionally Maintained Laboratory Mice: II- Inbred Strains with an Adaptation of the Anal Swab Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide Gonçalves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens recovered from inbred mice strains, namely C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10, CBA, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He, conventionally maintained in two institutional animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed and compared, regarding their prevalences and mean intensities.Three parasite species were observed: the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata and the cestode Vampirolepis nana. A modification of the anal swab technique is also proposed for the first time as an auxiliary tool for the detection of oxyurid eggs in mice

  8. Maternal obesity impairs hippocampal BDNF production and spatial learning performance in young mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozuka, Yusuke; Kumon, Mami; Wada, Etsuko; Onodera, Masafumi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Wada, Keiji

    2010-10-01

    Maternal obesity may affect the child's long-term development and health, increasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition to the metabolic and endocrine systems, recent reports have indicated that maternal obesity also modulates neural circuit formation in the offspring. However, this not yet been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effect of diet-induced maternal obesity on hippocampal development and function in the mouse offspring. Adult female mice were fed either a normal diet (ND, 4% fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 32% fat) before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring were fed with a normal diet. We found that HFD offspring showed increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus during early postnatal development. HFD offspring had less brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus than ND offspring. BDNF has been shown to play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation, plasticity and hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions such as spatial learning and memory. Using retroviral labeling, we demonstrated that dendritic arborization of new hippocampal neurons was impaired in the young HFD offspring. Finally, we evaluated cognitive function in these offspring using hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks. The Barnes maze test demonstrated that HFD offspring showed impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the young but not adult period. This study, using a mouse model, indicates that diet-induced maternal obesity impairs hippocampal BDNF production and spatial cognitive function in young offspring, possibly due to their metabolic and oxidative changes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of metallomic and metabolomic approaches in exposure experiments on laboratory mice for environmental metal toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-02-01

    Metals have a central role in biological systems, regulating numerous cellular processes, and in other cases having toxic or deleterious effects on the metabolism. Hence, the study of metal-induced changes in cellular metabolic pathways is crucial to understanding the biological response associated with environmental issues. In this context, the finding of biomarkers has great interest, representing -omics techniques, such as metallomics and metabolomics, powerful tools for this purpose. The present work evaluates the exposure of mice Mus musculus to toxic metals (As, Cd and Hg), considering the changes induced in both the metallome and metabolome as a consequence of the high genetic homology between Mus musculus/Mus spretus mice, which allows the use of the database from M. musculus to identify the proteins and metabolites expressed by M. spretus. For this purpose a metallomic approach based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in combination with other complementary orthogonal separation techniques and heteroelement monitoring by ICP-ORS-qMS was performed, followed by identification of metallobiomolecules by organic mass spectrometry. In addition, simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma was accomplished by tandem (double) SEC-(dual) affinity chromatography (AF)-HPLC and online isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-ORS-qMS. Finally, the simultaneous changes in metabolic expression in mice caused by metal exposure (metabolome) were considered, using direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QqQ-TOF-MS) of extracts from mice plasma. Subsequently altered metabolites were identified using MS/MS experiments. The results obtained under controlled conditions were extrapolated to homologous free-living mice captured in Doñana National Park (DNP) and surroundings (southwest Spain) affected by As, Cd and Hg pollution. In summary, such studies are needed to understand the effect of heavy metal exposure and cope with heavy metal

  10. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Maung Liam; Grech Katrina; Read Andrew F

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory...

  11. The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde%甲醛致扩张性简单串联重复序列突变小鼠子代对四氯化碳和苯暴露易感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘云儒; 周印; 李爱萍; 周建伟

    2011-01-01

    为5.88‰±4.55‰,F10代为8.25‰±2.06‰;C组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.50‰±6.99‰,F10代为10.67‰±1.16‰;H组500 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为7.88‰±3.09‰,F10代为9.20‰±1.30‰;H组1000 mg/kg苯染毒组:F5代为9.63‰±4.34‰,F10代为13.33‰±2.08‰)随苯剂量的增加而增加,与溶剂对照组(C组F5代为1.13‰±0.35‰,F10代为1.20‰±0.82‰;H组F5代为1.25‰±0.46‰,F10代为1.33‰±1.03‰)的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 甲醛暴露引起的基因组ESTR突变可改变子代小鼠对CCl4和苯的易感性.ESTR突变可能是影响机体对化学物易感性的生物学标志,其分子机制有待进一步阐明.%Objective To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). Methods F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 ×2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group(group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light microscope; the micronucleus in sternum bone marrow cells as the biomarker of benzene blood toxicity were measured. Results ALT and AST activities in group C of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, ALT in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.05%, 0.50%, 5.00% CCl4, AST in groups C and H of F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4 were significantly higher than those in controls, respectively (P<0.05); as compared to the control, hepatic SOD activities in group C of F5 and F10 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, in group H of F5 mice exposed to 0.50% and 5.00% CCl4, and

  12. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos González-Sánchez; Juan-Carlos Fraile; Javier Pérez-Turiel; Ellen Damm; Schneider, Jochen G; Heiko Zimmermann; Daniel Schmitt; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Her...

  13. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring.

  14. Effects of Fetal Exposure to Asian Sand Dust on Development and Reproduction in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Arashidani, Keiichi; He, Miao; Takano, Hirohisa; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-11-23

    In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproduction in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproduction of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproduction of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.

  15. A review of reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Okuda, Hirokazu; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in laboratory animals. AgNPs showed testicular/sperm toxicity in males and ovarian and embryonic toxicity in females. Maternal injection of AgNPs delayed physical development and impaired cognitive behavior in offspring. Ag was accumulated in the testes after administration of AgNPs. AgNPs were identified in the visceral yolk sac after administration during early gestation in mice. Radiolabeled AgNPs were detected in placenta, breast milk, and pre- and postnatal offspring after injection during late gestation in rats. Ag in the ionic form, and possibly also particles, was suggested to be bioavailable. Although this review provides initial information on the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of AgNPs, data is still very limited. Further studies using state-of-the-art methodologies and the relevant routes and doses for human exposure are required.

  16. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mouse polyomavirus-specific antibodies in laboratory mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W.J. Broeders; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of IgM and IgG serum antibodies to mouse polyomavirus (MPV). To evaluate the potential of this ELISA for the screening of laboratory rodents, serum samples from specific pathogen free (SPF) BA

  17. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Josefsen, Knud; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7...... groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16-27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from...... the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p gluten-free group. The islets...

  18. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Josefsen, Knud; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7...... groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16 - 27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from...... the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p gluten-free group. The islets...

  19. Fertilization is not a new beginning: the relationship between sperm longevity and offspring performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Crean

    Full Text Available Sperm are the most diverse cell type known: varying not only among- and within- species, but also among- and within-ejaculates of a single male. Recently, the causes and consequences of variability in sperm phenotypes have received much attention, but the importance of within-ejaculate variability remains largely unknown. Correlative evidence suggests that reduced within-ejaculate variation in sperm phenotype increases a male's fertilization success in competitive conditions; but the transgenerational consequences of within-ejaculate variation in sperm phenotype remain relatively unexplored. Here we examine the relationship between sperm longevity and offspring performance in a marine invertebrate with external fertilization, Styela plicata. Offspring sired by longer-lived sperm had higher performance compared to offspring sired by freshly-extracted sperm of the same ejaculate, both in the laboratory and the field. This indicates that within-ejaculate differences in sperm longevity can influence offspring fitness - a source of variability in offspring phenotypes that has not previously been considered. Links between sperm phenotype and offspring performance may constrain responses to selection on either sperm or offspring traits, with broad ecological and evolutionary implications.

  20. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...... prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100μg; ≥1.4mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6μg; ≥0.3mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain......, desquamation of epithelial cells with concomitantly increased barrier permeability of the alveolar/blood as well as DNA damage. Oxidative stress was shown via a strong increase in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione in the pulmonary tissue. Two months post-exposure revealed no obvious toxicity for 12...

  1. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown that the composit......The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown...... that the composition of the GM is related to genetics to a certain extent. We hypothesized that the GM similarity in a group of mice born by mothers not being sisters would be lower than that in a group born by mothers being sisters. The lower similarity could lead to clustering of the GM of mice born by non......-sisters according to their mothers, while such clustering would not be visible if the mothers were sisters. We used 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) polymerase chain reaction-derived amplicon profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to study the GM composition in caecum samples of 33 eight-week-old C57...

  2. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown that the composit......The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown...... that the composition of the GM is related to genetics to a certain extent. We hypothesized that the GM similarity in a group of mice born by mothers not being sisters would be lower than that in a group born by mothers being sisters. The lower similarity could lead to clustering of the GM of mice born by non......-sisters according to their mothers, while such clustering would not be visible if the mothers were sisters. We used 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) polymerase chain reaction-derived amplicon profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to study the GM composition in caecum samples of 33 eight-week-old C57...

  3. Effects of different types of bedding materials on behavioral development in laboratory CD1 mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito; Ogata, Akio; Inomata, Akiko; Nakae, Dai

    2014-10-01

    Male and female mice were housed in cages, containing different types of bedding materials (wood flakes or pulp chips), from 4 weeks of age in the F0 generation to 11 weeks of age in the F1 generation; selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation. There were no adverse effects of bedding materials on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratios at the time of birth. With regard to behavioral development parameters, bedding materials did not influence any variables (p > 0.05) in both sexes. Regarding exploratory behavior in the F1 generation, number of defecations significantly varied (p = 0.0203) with bedding materials in males at 3 weeks of age. The number of horizontal activities also significantly varied (p = 0.0342) with bedding materials in males at 8 weeks of age. Multiple-T water maze performance data indicated that the time required was significantly shortened across trials in pulp chips group than wood flakes group in males (p = 0.0211). Moreover, all spontaneous behavior variables in males significantly varied with bedding materials, particularly the average time of movement was significantly different (p = 0.0037) in distance between parallel lines of types of bedding materials in the F1 generation. The present study shows that bedding materials influence the neurobehavioral development in mice.

  4. Gestational hypothyroidism increases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Eduardo A; Carreño, Leandro J; Cortes, Claudia M; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Cisternas, Pablo A; Cautivo, Kelly M; Catalán, Tamara P; Opazo, M Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Berman, Joan W; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4(+) and CD8(+) infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring.

  5. Polyandry enhances offspring survival in an infanticidal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, Ines; Ylönen, Hannu

    2010-02-23

    The adaptive significance of polyandry is an intensely debated subject in sexual selection. For species with male infanticidal behaviour, it has been hypothesized that polyandry evolved as female counterstrategy to offspring loss: by mating with multiple males, females may conceal paternity and so prevent males from killing putative offspring. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of this hypothesis in a combined laboratory and field study, and show that multiple mating seems to reduce the risk of infanticide in female bank voles Myodes glareolus. Our findings thus indicate that females of species with non-resource based mating systems, in which males provide nothing but sperm, but commit infanticide, can gain non-genetic fitness benefits from polyandry.

  6. Sex-Biased Parent-Offspring Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo, T.; Gomendio, Montserrat; Medina, Rosario

    1992-01-01

    In species showing sexual dimorphism, parents may obtain different fitness returns per unit of parental expenditure from sons and daughters. Under these circumstances, parents are expected to invest extra resources in offspring of the most profitable sex. However, it is unclear whether sex-biased expenditure is the result of selection acting on parents, their offspring, or both. Current parent-offspring conflict theory is used to investigate whether sex biases in parental expenditure should b...

  7. Little appetite for obesity: meta-analysis of the effects of maternal obesogenic diets on offspring food intake and body mass in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Blair, H; Kenyon, P; Uller, T; Raubenheimer, D; Nakagawa, S

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that maternal effects contribute to variation in individual food intake and metabolism. For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. However, the consistency of effects and the causes of variation among studies remain poorly understood. After a systematic search for relevant publications, we selected 53 studies on rats and mice for a meta-analysis. We extracted and analysed data on the differences in food intake and body weight between offspring of dams fed obesogenic diets and dams fed standard diets during gestation. We used meta-regression to study predictors of the strength and direction of the effect sizes. We found that experimental offspring tended to eat more than control offspring but this difference was small and not statistically significant (0.198, 95% highest posterior density (HPD)=-0.118-0.627). However, offspring from dams on obesogenic diets were significantly heavier than offspring of control dams (0.591, 95% HPD=0.052-1.056). Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant influences of tested predictor variables (for example, use of choice vs no-choice maternal diet, offspring sex) on differences in offspring appetite. Dietary manipulations that extended into lactation had the largest effect on body weight. Subgroup analysis revealed that high protein to non-protein ratio of the maternal diet may promote increased body weight in experimental offspring in comparison with control offspring; low protein content in the maternal chow can have opposite effect. Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. Nevertheless, we found an effect on offspring body weight, consistent with permanent alterations of offspring metabolism in response to maternal diet. Additionally, it appears that protein content of the obesogenic diet and timing

  8. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

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    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  9. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew P.G.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A.; Hesketh, John E.; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring. PMID:26007332

  10. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Juliane; Schumann, Sara; Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  11. Gender-dependent effects of maternal immune activation on the behavior of mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid C Y Xuan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior.

  12. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities.

  13. Perinatal complications in offspring of psychotic parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdal, G M; Rosenthal, D; Wender, P H; Schulsinger, F

    1977-05-01

    The birth records of 78 subjects born to psychotic parents and 72 subjects born to normal parents were studied. No significant differences in the rates of pregnancy and birth complications (PBCs) were found between the offspring of psychotic parents and normal control parents. There were no differences between offspring born to psychotic mothers compared to psychotic fathers. Neither the onset of the parent's illness, nor the mother's age at delivery, nor the sex of the offspring seemed to influence the rate of PBCs. The offspring of chronic schizophrenic mothers and manic-depressive fathers had lower PBC rates than the offspring of parents of other diagnostic categories. The parents of these two groups, which were of a limited size, did not differ on any variable of significance, excepting the time of their first psychiatric hospital admission.

  14. Efficient production of intersubspecific hybrid mice and embryonic stem cells by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Akie; Honda, Arata; Ohkawa, Mika; Hirose, Michiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Yuzuriha, Misako; Miki, Hiromi; Mochida, Keiji; Inoue, Kimiko; Abe, Kuniya; Ito, Masao; Ogura, Atsuo

    2007-09-01

    Recently, mice and embryonic stem (ES) cells with allelic polymorphisms have been used extensively in the field of genetics and developmental biology. In this study, we examined whether intersubspecific hybrid mice and ES cells with these genotypes can be efficiently produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from wild-derived strains, JF1 (Mus musculus molossinus), MSM (M. m. molossinus), HMI (M. m. castaneus), and SWN (M. m. spp.), were directly injected into mature oocytes from laboratory mice ([C57BL/6 x DBA2]F1; M. m. domesticus). The in vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of F1 embryos was not significantly different among the groups (P > 0.05), and term offspring were efficiently obtained in all groups (27%-34% of transferred embryos). However, the mean body and placental weights of the offspring differed significantly with genotype (P cell lines. The ES cell lines were established at a high efficiency (9 lines from 20 blastocysts) and their allelic polymorphisms were confirmed. Thus, ICSI using cryopreserved spermatozoa allows the efficient and immediate production of a number of F1 hybrid mice and ES cell lines, which can be used for polymorphic analysis of mouse genetics.

  15. Perinatal 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure sensitizes offspring to angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Andrea C; Goens, M Beth; Carbett, Eleanor; Walker, Mary K

    2008-01-01

    In utero and lactational exposure of mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to cardiac hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal TCDD exposure increases the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease when offspring are exposed to a common cardiovascular disease risk factor, angiotensin II (Ang II). Pregnant C57BL/6N mice were exposed to corn oil (control) or 6.0 microg/kg TCDD on gestation day 14.5. Male offspring were then exposed to a subpressor (0.1 mg/kg/day) or pressor (0.7 mg/kg/day) dose of Ang II at 3.5 months and cardiac morphology and blood pressure analyzed, respectively. Perinatal TCDD exposure increased left ventricular cavity dilation during diastole, and wall thickness during diastole and systole. While Ang II stimulated an increase in wall thickness, the degree of increase was equivalent between control and TCDD offspring. In contrast, perinatal TCDD exposure did not alter basal blood pressure. However, Ang II increased systolic blood pressure more rapidly and to a greater degree in TCDD offspring. Further, Ang II stimulated renal myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition to a greater degree, and tended to increase procollagen I mRNA in TCDD offspring, compared to controls. These data suggest that perinatal TCDD exposure increases the susceptibility of offspring to renal fibrosis and hypertension in adulthood.

  16. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Scott Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn isolated from an AD brain (96-41. In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1-4 months post-infection (pi. Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3 had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology.

  17. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher S; Joyce, Timothy A; Hammond, Christine J; Matta, Hazem; Cahn, David; Appelt, Denah M; Balin, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) isolated from an AD brain (96-41). In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1-4 months post-infection (pi). Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3) had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology.

  18. Social Isolation-Induced Territorial Aggression in Male Offspring Is Enhanced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Moriya, Nozomu; Takeda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15) or clean air (control group: n = 15) for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident-intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications for pregnant women

  19. Social Isolation-Induced Territorial Aggression in Male Offspring Is Enhanced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yokota

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15 or clean air (control group: n = 15 for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident-intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications

  20. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

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    Mathias Kölliker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  1. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  2. Effects of (+) SKF 10,047, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, on anxiety,tested in two laboratory models in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José Francisco; Beltrán, David; Cavas, María

    2012-01-01

    Recently, sigma-1 receptor modulators have been considered drugs with an interesting therapeutic potential for the treatment of anxiety. However, there is no clear information in preclinical studies about the possible effects of sigma-1 ligands on anxiety in experimental animal models. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of (+)SKF 10,047 (2-8 mg/kg, ip), a sigma-1 agonist, on anxiety, tested in two classical laboratory models (social interaction test and elevated plus maze). (+)SKF 10,047 (8 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease of social investigation in the "social interaction test", whereas in the "elevated plus maze", the drug (4 and 8 mg/kg) provoked a significant reduction in the number of entries into open arms, as well as in the time spent in this area, as compared with the control group, without affecting motor activity. Overall, these findings indicate that (+)SKF 10,047 exhibits an anxiogenic-like profile in mice. It is suggested that anxiogenic effects of this sigma-1 ligand could be related to its potent ability to modulate diverse neurotransmitter systems involved in anxiety regulation.

  3. Bone loss in adult offspring induced by low-dose exposure to teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchinsky, Arkady; Mizrahi, Limor; Savion, Shoshana; Shahar, Ron; Toder, Vladimir; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2012-05-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy was shown by numerous studies to result in the birth of offspring exhibiting altered bone characteristics, which are indicative of bone loss. We hypothesized that not only maternal malnutrition but also some developmental toxicants (teratogens) given at a dose inducing neither structural anomalies nor growth retardation can detrimentally affect skeletal health in adult offspring. To check this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to a single injection of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) (a teratogen capable of inducing phocomelia of the hind limbs) at a sub-threshold teratogenic dose. Micro-computed tomography scanning revealed that femora of 5-month-old male offspring exposed in uterus to 5-AZA had trabecular microarchitecture indicative of bone loss. Furthermore, exposure to 5-AZA increased the susceptibility of offspring to postnatal chronic mild stress, which has been shown to induce bone loss in mice. While exploring possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we observed that the expression of some microRNAs, which have been demonstrated as regulators of key osteoblastogenic genes, was altered in hind limb buds of embryos exposed to 5-AZA. Furthermore, the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in femoral stromal/osteoblastic cells of 5-month-old offspring of 5-AZA-treated females was found to be increased. Collectively, this study implies for the first time that single low-dose exposure to a teratogen can induce bone loss in adult offspring, possibly via alteration of embryonic microRNAs and RANKL expression.

  4. High-Fat Diet During Mouse Pregnancy and Lactation Targets GIP-Regulated Metabolic Pathways in Adult Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Michael; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Isken, Frank; Nitz, Barbara; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Osterhoff, Martin A; Grallert, Harald; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2016-03-01

    Maternal obesity is a worldwide problem associated with increased risk of metabolic diseases in the offspring. Genetic deletion of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice due to specific changes in energy and fat cell metabolism. We investigated whether GIP-associated pathways may be targeted by fetal programming and mimicked the situation by exposing pregnant mice to control or HFD during pregnancy (intrauterine [IU]) and lactation (L). Male wild-type (WT) and Gipr(-/-) offspring received control chow until 25 weeks of age followed by 20 weeks of HFD. Gipr(-/-) offspring of mice exposed to HFD during IU/L became insulin resistant and obese and exhibited increased adipose tissue inflammation and decreased peripheral tissue substrate utilization after being reintroduced to HFD, similar to WT mice on regular chow during IU/L. They showed decreased hypothalamic insulin sensitivity compared with Gipr(-/-) mice on control diet during IU/L. DNA methylation analysis revealed increased methylation of CpG dinucleotides and differential transcription factor binding of promoter regions of genes involved in lipid oxidation in the muscle of Gipr(-/-) offspring on HFD during IU/L, which were inversely correlated with gene expression levels. Our data identify GIP-regulated metabolic pathways that are targeted by fetal programming.

  5. Effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure during gestation on both maternal and offspring behavior.

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    Kazuya eTomihara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption during gestation impairs the physical and behavioral development of offspring. However, it is unclear whether endocrine disruption also impairs maternal behavior and in turn further contributes to the developmental and behavioral dysfunction of offspring. We orally administered the synthetic non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES to pregnant female C57BL/6J mice from gestation day 11–17 and then investigated the maternal behavior of mothers. In addition, we examined the direct effects of in utero DES exposure and the indirect effects of aberrant maternal behavior on offspring using the cross-fostering method. In mothers, endocrine disruption during gestation decreased maternal behavior. In addition, endocrine disruption of foster mother influenced anxiety-related behavior and passive avoidance learning of pups regardless of their exposure in utero. The influence of DES exposure in utero, irrespective of exposure to the foster mother, was also shown in female offspring. These results demonstrate the risks of endocrine disruptors on both mother as well as offspring and suggest that developmental deficits may stem from both in utero toxicity and aberrant maternal care.

  6. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring IQ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breslau, Naomi; Paneth, Nigel; Lucia, Victoria C; Paneth-Pollak, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking in pregnancy lowers birthweight. It is unclear, however, whether smoking during pregnancy lowers offspring IQ, and, if it does, whether it is through the smoking effect on fetal growth...

  7. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose...... with a spouse without known diabetes. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance tests and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGT) in non-diabetic offspring. Birthweight and length obtained from birth records. Results. Among 122 offspring with maternal history of T2DM, 14.8% had diabetes compared...

  8. Chronic schistosomiasis during pregnancy epigenetically reprograms T-cell differentiation in offspring of infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Kathrin; Perchermeier, Sophie; Bhattacharjee, Sonakshi; Harb, Hani; Adler, Thure; Istvanffy, Rouzanna; Loffredo-Verde, Eva; R A Oostendorp, Robert; Renz, Harald; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa

    2017-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a nontransplacental helminth infection. Chronic infection during pregnancy suppresses allergic airway responses in offspring. We addressed the question whether in utero exposure to chronic schistosome infection (Reg phase) in mice affects B-cell and T-cell development. Therefore, we focused our analyses on T-cell differentiation capacity induced by epigenetic changes in promoter regions of signature cytokines in offspring. Here, we show that naïve T cells from offspring of schistosome infected female mice had a strong capacity to differentiate into TH 1 cells, whereas TH 2 differentiation was impaired. In accordance, reduced levels of histone acetylation of the IL-4 promoter regions were observed in naïve T cells. To conclude, our mouse model revealed distinct epigenetic changes within the naïve T-cell compartment affecting TH 2 and TH 1 cell differentiation in offspring of mothers with chronic helminth infection. These findings could eventually help understand how helminths alter T-cell driven immune responses induced by allergens, bacterial or viral infections, as well as vaccines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  10. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  11. Maternal periconceptional and gestational low protein diet affects mouse offspring growth, cardiovascular and adipose phenotype at 1 year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Watkins

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in 1 year aging offspring, evaluating mechanisms regulating growth and adiposity. Isocaloric LPD (9% casein or normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD was fed to female MF-1 mice either exclusively during oocyte maturation (for 3.5 days prior to mating; Egg-LPD, Egg-NPD, respectively, throughout gestation (LPD, NPD or exclusively during preimplantation development (for 3.5 days post mating; Emb-LPD. LPD and Emb-LPD female offspring were significantly lighter and heavier than NPD females respectively for up to 52 weeks. Egg-LPD, LPD and Emb-LPD offspring displayed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure at 52 weeks compared to respective controls (Egg-NPD, NPD. LPD females had significantly reduced inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad: body weight ratios compared to NPD females. Expression of the insulin receptor (Insr and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r in retroperitoneal fat was significantly elevated in Emb-LPD females (P<0.05, whilst Emb-LPD males displayed significantly decreased expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 gene compared to NPD offspring. LPD females displayed significantly increased expression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue when compared to NPD offspring. Our results demonstrate that aging offspring body weight, cardiovascular and adiposity homeostasis can be programmed by maternal periconceptional nutrition. These adverse outcomes further exemplify the criticality of dietary behaviour around the time of conception on long-term offspring

  12. Polyandry and fitness of offspring reared under varying nutritional stress in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Schaus, Jennifer M; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Snedden, W Andrew; Brady, Pamela L

    2002-10-01

    Females, by mating with more than one male in their lifetime, may reduce their risk of receiving sperm from genetically incompatible sires or increase their prospects of obtaining sperm from genetically superior sires. Although there is evidence of both kinds of genetic benefits in crickets, their relative importance remains unclear, and the extent to which experimentally manipulated levels of polyandry in the laboratory correspond to those that occur in nature remain unknown. We measured lifetime polyandry of free-living female decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and conducted an experiment to determine whether polyandry leads to an increase in offspring viability. We experimentally manipulated both the levels of polyandry and opportunities for females to select among males, randomly allocating the offspring of experimental females to high-food-stress or low-food-stress regimes to complete their development. Females exhibited a high degree of polyandry, mating on average with more than seven different males during their lifetime and up to as many as 15. Polyandry had no effect on either the developmental time or survival of offspring. However, polyandrous females produced significantly heavier sons than those of monandrous females, although there was no difference in the adult mass of daughters. There was no significant interaction between mating treatment and offspring nutritional regimen in their effects on offspring mass, suggesting that benefits accruing to female polyandry are independent of the environment in which offspring develop. The sex difference in the extent to which male and female offspring benefit via their mother's polyandry may reflect possible differences in the fitness returns from sons and daughters. The larger mass gain shown by sons of polyandrous females probably leads to their increased reproductive success, either because of their increased success in sperm competition or because of their increased life span.

  13. Structural and functional characteristics of urinary tract in offspring of Balkan endemic nephropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisavljević Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN is a familial chronic progressive tubulointerstitial disease of unknown aetiology that occurs with high prevalence in endemic rural environments of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. It has been documented only in adults. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine clinical markers of BEN in children and adolescent offspring of BEN patients. Methods. Prospective clinical trial involved two groups of children and adolescents: I consisted of 30 offspring of BEN patients and II of 29 offspring of non-BEN dialysis patients, both of them living in the same South Morava region of Serbia. All of them were healthy at the time of the investigation, not receiving any drugs. The study included personal and family history, physical examination, comprehensive laboratory analyses and renal ultrasound. Blood pressure (BP was determined by using casual BP and 24 h ABPM in subjects older than 5 years. Urinary proteins were investigated by analysing microalbumin, alfa 1 microglobulin, beta 2 microglobulin and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. GFR was measured by estimated creatinine clearance and by serum Cystatin C concentrations. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, history of urinary tract infections or functional voiding disorders between these two groups. All of the studied subjects had normal BP and GFR. Renal ultrasound was abnormal only in BEN offspring (6.66% as well as increased urine concentrations of microalbumin (3.3%, alpha 1 microglobulin (10% and beta 2 microglobulin (13.3% while low molecular protein (<66,000 D was prevalent in BEN compared with non- BEN offspring (21.43% vs. 3.7%. Conclusion. Renal abnormalities in offspring of BEN patients may be an early marker of BEN. This has to be confirmed in long term follow-up of a greater number of BEN paediatric offspring.

  14. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001) in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05). Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  15. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Meise

    Full Text Available Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001 in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05. Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels.

  16. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  17. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  18. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  19. Maternal high-fat diet modulates hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis and gene expression in the PPAR pathway in the early life of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin

    2014-08-25

    Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.

  20. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  1. Maternal L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves Brain Health in Offspring from Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Oliver, Brian G; Pollock, Carol; Jones, Nicole M; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes detrimental changes associated with the development of chronic neurological diseases in the offspring as a result of oxidative mitochondrial damage. Maternal L-Carnitine administration has been shown to reduce renal oxidative stress in SE offspring, but its effect in the brain is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal L-Carnitine supplementation on brain markers of oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial energy producing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in SE offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation with or without L-Carnitine supplementation (1.5 mM in drinking water). In 1 day old male SE offspring, brain mitochondrial damage was suggested by increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced autophagosome markers; whereas at 13 weeks, enhanced brain cell damage was suggested by reduced fission and autophagosome markers, as well as increased apoptosis and DNA fragmentation markers, which were partially reversed by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. In female SE offspring, enhanced mitochondrial regeneration was suggested by decreased fission and increased fusion markers at day 1. At 13 weeks, there was an increase in brain energy demand, oxidative stress and mitochondrial turnover, reflected by the protein changes of OXPHOS complex, fission and autophagosome markers, as well as the endogenous antioxidant, which were also partially normalized by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. However, markers of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were not significantly changed. Thus L-Carnitine supplementation may benefit the brain health of the offspring from smoking mothers.

  2. Nesting materials in environmental enrichment for laboratory rats and mice%筑巢材料在实验大、小鼠环境丰荣中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孟蕾; 牛屹东

    2012-01-01

    相对于标准鼠盒,实验大、小鼠更喜好有筑巢材料的“环境丰荣”鼠盒.向标准鼠盒中放入筑巢材料,可以为大、小鼠提供筑巢、躲避、攀爬、休息的环境.因此,在实验大、小鼠饲养过程中,提供筑巢材料,是一个简单有效的丰富实验动物环境,提高实验动物福利的方法.本文就筑巢材料应用背景、近年来在啮齿类实验动物环境丰荣中的应用、对实验动物福利的影响三方面做以综述,并对今后筑巢材料在改善实验动物福利的应用前景作以展望.%Compared with the standard cages, laboratory mice and rats prefer the cages enriched with nesting materials. Nesting materials provided in conventional mouse or rat cages can benefit the rodent's wellbeing, and have been widely used in husbandry and management of laboratory mice and rats for improvement of welfare. Here, we review the background, application, and effect of nesting materials on environmental enrichment and welfare improvement for laboratory mice and rats. This review also provides a clue to improvement of laboratory animal welfare in our routine work.

  3. Exercise during pregnancy mitigates Alzheimer-like pathology in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Arne; Donath, Anja; Yarmolenko, Maksym; Uslar, Ellen; Conzen, Catharina; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Bosma, Claudius; Worm, Karl; Paulus, Werner; Keyvani, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity protects brain function in healthy individuals and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence for beneficial effects of parental exercise on the health status of their progeny is sparse and limited to nondiseased individuals. Here, we questioned whether maternal running interferes with offspring's AD-like pathology and sought to decipher the underlying mechanisms in TgCRND8 mice. Maternal stimulation was provided by voluntary wheel running vs. standard housing during pregnancy. Following 5 mo of standard housing of transgenic and wild-type offspring, their brains were examined for AD-related pathology and/or plasticity changes. Running during pregnancy reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden (-35%, P=0.017) and amyloidogenic APP processing in transgenic offspring and further improved the neurovascular function by orchestrating different Aβ transporters and increasing angiogenesis (+29%, P=0.022). This effect was accompanied by diminished inflammation, as indicated by reduced microgliosis (-20%, P=0.002) and down-regulation of other proinflammatory mediators, and resulted in less oxidative stress, as nitrotyrosine levels declined (-28%, P=0.029). Moreover, plasticity changes (in terms of up-regulation of reelin, synaptophysin, and ARC) were found not only in transgenic but also in wild-type offspring. We conclude that exercise during pregnancy provides long-lasting protection from neurodegeneration and improves brain plasticity in the otherwise unstimulated progeny.

  4. Disturbed relaxin signaling pathway and testicular dysfunction in mouse offspring upon maternal exposure to simazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Oak Park

    Full Text Available Simazine is a triazine herbicide that is being widely applied worldwide and commonly detected in surface and groundwater. Despite its popular use in controlling weeds and algae, very limited information is available regarding its toxicity. In the present study, pregnant mice were orally exposed to low doses (0, 5, 50, or 500 µg/kg body weight per day of simazine during gestation and lactation, during which no overt maternal toxic response was detected, and their offspring was assessed. Simazine-exposed male offspring showed decreased body, testicular, and epididymis weight, increased testicular apoptosis, and decreased sperm concentrations. Differentially-expressed genes in the testes of male offspring exposed to simazine were identified by DNA microarray, revealing 775 upregulated and 791 downregulated genes; among these, the relaxin-family peptide receptor 1 (Rxfp1, which is the receptor for relaxin hormone, was significantly downregulated. In addition, the expression of target genes in the relaxin pathway, including nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2 and Nos3, was significantly decreased in simazine-exposed F1 testes. Moreover, simazine inhibited NO release, and knockdown of Rxfp1 blocked the inhibitory action of simazine on NO production in testicular Leydig cells. Therefore, the present study provides a better understanding of the toxicities associated with the widely used herbicide simazine at environmentally relevant doses by demonstrating that maternal exposure interferes with the pleotropic relaxin-NO signaling pathway, impairing normal development and reproductive activity of male offspring.

  5. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  6. Offspring's Tolerance of Mother Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jeremy M; Jiang, Tony T; Way, Sing Sing

    2016-05-17

    Pregnancy uniquely allows genetically discordant tissues of the mother and child to intimately coexist in harmony. In this issue of Immunity, Ou and colleagues show that hepatitis B virus exploits these naturally occurring immune tolerance pathways to establish persistent postnatal infection in offspring.

  7. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD-1 Mice Part 2: Disposition of PFOA in Tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies in mice with multiple gestational exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) demonstrate numerous dose dependent growth and developmental effects which appeared to worsen if offspring exposed in utero nursed from PFOA-exposed dams. To evaluate the disposition of ...

  8. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  9. Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Amanda R.; Speed, Brittany C.; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style an...

  10. Parental dietary seleno-L-methionine exposure and resultant offspring developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Melissa; Ware, Megan; Albright, Elizabeth; Kwok, Kevin W.H.; Dong, Wu; Zheng, Na; Hinton, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) leaches into water from agricultural soils and from storage sites for coal fly ash. Se toxicity causes population and community level effects in fishes and birds. We used the laboratory aquarium model fish, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), an asynchronous breeder, to determine aspects of uptake in adults and resultant developmental toxicity in their offspring. The superior imaging properties of the model enabled detailed descriptions of phenotypic alterations...

  11. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence.

  12. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  13. High resolution 3D laboratory x-ray tomography data of femora from young, 1–14 day old C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emely L. Bortel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains high resolution (1.2 µm effective pixel size lab-based micro-computed tomography (µCT reconstructed volume data of the femoral mid-shafts from young C57BL/6 mice. This data formed the basis for the analyses of bone structural development in healthy mice, including closed and open porosity as reported in Bortel et al. [1]. The data reveals changes seen in bone material and porosity distribution observed when mouse bones transform from porous scaffolds into solid structures during normal organogenesis.

  14. Current research and prospects for health effects of nanoparticles on offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezawa, M [Department of Hygienic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Takeda, K, E-mail: masa-ume@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

    2011-10-29

    Caution in handling ceramic nanoparticles is required by workers and consumers if they are to be used safely and profitably. The small size of nanoparticles can bestow high reactivity and unique translocational properties. Studies have shown that exposure to some types of nanoparticles affects the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems and various organs. When pregnant mice were exposed to nanoparticles, various organs of offspring are also affected. Our recent studies showed that prenatal exposure to nanoparticles (carbon black and titanium dioxide) causes long-term adverse effects on the reproductive, respiratory and central nervous systems of offspring. The effects of nanoparticles on fetuses and children and the possibility of them leading to the onset of diseases in adulthood are of concern. Thus, it is important to research the risk of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles, including ceramic nanoparticles, from the environment and to attempt to identify methods to protect against their toxicity.

  15. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwid, Samantha; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offsprings were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females; (2) although BPA elevated plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes, it stimulated the expression of StAR and cyp11A1, the two rate-limiting factors in the steroidogenic pathway, only in female adrenal glands; and interestingly (3) BPA did not alter plasma ACTH levels or adrenal expression of the key steroidogenic transcription factor SF-1 in either sex. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the long-term consequences of developmental BPA exposure on adrenal steroidogenesis.

  16. Intrauterine infection/inflammation during pregnancy and offspring brain damages: Possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golan Hava

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine infection is considered as one of the major maternal insults during pregnancy. Intrauterine infection during pregnancy could lead to brain damage of the developmental fetus and offspring. Effects on the fetal, newborn, and adult central nervous system (CNS may include signs of neurological problems, developmental abnormalities and delays, and intellectual deficits. However, the mechanisms or pathophysiology that leads to permanent brain damage during development are complex and not fully understood. This damage may affect morphogenic and behavioral phenotypes of the developed offspring, and that mice brain damage could be mediated through a final common pathway, which includes over-stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptor, over-production of vascularization/angiogenesis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors and apoptotic-inducing factors.

  17. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Liam

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested. Results Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment. Conclusion So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.

  18. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

  19. 肠道菌群变化对实验小鼠肠黏膜免疫的影响%Impact of intestinal flora changes on the intestinal mucosal immunity in laboratory mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩; 王友明; 吴旧生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肠道菌群变化对肠黏膜相关淋巴组织的影响.方法 通过变性梯度凝胶电泳( Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)法研究了三种不同级别实验小鼠即清洁级小鼠、SPF小鼠和普通小鼠肠道菌群的组成,并用免疫组织化学( immunohistochemistry,IHC)方法研究了此三种不同级别的实验小鼠肠黏膜相关淋巴组织sIgA阳性细胞分布情况.结果 普通小鼠肠道细菌种类最多,其sIgA阳性细胞分布最多,肠道不同部位之间sIgA分布情况差异有显著性(P<0.05),小肠和大肠之间的阳性细胞分布差异极显著(P<0.01);其次是清洁级小鼠,其肠道不同部位之间菌种组成差异无显著性,小肠和大肠之间的阳性细胞分布差异有显著性(P<0.05);SPF小鼠肠道细菌种类最少,故其sIgA阳性细胞分布最少,且其肠道不同部位之间菌种组成差异无显著性,小肠和大肠之间的阳性细胞分布差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 随着动物微生物控制级别的增高,肠道微生物多样性递减;sIgA阳性细胞与肠道细菌种类正相关.%Objective To explore the impact of intestinal flora changes on the intestinal mucosal immunity. Methods Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to study the composition of intestinal flora in three groups of laboratory mice, namely clean mice (CL mice) , specific pathogen free mice (SPF mice) and conventional mice (CV mice). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to study the secretion of secretory immunoglobulin A (slgA) in these three goups of laboratory mice. Results The most numerous diversity of intestinal flora was observed in the CV mice, and the slgA secretion was also most abundant. There was a significant difference in slgA secretion from different parts of the intestine (P 0. 05 ) . Conclusions Along with the increasing level of animal microorganism control, the diversity of intestinal microbial flora is decreased. The amount of slg

  20. Disposition of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Pregnant and Lactating CD-1 Mice and Their Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies in mice prenatally-exposed to PFOA demonstrate growth and developmental effects, including impaired body weight gain and mammary gland development, delayed eye opening, and increased mortality. Those dose dependent effects appeared to worsen if offspring exposed ...

  1. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... with non-affective psychosis from the sample. These findings suggest that genetic and family studies should not only focus on parental history of schizophrenia since the simple distinction between positive and negative family history could not accurately describe offspring risk in this sample....... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...

  2. Anti-ulcer treatment during pregnancy induces food allergy in mouse mothers and a Th2-bias in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Isabella; Ackermann, Ute; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Blümer, Nicole; Dicke, Tanja; Sel, Serdar; Sel, Sarper; Wegmann, Michael; Szalai, Krisztina; Knittelfelder, Regina; Untersmayr, Eva; Scheiner, Otto; Garn, Holger; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Renz, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The treatment of dyspeptic disorders with anti-acids leads to an increased risk of sensitization against food allergens. As these drugs are taken by 30-50% of pregnant women due to reflux and heartburn, we aimed here to investigate the impact of maternal therapy with anti-acids on the immune response in the offspring in a murine model. Codfish extract as model allergen was fed with or without sucralfate, an anti-acid drug, to pregnant BALB/c mice during pregnancy and lactation. These mothers developed a codfish-specific allergic response shown as high IgG1 and IgE antibody levels and positive skin tests. In the next step we analyzed whether this maternal sensitization impacts a subsequent sensitization in the offspring. Indeed, in stimulated splenocytes of these offspring we found a relative Th2-dominance, because the Th1- and T-regulatory cytokines were significantly suppressed. Our data provide evidence that the anti-acid drug sucralfate supports sensitization against food in pregnant mice and favors a Th2-milieu in their offspring. From these results we propose that anti-acid treatment during pregnancy could be responsible for the increasing number of sensitizations against food allergens in young infants.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  4. Epidemiological investigation of Helicobacter in laboratory rats and mice by PCR%应用PCR方法调查实验大小鼠螺杆菌感染情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁聪; 冯洁; 谢建云; 陈庆庆

    2012-01-01

    通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)对上海地区实验大鼠、小鼠的螺杆菌携带情况进行调查,并用5种啮齿动物螺杆菌特异性16S rRNA基因引物对螺杆菌属阳性样品进一步鉴定,为我国实验动物微生物等级及监测标准的制定提供参考依据.结果表明:实验大鼠阳性率为70.3%(71/101),其中清洁级、SPF级分别为69.6%(48/69)和71.9%(23/32);实验小鼠阳性率为35.8%(126/352),其中清洁级、SPF级阳性率分别为51.5%(52/101)和29.5%(74/251).5种啮齿动物螺杆菌特异性16S rRNA基因引物进一步分析,结果显示在携带螺杆菌的107只小鼠及68只大鼠中,主要携带的是H.rodentium、H.hepaticus和H.bilis 3种.上海地区实验大、小鼠皆存在不同程度的螺杆菌感染,PCR法可用于实验大小鼠螺杆菌感染状况的初步调查和流行病学监测.%To provide reference and basis for the establishment of Chinese laboratory animal grades and monitoring standards, the prevalence of rodent Helicobacter infection in laboratory rats and mice were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The infection types of the rodent Helicobacter in rats and mice were further analyzed by PCR using five kinds of rodent Helicobacter 16S rRNA gene. A total of 352 mice (clean grade of 101,SPF grade of 251) and 101 rats (clean grade of 69,SPF grade of 32) were detected. The positive rate of Helicobacter in rats and mice as follows; the positive rate in rats was 70. 3% (71/101), among them, the positive rate in clean grade and SPF grade were 69. 6% (48/69) and71. 9%(23/32) respectively! the positive rate in mice was 35. 8%(126/352) , among them, the rate in clean grade and SPF grade were 51.5% (52/101)and 29. 5%( 74/251) respectively. H. rodentium, H. hepaticus and H. bilis were the most common Helicobacter species in rats and mice. The results indicated that Helicobacter species infections existed in laboratory rats and mice of the neighborhood of shanghai. PCR is

  5. Why Offspring in Nonhuman Families Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Forbes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  6. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  7. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  8. A place to hide in the home-cage decreases yolk androgen levels and offspring emotional reactivity in Japanese quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Guesdon

    Full Text Available An animal's emotional responses are the result of its cognitive appraisal of a situation. This appraisal is notably influenced by the possibility of an individual to exert control over an aversive event. Although the fact that environment controllability decreases emotional responses in animals is well established, far less is known about its potential trans-generational effects. As the levels of avian yolk hormones can vary according to the mother's environment, we hypothesized that housing environment of mothers would modulate the quality of her eggs and in turn her offspring's behaviour. Two groups of female Japanese quail were constituted: a group that had access to a place to hide in their home-cage (Hd, n = 20 and a group that had nowhere to hide (NoHd, n = 20 when stressed. Both groups were submitted to daily human disturbances for a twenty-day-period. Hd females produced eggs with both less testosterone and androstenedione than did NoHd females. The emotional and social reactivity of Hd females' offspring were lower and their growth was slower than those of NoHd females' offspring. Our results show that a minor difference in housing environment had substantial effects on eggs and offspring. The presence of a shelter probably helped quail to cope with daily human disturbances, producing less reactive offspring. This transgenerational effect caused by an opportunity to hide could lead to applications in care of laboratory animals, conservation biology and animal welfare.

  9. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  10. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  11. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  12. Laboratory Mice Action Recognition Using Silhouette Difference Information%应用轮廓变化信息的实验鼠行为识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪留荣

    2014-01-01

    Mice action data is an important part of the experimental data in neurology, physiological pharmacology, etc. A method is proposed on multi actions analysis of mice in this paper for lacking the limbs information. The inter-frame difference of mice silhouette are extracted while the relation between the difference and the position of mice silhouette is taken into consideration, then sequential silhouette difference frames are obtained from action videos. In training phase, the 80 key frames are extracted using Pillar K-means algorithm, each video is presented by the key frames and a histogram on frequency of key frame is obtained. In test phase, the histogram of each video is determined using its key frames by nearest neighbour algorithm. So, a classification problem is transformed into the similarities problem. Actions are classified byχ2 distances. Experimental results show that the correct rate of the proposed method is a maximum of 100%, and the lowest of 95%.%实验鼠霂为分析数据是神经学、生理学、药物学等学科实验数据的重要部分。针对实验鼠缺少肢体运动雷息的特点,提出一种实验鼠多霂为分析方法。提取实验鼠轮廓的帧间变化雷息,同时考虑变化雷息与实验鼠本身的位置关系,对霂为视频需成系列轮廓变化帧。在训练阶段,通过Pillar K-means聚类算法从系列帧中提取80个关键帧,并把每一个训练霂为视频用对应关键帧频数的直方图表示。在测试阶段,测试视频用最近邻法确定每一帧对应的关键帧,需成陒应的关键帧直方图,从而把分类问题变成一个直方图陒似霆问题,再应用卡方距离进霂分类。实验结果表明,该方法对8种霂为的分类准确率最高达到100%,最低达到95%。

  13. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFIER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate(MSG)in the offspring crebral cortex and hippocampal subresions after maternal oral administration of MSG.Methods:Kunming mice were given per os MSG(4.0g/kg)at 17-21 days of pregnancy and their offspring behaviors were studied at 10,20,30days postnatally.By using inmunohistochemical means,the involvment of Bcl-2 and bax in the glutamate-induced cell death in cortical and hippocampal neurons were examined.Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting.Results:administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neurons in CA1,CA2,CA3,CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10,20,30 days in the offspring mice,whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced significantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls.Conclusion:These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular death via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular complex may be involved.The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  14. Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Selective Functional Deficits in Offspring Parvalbumin Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah; Bolkan, Scott; Padilla-Coreano, Nancy; Song, LouJin; Sahn, Ryan; Harrison, Neil; Gordon, Joshua A.; Brown, Alan; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abnormalities in prefrontal GABAergic transmission, particularly in fast-spiking interneurons that express parvalbumin (PV), are hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and depression. While primarily histological abnormalities have been observed in patients and in animal models of psychiatric disease, evidence for abnormalities in functional neurotransmission at the level of specific interneuron populations has been lacking in animal models and is difficult to establish in human patients. Using an animal model of a psychiatric disease risk factor, prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), we found reduced functional GABAergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult MIA offspring. Decreased transmission was selective for interneurons expressing PV, and was not observed in calretinin-expressing neurons. This deficit in PV function in MIA offspring was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior and impairments in attentional set shifting, but did not affect working memory. Furthermore, cell-type specific optogenetic inhibition of mPFC PV interneurons was sufficient to impair attentional set shifting and enhance anxiety levels. Finally, we found that in vivo mPFC gamma oscillations, which are supported by PV interneuron function, were linearly correlated with the degree of anxiety displayed in adult mice, and that this correlation was disrupted in MIA offspring. These results demonstrate a selective functional vulnerability of PV interneurons to maternal immune activation, leading to affective and cognitive symptoms that have high relevance for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:26830140

  15. Maternal Diet, Behaviour and Offspring Skeletal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Goodfellow

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fracture has a major impact upon health, both in terms of acute and long term disability and economic cost. Peak bone mass, achieved in early adulthood, is a major determinant of osteoporosis risk in later life. Poor early growth predicts reduced bone mass, and so risk of fracture in later life. Maternal lifestyle, body build and 25(OH vitamin D status predict offspring bone mass. Recent work has suggested epigenetic mechanisms as key to these observations. This review will explore the role of the early environment in determining later osteoporotic fracture risk.

  16. The Bacteria and Mycoplasma Monitoring in the Laboratory Animal Facility by Using Sentinel Mice%实验动物设施内哨兵鼠对病原菌监控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马元元; 孔申申; 陶迎红; 杨国生; 李雪迎

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过使用哨兵鼠的监控探讨我院实验动物屏障环境中病原菌的产生途径.方法 选择27只ICR小鼠、27只Nu/+裸鼠和27只SD大鼠作为哨兵鼠,分为实验组(手术组、非手术组)和正常对照组,实验组通过更换“脏垫料”进行饲养,对照组按正常饲养方式饲养,每隔3个月送检27只哨兵鼠进行检测,共送检3次.结果 正常对照组3次均未检测到病原菌,实验组在冬季月份未检测到病原菌感染,春、夏二季检测到病原菌感染,三个季节的病原菌感染率有显著性差异,P=0.012,其中春季较冬/夏季感染率有显著性差异,P=0.004,另两个季节之间差异不显著;病原菌感染率随着动物饲养量的增减而升高或降低;实验组中手术组病原菌感染率较非手术组略高;大鼠的病原菌感染率略高于小鼠.结论 屏障环境内实验鼠群的病原菌感染可能与季节、饲养量、频繁实验操作、动物种类等有直接关系.%To investigate the spread of bacteria and mycoplasma in the laboratory animal' s barrier environment in our hospital by using sentinel mice. Method A total 27 ICR mice, 27 Nu/ + nude mice and 27 SD rats were observed as "sentinel mice", divided into experimental groups (surgical group and non-surgical group) and normal control group. The animals in experimental groups were housed by different "dirty bedding" exposure. Those in the normal control group were housed with the normal breeding procedure. 27 sentinel mice were examined every three months, three times in all. Results Bacteria and mycoplasma infection was not detected in normal control group at all, compared with the higher infection rates in experimental groups. The infections occurred more frequently during spring, then summer, but were not able to be detected during winter season. The infection rates in three seasons showed statistical difference (P =0.012) , especially during spring, showed significant statistical difference

  17. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris Mumbi Munyaka

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota.Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted.ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels.The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers.

  18. Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Worsens Neurological Outcomes in Adolescent Offspring with Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik L. Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic (HI encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining. Here, we aimed to investigate whether maternal SE leads to more severe neurological damage after HI brain injury in male offspring. Female BALB/c mice (8 weeks were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation, and lactation. At postnatal day 10, half of the pups from each litter underwent left carotid artery occlusion, followed by exposure to 8% oxygen (92% nitrogen. At postnatal day 40–44, maternal SE reduced grip strength in grip traction and foot fault tests, which were also reduced by HI injury to similar levels regardless of the maternal group. Limb coordination was impaired by maternal SE which was not worsened by HI injury. Maternal SE increased anxiety level in the offspring, which was normalized by HI injury. Apoptosis markers were increased in different brain regions by maternal SE, with the cortex having further increased TUNEL by HI injury, along with increased markers of inflammation and mitophagy. We conclude that maternal SE can worsen HI-induced cellular damage in male offspring well into adolescence.

  19. Does childhood trauma influence offspring's birth characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågerö, Denny; Rajaleid, Kristiina

    2017-02-01

    : A recent epigenetic hypothesis postulates that 'a sex-specific male-line transgenerational effect exists in humans', which can be triggered by childhood trauma during 'the slow growth period' just before puberty. The evidence is based on a few rather small epidemiological studies. We examine what response childhood trauma predicts, if any, in the birth size and prematurity risk of almost 800 000 offspring. Children of parity 1, 2 or 3, born 1976-2002 in Sweden, for whom we could trace both parents and all four grandparents, constituted generation 3 (G3, n = 764 569). Around 5% of their parents, G2, suffered parental (G1) death during their own childhood. The association of such trauma in G2 with G3 prematurity and birthweight was analysed, while controlling for confounders in G1 and G2. We examined whether the slow growth period was extra sensitive to parental loss. Parental (G1) death during (G2) childhood predicts premature birth and lower birthweight in the offspring generation (G3). This response is dependent on G2 gender, G2 age at exposure and G3 parity, but not G3 gender. The results are compatible with the Pembrey-Bygren hypothesis that trauma exposure during boys' slow growth period may trigger a transgenerational response; age at trauma exposure among girls seems less important, suggesting a different set of pathways for any transgenerational response. Finally, parental death during childhood was not important for the reproduction of social inequalities in birthweight and premature birth.

  20. Untreated perinatal paternal depression: Effects on offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore; Fusco, Maria Luigia

    2017-06-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event which increases vulnerability to psychological disorders. Aim of this article is to analyze all studies which investigated the effects of untreated perinatal paternal depression in offspring. We searched pertinent, peer-reviewed articles published in English (January 1980 to April 2016) on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Science.gov. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological limitations, including the small sample, the lack of a structured psychiatric diagnosis, and inclusion bias. Despite such limitations, paternal depression seems to be associated with an increased risk of developmental and behavioural problems and even psychiatric disorders in offspring. In particular, in infants and toddlers such problems vary from increased crying to hyperactivity and conduct problems to psychological and developmental impairment, and poor social outcomes. School-age children of depressed fathers have a doubled risk for suffering from specific psychiatric disorders. Hence, facilitating access to vigorous and evidence based treatments is a public health opportunity for improving the quality of life of depressed parents and their children. Evidences emerging from this review actually suggest that the traditional gender-focused approach to perinatal mood disorders should be completed by a family-centred approach, in order to improve the effectiveness of perinatal mental health programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adequate but not supplemental folic acid combined with soy isoflavones during early life improves bone health at adulthood in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-10-01

    Previous investigations from our laboratory have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to soy isoflavones (ISO) improves bone outcomes in CD-1 mice at adulthood with greater benefits in females than males. This study determined whether early-life exposure to supplemental folic acid (FA) - that may enhance DNA methylation of target genes - in combination with ISO provides greater benefits to male bone development than ISO alone. CD-1 dams were randomized to a low (0 mg/kg diet), adequate (2 mg/kg diet) or supplemental (8 mg/kg diet) level of FA during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring received corn oil or ISO (7 mg/kg of body weight per day) from postnatal day 1-10. From weaning, males were fed adequate FA and studied to age 4 months. Offspring exposed to adequate FA+ISO had multiple benefits to bone health: higher (Pbenefits to male bone development, while improvements induced by supplemental FA+ISO were limited to a higher level of serum OPG. Mechanistic studies are needed to better understand how FA and ISO improve bone development in male offspring.

  2. Comparison of culture and PCR assays for detection of bacteria in laboratory rats and mice%培养法和 PCR法用于实验大、小鼠细菌检测的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯洁; 谢建云; 冯丽萍; 魏晓锋; 高诚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficiency of bacteria culture and PCR assays for detection of Staphylococcus aureus ( S.aureus) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.aeruginosa) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K.pneumoniae) in laboratory rats and mice.Methods Bacteria culture combined with biochemical identification and PCR assay were used to detect 78 SPF rats and 422 SPF mice and the results of the two methods were compared .Results All the 78 rats were negative .Of the 422 mice, the positive rate by culture was 7.11%(30/422), of which, 10 were S.aureus, 22 were P.aeruginosa, and 2 were K.pneumoniae.The positive rate by PCR was 7.58%(32/422), of which, 10 were S.aureus, 25 were P. aeruginosa, and 2 were K.pneumoniae.Conclusions The high sensitivity , rapid procedure and easy to operate of PCR assay makes it valuable for rapid bacteria diagnosis and large-scale screening in laboratory animals .%目的:比较培养法和PCR法对实验大、小鼠的细菌检测效果。方法分别采用传统细菌分离培养结合生化鉴定方法和PCR方法,对78只SPF级大鼠和422只SPF级小鼠进行检测,对两种方法的检测结果进行比较分析。结果78只SPF级大鼠均未检测出阳性。422只SPF级小鼠,培养法检测阳性率7.11%(30/422),其中金黄色葡萄球菌10只,绿脓杆菌22只,肺炎克雷伯杆菌2只。 PCR法检测阳性率7.58%(32/422),其中金黄色葡萄球菌10只,绿脓杆菌25只,肺炎克雷伯杆菌2只。结论 PCR法的敏感性高于培养法,操作简便、快捷,适用于实验动物细菌的快速诊断和大规模的质量筛查。

  3. Male Facial Appearance and Offspring Mortality in Two Traditional Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Gray, Alan W; Headland, Thomas N; Uehara, Ray T; Waynforth, David; Burt, D Michael; Pound, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that facial traits such as masculinity and a healthy appearance may indicate heritable qualities in males (e.g. immunocompetence) and that, consequently, female preferences for such traits may function to increase offspring viability and health. However, the putative link between paternal facial features and offspring health has not previously been tested empirically in humans. Here we present data from two traditional societies with little or no access to modern medicine and family planning technologies. Data on offspring number and offspring survival were analysed for the Agta of the Philippines and the Maya of Belize, and archive facial photographs were assessed by observers for attractiveness and masculinity. While there was no association between attractiveness and offspring survival in either population, a quadratic relationship was observed between masculinity and offspring survival in both populations, such that intermediate levels of masculinity were associated with the lowest offspring mortality, with both high and low levels of masculinity being associated with increased mortality. Neither attractiveness nor masculinity were related to fertility (offspring number) in either population. We consider how these data may or may not reconcile with current theories of female preferences for masculinity in male faces and argue that further research and replication in other traditional societies should be a key priority for the field.

  4. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  5. Psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and 14-months incidence of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of a bipolar parent. Method: Parent, teacher and self-report rating scales and Kiddie-SADS were used to assess 132 13-23-year-old offspring of bipolar parents. Results

  6. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  7. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  8. Maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy impairs testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg daily from gestational day (GD 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND 26, anogenital distance (AGD, a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13-17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring.

  9. Maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy impairs testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Lu-Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13-17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring.

  10. Maternal nutrition induces pervasive gene expression changes but no detectable DNA methylation differences in the liver of adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V Cannon

    Full Text Available AIMS: Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that maternal diet can influence metabolism in adult offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the phenotypes induced by maternal obesity in a mouse model and examine gene expression and epigenetic changes induced by maternal diet in adult offspring. METHODS: We analyzed genetically identical male mice born from dams fed a high- or low-fat diet throughout pregnancy and until day 21 postpartum. After weaning, half of the males of each group were fed a high-fat diet, the other half a low-fat diet. We first characterized the genome-wide gene expression patterns of six tissues of adult offspring - liver, pancreas, white adipose, brain, muscle and heart. We then measured DNA methylation patterns in liver at selected loci and throughout the genome. RESULTS: Maternal diet had a significant effect on the body weight of the offspring when they were fed an obesogenic diet after weaning. Our analyses showed that maternal diet had a pervasive effect on gene expression, with a pronounced effect in liver where it affected many genes involved in inflammation, cholesterol synthesis and RXR activation. We did not detect any effect of the maternal diet on DNA methylation in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings highlighted the persistent influence of maternal diet on adult tissue regulation and suggested that the transcriptional changes were unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation differences in adult liver.

  11. Chronic hypoxia in pregnancy affects thymus development in Balb/c mouse offspring via IL2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Lingjun; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Pengjie; Tang, Jiaqi; He, Yu; Zhu, Di; Xu, Zhice

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia during pregnancy can adversely affect development. This study, addressed the impact of prenatal hypoxia on thymus development in the rodent offspring. Pregnant Balb/c mice were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy, and the thymuses of their offspring were tested. Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased fetal body weight, with an increased thymus-to-body weight ratio. Histological analysis revealed a smaller cortical zone in the thymus of the offspring exposed to hypoxia. A reduction in the cortical T lymphocyte population corresponded to increased mRNA abundance of caspase 3 (Casp3) and decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Mki67). Differences in T lymphocyte sub-populations in the thymus further indicate that thymus development in offspring was retarded or stagnated by prenatal hypoxia. The abundance of IL2 and its receptor was reduced in the thymus following prenatal hypoxia. This was accompanied by an increase in thymus HIF1A and IKKβ and a decrease in phosphorylated NFKB, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3 compared to control pregnancies. Together, these results implicate deficiencies in IL2-mediated signaling as one source of prenatal-hypoxia-impaired thymus development.

  12. Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.

  13. Gestational programming of offspring obesity: a potential contributor to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina; Khorram, Omid; McKnight, Robert A; Lane, Robert H; Torday, John

    2007-04-01

    Obesity and its related diseases are the leading cause of death in western society, with associated risks of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and breast, prostate and colon cancer. Recent epidemiologic data indicate an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in association with adult obesity. There is now convincing evidence that, in both human and animal models, the in utero environment may impact on fetal developmental processes, altering offspring homeostatic regulatory mechanisms. "Gestational programming" may result in altered cell number, organ structure, hormonal set points or gene expression, with effects being permanent or expressed only at select offspring ages (e.g., newborn, adult). Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that low birth weight rats, induced by maternal food restriction or uterine artery ligation, paradoxically develop adult obesity with glucose intolerance and hypertension. Recent studies indicate alterations in peripheral (hepatic) and central (hippocampus) IGF-1 gene expression and epigenetic regulation among these offspring. These findings suggest that potential risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease may be present as early as newborn life.

  14. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels.

  15. Effect of match or mismatch of maternal-offspring nutritional environment on the development of offspring in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.; Brand, van den H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, maternal food restriction around conception and during pregnancy results in low birth weight and an adjusted growth trajectory of offspring. If, subsequently, the offspring are born into a food-abundant environment, they are at increased risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, hyper

  16. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins and prolactin in the laboratory rat. Role of maternal pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, N; Díaz, E; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2007-01-01

    The laboratory rat, a non-photoperiodic rodent, exhibits seasonal fluctuations of melatonin. Melatonin has been found to be readily transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. No data exist on the possible influence of maternal pineal gland upon seasonal variations of the offspring. The aim of the present study was to asses the influence of the maternal melatonin rhythm on the offspring postnatal development of the reproductive hormones LH, FSH and prolactin. Male offspring from control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) and PIN-X + melatonin (PIN-X+MEL) mother Wistar rats were studied at 21, 31, and 60 days of age. Seasonal age-dependent variations were found for all hormones studied in control offspring but PIN-X offspring showed a tendency to have reduced duration or altered seasonal variations. Maternal melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the effect of pinealectomy. The chronological study of LH, FSH, and prolactin in PIN-X offspring also showed an altered pattern as compared to control-offspring. Melatonin treatment to the mothers partially restored the developmental pattern of reproductive hormones. Results of this study indicate that maternal pineal gland of the laboratory rat is involved in the seasonal postnatal development variations of reproductive hormones of the offspring.

  17. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... of a close relative in the antenatal period increases the occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, we studied death of a close relative as the exposure and cryptorchidism entries in nationwide medical registries as the outcome. Danish national registries included...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  18. Effects of prenatal maternal injections of phenobarbital on brain neurotransmitters and behavior of young C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, L D; Thomas, T N; Simpson, L W; Zemp, J W

    1981-01-01

    Offspring of C57BL/6J mice injected daily with phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg) for the last 6 or 7 days of pregnancy were compared with offspring of saline control mice on behavioral and neurochemical measures of brain function at 21 days of age. Activity in an open field arena was elevated in male offspring and reactivity to presentation of a tone-light stimulus was increased for female offspring of drug treated dams. Brain concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine was reduced and the uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid into synaptosomal preparations of brain tissue was greater for treated offspring. Both the behavioral and neurochemical indices indicate that the brain is altered by maternal prenatal injections of phenobarbital but the relationship between these changes remains speculative.

  19. Behavioral Deficits in Juveniles Mediated by Maternal Stress Hormones in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Maguire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression has been shown to negatively impact offspring development. Investigation into the impact of maternal depression and offspring behavior has relied on correlative studies in humans. Further investigation into the underlying mechanisms has been hindered by the lack of useful animal models. We previously characterized a mouse model which exhibits depression-like behaviors restricted to the postpartum period and abnormal/fragmented maternal care (Gabrd−/− mice. Here we utilized this unique mouse model to investigate the mechanism(s through which maternal depression-like behaviors adversely impact offspring development. Cross-fostering experiments reveal increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in mice reared by Gabrd−/− mothers. Wild type and Gabrd−/− mice subjected to unpredictable stress during late pregnancy exhibit decreased pup survival and depression-like behavior in the postpartum period. Exogenous corticosterone treatment in wild type mice during late pregnancy is sufficient to decrease pup survival and induce anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the offspring. Further, the abnormal behaviors in juvenile mice reared by Gabrd−/− mice are alleviated by treatment of the mothers with the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH antagonist, Antalarmin. These studies suggest that hyperresponsiveness of the HPA axis is associated with postpartum depression and may mediate the adverse effects of maternal depression on offspring behavior.

  20. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  1. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  2. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  3. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  4. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  5. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct

  6. Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish.

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    Zajitschek, Susanne; Herbert-Read, James E; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2017-07-03

    Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

  7. A specific immune tolerance toward offspring cells is to exist after the mother lymphocyte infusion.

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    Xing, Haizhou; Liu, Shiqin; Chen, Xue; Fang, Fang; Wu, Xueqiang; Zhu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    To examine immune tolerance between maternal lymphocytes and offspring tissue after a donor lymphocyte infusion. Mouse models were established by mating female BALB/c mice with male C57BL mice. Splenic lymphocytes from donors of different genetic backgrounds were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and 1×10(7) of the labeled cells were intravenously injected into a recipient. At 6h, 24h, 72h and 120h after the infusion, mononuclear cells in recipient spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were collected. CFSE+, CFSE-, CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, CD19+, NK1.1+, CD25+, and CD127+ lymphocytes in those samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. The distribution of donor T cells, B cells, NK cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and recipient regulatory T cells in the tissues were then analyzed. Maternal lymphocytes were more likely to survive in offspring. At 120h after infusion, the percentages of maternal cells in the offspring were 0.52±0.11% in lymph nodes, 0.97±0.04% in peripheral blood, and 0.97±0.11% in the spleen. Few donor cells, if any, were detected in these tissues at 120h after aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic infusions were performed. The subtype proportion of donor lymphocytes changed significantly in the recipient tissues. Recipient Treg cells increased in the mother to child group, but not in the aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic groups, suggesting a decreased cellular immune response to allogeneic cells in the mother to child group. At 120h after the infusion, no donor cells were detected in the recipient livers and thymuses of all groups, implying that donor cells were barely able to colonize in the liver and thymus. Specific immune tolerance to maternal lymphocytes exists in offspring. An infusion of maternal donor lymphocytes may produce a relatively persistent effect of adoptive immunotherapy with reduced side-effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  8. Reproduction and genotype identification of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene knockout mice%促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素基因敲除小鼠的繁殖与基因型鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 刘庆; 钟河江; 杨策; 黄苏娜; 严军; 蒋建新

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH)基因敲除(KO)小鼠饲养、繁殖及基因型鉴定的方法.方法 从美国Jackson实验室引进CRH KO小鼠,按照遗传学规则,对杂合子型(CRH+/-)小鼠进行配对繁殖,提取幼鼠尾部组织全基因组DNA,通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)对幼鼠基因型进行鉴定.结果 CRH KO纯合子型(CRH-/-)小鼠的繁殖和饲养均获得成功,采用PCR成功地对所获得的小鼠进行基因分析,在子代小鼠中存在野生纯合子型(CRH+/+)、杂合子型(CRH+/-)及CRH KO纯合子型(CRH-/-)小鼠.CRH-/-小鼠较另外2种基因型小鼠存活率明显下降,但3种基因型小鼠在出生后10 d及30 d体质量无明显差异.结论 正确的饲养繁殖以及鉴定方法可从杂合子型(CRH+/-)小鼠中获得CRH KO纯合子型(CRH-/-)小鼠.%Objective To explore the methods of breeding, reproductin and genotype identification of corticotropin-releasing hormone ( CRH)knockout( KO) mice.Methods CRH knockout mice were obtained from Jackson laboratory in USA.Heterozygous type (CRH+/- )mice were inbreeded according to genetic rules to yield CRH knockout mice.The genotypes of offspring were identified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)using genomic DNA extracted from tissue of mice tails.Results Both breeding and reproductin of CRH KO heterozygous type(CRH+/- )mice were successful.PCR was used successfully for genetic analysis in mice obtained.There were wild homozygous genotype( CRH+ /+ ) , heterozygous genotype ( CRH + /- ) and CRH KO homozygous genotype( CRH-/- )in the offspring.Compared with other two genotype mice,survival rate of CRH- /- mice were significantly decreased.however, body mass of the three genotypes mice had no significant difference at 10 and 30 days after birth.Conclusion Appropriate reproductin , breeding and identification are effective methods to obtain CRH KO homozygous genotype( CRH -/- ) mice from heterozygous genotype( CRH+ / - ) mice.

  9. Interleukin 7 from maternal milk crosses the intestinal barrier and modulates T-cell development in offspring.

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    Richard Aspinall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding protects against illnesses and death in hazardous environments, an effect partly mediated by improved immune function. One hypothesis suggests that factors within milk supplement the inadequate immune response of the offspring, but this has not been able to account for a series of observations showing that factors within maternally derived milk may supplement the development of the immune system through a direct effect on the primary lymphoid organs. In a previous human study we reported evidence suggesting a link between IL-7 in breast milk and the thymic output of infants. Here we report evidence in mice of direct action of maternally-derived IL-7 on T cell development in the offspring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used recombinant IL-7 labelled with a fluorescent dye to trace the movement in live mice of IL-7 from the stomach across the gut and into the lymphoid tissues. To validate the functional ability of maternally derived IL-7 we cross fostered IL-7 knock-out mice onto normal wild type mothers. Subsets of thymocytes and populations of peripheral T cells were significantly higher than those found in knock-out mice receiving milk from IL-7 knock-out mothers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides direct evidence that interleukin 7, a factor which is critical in the development of T lymphocytes, when maternally derived can transfer across the intestine of the offspring, increase T cell production in the thymus and support the survival of T cells in the peripheral secondary lymphoid tissue.

  10. Prenatal metformin exposure in a maternal high fat diet mouse model alters the transcriptome and modifies the metabolic responses of the offspring.

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    Henriikka Salomäki

    Full Text Available AIMS: Despite the wide use of metformin in metabolically challenged pregnancies, the long-term effects on the metabolism of the offspring are not known. We studied the long-term effects of prenatal metformin exposure during metabolically challenged pregnancy in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female mice were on a high fat diet (HFD prior to and during the gestation. Metformin was administered during gestation from E0.5 to E17.5. Male and female offspring were weaned to a regular diet (RD and subjected to HFD at adulthood (10-11 weeks. Body weight and several metabolic parameters (e.g. body composition and glucose tolerance were measured during the study. Microarray and subsequent pathway analyses on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the male offspring were performed at postnatal day 4 in a separate experiment. RESULTS: Prenatal metformin exposure changed the offspring's response to HFD. Metformin exposed offspring gained less body weight and adipose tissue during the HFD phase. Additionally, prenatal metformin exposure prevented HFD-induced impairment in glucose tolerance. Microarray and annotation analyses revealed metformin-induced changes in several metabolic pathways from which electron transport chain (ETC was prominently affected both in the neonatal liver and adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: This study shows the beneficial effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the offspring's glucose tolerance and fat mass accumulation during HFD. The transcriptome data obtained at neonatal age indicates major effects on the genes involved in mitochondrial ATP production and adipocyte differentiation suggesting the mechanistic routes to improved metabolic phenotype at adulthood.

  11. Prenatal stress enhances severity of atherosclerosis in the adult apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse offspring via inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, H; Lhotak, S; Solano, M E; Karimi, K; Pincus, M K; Austin, R C; Arck, P

    2013-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Endothelial cell dysfunctions are early events in atherosclerosis, resulting in the recruitment of circulating monocytes. The immune system can elicit an inflammatory response toward the atherosclerotic lesion, thereby accelerating lesion growth. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include hypertension, smoking, stress perception or low birth weight. As prenatal stress challenge decreases the birth weight and affects the offspring's postnatal immune response, we aimed to investigate whether prenatal stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Syngenic pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) dams were exposed to sound stress on gestation days 12.5 and 14.5. The presence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the offspring at the age of 15 weeks was evaluated by histomorphology, accompanied by flow cytometric analysis of the frequency and phenotype of monocytes/macrophages and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood. Further, cytokine secretion of peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed. In response to prenatal stress challenge, an increased frequency of large atherosclerotic plaques was detectable in apoE-/- offspring, which was particularly profound in females. Prenatal stress also resulted in alterations of the offspring's immune response, such as a decreased frequency of Treg cells in blood, alterations of macrophage populations in blood and an increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. We provide novel evidence that prenatally stressed adult offspring show an increased severity of atherosclerosis. As Treg cells are key players in dampening inflammation, the observed increase in atherosclerosis may be due to the lack of Treg cell frequency. Future interdisciplinary research is urgently required to understand the developmental origin of prenatal stress-induced atherosclerosis. The availability of our model may facilitate and foster such research endeavors.

  12. Surto de varíola murina em camundongos suíços em biotério: Relato de caso An outbreak of mousepox in swiss mice in a laboratory animal facility: Case report

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    S. Diniz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suíços foram alojados em um biotério com instalações e condições de manejo adequadas para uma criação de animais convencionais sadios. Após 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte súbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clínicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana após foram observadas lesões generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, nódulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alterações como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gânglios. Amostras do fígado, baço e de lesões da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantóide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Após 72 horas foram detectadas lesões necróticas típicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de células Vero e detectado efeito citopático após 72 horas. O diagnóstico da varíola murina foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, lesões, cultivo e na identificação do vírus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.

  13. [Terahertz radiation influence on number and development dynamics of offspring F1 of fruit fly females under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A I; Weĭsman, N Ia; Nemova, E F; Mamrashev, A A; Nikolaev, N A

    2013-01-01

    Virgin fruit fly females were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 2.5 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz radiation (0.1-2.2 THz) for the last 30 min. Then females were copulated with males. Offspring F1 from oocytes which were mature or immature at exposure (oviposition in 1-2 or 9-10 days after irradiation) was studied. Stress induces a rejection of the offspring maturation dynamics to imago from external control (offspring of flies which was maintained in standard conditions). In offsping from mature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of male maturation to imago was different from internal control (offspring of stressed unirradiated flies). The number of imago males decreased. The dynamics of female maturation to imago coincides with laboratory control. In offsping from immature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of female and male maturation and the number of flies were not significantly different from the internal control. It was concluded that only mature oocytes are sensitive to THz radiation influence.

  14. Exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals during gestation lowers energy expenditure and impairs skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Erin J; Ragauskas, Alyse; Jaligama, Sridhar; Redd, JeAnna R; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Peloquin, Matthew J; Saravia, Jordy; Han, Joan C; Cormier, Stephania A; Bridges, Dave

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of in utero exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on growth, metabolism, energy utilization, and skeletal muscle mitochondria in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Pregnant mice were treated with laboratory-generated, combustion-derived particular matter (MCP230). The adult offspring were placed on a high-fat diet for 12 wk, after which we observed a 9.8% increase in their body weight. The increase in body size observed in the MCP230-exposed mice was not associated with increases in food intake but was associated with a reduction in physical activity and lower energy expenditure. The reduced energy expenditure in mice indirectly exposed to MCP230 was associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes, and reduced citrate synthase activity. Upregulation of key genes involved in ameliorating oxidative stress was also observed in the muscle of MCP230-exposed mice. These findings suggest that gestational exposure to MCP230 leads to a reduction in energy expenditure at least in part through alterations to mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

  15. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  16. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

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    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  17. The influence of dexamethasone administered prenatally on cartilage of newborn spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, P; Dobrowolski, P; Tomaszewska, E; Hułas-Stasiak, M; Tomczyk, A; Gawron, A

    2015-11-17

    Considering the negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment, especially during fetal development it is important to investigate effectors decreasing such disadvantages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatally administered dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the histomorphometry of the femur in the offspring of spiny mice. The study was performed on 24 pregnant spiny mice. The time of the experiment included the prenatal period between the 20th day of gestation until birth (pregnancy lasts on average of 36-38 days). The mice from the experimental group received dexamethasone per os in a dose of 125 mg/kg birth weight daily. At the end, the newborns from the experimental and control group were weighted and euthanized. Maternal Dex treatment resulted in a 17% decrease in birth weight in newborns. Dex administration significantly reduced the thickness of the hypertrophy zone of the growth plate by 34% and total thickness by 8,7%. In addition, Dex decreased the number of cells in the articular cartilage by 27% and significantly decreased their diameter by 5%. Dex also affected the structure and spatial distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers, lowering the proportion of thin fibers compared with the control group. Moreover, Dex treatment considerably lowered the amount of proteoglycans in articular and growth cartilages. Exposure to glucocorticoids in pregnant spiny mice affects cartilage development by accelerating maturity of collagen fibers and growth plate, presumably along with further disruption of longitudinal growth of long bones.

  18. Sperm microRNA Content Is Altered in a Mouse Model of Male Obesity, but the Same Suite of microRNAs Are Not Altered in Offspring's Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullston, Tod; Ohlsson-Teague, E Maria C; Print, Cristin G; Sandeman, Lauren Y; Lane, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and has tripled in men of reproductive age since the 1970s. Concerningly, obesity is not only comorbid with other chronic diseases, but there is mounting evidence that it increases the non-communicable disease load in their children (eg mortality, obesity, autism). Animal studies have demonstrated that paternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic (eg glucose metabolism defects, obesity) and reproductive disorders in offspring. Epigenetic changes within sperm are clear mechanistic candidates that are associated with both changes to the father's environment and offspring phenotype. Specifically there is emerging evidence that a father's sperm microRNA content both responds to paternal environmental cues and alters the gene expression profile and subsequent development of the early embryo. We used a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity to investigate whether male obesity could modulate sperm microRNA content. We also investigated whether this alteration to a father's sperm microRNA content lead to a similar change in the sperm of male offspring. Our investigations were initially guided by a Taqman PCR array, which indicated the differential abundance of 28 sperm borne microRNAs in HFD mice. qPCR confirmation in a much larger cohort of founder males demonstrated that 13 of these microRNAs were differentially abundant (11 up-regulated; 2 down-regulated) due to HFD feeding. Despite metabolic and reproductive phenotypes also being observed in grand-offspring fathered via the male offspring lineage, there was no evidence that any of the 13 microRNAs were also dysregulated in male offspring sperm. This was presumably due to the variation seen within both groups of offspring and suggests other mechanisms might act between offspring and grand-offspring. Thus 13 sperm borne microRNAs are modulated by a father's HFD and the presumed transfer of this altered microRNA payload to the embryo at fertilisation

  19. Maternal high-fat diet exaggerates atherosclerosis in adult offspring by augmenting periaortic adipose tissue-specific proinflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakana, Noriyuki; Irie, Daisuke; Kikai, Masakazu; Terada, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Keita; Kawahito, Hiroyuki; Kato, Taku; Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matoba, Satoaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Maternal obesity elicits offspring's metabolic disorders via developmental modifications of visceral adipose tissue; however, its effect on atherogenesis remains undefined. Perivascular adipose tissue has recently been implicated in vascular remodeling and vasoreactivity. We hypothesize that developmental modifications of perivascular adipose tissue by maternal high-fat diet (HFD) exposure promotes atherosclerosis in adult offspring. Eight-week-old female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed an HFD or normal diet (ND) during gestation and lactation. Offspring were fed a high-cholesterol diet from 8 weeks of age. Twenty-week-old male offspring of HFD-fed dams (O-HFD) showed a 2.1-fold increase in atherosclerotic lesion of the entire aorta compared with those of ND-fed dams (O-ND). Although mRNA expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and accumulation of macrophages in epididymal white adipose tissue were less in O-HFD than in O-ND, thoracic periaortic adipose tissue (tPAT) showed an exaggerated inflammatory response in O-HFD. Intra-abdominal transplantation of tPAT from 8-week-old O-HFD alongside the distal abdominal aorta exaggerated atherosclerosis development of the infrarenal aorta in recipient apolipoprotein E-deficient mice compared with tPAT from O-ND (210%, P<0.01). Although macrophage accumulation was rarely detected in tPAT of 8-week-old offspring, mRNA expression and protein levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor were markedly elevated in O-HFD (2.3-fold, 3.3-fold, respectively, P<0.05), suggesting that increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression contributes to the augmented accumulation of macrophages, followed by the enhanced proinflammatory response. Our findings demonstrate that maternal HFD exaggerates atherosclerosis development in offspring by augmenting tPAT-specific inflammatory response proceeded by an increased expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. © 2015

  20. Increased Levels of C1q in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Offspring after Maternal Immune Activation: Prevention by 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Zhang, Ji-chun; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Objective Prenatal infection is implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The objective of this paper is to study the role of complement protein C1q in the psychosis of adult offspring after maternal immune activation (MIA). In addition, effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF: a tropomyosin receptor kinase B [TrkB] agonist) was also examined. Methods Western blot analysis of C1q in the brain regions from adult offspring after prenatal poly(I:C) (5.0 mg/kg/day from E12 to E17) exposure was performed. 7,8-DHF or vehicle was given from 4 to 8-weeks old. Results Expression of C1q in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adult offspring from poly(I:C)-treated pregnant mice was significantly higher than that of control group. Early treatment with 7,8-DHF during juvenile and adolescent stages could prevent an increase of C1q in the PFC of adult offspring after MIA. Conclusion Therefore, it is likely that increased C1q expression in the frontal cortex may play a role in the behavioral abnormalities of adult offspring after MIA. Furthermore, supplementation with a TrkB agonist such as 7,8-DHF during the prodromal stage may have prophylactic effects on the behavioral abnormalities after MIA. PMID:28138113

  1. Learning deficits and suppression of the cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring are attenuated by maternal chewing during prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2014-02-07

    Prenatal stress in dams induces learning deficits and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of offspring via increasing corticosterone levels in the dam. Chewing under stressful conditions prevents stress-induced behavioral impairments and morphologic changes. Here, we examined whether chewing during prenatal stress prevents the stress-induced learning deficits and the suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress beginning on day 12 of pregnancy and continuing until delivery. Half of the dams were given a wooden stick to chew on during restraint. The pups were raised to adulthood, and learning ability and cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG were assessed. In dams, chewing during prenatal stress attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. In the adult offspring, prenatal stress impaired learning and decreased cell proliferation in the DG, whereas maternal chewing during prenatal stress significantly attenuated the prenatal stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in the DG in their offspring. These findings suggest that maternal chewing during prenatal stress is an effective stress-coping method for the dam to prevent learning deficits and suppression of cell proliferation in offspring.

  2. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  3. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

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    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed.

  4. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  5. Lung tumors in mice induced by "whole-life" inorganic arsenic exposure at human-relevant doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, Michael P; Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J; Kissling, Grace E; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-08-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in utero life or with whole-life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied "whole-life" inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for 3 weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birthweight or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p ppb group (51 %) and 500-ppb group (54 %), but not at 5,000-ppb group (28 %) compared to control (22 %). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p ppb group (27 %) compared to controls (8 %). An increase (p ppb group compared to control (11 %) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole-life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human-relevant doses (i.e., 50 and 500 ppb).

  6. Lung Tumors in Mice Induced by “Whole Life” Inorganic Arsenic Exposure at Human Relevant Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J.; Kissling, Grace E.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million (ppm) range via the dam during in utero life or with whole life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied “whole life” inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for three weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birth weight, or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p ppb (51%) and 500 ppb (54%), but not at 5000 ppb (28%) compared to control (22%). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p ppb (27%) compared to controls (8%). An increase (p ppb group compared to control (11%) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human relevant doses (i.e. 50 and 500 ppb). PMID:25005685

  7. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  8. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  9. Identification of a male meiosis-specific gene, Tcte2, which is differentially spliced in species that form sterile hybrids with laboratory mice and deleted in t chromosomes showing meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, G; Barlow, D P

    1997-06-01

    Tcte2 (t complex testes expressed 2) is a male meiosis-specific gene that maps to band 3.3 of mouse chromosome 17. Two distinct male fertility defects, hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion, have previously been mapped to this region. Hybrid sterility arises in crosses between different mouse species and the F1 generation males have defects in the first meiotic division and are sterile. Transmission ratio distortion is shown by males heterozygous for the t haplotype form of chromosome 17 and is a type of meiotic drive in which male gametes function unequally at fertilization. The Tcte2 gene expresses a coding mRNA and a number of putative non-ORF transcripts in meiosis I. A deletion of the 5' part of the locus abolishes Tcte2 expression on the t haplotype form of chromosome 17. Additionally, the series of putative non-ORF RNAs at the Tcte2 locus are differentially spliced in species that show hybrid sterility when crossed to laboratory mice. The identification of polymorphisms in t haplotypes and in different mouse species allows alleles of Tcte2 to be proposed as candidates for loci which contribute to both meiotic drive and hybrid sterility phenotypes. While theoretical considerations have previously been used to propose that speciation and meiotic drive involve alleles of the same genes, Tcte2 is the first cloned candidate gene to support this link at a molecular level.

  10. Increased longevity in offspring of mothers with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeremy M; Schmeidler, James; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Grossman, Hillel T; Luo, Xiaodong; West, Rebecca; Lally, Rachel C; Wang, Joy Y

    2008-09-05

    Life expectancy is a familial trait. However, the effectiveness of using the age at death of a deceased parent to estimate life expectancy in their offspring can vary depending on whether death in the parent was due to extrinsic versus intrinsic causes, as well as demographic characteristics such as sex. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk increases with increased age, mortality for individuals with AD is increased in contrast to comparably aged individuals without AD. Yet in most cases it is not the defining neuropathology of AD that directly terminates life but instead conditions and illnesses extrinsic to AD pathology that nevertheless have increased likelihood in its presence. For this reason, we hypothesized that offspring of AD mothers would have greater longevity than offspring of mothers without AD (insufficient numbers prevented a comparable analysis using fathers with AD). The longevity of 345 offspring of 100 deceased 60+ year old AD mothers was compared with 5,465 offspring in 1,312 deceased 60+ year old non-AD mothers. We used a proportional hazards model that accounted for clustered (nonindependent) observations due to the inclusion of several offspring from the same family. In both an unadjusted model and one that adjusted for the age at death in the mother, and the sex and birth year in the offspring we found evidence for increased longevity in the offspring of AD mothers. The results suggest that, in addition to genes that might directly affect pathways leading to AD, there may be familial/genetic factors not connected to specific pathophysiological processes in AD but instead associated with increased longevity that contribute to the familial aggregation observed in AD.

  11. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).......Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  12. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Predisposes Ventricular Remodeling in Adult Sheep Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A; Ford, Stephen P.; Peter W Nathanielsz; Wang, Xiaoming; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a “thrifty phenotype” in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 d of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 yrs of age, female offspring of NR...

  13. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood.

  14. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success.

  15. Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring growth rates in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring growth during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster rates when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring growth and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and growth observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3 isoforms during murine oocyte growth induces offspring cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro da Rocha, André; Ding, Jun; Slawny, Nicole; Wolf, Amber M; Smith, Gary D

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active serine threonine kinase with 1) two isoforms (GSK3A and GSK3B) that have unique and overlapping functions, 2) multiple molecular intracellular mechanisms that involve phosphorylation of diverse substrates, and 3) implications in pathogenesis of many diseases. Insulin causes phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 and mammalian oocytes have a functional insulin-signaling pathway whereby prolonged elevated insulin during follicle/oocyte development causes GSK3 hyperphosphorylation, reduced GSK3 activity, and altered oocyte chromatin remodeling. Periconceptional diabetes and chronic hyperinsulinemia are associated with congenital malformations and onset of adult diseases of cardiovascular origin. Objectives were to produce transgenic mice with individual or concomitant loss of GSK3A and/or GSK3B and investigate the in vivo role of oocyte GSK3 on fertility, fetal development, and offspring health. Wild-type males bred to females with individual or concomitant loss of oocyte GSK3 isoforms did not have reduced fertility. However, concomitant loss of GSK3A and GSK3B in the oocyte significantly increased neonatal death rate due to congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular hyperplasia. Individual loss of oocyte GSK3A or GSK3B did not induce this lethal phenotype. In conclusion, absence of oocyte GSK3 in the periconceptional period does not alter fertility yet causes offspring cardiac hyperplasia, cardiovascular defects, and significant neonatal death. These results support a developmental mechanism by which periconceptional hyperinsulinemia associated with maternal metabolic syndrome, obesity, and/or diabetes can act on the oocyte and affect offspring cardiovascular development, function, and congenital heart malformation.

  17. Perinatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate affects glucose metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin T Wan

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0 were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21. To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders.

  18. Prenatal exposure to zinc oxide particles alters monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuka; Tachibana, Ken; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-sized particles (NPs) are beneficial materials used for sunscreens and cosmetics. Although ZnO NPs are widely used for cosmetics, the health effects of exposure during pregnancy on offspring are largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs on the monoaminergic system of the mouse brain. Subcutaneous administration of ZnO NPs to the pregnant ICR mice (total 500 μg/mouse) were carried out and then measured the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and noradrenalin, and their metabolites in 9 regions of the brain of offspring (6-week-old) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis demonstrated that DA levels were increased in hippocampus in the ZnO NP exposure group. In the levels of DA metabolites, homovanillic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. Furthermore, DA turnover levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala in the ZnO NP exposure group. We also found changes of the levels of serotonin in the hypothalamus, and of the levels of 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolite) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the ZnO NP-exposed group. The levels of 5-HT turnover were increased in each of the regions except for the cerebellum by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. The present study indicated that prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs might disrupt the monoaminergic system, and suggested the possibility of detrimental effects on the mental health of offspring.

  19. Intranasal Immunization of Mice to Avoid Interference of Maternal Antibody against H5N1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs can protect offspring against influenza virus infection but may also inhibit active immune responses. To overcome MDA- mediated inhibition, active immunization of offspring with an inactivated H5N1 whole-virion vaccine under the influence of MDAs was explored in mice. Female mice were vaccinated twice via the intraperitoneal (IP or intranasal (IN route with the vaccine prior to mating. One week after birth, the offspring were immunized twice via the IP or IN route with the same vaccine and then challenged with a lethal dose of a highly homologous virus strain. The results showed that, no matter which immunization route (IP or IN was used for mothers, the presence of MDAs severely interfered with the active immune response of the offspring when the offspring were immunized via the IP route. Only via the IN immunization route did the offspring overcome the MDA interference. These results suggest that intranasal immunization could be a suitable inoculation route for offspring to overcome MDA interference in the defense against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus infection. This study may provide references for human and animal vaccination to overcome MDA-induced inhibition.

  20. Establishment of laboratory animal models of hydatid disease through inoculating mice and rabbits with echinococcus granulosus protoscolices%异源接种建立小鼠和兔包虫病动物模型的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 叶彬; 邹晓毅; 武卫华; 韩秀敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用人工接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴感染法建立小鼠与兔包虫病动物模型.方法 6周龄昆明小鼠经皮穿刺腹腔内接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液,新西兰大白兔于腹部手术后肝脏接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液.接种原头蚴6个月后剖检动物,观察小鼠腹腔和新西兰大白兔肝脏内包虫囊生长情况.结果 接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴6个月后,小鼠腹腔内包囊生成率为95%,新西兰大白兔肝内包囊生成率为50%.光镜观察见在小鼠腹腔和兔肝脏形成的囊泡具有与羊肝脏棘球蚴囊壁类似的类上皮细胞层和板层状结构.3种动物体内棘球蚴均有原头蚴.结论 以羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液接种昆明小鼠腹腔和新西兰大白兔肝脏,可以建立小鼠和兔包虫病动物模型.%Objective To establish laboratory animal models of hydatid disease in mice and rabbits with sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Methods Kunming mice at 6 weeks of age were inoculated with the suspension of sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in the abdomen. New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with the suspension of sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in the liver after surgical operation in the abdominal region. The hydatid cysts in the animals were observed by naked eyes and optical microscopy in 6 months after inoculation. Results At the observation time point, the hydatid cysts were found in the abdominal cavities of 95% experimental mice (19/20) and in the liver of 50% experimental rabbits (4/8). Compared with those derived from the sheep liver, the hydatid cysts had similar epithelioid cell layer and lamellar structure but thinner cyst wall. Protoscolices were found in the hydatid cysts derived from all animals. Conclusion The animal models of hydatid disease can be established by inoculating mice and rabbits with the suspension of Echinococcus granulosus

  1. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  2. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  3. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  4. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  5. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  6. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  8. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  9. Dam and granddam feeding during pregnancy in sheep affects milk supply in offspring and reproductive performance in grand-offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, H T; Jenkinson, C M C; Peterson, S W; Kenyon, P R; van der Linden, D S; Davenport, L C; Mackenzie, D D S; Morris, S T; Firth, E C

    2010-04-01

    In temperate climates, the cost of providing feed is greater in winter than in other seasons, causing ewes to be fed restricted rations during some periods of pregnancy. Epidemiological information indicates that undernutrition of the fetus may affect its health and performance in later life (i.e., fetal programming), and these effects may be passed between generations. The primary focus of the results presented in this paper is to examine the effects of feeding levels during pregnancy on a variety of traits from offspring at the fetal stage to 3.5 yr of age and also traits in the grand-offspring. Two studies are reported in which ewes were fed restricted diets during pregnancy, with a variety of fetal traits, offspring traits up to 3.5 yr of age, or grand-offspring traits up to 8 mo of age being measured. Study 2 also considered differences in dam size (heavy vs. light). In study 1, several fetal mammary gland measures indicated that milking ability may be enhanced in offspring from dams fed ad libitum during pregnancy. However, study 2 showed that mammary mass was greater in fetuses from dams fed at maintenance during pregnancy and that contemporaries of these fetuses produced greater protein and lactose yields in their first lactation. In the second lactation, the advantages in protein and lactose yields did not reoccur and ewes from ad libitum-fed dams produced greater fat yield. In study 2, grand-offspring whose granddams were fed at maintenance levels during pregnancy were lighter at birth in both the first and second parturitions than those whose granddams were fed ad libitum during pregnancy. First-parity grand-offspring whose granddams were fed maintenance levels during pregnancy achieved heavier BW by 40 to 50 d of age in the first lactation, which reflected the greater protein and lactose yields; however, no BW differences were present in second-parity lambs at the same age. A smaller proportion of first-parity ewe grand-offspring from heavy granddams

  10. Parental longevity and offspring's home blood pressure: the Ohasama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hirose, Takuo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Hara, Azusa; Obara, Taku; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Longevity is clustered in particular families. Some studies using conventional blood pressure (BP) reported an association between parental longevity and offspring's BP. No study has used self-measurement of BP at home (home BP). We examined the association between parental longevity and home BP values of adult Japanese offspring. Home and conventional BPs were measured in 1961 residents aged 40 years and over in the general population of Ohasama, Japan. Information about the ages of offspring's parents (age at death or current age) was obtained from a standardized questionnaire. The mean +/- SD values of systolic/diastolic home BP in offspring whose mothers died at less than 69 years of age, at 69-84 years of age, and in offspring whose mothers were alive at age 84 years were 127.4 +/- 13.2/76.2 +/- 9.1, 124.8 +/- 15.0/74.4 +/- 10.0, and 123.4 +/- 15.2/74.4 +/- 10.3 mmHg (P = 0.0002/0.009), respectively. Corresponding values in offspring whose fathers died at less than 66 years of age, at 66-80 years of age, and in offspring whose fathers were alive at age 80 years were 125.7 +/- 15.2/75.6 +/- 10.6, 124.7 +/- 14.1/75.0 +/- 9.2 and 122.4 +/- 14.6/73.6 +/- 9.5 mmHg (P = 0.001/0.003), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated associations that were only weakly observed for conventional BP values (conventional BP: P = 0.3/0.4 for maternal and P = 0.3/0.3 for paternal longevity; home BP: P = 0.05/0.2 for maternal and P = 0.0004/0.007 for paternal longevity). Parental premature death was significantly associated with higher home BP levels in adult offspring, suggesting that parental longevity might be a useful additional marker for screening adult offspring at higher risk of hypertension.

  11. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  12. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. Impacts of Passive Smoking on Learning and Memory Ability of Mouse Offsprings and Intervention by Antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE YANG; ZHU-GE XI; JUN-WEN LI; LI-NA JIANG; ZHEN-LI YUAN; YU-FEI ZHENG; LU WANG; MIN JI; ZHI-QIANG SHEN; XIN-WEI WANG; QIANG MA

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of passive smoking and the protective effect of antioxidants such as vitamin E and quercetin on learning and memory ability of mouse offsprings. Methods A passive smoking model of pregnant mice wasestablished.Learning and memory ability was evaluated by the water maze test and long term potentiation (LTP).Nitric oxide (No),content, nitric oxide synthase(NOS),acetylcholinesteras(Ache)activity in brain,vitamin E concentration,and reactive oxygen species(ROS)in seruln were determined.The latency period(the time during which the mice swim from the starting position to the ending position)and errors(the number of mice entering the blind end)in control and antioxidant intervention groups were compared with those in the smoke exposure group after6 days.Results The latency period as well as errors in the air,control diet,tobacco smoke(TS),and vitaminE diet groups were decreased significantlyas compared with the TS and control diet groups (P<0.05).LTP was restrained in the TS and control diet groups.LTP in all the antioxidant diet groups was significantly increased compared with the TS and control diet groups.In addition,NOS and acetylcholinesteras(Ache)activitiy was significantly higher in the TS and control diet groups than in the air and control diet group.NO content was not significantly different amongthedifferent groups,and significantly lower in the TS and vitamin E diet groups than in the TS group,control diet group,quercetin diet group,and mixture diet group(P<0.05).Vitamin E concentration and ROS activity in serum were correlated with the outcome of water maze and LTP.Conclusion Passive smoking reduces LTP formation by disturbing the hippocampus function of mice.by decreasing NOS and Ache activity and increasing NO content.Antioxidants (especially vitamin E)partially improve the learning and memory ability of offsprings whose mothers are exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of temperature and host stage on the parasitization rate and offspring sex ratio of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Xia, Tianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and host stage are important factors that determine the successful development of parasitoids. Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a primary parasitoid of the newly invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The effects of temperature on the parasitic characteristics of A. bambawalei have seldom been investigated. In the study, we explored the effects of temperature, exposure time, and host stage on the parasitization rate and offspring sex ratio (female to male) of A. bambawalei under laboratory conditions. The laboratory results showed that the successful parasitization rate of A. bambawalei increased with higher temperatures and older host stages. When the parasitoids were exposed to 36 °C for 24 h, the parasitization rate of female adults (52%) was nearly two times that of 3rd instar nymphs. Additionally, heat stress duration and host stage resulted in an increase in the offspring sex ratio of A. bambawalei. When A. bambawalei was exposed to 36 °C for 24 h, the offspring sex ratio increased dramatically to 81.78% compared with those exposed for 12 h, and it increased to 45.34% compared with those exposed for 16 h. The offspring sex ratio was clearly higher when the host stage was an adult female mealybug Our findings provide important guidance for the mass rearing and field releases of A. bambawalei for the management of P. solenopsis in the future. PMID:26788437

  16. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  17. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  18. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  19. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  20. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  1. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  2. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  3. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , the most sex-like form of asex. Meiotic parthenogenesis does consistently achieve lower offspring viability than does sex. However when sexual reproduction is compared to forms of asex that don't involve meiosis, asex results in higher offspring viability. Combined with experimental and demographic data......, this result demonstrates that failures associated with meiosis are a major cause of offspring inviability not only for meiotic parthenogenesis, but for sexual reproducers such as humans. Meiosis is necessary for genetic recombination in eukaryotes, but is vestigial, and costly, in parthenogens. The question...... of why meiosis persists in parthenogens despite its clear fitness costs and lack of benefits for them is addressed in terms of mechanistic constraints upon what selection can achieve. This provides a clear example of evolutionary inertia having a major and maladaptive effect on the demography of a wide...

  4. Caring for offspring in a world of cheats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Lukas

    Full Text Available Parents providing care to offspring face the same problem that exists in every biological system in which some individuals offer resources to others: cheaters, who exploit these benefits. In almost all species in which males contribute to parental care, females mate with multiple males. As a result, males frequently provide efforts for unrelated offspring at a cost to their own reproductive fitness. In a new study, Griffin et al. find that across a wide range of animal species, males flexibly adjust their contribution to parental care in relation to extra-pair paternity. However, adjustment is not perfect, because males are limited by the potential costs of withholding help to their own offspring, which is only outweighed if cheating occurs frequently and if providing care reduces a male's future reproductive success. These findings illustrate how in biological systems cheater and cheated can adapt to changes in each other, preventing either one from gaining control.

  5. Parental Body Mass Index and Behavioral Problems in Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Hohwü, Lena; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born...... to mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. Data on maternal BMI was collected at 15 weeks of gestation, and paternal BMI was assessed when the child was 18 months old. When the child was 7 years old, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was completed by the parents. We...... estimated odds ratios for behavioral problems in offspring born to overweight/obese parents, and we found that maternal BMI was associated with offspring behavioral problems. Maternal BMI of 25.0-29.9 was associated with a 33% (odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.57) higher risk of total...

  6. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  7. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  8. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  9. MICE Particle Identification System

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE, at the ISIS accelerator lo- cated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, will be the first experiment to study muon cooling at high precision. Demonstration of muon ionization cooling is an essential step towards the construction of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. Muons are produced by pion decay in a superconducting solenoid and reach MICE with a range of emittances and momenta. The purity of the muon beam is ensured by a system of particle detectors we will briefly describe here.

  10. Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined critical periods in development to determine when offspring were most susceptible to dietary sodium manipulation leading to amphetamine sensitization. Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl; HN) during the prenatal or early postnatal period (birth to 5 wk). Offspring were fed normal chow thereafter until testing at 6 mo. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured. BW was similar for all offspring. Offspring from the prenatal and postnatal HN group had increased BP, NaCl intake, and salt preference and decreased water intake relative to NN offspring. Prenatal HN offspring had greater BP than postnatal HN offspring. In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring. In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. These results indicate that early life experience with low- and high-sodium diets, during the prenatal or early postnatal period, is a stress that produces long-term changes in responsiveness to amphetamines and to subsequent stressors.

  11. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming.

  12. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  13. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  14. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  15. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  16. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  17. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Gurp, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  18. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Gurp, van T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  19. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Gurp, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  20. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Gurp, van T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  1. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  2. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFTER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINIS TRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 赵晏; 展淑琴; 王会生; 史文春

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze the excitotoxicity of monoso dium glutamate (MSG) in the offspring cerebral cortex and hippocampal subregions after maternal oral administration of MSG. Methods Kunming mi ce were given per os MSG ( 4.0 g/kg ) at 17~21 days of pregnancy and their offs pring behaviors were studied at 10, 20 , 30 days postnatally. By using immunohis tochemical means, the involvement of Bcl-2 and Bax in the glutamate-induced c ell death in cortical and hippocampal neur ons were examined. Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting. Res ults Administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neuro ns in CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10, 20, 30 day s in the offspring mice, whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced signif icantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls. Conclusi on These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular d eath via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular comple x may be involved. The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  3. Effects of tartrazine on exploratory behavior in a three-generation toxicity study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito; Takahashi, Osamu; Oishi, Shinshi; Ogata, Akio

    2008-10-01

    Tartrazine was given to mice in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.45% from 5 weeks of age of the F(0) generation to 9 weeks of age of the F(2) generation, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. In the F(1) generation, the development of swimming direction at postnatal day (PND) 7 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Surface righting at PND 7 was affected significantly in female offspring in dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age. In the F(2) generation, the development of swimming direction at PND 7 was accelerated significantly in the high-dosed group in male offspring. Time taken of olfactory orientation at PND 14 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age, and in males at 8 weeks of age. The dose levels of tartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects on neurobehavioral parameters throughout generations in mice.

  4. Academic Achievement in Primary School in Offspring Born to Mothers With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study): A Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Clausen, Tine D; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    compared with control offspring. The opposite applied to offspring born to mothers with inadequate glycemic control, who obtained significantly lower average school grades compared with control offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes obtained similar average grades...

  5. Altitudinal divergence in maternal thermoregulatory behaviour may be driven by differences in selection on offspring survival in a viviparous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; While, Geoffrey M; Cadby, Chloe D; Harts, Anna; O'Connor, Katherine; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik

    2011-08-01

    Plastic responses to temperature during embryonic development are common in ectotherms, but their evolutionary relevance is poorly understood. Using a combination of field and laboratory approaches, we demonstrate altitudinal divergence in the strength of effects of maternal thermal opportunity on offspring birth date and body mass in a live-bearing lizard (Niveoscincus ocellatus). Poor thermal opportunity decreased birth weight at low altitudes where selection on body mass was negligible. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal thermal opportunity on body mass at high altitudes where natural selection favored heavy offspring. The weaker effect of poor maternal thermal opportunity on offspring development at high altitude was accompanied by a more active thermoregulation and higher body temperature in highland females. This may suggest that passive effects of temperature on embryonic development have resulted in evolution of adaptive behavioral compensation for poor thermal opportunity at high altitudes, but that direct effects of maternal thermal environment are maintained at low altitudes because they are not selected against. More generally, we suggest that phenotypic effects of maternal thermal opportunity or incubation temperature in reptiles will most commonly reflect weak selection for canalization or selection on maternal strategies rather than adaptive plasticity to match postnatal environments.

  6. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  7. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  8. Parent–offspring conflict and motivational control of brooding in an amphipod (Crustacea)

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Elwood, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Models of parent–offspring conflict concerning levels of caregiving centre on conflict resolution by offspring control, compromise or offspring ‘honest signalling’ that parents use to maximize their own fitness. Recent empirical studies on motivational control of parental feeding of offspring are interpreted as supporting the latter model. Here, we examine parental care in an amphipod, Crangonyx pseudogracilis, which directs care to embryos in a brood pouch. Embryo removal and transplantation...

  9. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...

  11. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compa...

  12. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...

  13. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  14. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  15. Neonatal neurological assessment of offspring in maternal phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisbren, SE; Chang, P; Levy, HL; Shifrin, H; Allred, E; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F; Hanley, W; Koch, R; Matalon, R; Rouse, B

    1998-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of prenatal and postnatal factors in maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The Dubowitz Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant was administered within the first 8 days of life to 56 offspring of women with PKU and 45 controls. Follow-up testing o

  16. Evidence of oxidative shielding of offspring in a wild mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I.K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesised that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. Further advance in understanding of life history variation would benefit from theory and tests of the potential transgenerational impacts of the mechanisms underlying life history trade-offs.

  17. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  18. [Investigation on physiological characteristics in "offspring of Lop Nor people"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufuer, Mayila; Nijiati, Muyesai; Simayi, Amuti; Han, Wei; Li, Feng

    2011-08-18

    To investigate the physiological characteristics in "offspring of Lop Nor people", a special population from the Lop Nor dried up in Xinjiang. A total of 594 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method from Yuli County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. All data were obtained from each person by the questionnaire and standard physical examinations. The prevalence of hypertension for "offspring of Lop Nor people" was 47.1% for males and 45.4% for females, respectively. The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI≥28 kg/m(2)) was higher in females than that in males, with 41.2% vs. 32.7%. The prevalence of abnormal TG in males was higher than that in females, 36.6% vs. 25.5% (P=0.003 7). And prevalence of abnormal HDL in males was higher than that in females, 9.7% vs. 3.9% (P=0.003 8). The results of multivariate analysis revealed that BMI and TG were the risk factors for hypertension in "offspring of Lop Nor people" . The preliminary results show that the main physiological characteristics are high blood lipid, high prevalence of hypertension and obesity in "offspring of Lop Nor people". High blood lipid and obesity might be the main risk factors for hypertension in this population.

  19. The oxidative costs of territory quality and offspring provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindre-Parker, S; Baldo, S; Gilchrist, H G; Macdonald, C A; Harris, C M; Love, O P

    2013-12-01

    The costs of reproduction are an important constraint that shapes the evolution of life histories, yet our understanding of the proximate mechanism(s) leading to such life-history trade-offs is not well understood. Oxidative stress is a strong candidate measure thought to mediate the costs of reproduction, yet empirical evidence supporting that increased reproductive investment leads to oxidative stress is equivocal. We investigated whether territory quality and offspring provisioning increase oxidative stress in male snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) using a repeated sampling design. We show that arrival oxidative stress is not a constraint on territory quality or the number of offspring fledged. Nevertheless, owners of higher-quality territories experienced an oxidative cost, with this cost increasing more rapidly in younger males. Males that provisioned offspring at a high rate also experienced increased oxidative stress. Together, these findings support the potential role of oxidative stress in mediating life-history trade-offs. Future work should consider that reproductive workload is not limited to offspring care, and other activities - including territory defence - may contribute significantly to the costs of reproduction.

  20. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  1. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we...

  2. Risk for asthma in offspring of asthmatic mothers versus fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Robert H; Kobzik, Lester; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect."...

  3. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n = 12) were untreated (n = 6), or received either a Wt-GHRH (n = 2), or H...

  4. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  5. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we...

  6. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  7. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning;

    2015-01-01

    in the offspring. METHODS: A cohort study was performed among all live singletons born in Denmark between 1996 and 2007. Mothers who had a diagnosis of depressive disorder and/or who used antidepressants 1 year before or during the index pregnancy were identified. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model...

  8. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season...

  9. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  10. Association between Parental and Offspring's Alcohol Use--Population Data from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Authors investigated the association between alcohol use of parents and offspring in data derived from a district based household survey on drug abuse. Methods: Data on 4411 fathers paired with 6884 offspring were available. Alcohol use disorders were diagnosed based on DSM-III-R criteria. Analyses was conducted to contrast 1979 offspring of…

  11. Face-Emotion Processing in Offspring at Risk for Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Lissek, Shmuel; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Panic disorder (PD) has been linked to perturbed processing of threats. This study tested the hypotheses that offspring of parents with PD and offspring with anxiety disorders display relatively greater sensitivity and attention allocation to fear provocation. Method: Offspring of adults with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), or no…

  12. Biparental care and offspring begging strategies: hungry nestling blue tits move towards the father

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, M.; Berridge, I.; Hartley, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that in many bird species offspring are provisioned by two parents, few studies to date have examined the implications of biparental care for offspring solicitation behaviour. Male and female parents can differ in their potential value to individual offspring if they follow differen

  13. 两种方法对上海及周边地区实验大小鼠螺杆菌携带情况的调查%An Epidemiological Survey of Helicobacter spp.in Laboratory Mice and Rats in the Area around Shanghai by Two Detection Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁聪; 冯洁; 谢建云; 高诚; 胡建华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identity the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. Infection in laboratory mice and laboratory rats in the area around Shanghai, and provide reference and basis for the establishment of Chinese laboratory animals grades and monitoring standards. Methods A total of 352 mice (101 clean grade mice,251 SPF grade mice) and 101 rat (69 clean grade rats, 32 SPF grade rats) obtained from the area around Shanghai were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).88 mice (clean grade mice,62 SPF grade mice) and 165 rats (84 clean grade rats,81 SPF grade rats) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Next,the positive rate of the two methods in 88 mice and 101rats were compared. Results PCR detecting percentage in mice and rats were as follows: the average positive rate of mice was 35. 8% (126/352) .among them,the positive rates of clean grade rats and SPF grade mice were 51.5% (52/101)and 29. 5% (74/251 ) .respectively. The average positive rates of rats were 70. 3% (71/101 ) .among them,the positive rate of clean grade and SPF grade were 69. 6% (48/69) and 71. 9% (23/32) .respectively. ELISA detecting percentage in mice and rats as follows;the average positive rate of mice were 15. 9% (14/88) , among them, the positive rates of clean grade and SPF grade mice were 19. 2% (5/26) and 14. 5% (9/62) .respectively. The average positive rate of rats was 52. 7% (87/165), among them, the positive rates of clean grade and SPF grade rats were 53. 6% (45/84) and 51. 9% (42/81), respectively. The positive rates of 88 mice tested by PCR were 72.7% (64/88) and by ELISA 15.9% (14/88). The positive rates of 101 rats detected by PCR were 70.3% (71/101) and by ELISA 49.5% (50/101). Conclusions Helicobacter spp. Infection exists in laboratory mice and laboratory rats in the area around Shanghai. The PCR assay of feces is more sensitive than the examination of the serum antibody against Helicobacter spp.%目的 了解上海及周边地区实验小鼠、大鼠螺杆菌

  14. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  15. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  16. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  17. Melatonin prevents neural tube defects in the offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangming; Guo, Yuji; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Pan, Yan; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Fuwu; Wang, Jingjing; Hao, Aijun

    2015-11-01

    Melatonin, an endogenous neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions and neuroprotective effects. However, its protective role on the neural tube defects (NTDs) was not very clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on the incidence of NTDs (including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida) of offspring from diabetic pregnant mice as well as its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice were given 10 mg/kg melatonin by daily i.p. injection from embryonic day (E) 0.5 until being killed on E11.5. Here, we showed that melatonin decreased the NTDs (especially exencephaly) rate of embryos exposed to maternal diabetes. Melatonin stimulated proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) under hyperglycemic condition through the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, as a direct free radical scavenger, melatonin decreased apoptosis of NSCs exposed to hyperglycemia. In the light of these findings, it suggests that melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the prevention of neural malformations in diabetic pregnancy.

  18. Parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Patil, Uday; Triebwasser, Joseph; Hoffman, Perry; Weinstein, Zachary A; New, Antonia

    2011-02-01

    To identify aspects of parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), an anonymous internet survey linked to BPD support websites was developed for parents to complete on their BPD offspring and unaffected siblings. The questions cover aspects of the child's life from pregnancy through young adulthood, and query about the impact of the child's BPD on six domains of the parent's life, including physical and emotional health, marriage, job, standard of living, social life, and career trajectory. Additionally, financial burden was assessed with questions pertaining to insurance and out-of pocket costs associated with the BPD disorder. BPD offspring were identified by meeting diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey and having been given a diagnosis of BPD by a professional at some point in their life. We report on 233 female offspring meeting strict criteria for BPD. Parents of daughters with BPD endorsed varying levels of impact on the six domains comprising burden with the largest impact on emotional health which was impacted in over 88% of the respondents. Over 50% of parents endorsed four or greater of the six burden items. Particular aspects of the offspring's BPD symptom profile correlated with intensity of parental burden included including problems in adolescence with acting out behavior (p disorder led to about $50,000 in additional costs. Parents of female offspring with BPD experience burden in multiple domains of their life and many have incurred substantial financial expense. Increasing awareness of co-morbid conditions in the BPD proband that significantly increase parental burden may be indicators for the provision of increased family support.

  19. Mother's exercise during pregnancy programmes vasomotor function in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahls, Martin; Sheldon, Ryan D; Taheripour, Pardis; Clifford, Kerry A; Foust, Kallie B; Breslin, Emily D; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Cabot, Ryan A; Harold Laughlin, M; Bidwell, Christopher A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behaviour and programmes atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mothers' exercise during pregnancy improves endothelial function in 3-, 5- and 9-month-old porcine offspring. The pregnant sows in the exercise group ran for an average of 39.35 ± 0.75 min at 4.81 ± 0.35 km h(-1) each day for 5 days per week for all but the last week of gestation. This induced a significant reduction in resting heart rate (exercised group, 89.3 ± 3.5 beats min(-1); sedentary group, 102.1 ± 3.1 beats min(-1); P < 0.05) but no significant differences in gestational weight gain (65.8 ± 2.1 versus 63.3 ± 1.9%). No significant effect on bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation with and without l-NAME was observed. A significant main effect was identified on sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation (P = 0.01), manifested by a reduced response in femoral arteries of all age groups from exercised-trained swine. Nitric oxide signalling was not affected by maternal exercise. Protein expression of MYPT1 was reduced in femoral arteries from 3-month-old offspring of exercised animals. A significant interaction was observed for PPP1R14A (P < 0.05) transcript abundance and its protein product CPI-17. In conclusion, pregnant swine are able to complete an exercise-training protocol that matches the current recommendations for pregnant women. Gestational exercise is a potent stimulus for programming vascular smooth muscle relaxation in adult offspring. Specifically, exercise training for the finite duration of pregnancy decreases vascular smooth muscle responsiveness in adult offspring to an exogenous nitric oxide donor.

  20. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  1. Selective breeding of mice strains with different sensitivity to isoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian; ZHENG Yi; LU Jing; CHEN Lü; WANG Ju; ZHOU Jian-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of action of volatile anesthetics are still unknown.Recently, the use of genetics as a means to investigate anesthetic action has increased in scale.However, only limited forward genetic approach studies were performed in mammals, especially with volatile anesthetics as the selection agent.In the present study, a selective breeding process was designed to produce strains of mice with different sensitivity to isoflurane.Methods One hundred and sixty male and female virgin outbred ICR/CD-1 mice at 65-70 days of age were selected as original generation, and the median effective dose (ED50) of inhaled isoflurane were measured by probit analysis with the loss of righting reflex as the endpoint of anesthesia.The most sensitive males and females were selected and mated one another randomly, as with the most resistant males and females.Thus two branches of mice (sensitive and resistant to isoflurane) were created and allowed to produce the next generation.At 65-70 days of age, screening experiment was performed in offspring, by selecting the most sensitive mice in sensitive branch and the most resistant mice in resistant branch.Selected males and females within each branch were mated one another randomly to produce the following generation.The same procedure was performed in the offspring.The process of screening and breeding was repeated for 8 generations, and then strains were conserved by mating the offspring one another randomly within each branch for 3 generations.Each pair of mice was allowed to produce the second litters as a backup, and isoflurane ED50 was measured in mice from the second litters.Results Isoflurane righting reflex ED50s (95% confidence limit (CL)) in original mice were 0.65% (0.58%-0.72%) in females and 0.63% (0.56%-0.69%) in males.After the 4th generation, isoflurane ED50s in resistant branch were significantly higher than those in sensitive branch (P <0.05), for both in females and males.In the 11th generation

  2. Maternal cypermethrin exposure during the perinatal period impairs testicular development in C57BL male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobin Huang

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5 to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5. Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults.

  3. Maternal choline supplementation in a mouse model of Down syndrome: Effects on attention and nucleus basalis/substantia innominata neuron morphology in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Kelley, Christy M; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2017-01-06

    The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits cognitive impairment and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Our prior studies demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves attention and spatial cognition in Ts65Dn offspring, normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis, and lessens BFCN degeneration in the medial septal nucleus (MSN). Here we determined whether (i) BFCN degeneration contributes to attentional dysfunction, and (ii) whether the attentional benefits of perinatal MCS are due to changes in BFCN morphology. Ts65Dn dams were fed either a choline-supplemented or standard diet during pregnancy and lactation. Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) control offspring were tested as adults (12-17months of age) on a series of operant attention tasks, followed by morphometric assessment of BFCNs. Ts65Dn mice demonstrated impaired learning and attention relative to 2N mice, and MCS significantly improved these functions in both genotypes. We also found, for the first time, that the number of BFCNs in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/substantia innominata (NBM/SI) was significantly increased in Ts65Dn mice relative to controls. In contrast, the number of BFCNs in the MSN was significantly decreased. Another novel finding was that the volume of BFCNs in both basal forebrain regions was significantly larger in Ts65Dn mice. MCS did not normalize any of these morphological abnormalities in the NBM/SI or MSN. Finally, correlational analysis revealed that attentional performance was inversely associated with BFCN volume, and positively associated with BFCN density. These results support the lifelong attentional benefits of MCS for Ts65Dn and 2N offspring and have profound implications for translation to human DS and pathology attenuation in AD.

  4. Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed.

  5. Perinatal Exposure to Insecticide Methamidophos Suppressed Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Responding to Virus Infection in Lung Tissues in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamidophos, a representative organophosphate insecticide, is regulated because of its severe neurotoxicity, but it is suspected of contaminating agricultural foods in many countries due to illicit use. To reveal unknown effects of methamidophos on human health, we evaluated the developmental immunotoxicity of methamidophos using a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed to methamidophos (10 or 20 ppm in their drinking water from gestation day 10 to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offsprings born to these dams were intranasally infected with RSV. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-gamma in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after infection were significantly decreased in offspring mice exposed to methamidophos. Treatment with methamidophos did not affect the pulmonary viral titers but suppressed moderately the inflammation of lung tissues of RSV-infected offspring, histopathologically. DNA microarray analysis revealed that gene expression of the cytokines in the lungs of offspring mice exposed to 20 ppm of methamidophos was apparently suppressed compared with the control. Methamidophos did not suppress IL-6 production in RSV-infected J774.1 cell cultures. Thus, exposure of the mother to methamidophos during pregnancy and nursing was suggested to cause an irregular immune response in the lung tissues in the offspring mice.

  6. Selective loss of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of maternally stressed Gad1-heterozygous mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T; Furukawa, T; Iwata, S; Yanagawa, Y; Fukuda, A

    2014-03-11

    Exposure to maternal stress (MS) and mutations in GAD1, which encodes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67, are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders. However, the relationship between these risk factors remains unclear. Interestingly, the critical period of MS for psychiatric disorders in offspring corresponds to the period of GABAergic neuron neurogenesis and migration in the fetal brain, that is, in the late stage of gestation. Indeed, decrement of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has often been observed in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, we used GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice (that is, mice in which the Gad1 gene is heterozygously deleted; GAD67(+/GFP)) that underwent prenatal stress from embryonic day 15.0 to 17.5 and monitored PV-positive GABAergic neurons to address the interaction between Gad1 disruption and stress. Administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine revealed that neurogenesis of GFP-positive GABAergic neurons, but not cortical plate cells, was significantly diminished in fetal brains during MS. Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptors by different progenitor cell types may underlie this differential outcome. Postnatally, the density of PV-positive, but not PV-negative, GABAergic neurons was significantly decreased in the mPFC, HIP and somatosensory cortex but not in the motor cortex of GAD67(+/GFP) mice. By contrast, these findings were not observed in wild-type (GAD67(+/+)) offspring. These results suggest that prenatal stress, in addition to heterozygous deletion of Gad1, could specifically disturb the proliferation of neurons destined to be PV-positive GABAergic interneurons.

  7. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.C.; Ormel, J.; Van Sonderen, E.L.P.; Den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  8. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  9. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible cre-fusion protein specifically in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huan-Zhang; Chen, Jian-Quan; Cheng, Guo-Xiang; Xue, Jing-Lun

    2003-08-01

    To establish transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERt recombinase specifically in the liver and to provide an efficient animal model for studying gene function in the liver and creating various mouse models mimicking human diseases. Alb-Cre-ERt transgenic mice were produced by microinjecting the construct with Cre-ERt fusion gene of DNA fragments into fertilized eggs derived from inbred C57BL/6 strain. Transgenic mice were identified by using PCR and Southern blotting. Expression of Cre-ERt fusion gene was analyzed in the liver, kidney, brain and lung from F1 generation transgenic mice at 8 weeks of age by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Four hundred and fourteen fertilized eggs of C57 BL/6 mice were microinjected with recombinant Alb-Cre-ERt DNA fragments, and 312 survival eggs injected were transferred to the oviducts of 12 pseudopregnant recipient mice, 6 of 12 recipient mice became pregnant and gave birth to 44 offsprings. Of the 44 offsprings, two males and one female carried the hybrid Cre-ERt fusion gene. Three mice were determined as founders, and were back crossed to set up F1 generations with other inbred C57BL/6 mice. Transmission of Cre-ERt fusion gene in F1 offspring followed Mendelian rules. The expression of Cre-ERt mRNA was detected only in the liver of F1 offspring from two of three founder mice. Transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERt recombinase under control of the liver-specific promoter are preliminary established.

  10. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  11. Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2011-01-01

    (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates...... and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females...

  12. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-11-01

    Early - intrauterine - environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life.

  13. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed.

  14. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  16. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... and neurotransmitter function of glutamate, pregnant rats were subjected to restrain stress during the last week of gestation. Brains of the adult offspring were used to assess glutamate metabolism, uptake and release as well as expression of glutamate receptors and transporters. While glutamate metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  17. Glyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Marco Aurelio; ROMANO, Renata Marino; Santos, Luciana Dalazen; Wisniewski, Patricia; Campos, Daniele Antonelo; Souza, Paula Bargi de; Viau,Priscila; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Oliveira,Claudio Alvarenga de

    2012-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in the brain takes place from late gestation to the early postnatal days. This is dependent on the conversion of circulating testosterone into estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. The glyphosate was shown to alter aromatase activity and decrease serum testosterone concentrations. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gestational maternal glyphosate exposure (50 mg/kg, NOAEL for reproductive toxicity) on the reproductive development of male offspring...

  18. Devising assisted reproductive technologies for wild-derived strains of mice: 37 strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Wild-derived mice have long offered invaluable experimental models for mouse genetics because of their high evolutionary divergence from laboratory mice. A number of wild-derived strains are available from the RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC, but they have been maintained as living stocks because of the unavailability of assisted reproductive technology (ART. In this study, we sought to devise ART for 37 wild-derived strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus maintained at the BRC. Superovulation of females was effective (more than 15 oocytes per female for 34 out of 37 strains by treatment with either equine chorionic gonadotropin or anti-inhibin serum, depending on their genetic background (subspecies. The collected oocytes could be fertilized in vitro at mean rates of 79.0% and 54.6% by the optimized protocol using fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa, respectively. They were cryopreserved at the 2-cell stage by vitrification with an ethylene glycol-based solution. In total, 94.6% of cryopreserved embryos survived the vitrification procedure and restored their normal morphology after warming. A conventional embryo transfer protocol could be applied to 25 out of the 35 strains tested. In the remaining 10 strains, live offspring could be obtained by a modified embryo transfer protocol using cyclosporin A treatment and co-transfer of ICR (laboratory mouse strain embryos. Thus, ART for 37 wild-derived strains was devised successfully and is now routinely used for their preservation and transportation. The information provided here might facilitate broader use and wider distribution of wild-derived mice for biomedical research.

  19. Testing Cermak's hypothesis: is dissociation the mediating variable that links substance abuse in the family of origin with offspring codependency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, D

    2001-01-01

    This is a pilot study of substance abuse in the family of origin and its relation to offspring dissociation and offspring codependency. Cermak contends that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, that exposure to trauma in the family of origin engenders offspring dissociation, and that dissociation is the process underlying offspring codependency. Assuming that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, this experiment tested the hypothesis that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Although it was found that substance abuse in the family of origin, offspring dissociation, and offspring codependency were associated, no support was found for the prediction that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Replications are called for.

  20. Infants at risk for psychopathology: offspring of schizophrenic parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E; Emory, E

    1983-10-01

    The results of research on infants at high risk for schizophrenia (offspring of schizophrenic parents) are reviewed. The findings indicate that high-risk infants are not exposed to greater exogenous stress during the prenatal and perinatal periods, although subsequent caregiving provided by disturbed mothers may be nonoptimal. Several findings point to the existence of a constitutionally vulnerable subgroup of high-risk infants. Fetal and neonatal deaths, unrelated to obstetrical complications, may be more common among high-risk offspring, and neuromotor abnormalities are apparent in a subgroup of high-risk subjects across the life span. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that offspring of schizophrenics are uniquely susceptible to obstetrical complications when they occur: Neuromotor deficits and other developmental deviations show a greater relationship with obstetrical complications among high-risk infants than controls. Taken together, the results lend support to the validity of interactional models of the etiology of schizophrenia and suggest that preventive intervention may be a realistic goal.

  1. Gestational flu exposure induces changes in neurochemicals, affiliative hormones and brainstem inflammation, in addition to autism-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V M; Zhu, Y; Bucher, C; McGinnis, W; Ryan, L K; Siegel, A; Zalcman, S

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism is increasing, however the etiology of these disorders is unclear and thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental and immune factors. A recent epidemiological study found that gestational viral exposure during the first trimester increases risk of autism in offspring by twofold. In mice gestational viral exposures alter behavior of offspring, but the biological mechanisms which underpin these behavioral changes are unclear. We hypothesized that gestational viral exposure induces changes in affiliative hormones, brainstem autonomic nuclei and neurotransmitters which are associated with behavioral alterations in offspring. To address this hypothesis, we exposed pregnant mice to influenza A virus (H3N2) on gestational day 9 and determined behavioral, hormonal and brainstem changes in male and female offspring. We found that gestational flu exposure induced dose-dependent alterations in social and aggressive behaviors (p≤0.05) in male and female offspring and increases in locomotor behaviors particularly in male offspring (p≤0.05). We found that flu exposure was also associated with reductions in oxytocin and serotonin (p≤0.05) levels in male and female offspring and sex-specific changes in dopamine metabolism. In addition we found changes in catecholaminergic and microglia density in brainstem tissues of male flu exposed offspring only (p≤0.05). This study demonstrates that gestational viral exposure induces behavioral changes in mice, which are associated with alterations in affiliative hormones. In addition we found sex-specific changes in locomotor behavior, which may be associated with sex-specific alterations in dopamine metabolism and brainstem inflammation. Further investigations into maternal immune responses are necessary to unravel the molecular mechanisms which underpin abnormal hormonal, immune and behavioral responses in offspring after gestational viral exposure

  2. A stereological comparison of GAD67 and reelin expression in the hippocampal stratum oriens of offspring from two mouse models of maternal inflammation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal infection during pregnancy may be a risk factor for schizophrenia and autism. Altered expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and reelin in the hippocampus has been reported in post-mortem studies of people with schizophrenia or autism. We used two mouse models of maternal inflammation, featuring either the viral RNA mimic, poly (I:C), or the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to compare effects of maternal inflammation on GAD67 and reelin expression in the hippocampal stratum oriens of juvenile mice. Pregnant Swiss-Webster mice were treated with poly (I:C) or LPS on gestational day 9. At postnatal days (PD) 14 and 28, brains from male and female offspring were processed immunohistochemically, and NeuN-, GAD67- and reelin-positive cells estimated using unbiased stereological cell counting methods. In offspring at PD14, GAD67 and reelin expression were unaffected by prenatal poly (I:C) or prenatal LPS treatment, although prenatal LPS mice showed increased neuronal (NeuN) density at this age. However, at PD28, mice prenatally treated with poly (I:C) displayed a decreased number of reelin-positive cells in dorsal stratum oriens. Interestingly, at PD28, we also found increased GAD67 expression in the ventral stratum oriens in male mice prenatally treated with LPS, and in female mice prenatally treated with poly (I:C). Our findings describe sex-, age-, and immunogen-specific alterations in regional hippocampal GAD67 and reelin expression as a result of early maternal inflammation. These neurodevelopmental changes could have significant effects on GABAergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vertical transmission of Toxocara canis in successive generations of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Roselaine Schoenardie

    Full Text Available Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused byToxocara canis larvae in unusual hosts. In dogs, the definitive host, the infection occurs mainly through transplacental and transcolostral transmission. Studies on experimental models have shown that vertical transmission may result from acute infections. Considering that toxocariasis is characterized as a chronic infection, with possible reactivation of larvae present in the brain, this study evaluated the presence of larvae in the brain of female BALB/c mice and their offspring with chronic infection during three successive pregnancies. ELISA-TES was used to evaluate the antibody levels. T. canis larvae were detected in the brain tissue of the mice during the three successive generations evaluated. The offspring's IgG level gradually decreased, and mean absorbance (ABS above the cutoff point (0.070 was observed only at 30 (0.229 and 50 (0.096 days of age, while IgM was not detected. The infections in the offspring confirmed that vertical transmission of T. canis larvae occurred during chronic toxocariasis in three successive generations of mice.

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anna-Karin; Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Bach, Lennart; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Furuhagen, Sara; Paul, Allanah; Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  6. Effects of human contraceptive on reproduction and offspring in Chrysomya megacephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarinee Chaiwong; Kabkaew L Sukontason; Urai Chaisri; Hiromu Kurahashi; Michelle Sanford; Kom Sukontason

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of human contraceptive(HC) as ability to suppress the reproductive success of blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius)(C. megacephala)and offspring under controlled laboratory conditions.Methods: AdultC. megacephala were fed with low (0.036 mg/mL) and high dose (0.072mg/mL)HC (Microgest®, Thailand), containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, in their drinking water for7 days. Three experiments were set; experiment I with fed only in parental males, experiment II with fed only in parental females and experiment III with fed in both males and females. All experiments were then maintained for 3 generations after crossing and inbreeding.Results: A lower ovariole production and less fully mature ovarioles were evident inF1, F2 andF3 than control when parent males, females and both had been fed with high doseHC. Cellular changes during spermatogenesis inF1, F2 and F3 testes was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy(TEM), showing the low level of condensed chromatin, necrotic chromatin, irregularities and degenerated nuclear envelope in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling as well as vacuolated cytoplasm were noticed. As for the spermper se, we found the degenerated nuclei and/or incomplete mitochondrial derivative, axoneme and vacuolated flagella. Regarding deformity in F1, F2andF3 ovariole, ultrastructural alteration observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)included malformations involving fragile enveloping peritoneal sheath, cracked ovarioles, peel away chorion, crumbled eggshell and incomplete development; whereasTEM presented malformed and disorganized mass of cells, proteic yolk granules and vacuolated vesicles. Conclusions: Administer ofHC to adultC. megacephala caused ovariole reduction, less matured ovariole and affected cellular changes in testes and ovariole of offspring up to F3.

  7. Paternal alcoholism and offspring conduct disorder: evidence for the 'common genes' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jon R; Jacob, Theodore; Heath, Andrew C

    2005-04-01

    Not only are alcoholism and externalizing disorders frequently comorbid, they often co-occur in families across generations; for example, paternal alcoholism predicts offspring conduct disorder just as it does offspring alcoholism. To clarify this relationship, the current study examined the 'common genes' hypothesis utilizing a children-of-twins research design. Participants were male monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were concordant or discordant for alcohol dependence together with their offspring and the mothers of those offspring. All participants were conducted through a structured psychiatric interview. Offspring risk of conduct disorder was examined as a function of alcoholism genetic risk (due to paternal and co-twin alcohol dependence) and alcoholism environmental risk (due to being reared by a father with an alcohol dependence diagnosis). After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the offspring of alcohol-dependent fathers were significantly more likely to exhibit conduct disorder diagnoses than were offspring of nonalcohol-dependent fathers, thus indicating diagnostic crossover in generational family transmission. Comparing offspring at high genetic and high environmental risk with offspring at high genetic and low environmental risk indicated that genetic factors were most likely responsible for the alcoholism-conduct disorder association. The observed diagnostic crossover (from paternal alcoholism to offspring conduct disorder) across generations in the context of both high and low environmental risk (while genetic risk remained high) supported the common genes hypothesis.

  8. Low circulating IGF-I bioactivity is associated with human longevity: Findings in centenarians’ offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Brugts, Michael P; Ogliari, Giulia; Castaldi, Davide; Fatti, Letizia M.; Varewijck, Aimee J.; Lamberts, Steven W.; Monti, Daniela; Bucci, Laura; Cevenini, Elisa; Cavagnini, Francesco; Franceschi, Claudio; Hofland, Leo J; Mari, Daniela; Janssen, Joseph A.M.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians’ offspring represent a suitable model to study age-dependent variables (e.g. IGF-I) potentially involved in the modulation of the lifespan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the IGF-I in human longevity. We evaluated circulating IGF-I bioactivity measured by an innovative IGF-I Kinase Receptor Activation (KIRA) Assay, total IGF-I, IGFBP-3, total IGF-II, insulin, glucose, HOMA2-B% and HOMA2-S% in 192 centenarians’ offspring and 80 offspring-controls of which both parents died relatively young. Both groups were well-matched for age, gender and BMI with the centenarians’ offspring. IGF-I bioactivity (p<0.01), total IGF-I (p<0.01) and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (p<0.001) were significantly lower in centenarians’ offspring compared to offspring matched-controls. Serum insulin, glucose, HOMA2-B% and HOMA2-S% values were similar between both groups. In centenarians’ offspring IGF-I bioactivity was inversely associated to insulin sensitivity. In conclusion: 1) centenarians’ offspring had relatively lower circulating IGF-I bioactivity compared to offspring matched-controls; 2) IGF-I bioactivity in centenarians’ offspring was inversely related to insulin sensitivity. These data support a role of the IGF-I/insulin system in the modulation of human aging process. PMID:22983440

  9. Longitudinal analysis of the effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on subsequent smoking behavior of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kate H; Munafò, Marcus R; Rodriguez, Daniel; Drury, Mark; Murphy, Michael F G; Neale, Rachel E; Nettle, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    We explored the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the likelihood of smoking among offspring in adolescence and adulthood using data from two similar British birth cohort surveys, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Birth Survey. Similar information was available in each cohort on maternal age at delivery, offspring sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental and offspring socioeconomic status, and parental smoking at the time offspring smoking was assessed at age 16 years. Offspring smoking at 16 years and at 30/33 years were the primary outcomes of interest. Our data support an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and an increased risk of offspring smoking later in life among female offspring but not among male offspring. Female offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to smoke at 16 years than were their male counterparts. Moreover, in this same subgroup, female offspring smoking at 16 years was associated with an increased likelihood of smoking at 30/33 years. Further investigation in larger studies with greater detail of factors shaping smoking in childhood and adulthood and biochemically verified outcome measures would be desirable to clarify the relationship.

  10. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  11. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  12. The effects of nesting material on energy homeostasis in BALB/cAnNCrl, C57BL/6NCrl, and Crl:CD1(ICR) laboratory mice housed at 20°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: A discrepancy exists between the preferred ambient temperature range for mice (26 to 32°C) and the current recommendations (20 to 26°C) that can result in mild hypothermia. As a consequence, animal welfare may be reduced and physiological state can be altered, which can impact research ...

  13. The relationship between offspring size and fitness: integrating theory and empiricism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Njal; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    How parents divide the energy available for reproduction between size and number of offspring has a profound effect on parental reproductive success. Theory indicates that the relationship between offspring size and offspring fitness is of fundamental importance to the evolution of parental reproductive strategies: this relationship predicts the optimal division of resources between size and number of offspring, it describes the fitness consequences for parents that deviate from optimality, and its shape can predict the most viable type of investment strategy in a given environment (e.g., conservative vs. diversified bet-hedging). Many previous attempts to estimate this relationship and the corresponding value of optimal offspring size have been frustrated by a lack of integration between theory and empiricism. In the present study, we draw from C. Smith and S. Fretwell's classic model to explain how a sound estimate of the offspring size--fitness relationship can be derived with empirical data. We evaluate what measures of fitness can be used to model the offspring size--fitness curve and optimal size, as well as which statistical models should and should not be used to estimate offspring size--fitness relationships. To construct the fitness curve, we recommend that offspring fitness be measured as survival up to the age at which the instantaneous rate of offspring mortality becomes random with respect to initial investment. Parental fitness is then expressed in ecologically meaningful, theoretically defensible, and broadly comparable units: the number of offspring surviving to independence. Although logistic and asymptotic regression have been widely used to estimate offspring size-fitness relationships, the former provides relatively unreliable estimates of optimal size when offspring survival and sample sizes are low, and the latter is unreliable under all conditions. We recommend that the Weibull-1 model be used to estimate this curve because it provides

  14. Production of transgenic mice by random recombination of targeted genes in female germline stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhang; Ji Xiong; Jie Xiang; Ji Wu; Zhaojuan Yang; Yunze Yang; Shuzeng Wang; Lingjun Shi; Wenhai Xie; Kejing Sun; Kang Zou; Lei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Oocyte production in most mammalian species is believed to cease before birth. However, this idea has been challenged with the finding that postnatal mouse ovaries possess mitotically active germ cells. A recent study showed that female germline stem cells (FGSCs) from adult mice were isolated, cultured long term and produced oocytes and progeny after transplantation into infertile mice. Here, we demonstrate the successful generation of transgenic or gene knock-down mice using FGSCs. The FGSCs from ovaries of 5-day-old and adult mice were isolated and either infected with recombinant viruses carrying green fluorescent protein, Oocyte-G1 or the mouse dynein axonemal intermediate chain 2 gene, or transfected with the Oocyte-G1 specific shRNA expression vector (pRS shOocyte-G1 vector), and then transplanted into infertile mice. Transplanted cells in the ovaries underwent oogenesis and produced heterozygous offspring after mating with wild-type male mice. The offspring were genetically characterized and the biological functions of the transferred or knock-down genes were investigated. Efficiency of genetransfer or gene knock-down was 29%-37% and it took 2 months to produce transgenic offspring. Gene manipulation of FGSCs is a rapid and efficient method of animal transgenesis and may serve as a powerful tool for biomedical science and biotechnology.

  15. A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, mothers are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields before and even during pregnancy. It has recently been shown that exposure to mobile phone radiation during pregnancy may lead to adverse effects on the brain development in offspring and cause hyperactivity. Researchers have shown that behavioral problems in laboratory animals which have a similar appearance to ADHD are caused by intrauterine exposure to mobile phones. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the maternal exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields affect on the rate and severity of speech problems in their offspring. Methods: In this study, mothers of 35 healthy 3-5 year old children (control group and 77 children and diagnosed with speech problems who had been referred to a speech treatment center in Shiraz, Iran were interviewed. These mothers were asked whether they had exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, laptops and power lines. Results: We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002 or history of mobile phone use (months used and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003. However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring.

  16. Does the Mother or Father Determine the Offspring Sex Ratio? Investigating the Relationship between Maternal Digit Ratio and Offspring Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Beom Kim

    Full Text Available In mammals, high parental testosterone levels present around the time of conception are thought to skew offspring sex ratio toward sons. The second to fourth digit ratio (digit ratio is now widely accepted as a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Thus, we investigated the association between digit ratio and offspring sex ratio.A total of 508 Korean patients (257 males and 251 females less than 60 years old who had one or more offspring were prospectively enrolled. The lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital vernier calliper. Next, the patients' lifetime offspring birth sex ratios were investigated.Maternal (rather than paternal digit ratio was significantly associated with the number of sons (r = -0.153, p = 0.015, number of daughters (r = 0.130, p = 0.039, and offspring sex ratio (r = -0.171, p = 0.007. And, the maternal digit ratio was a significant factor for predicting offspring sex ratio (B = -1.620, p = 0.008 on multiple linear regression analysis. The female patients with a lower digit ratio (< 0.95 were found to have a higher offspring sex ratio (0.609 versus 0.521, p = 0.046 compared to those with a higher digit ratio (≥ 0.95. Furthermore, females in the low digit ratio group have a probability 1.138 greater of having sons than females in the high digit ratio group.Maternal digit ratio was negatively associated with offspring sex ratio. Females with a lower digit ratio were more likely to have more male offspring compared to those with a higher digit ratio. Thus, our results suggest that the sex of offspring might be more influenced by maternal rather than paternal factors.

  17. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-weaning diet determines metabolic risk in mice exposed to overnutrition in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vicky; Norman, Jane E; Seckl, Jonathan R; Drake, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Maternal overnutrition during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring; a phenomenon attributed to 'developmental programming'. The post-weaning development of obesity may associate with exacerbation of the programmed metabolic phenotype. In mice, we have previously shown that exposure to maternal overnutrition causes increased weight gain in offspring before weaning, but exerts no persistent effects on weight or glucose tolerance in adulthood. In order to determine whether post-weaning exposure to a cafeteria diet might lead to an exacerbation of programmed effects, offspring born and raised by mothers on control (CON) or cafeteria (DIO) diets were transferred onto either CON or DIO diets at weaning. Post-weaning DIO caused the development of obesity, with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in males; and obesity with hyperinsulinaemia in females and with increased cholesterol levels in both sexes. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation caused only subtle additional effects on offspring phenotype. These results suggest that post-weaning exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet has a more profound effect on offspring weight gain and glucose tolerance than exposure to maternal overnutrition. These data emphasise the importance of optimising early life nutrition in offspring of both obese and lean mothers.

  19. Effect of breastfeeding piperine on the learning of offspring mice: interaction with caffeine and diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2010-01-01

    Ali Akbar Moghadamnia1,2, Vahid Zangoori2, Seyed Sadegh Zargar-Nattaj2, Pooya Tayebi2, Yasaman Moghadamnia3, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei41Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Physics, Alzzahra University, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Anatomical Iran; Sciences and Embryology, Tehran, IranAbstract: Piperine, the main alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum), has been suggested ...

  20. Psychopharmacological Studies in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Since 1998, when the laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology was established in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, I have been interested in psychopharmacological research topics. During this period, we identified a number of novel regulatory mechanisms that control the prefrontal dopamine system through functional interaction between serotonin1A and dopamine D2 receptors or between serotonin1A and σ1 receptors. Our findings suggest that strategies that enhance the prefrontal dopamine system may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We also found that environmental factors during development strongly impact the psychological state in adulthood. Furthermore, we clarified the pharmacological profiles of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, providing novel insights into their mechanisms of action. Finally, we developed the female encounter test, a novel method for evaluating motivation in mice. This simple method should help advance future psychopharmacological research. In this review, we summarize the major findings obtained from our recent studies in mice.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  2. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Games among cannibals: competition to cannibalize and parent-offspring conflict lead to increased sibling cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J C; Roitberg, B D

    2005-11-01

    Sibling cannibalism occurs in many species, yet understanding of sibling cannibalism as an adaptation currently lags behind understanding of other antagonistic interactions among siblings. Observed sibling cannibalism phenotypes likely reflect the interaction between competitive games among siblings and parent-offspring conflict. Using a game-theoretic approach, we derive optimal offspring cannibalism behaviour and parental modifiers that limit or facilitate cannibalism. The results are compared to contemporary frequency-independent analysis. With the addition of game interactions among siblings or parent-offspring co-evolution, our model predicts increased cannibalism (compared to the frequency-independent prediction), as offspring compete to eat siblings. When infertile eggs are present--strengthening competition--offspring risk eating viable siblings in order to gain access to infertile eggs, intensifying parent-offspring conflict. We use the results to make new predictions about the occurrence of sibling cannibalism. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of trophic egg laying as a maternal mechanism to promote egg eating.

  4. Mortality and morbidity in offspring of mothers with diabetes compared with a population group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Welinder, L; Johansen, M Berg

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To assess mortality and morbidity in the offspring of mothers with diabetes compared with a control cohort of offspring of mothers without diabetes. METHODS: The mortality rate, percentage of days admitted to hospital, diagnostic categories and incidence of diabetes mellitus among 691...... offspring of mothers with diabetes were compared with a control group of 168 831 offspring not exposed to diabetes. Offspring of mothers with diabetes were identified from the North Jutland Pregnancy database (521 Type 1; 34 Type 2; 136 gestational diabetes) born between 1976 and 2003. Outcome data were...... diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of mothers with and without diabetes had almost identical mortality. The increased morbidity was restricted to the first 2 years of life, and was primarily attributable to a few individuals with very severe but probably non-diabetes-related disease burden...

  5. Owls and larks in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina ePfeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  6. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Manhica; Susanna Toivanen; Anders Hjern; Mikael Rostila

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents wh...

  7. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J.; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator ...

  8. The effects of maternal eating disorders on offspring childhood and early adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Micali, Nadia; De Stavola, Bianca; Ploubidis, George B.; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveThere is evidence that parental psychiatric disorders are associated with offspring psychiatric disorder. Very few small studies have investigated the effect of maternal eating disorders on offspring psychopathology throughout childhood and early adolescence. We aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders at age 7, 10, and 13 years in offspring of women with eating disorders prior to pregnancy and investigate the relative contribution of other psychiatric disorders.MethodWomen (N = 12...

  9. Sex roles in nest keeping - how information asymmetry contributes to parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Fresneau, Nolwenn; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-03-01

    Parental food provisioning and offspring begging influence each other reciprocally. This makes both traits agents and targets of selection, which may ultimately lead to co-adaptation. The latter may reflect co-adapted parent and offspring genotypes or could be due to maternal effects. Maternal effects are in turn likely to facilitate in particular mother-offspring co-adaptation, further emphasized by the possibility that mothers are sometimes found to be more responsive to offspring need. However, parents may not only differ in their sensitivity, but often play different roles in postnatal care. This potentially impinges on the access to information about offspring need. We here manipulated the information on offspring need as perceived by parents by playing back begging calls at a constant frequency in the nest-box of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We measured the parental response in provisioning to our treatment, paying particular attention to sex differences in parental roles and whether such differences alter the perception of the intensity of our manipulation. This enabled us to investigate whether an information asymmetry about offspring need exists between parents and how such an asymmetry relates to co-adaptation between parental provisioning and offspring begging. Our results show that parents indeed differed in the frequency how often they perceived the playback due to the fact that females spent more time with their offspring in the nest box. Correcting for the effective exposure of an adult to the playback, the parental response in provisioning covaried more strongly (positive) with offspring begging intensity, independent of the parental sex, indicating coadaptation on the phenotypic level. Females were not more sensitive to experimentally increased offspring need than males, but they were exposed to more broadcasted begging calls. Therefore, sex differences in access to information about offspring need, due to different parental roles, have the

  10. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Lanham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspring is determined during gestation.

  11. Maternal forced swimming reduces cell proliferation in the postnatal dentate gyrus of mouse offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Ronaldo C Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mot...

  12. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    OpenAIRE

    Koen J F Verhoeven; Thomas P van Gurp

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We o...

  13. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  14. Neuropeptide Y Overexpressing Female and Male Mice Show Divergent Metabolic but Not Gut Microbial Responses to Prenatal Metformin Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki-Myftari, Henriikka; Vähätalo, Laura H.; Ailanen, Liisa; Pietilä, Sami; Laiho, Asta; Hänninen, Arno; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Munukka, Eveliina; Rintala, Anniina; Savontaus, Eriika; Pesonen, Ullamari; Koulu, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal metformin exposure has been shown to improve the metabolic outcome in the offspring of high fat diet fed dams. However, if this is evident also in a genetic model of obesity and whether gut microbiota has a role, is not known. Methods The metabolic effects of prenatal metformin exposure were investigated in a genetic model of obesity, mice overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the sympathetic nervous system and in brain noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYDβH). Metformin was given for 18 days to the mated female mice. Body weight, body composition, glucose tolerance and serum parameters of the offspring were investigated on regular diet from weaning and sequentially on western diet (at the age of 5–7 months). Gut microbiota composition was analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing at 10–11 weeks. Results In the male offspring, metformin exposure inhibited weight gain. Moreover, weight of white fat depots and serum insulin and lipids tended to be lower at 7 months. In contrast, in the female offspring, metformin exposure impaired glucose tolerance at 3 months, and subsequently increased body weight gain, fat mass and serum cholesterol. In the gut microbiota, a decline in Erysipelotrichaceae and Odoribacter was detected in the metformin exposed offspring. Furthermore, the abundance of Sutterella tended to be decreased and Parabacteroides increased. Gut microbiota composition of the metformin exposed male offspring correlated to their metabolic phenotype. Conclusion Prenatal metformin exposure caused divergent metabolic phenotypes in the female and male offspring. Nevertheless, gut microbiota of metformin exposed offspring was similarly modified in both genders. PMID:27681875

  15. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramírez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ∼7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (pdiet (pdiet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  16. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.

  17. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lee; Cuffe, James S M; Paravicini, Tamara M; Campbell, Sally; Dickinson, Hayley; Singh, Reetu R; Gezmish, Oksan; Black, M Jane; Moritz, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5) on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX) exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL) at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  18. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  19. Effect of maternal diabetes on longevity in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, M; Wada, M; Shinohara, N; Yoshizumi, H; Yoshinari, M; Fujishima, M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of maternal diabetes induced by neonatal streptozotocin treatment on the longevity of the male offspring in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Maternal diabetes significantly decreased the survival in the offspring as compared with the control (p death was 14.9 +/- 0.6 months in the offspring from the diabetic dams and 17.9 +/- 1.1 months in that from the control. The life span was significantly correlated with the birth weight (rs = 0.55, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that a diabetic pregnancy may accelerate an age-related degenerative process of the offspring in SHR.

  20. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F;

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  1. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar S Radder; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag

    2004-03-01

    The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. In C. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced by a negative effect of breeding time on egg mass. In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May–June) or mid (July–August) breeding periods invariably show lower mass and condition than those hatched from the eggs of late breeding season (September–October). Yet, there is no variation in offspring SVL among early, mid and late clutches. Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized.