WorldWideScience

Sample records for kull riina kallikorm

  1. Torfajökull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole; Carlson, Richard W.; Gunnarsson, Bjørn

    1999-01-01

    Torfajökull is the largest silicic center in Iceland and is located on the eastern branch of Iceland's neovolcanic zone. Torfajökull's location on the Iceland volcanic crust is unique because (1) it is situated behind the tip of a propagating ridge, and (2) several ridge jumps made it possible fo...

  2. Romantiline filosoofia / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Zweig, Stefan. Inimkonna tähetunnid : neliteist ajaloolist miniatuuri / tõlkinud Vilma Jürisalu. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 76-77, pealkirjaga "Stefan Zweigi romantiline ajaloofilosoofia"

  3. Õiglane maailm / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse toodete tarbimine maailmas kasvas 2007. aastal 47 %. Õiglase kaubanduse süsteemi sünniloost, arengust ja toodetest, Fairtrade'i kaupade tarbimisest ja kaubamärgi tuntusest Eestis. Arvamust avaldavad: Riina Kuusik, Mairika Juhandi, Anne Harak, Kätlin Rohilaid, Jaanus Vernik, Riina Pärnpuu, Ave Oit, Siret Shalamov. Lisad: Õiglane kaubandus maailmas; Käi õiges poes!; Eestis müüdavad Fairtrade'i tooted; The Body Shop

  4. Sajandi romaani üksildus / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: García Márquez, Gabriel . Sada aastat üksildust : [romaan / tõlkinud Aita Kurfeldt]. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2002. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 70-72

  5. Kaubamaja Naistemaailm = Tallinn Kaubamaja Ladies' World / Külli Salum, Riina Harik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salum, Külli, 1971-

    2013-01-01

    Tallinna Kaubamaja Naistemaailma (Gonsiori 2) sisekujundusest. Autorid: Külli Salum ja Riina Harik (Saha IN). Skulptuurid: Kalle-Priit Pruuden. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Tarmo Piirmetsa arvamus

  6. Missugused on teie kogemused väikeklassidega? / Villu Mengel, Ana Kontor, Katrin Betlem, Riina Kink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Sikupilli keskkooli direktor Villu Mengel, Tartu hariduse tugiteenuste keskuse eripedagoog Ana Kontor, Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumi õppejuht-sotsiaalpedagoog Katrin Betlem, Keila kooli põhikooli õppejuht Riina Kink

  7. Response of Eyjafjallajökull, Torfajökull and Tindfjallajökull ice caps in Iceland to regional warming, deduced by remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Dall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We assess the volume change and mass balance of three ice caps in southern Iceland for two periods, 1979–1984 to 1998 and 1998 to 2004, by comparing digital elevation models (DEMs. The ice caps are Eyjafjallajökull (ca. 81 km2, Tindfjallajökull (ca. 15 km2 and Torfajökull (ca. 14 km2. The DEMs were compiled using aerial photographs from 1979 to 1984, airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images obtained in 1998 and two image pairs from the SPOT 5 satellite's high-resolution stereoscopic (HRS instrument acquired in 2004. The ice-free part of the accurate DEM from 1998 was used as a reference map for co-registration and correction of the vertical offset of the other DEMs. The average specific mass balance was estimated from the mean elevation difference between glaciated areas of the DEMs. The glacier mass balance declined significantly between the two periods: from −0.2 to 0.2 m yr−1 w. eq. during the earlier period (1980s through 1998 to −1.8 to −1.5 m yr−1 w. eq. for the more recent period (1998–2004. The declining mass balance is consistent with increased temperature over the two periods. The low mass balance and the small accumulation area ratio of Tindfjallajökull and Torfajökull indicate that they will disappear if the present-day climate continues. The future lowering rate of Eyjafjallajökull will, however, be influenced by the 2010 subglacial eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  8. Contra pürib sajandi rahvakirjanikuks / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt : luulet aastatest 1974-2000. Urvaste ; Tartu : Mina Ise, 2001. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 184-185, pealkirjaga "Contra - uue sajandi rahvakirjanik?"

  9. Kirjakogumik ulatub üle eurolaineharja / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2003-01-01

    Kaplinski, Jaan ; Salminen, Johannes. Ööd valged ja mustad : kirjavahetus aastast 1001 / soome ja rootsi keelest tõlkinud Aino Laagus ja Mari Allik. Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 73-75, pealkirjaga "Kaks meest Soome silda ehitamas"

  10. Director läks ja küsis / Reet Neemoja, Jaanika Kuusik, Riina Varts... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    MicroLinki personalijuht Reet Neemoja, Elioni personalijuht Jaanika Kuusik, Eesti Energia personalijuht Riina Varts, Rimi personalijuht Õrne Lainde ning Sampo panga personalijuht Liina Oks vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad nende suurimat tööalast õppetundi 2009. aastal ning kõige olulisemat 2010. aastal

  11. Absurd ja lootus Albert Camus' lühiproosas / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Pagendus ja kuningriik : kogutud lühiproosa / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Triinu Tamm, Krista Vogelberg, Tanel Lepsoo, Henno Rajandi. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 78-79

  12. Viljakaim kirjanik sai endaväärilise eluloo / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Kruus, Oskar. Bernard Kangro : elukäik ja looming : [1910-1994]. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 425-427, pealkirjaga "Bernard Kangro on saanud oma eluloo"

  13. Kuidas Alfred Adler läks tülli Sigmund Freudiga / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Adler, Alfred. Inimesetundmine : Inimeste iseloomude peategurid ja nende areng / Tlk. Debora Hint. 2.tr. Tln. : Kupar, 1995. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 97-100

  14. Geniaalne näidend ja selle suhkurdatud proosatöötlus / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    1995-01-01

    Arvustus: Maeterlinck, Maurice. Sinilind / Näidendist ümber töötanud Georgette Leblanc Maeterlinck ; Prantsuse keelest tlk. A. Pärn. Tln.: Kuldsulg, 1994. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005

  15. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Vatnajökull, Iceland, summer 1996: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Björnsson, H.; Kuhn, M.; Obleitner, F.; Palsson, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Vugts, H.F.; Wolde, J. de

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of a glacio-meteorological experiment carried out in the summer (melt season) of 1996 on the largest European ice cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland (area 8000 km2; altitude range: from sea level to about 2000 m). The main goal was to understand how the energy used in the melting of snow

  16. The Morsárjökull rock avalanche in the southern part of the Vatnajökull glacier, south Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Sigurősson, Ingvar A.; Pétursson, Halldór G.; Decaulne, Armelle; Jónsson, Helgi P.

    2010-05-01

    On the 20th of March 2007 a large rock avalanche fell on Morsárjökull, one of the outlet glaciers from the southern part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, in south Iceland. This is considered to be one of the largest rock avalanches which have occurred in Iceland during the last decades. It is believed that it fell in two separate stages, the main part fell on the 20th of March and the second and smaller one, on the 17th of April 2007. The Morsárjökull outlet glacier is about 4 km long and surrounded by up to 1000 m high valley slopes. The outlet glacier is fed by two ice falls which are partly disconnected to the main ice cap of Vatnajökull, which indicates that the glacier is mainly fed by ice avalanches. The rock avalanche fell on the eastern side of the uppermost part of the Morsárjökull outlet glacier and covered about 1/5 of the glacier surface, an area of about 720,000 m2. The scar of the rock avalanche is located on the north face of the headwall above the uppermost part of the glacier. It is around 330 m high, reaching from about 620 m up to 950 m, showing that the main part of the slope collapsed. It is estimated that about 4 million m3 of rock debris fell on the glacier, or about 10 million tons. The accumulation lobe is up to 1.6 km long, reaching from 520 m a.s.l., to about 350 m a.s.l. Its width is from 125 m to 650 m, or on average 480 m. The total area which the lobe covers is around 720.000 m2 and its mean thickness 5.5 m. The surface of the lobe shows longitudinal ridges and grooves and narrow flow-like lobes, indicating that the debris mass evolved down glacier as a mixture of a slide and debris flow. The debris mass is coarse grained and boulder rich. Blocks over 5 to 8 m in diameter are common on the edges of the lobe up to 1.6 km from the source. No indication was observed of any deformation of the glacier surface under the debris mass. The first glaciological measurements of Morsárjökull outlet glacier were carried out in the year 1896

  17. The Tephra Layer From the Plinian Eruption in ™r‘faj”kull 1362, Southeast Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    Pyroclastic fallout from the 1362 eruption of ™r‘faj”kull forms one of the volcanic marker horizons of the North Atlantic. This contribution reports the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the ™r‘faj”kull 1362 fallout and its grain-size distribution. A non-rifting 120 km long volcanic lineament some 50 km east of the Eastern Rift-Zone of Iceland is defined by transitional and alkalic volcanic rocks resting unconformably on late Tertiary strata. ™r‘faj”kull which forms the southern termination of this off-rift liniment is an ice-covered stratovolcano (2200 masl) composed mostly of subglacially formed hyaloclastite ranging from basalts to rhyolites. The two historical (1100 yrs) eruptions of ™r‘faj”kull include a small explosive eruption in 1727 and a large devastating Plinian eruption associated with major lahars and a caldera collapse in 1362. Between 1 and 2 km3 dense rock equivalent or 5-10 km3 of rhyolitic pumice was erupted and the fallout was mainly towards ESE. Tentative modelling of the PT-conditions of the magma formation, based on glass/mineral equilibria, indicates that the source was a near-eutectic melt in equilibrium with fayalite, hedenbergite, oligoclase and hematite at some 0.2 GPa pressure. A profile through the fallout was sampled at elevation of about 1100 masl on the SE flank of the volcano. A deposit of 1.8 m thickness was collected in 14 units for examination of composition, mineralogy and grain-size distribution during the eruption. In the profile the fallout is fine grained vesicular glass (1-3% minerals, 3% lithic fragments) with bubble wall thickness in the low micron range. The high and even vesiculation of the glass indicates fast magma ascent and explains the extreme mechanical fragmentation within the eruptive column, yielding between 50 and 80 wt% of less than 0.25 mm grain size. A reconstruction of the Plinian phase, based on grain-size analysis and abundance of lithic fragments, reveals that the

  18. Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Samples from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Summit Eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall; Höskuldsson, Á.; Steinthorsson, S.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption (Iceland) produced large amounts of fine ash, disturbing air traffic across the North-Atlantic and within Europe. Mössbauer spectroscopy of ash-samples and a lava-bomb has been performed to study the material properties and to gain insight into why...... the volcano produced so vast amounts of fine grained material. Time series of ash samples reveal a changing ferric to ferrous ratio and level of crystallization which can be related to the different phases of the eruption. The lava bomb has a much lower ferric to ferrous ratio, implying that this relatively...

  19. Crustal thermal state and origin of silicic magma in Iceland: the case of Torfajökull, Ljósufjöll and Snæfellsjökull volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2007-05-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene peralkaline rhyolites from Torfajökull (South Iceland Volcanic Zone) and Ljósufjöll central volcanoes and trachytes from Snæfellsjökull (Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone) allow the assessment of the mechanism for silicic magma genesis as a function of geographical location and crustal geothermal gradient. The low δ18O (2.4‰) and low Sr concentration (12.2 ppm) measured in Torfajökull rhyolites are best explained by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust followed by major fractionation of feldspar. In contrast, very high 87Sr/86Sr (0.70473) and low Ba (8.7 ppm) and Sr (1.2 ppm) concentrations measured in Ljósufjöll silicic lavas are best explained by fractional crystallisation and subsequent 87Rb decay. Snæfellsjökull trachytes are also generated by fractional crystallisation, with less than 10% crustal assimilation, as inferred from their δ18O. The fact that silicic magmas within, or close to, the rift zone are principally generated by crustal melting whereas those from off-rift zones are better explained by fractional crystallisation clearly illustrates the controlling influence of the thermal state of the crust on silicic magma genesis in Iceland.

  20. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s(-1) in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s(-1). Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m(-1) during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m(-1) hr(-1) for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions.

  1. Volcanic ash particulate matter from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in dust deposition at Prague, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Strnad, L.; Koptíková, Leona; Skála, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, June (2013), s. 191-202 ISSN 1875-9637 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eyjafjallajökull volcano * Icelandic tephra * grain size * mineralogy * geochemical analysis Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2013

  2. Holocene glacier and climate variations in Vestfirðir, Iceland, from the modeling of Drangajökull ice cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna Th; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Harning, David J.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2018-06-01

    Drangajökull is a maritime ice cap located in northwest (Vestfirðir) Iceland. Drangajökull's evolution is therefore closely linked to atmospheric and ocean variability. In order to better constrain the Holocene climate and glacier history of Vestfirðir we model the past evolution of Drangajökull ice cap. Simulations from 10 ka to present are forced by general circulation model output, ice-core-based temperature reconstructions, and sea-surface temperature reconstructions. Based on these 10-thousand year simulations, Drangajökull did not persist through the Holocene. We estimate that air temperatures were 2.5-3.0 °C higher during the Holocene Thermal Maximum than the local 1960-1990 average. Simulations support Drangajökull's late Holocene inception between 2 and 1 ka, though intermittent ice likely occupied cirques as early as 2.6 ka. Drangajökull is primarily a Little Ice Age ice cap: it expanded between 1300 and 1750 CE, with the most rapid growth occurring between 1600 and 1750 CE. The maximum Holocene extent of Drangajökull occurred between 1700 and 1925 CE, despite the lowest late Holocene temperatures, occurring between 1650 and 1720 CE. Between 1700 and 1925 CE temperatures were likely 0.6-0.8 °C lower than the 1950-2015 reference temperature. The modern equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is bracketed by topographic thresholds: a 1 °C temperature increase from the modern ELA would eliminate the ice cap's accumulation area, while a reduction of 0.5 °C would lead to the rapid expansion of the ice cap across Vestfirðir. The proximity of Drangajökull to topographic thresholds may explain its late inception and rapid expansion during the Little Ice Age.

  3. An analysis of options available for developing a common laser ray tracing package for Ares and Kull code frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, S K

    2008-11-06

    Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.

  4. Elevation Change, Mass Balance, Dynamics, and Surging of Langjökull, Iceland from 1997 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Allen; Willis, Ian Craig; Pálsson, Finnur; Arnold, Neil Stuart; Rees, William Gareth; Björnsson, Helgi; Grey, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Glaciers and ice caps around the world are changing quickly, with surge-type behaviour superimposed upon climatic forcing. Here, we study Iceland’s second largest ice cap, Langjökull, which has both surge- and non-surge-type outlets. By differencing elevation change with surface mass balance, we estimate the contribution of ice dynamics to elevation change. We use DEMs, in situ stake measurements, regional reanalyses, and a mass balance model to calculate the vertical ice velocity. Thus,...

  5. Holocene surge-history of the Eyjabakkajökull glacier inferred from varved lake sediments on eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striberger, J.; Bjorck, S.; Ingolfsson, O.; Kjaer, K.; Snowball, I.; Uvo, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Properties of varved lake sediments from Lake Lögurinn on eastern Iceland and their link to glacial processes of Eyjabakkajökull, a surging outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull ice cap, is examined. An 18 m long sediment sequence obtained from the lake, covering at least the past ~ 9 200 years, displays a distinct recurring pattern of light-coloured clay dominated laminae sections. The thickness of the light-coloured laminae is mainly controlled by the amount of glacial rock flour transported from Eyjabakkajökull. These light laminae are interlaid by coarser dark-coloured laminae mainly formed by suspended matter transported to the lake by the large non-glacial river Grímsá. During the recent surge of Eyjabakkajökull in 1972, the amount of suspended matter transported to the lake increased significantly. The surge was followed by years of recurring drainages of Lake Háöldulón, an ice-dammed lake that was formed shortly after the surge. As a result, the amount of glacial rock flour transported to Lake Lögurinn was higher than usual as long as Lake Háöldulón continued to drain (i.e. as long as the ice front was in an advanced position enough to dam the lake). This increase in glacially derived rock flour is reflected in the sediments, as the varve that was formed in 1972 constitutes the thickest light-coloured laminae deposited during the 20th century, which is followed by the second thickest light-coloured laminae, deposited in 1973. From there on, the thicknesses of the light-coloured laminae gradually fade out. Based on these modern observations, we suggest that the recurring cyclic pattern of light-coloured clay dominated laminae sections in the sediment sequence is related to past surges of Eyjabakkajökull, followed by drainages of Lake Háöldulón. Recurring cycles of light-coloured clay dominated laminae began to develop close to the Hekla-3 and Hekla-4 tephras (ca. 3000-4000 years BP), which also coincides with the time when the varves became

  6. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  7. In-situ observations of Eyjafjallajökull ash particles by hot-air balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Laakso, L.; Grönholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Evele-Peltoniemi, I.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Backman, J.; Manninen, H. E.; Sipilä, M.; Haapanala, S.; Hämeri, K.; Vanhala, E.; Tuomi, T.; Paatero, J.; Aurela, M.; Hakola, H.; Makkonen, U.; Hellén, H.; Hillamo, R.; Vira, J.; Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Laaksonen, A.; lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2012-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption seriously distracted aviation in Europe. Due to the flight ban, there were only few in-situ measurements of the properties and dispersion of the ash cloud. In this study we show in-situ observations onboard a hot air balloon conducted in Central Finland together with regional dispersion modelling with SILAM-model during the eruption. The modeled and measured mass concentrations were in a qualitative agreement but the exact elevation of the layer was slightly distorted. Some of this discrepancy can be attributed to the uncertainty in the initial emission height and strength. The observed maximum mass concentration varied between 12 and 18 μg m -3 assuming a density of 2 g m -3, whereas the gravimetric analysis of the integrated column showed a maximum of 45 μg m -3 during the first two descents through the ash plume. Ion chromatography data indicated that a large fraction of the mass was insoluble to water, which is in qualitative agreement with single particle X-ray analysis. A majority of the super-micron particles contained Si, Al, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Ti, S, Zn and Cr, which are indicative for basalt-type rock material. The number concentration profiles indicated that there was secondary production of particles possibly from volcano-emitted sulfur dioxide oxidized to sulfuric acid during the transport.

  8. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Dacre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4–18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h, a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes, it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column-integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small particles (< 30 μm diameter. NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of < 10 μm diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  9. Late Holocene and modern glacier changes in the marginal zone of Sólheimajökull, South Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2012-01-01

    The forefield of the Sólheimajökull outlet glacier, South Iceland, has a variety of glacial landforms and sediments that are products of late Holocene and modern glacier oscillations. Several sets of moraine ridges reflect past ice front positions and river-cut sedimentary sections provide inform...... the last 50 years. The glacier margin thickened 70-100 m from 1960 to 1996 and then thinned 120-150 m between 1996 and 2010. In 2010, the glacier snout was 20-40 m thinner than in 1960. Additionally, the DEM time-series detect areas of erosion and deposition in the forefield....

  10. Observations of Eyjafjallajökull eruption's plume at Potenza EARLINET station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amodeo, Aldo; Boselli, Antonella; Cornacchia, Carmela; D'Amico, Guiseppe; Giunta, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2010-05-01

    Eyjafjallajökull is one of the smallest glacier in Iceland. After seismic activity recorded during December 2009, a first eruption started on 20 March, between 22:30 and 23:30 UT. After a brief stop, a new phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption started around midnight on April 14, where melt penetrated its way to the central crater beneath the glacier. An eruption plume was observed in the early morning on 14 April. Ash loaded eruption plume rose to more than 8 km height, deflected to the East by westerly winds. Eruptive activity continued in the following days until 23 April with variable maximum height (between 8 and 2 km a.s.l.). Until 27 April, a plume is always visible in proximity of the volcano. On 15 April, the eruption plume reaches continental Europe with closure of airspace over large part of Northern Europe. In the following days, airspace was closed also in some regions of Southern Europe. On 15 April, 10:00 UT CNR-IMAA, Potenza distributed an alert to EARLINET stations informing about a large amount of ash is directing towards North-West of Europe. Even if EARLINET is not an operational, but research oriented, network, almost all the EARLINET stations followed the event performing measurements whenever weather conditions allow it. Because of their proximity to the source, England and Scandinavian countries are of course the most involved in the transported ash arrival. Accordingly to the MetOffice forecasts, the ash plume would have to reach Central Europe on 16 April. The transport toward South was almost blocked by the Alps. A different scenario is forecasted by MetOffice for 20-21 April when the arrival of the volcanic plume is forecasted down to the Southern Italy. At CNR-IMAA, the atmospheric observatory (CIAO) followed the event by means of all available instruments, including EARLINET multi-wavelength lidars, cloud-radar, microwave profiler and AERONET sun-photometer. Low clouds and rain did not permit measurements over Potenza for the period

  11. Pottseppade Portugal / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2006-01-01

    Portugali ühest populaarsemast käsitööliigist - keraamikast ja selle huvitavatest variantidest ning regiooniti iseloomulikest erinevustest - maalingute värvidest, mustritest, tehnoloogiast nii nõudel kui ka keraamilistel plaatidel

  12. Hingedekuu menufilmid / Riina Sildos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildos, Riina

    1999-01-01

    Romantiline komöödia "Põgenev pruut" : režissöör Garry Marshall : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999 ja komöödia "Austin Powers : Spioon, kes kargas mind" : režissöör Jay Roach : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  13. Evidence for Subglacial Deformation and Deposition during a Complete Advance-Stagnation Cycle of Kötlujökull, Iceland – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klint, K E S; Richardt, N; Krüger, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    A geological section, 70 m long and 3–4 m high, cut into dead-ice moraine in front of Kötlujökull, has been described. Five-sediment associations were recognized representing (1) proglacial glacio-fluvial sedimentation, (2) deposition and deformation in ice-marginal environment, (3) subglacial...

  14. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  15. Detection and characterization of volcanic ash plumes over Lille during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mortier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Routine sun-photometer and micro-lidar measurements were performed in Lille, northern France, in April and May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. The impact of such an eruption emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observations of the volcanic aerosol particles. This paper presents the main results of a joint micro-lidar/sun-photometer analysis performed in Lille, where volcanic ash plumes were observed during at least 22 days, whenever weather conditions permitted. Aerosol properties retrieved from automatic sun-photometer measurements (AERONET were strongly changed during the volcanic aerosol plumes transport over Lille. In most cases, the aerosol optical depth (AOD increased, whereas Ångström exponent decreased, thus indicating coarse-mode dominance in the volume size distribution. Moreover, the non-spherical fraction retrieved by AERONET significantly increased. The real part of the complex refractive index was up to 1.55 at 440 nm during the eruption, compared to background data of about 1.46 before the eruption. Collocated lidar data revealed that several aerosol layers were present between 2 and 5 km, all originating from the Iceland region as confirmed by backward trajectories. The volcanic ash AOD was derived from lidar extinction profiles and sun-photometer AOD, and its maximum was estimated around 0.37 at 532 nm on 18 April 2010. This value was observed at an altitude of 1700 m and corresponds to an ash mass concentration (AMC slightly higher than 1000 μg m−3 (±50%. An effective lidar ratio of ash particles of 48 sr was retrieved at 532 nm for 17 April during the early stages of the eruption, a value which agrees with several other studies carried out on this topic. Even though the accuracy of the retrievals is not as high as that obtained from reference multiwavelength lidar systems, this study demonstrates the opportunity of micro-lidar and sun-photometer joint data

  16. Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pappalardo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April–May 2010 represents a "natural experiment" to study the impact of volcanic emissions on a continental scale. For the first time, quantitative data about the presence, altitude, and layering of the volcanic cloud, in conjunction with optical information, are available for most parts of Europe derived from the observations by the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork (EARLINET. Based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, EARLINET is the only instrument worldwide that is able to provide dense time series of high-quality optical data to be used for aerosol typing and for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties as a function of altitude. In this work we show the four-dimensional (4-D distribution of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud in the troposphere over Europe as observed by EARLINET during the entire volcanic event (15 April–26 May 2010. All optical properties directly measured (backscatter, extinction, and particle linear depolarization ratio are stored in the EARLINET database available at http://www.earlinet.org. A specific relational database providing the volcanic mask over Europe, realized ad hoc for this specific event, has been developed and is available on request at http://www.earlinet.org. During the first days after the eruption, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe within a wide range of altitudes, from the upper troposphere down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL. After 19 April 2010, volcanic particles were detected over southern and south-eastern Europe. During the first half of May (5–15 May, material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was detected over Spain and Portugal and then over the Mediterranean and the Balkans. The last observations of the event were recorded until 25 May in Central Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area. The 4-D distribution of volcanic aerosol layering and optical properties on

  17. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  18. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008–2010 based on CARIBIC observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Andersson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions impact significantly on climate and lead to ozone depletion due to injection of particles and gases into the stratosphere where their residence times are long. In this the composition of volcanic aerosol is an important but inadequately studied factor. Samples of volcanically influenced aerosol were collected following the Kasatochi (Alaska, Sarychev (Russia and also during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland eruptions in the period 2008–2010. Sampling was conducted by the CARIBIC platform during regular flights at an altitude of 10–12 km as well as during dedicated flights through the volcanic clouds from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. Elemental concentrations of the collected aerosol were obtained by accelerator-based analysis. Aerosol from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic clouds was identified by high concentrations of sulphur and elements pointing to crustal origin, and confirmed by trajectory analysis. Signatures of volcanic influence were also used to detect volcanic aerosol in stratospheric samples collected following the Sarychev and Kasatochi eruptions. In total it was possible to identify 17 relevant samples collected between 1 and more than 100 days following the eruptions studied. The volcanically influenced aerosol mainly consisted of ash, sulphate and included a carbonaceous component. Samples collected in the volcanic cloud from Eyjafjallajökull were dominated by the ash and sulphate component (∼45% each while samples collected in the tropopause region and LMS mainly consisted of sulphate (50–77% and carbon (21–43%. These fractions were increasing/decreasing with the age of the aerosol. Because of the long observation period, it was possible to analyze the evolution of the relationship between the ash and sulphate components of the volcanic aerosol. From this analysis the residence time (1/e of sulphur dioxide in the studied volcanic cloud was estimated to be 45 ± 22 days.

  19. Volcanic-Ash Hazards to Aviation—Changes and Challenges since the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Tupper, A.; Mastin, L. G.; Lechner, P.

    2012-12-01

    In response to the severe disruptions to civil aviation that resulted from atmospheric transport of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) quickly formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF), charging it to support the accelerated development of a global risk-management framework for volcanic-ash hazards to aviation. Recognizing the need for scientifically based advice on best methods to detect ash in the atmosphere and depict zones of hazardous airspace, the IVATF sought input from the global scientific community, primarily by means of the Volcanic Ash Scientific Advisory Group which was established in May 2010 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics to serve as a scientific resource for ICAO. The IVATF finished its work in June 2012 (see http://www.icao.int/safety/meteorology/ivatf/Pages/default.aspx for a record of its results). A major science-based outcome is that production of charts depicting areas of airspace expected to have specific ash-concentration values (e.g. 4 mg/cu. m) will not be required of the world's nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). The VAACs are responsible for issuing warning information to the aviation sector regarding ash-cloud position and expected movement. Forecast concentrations in these charts are based primarily on dispersion models that have at least an order of magnitude in uncertainty in their output and therefore do not delineate hazardous airspace with the level of confidence needed by the aviation sector. The recommended approach to improving model-forecast accuracy is to assimilate diverse observations (e.g., satellite thermal-infrared measurements, lidar, radar, direct airborne sampling, visual sightings, etc.) into model simulations; doing that during an eruption in the demanding environment of aviation operations is a substantial challenge. A

  20. Using the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption as an example of citizen involvement in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.

    2010-12-01

    With the dramatic increase in realtime data for volcano monitoring (and many other earth science data) available on the internet, the interest in data analysis and observation by untrained citizens is increasing rapidly. These volcanologic data sources include, but are not limited to, seismic information, webicorders, webcams, GPS, water and gas fluxes. The easy access to these data has allowed not only for the public to see the raw data that volcanologists use to assess and predict activity of a volcanic system, but also to actively participate in the process of volcano monitoring. This can be manifested in activities such observation of the changes in volcanic behavior via webcams to manipulation of seismic data to analyze for changes in the character of the seismicity. However, the biggest challenge for citizen analysis and participation in volcano monitoring is providing guidance and structure for these data as they are presented on the internet. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provided an opportunity to observe and develop a community of “citizen scientists” interested in volcano monitoring on the internet. The readers of the volcano blog Eruptions followed the pre-, during and post-eruptive activity at Eyjafjallajökull while providing observations and data interpretations as time-stamped comments. During the eruption, the blog was viewed over 1,000,000 times and over 3,000 comments were left by readers. Many of these comments contained: (1) detailed descriptions of the current activity of the volcano as observed on the webcams; (2) observations on changes in seismicity as seen in realtime data provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and (3); reader-created compilations of various data in the form of images, tables of movies. By moderating the blog comments and providing corrections and insight to their observations, the readers felt that they were participating in an important way to the monitoring and recording of this historic

  1. Ice nucleation properties of fine ash particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Steinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in the south of Iceland in April/May 2010, about 40 Tg of ash mass were emitted into the atmosphere. It was unclear whether volcanic ash particles with d < 10 μm facilitate the glaciation of clouds. Thus, ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash particles were investigated in AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud chamber experiments simulating atmospherically relevant conditions. The ash sample that was used for our experiments had been collected at a distance of 58 km from the Eyjafjallajökull during the eruption period in April 2010. The temperature range covered by our ice nucleation experiments extended from 219 to 264 K, and both ice nucleation via immersion freezing and deposition nucleation could be observed. Immersion freezing was first observed at 252 K, whereas the deposition nucleation onset lay at 242 K and RHice =126%. About 0.1% of the volcanic ash particles were active as immersion freezing nuclei at a temperature of 249 K. For deposition nucleation, an ice fraction of 0.1% was observed at around 233 K and RHice =116%. Taking ice-active surface site densities as a measure for the ice nucleation efficiency, volcanic ash particles are similarly efficient ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode (ns,imm ~ 109 m−2 at 247 K compared to certain mineral dusts. For deposition nucleation, the observed ice-active surface site densities ns,dep were found to be 1011 m−2 at 224 K and RHice =116%. Thus, volcanic ash particles initiate deposition nucleation more efficiently than Asian and Saharan dust but appear to be poorer ice nuclei than ATD particles. Based on the experimental data, we have derived ice-active surface site densities as a function of temperature for immersion freezing and of relative humidity over ice and temperature for

  2. Long-term health of children following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodversdottir, Heidrun; Thorsteinsdottir, Harpa; Thordardottir, Edda Bjork; Njardvik, Urdur; Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hauksdottir, Arna

    2018-01-01

    Background : More than 500 million people worldwide live within exposure range of an active volcano and children are a vulnerable subgroup of such exposed populations. However, studies on the effects of volcanic eruptions on children's health beyond the first year are sparse. Objective : To examine the effect of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption on physical and mental health symptoms among exposed children in 2010 and 2013 and to identify potential predictive factors for symptoms. Method : In a population-based prospective cohort study, data was collected on the adult population ( N  = 1615) exposed to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption and a non-exposed group ( N  = 697). The exposed group was further divided according to exposure level. All participants answered questionnaires assessing their children´s and their own perceived health status in 2010 and 2013. Results : In 2010, exposed children were more likely than non-exposed children to experience respiratory symptoms (medium exposed OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.03; high exposed OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03-2.24) and anxiety/worries (medium exposed OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.67-3.45; high exposed OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.81-4.27). Both genders had an increased risk of symptoms of anxiety/worries but only exposed boys were at increased risk of experiencing headaches and sleep disturbances compared to non-exposed boys. Within the exposed group, children whose homes were damaged were at increased risk of experiencing anxiety/worries (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32) and depressed mood (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.07-2.24) than children whose homes were not damaged. Among exposed children, no significant decrease of symptoms was detected between 2010 and 2013. Conclusions : Adverse physical and mental health problems experienced by the children exposed to the eruption seem to persist for up to a three-year period post-disaster. These results underline the importance of appropriate follow-up for children after a natural disaster.

  3. Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, April–May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arason

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 lasted for 39 days, 14 April–23 May. The eruption had two explosive phases separated by a phase with lava formation and reduced explosive activity. The height of the plume was monitored every 5 min with a C-band weather radar located in Keflavík International Airport, 155 km distance from the volcano. Furthermore, several web cameras were mounted with a view of the volcano, and their images saved every five seconds. Time series of the plume-top altitude were constructed from the radar observations and images from a web camera located in the village Hvolsvöllur at 34 km distance from the volcano. This paper presents the independent radar and web camera time series and performs cross validation. The results show good agreement between the time series for the range when both series are available. However, while the radar altitudes are semi-discrete the data availability was much higher than for the web camera, indicating how essential weather radars are as eruption plume monitoring devices. The echo top radar series of the altitude of the volcanic plume are publicly available from the Pangaea Data Publisher (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.760690.

  4. Lidar observation and model simulation of a volcanic-ash-induced cirrus cloud during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice formation induced by volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 is investigated based on the combination of a cirrus cloud observed with a backscatter lidar over Jülich (western Germany and model simulations along backward trajectories. The microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud could only be represented by the microphysical model under the assumption of an enhanced number of efficient ice nuclei originating from the volcanic eruption. The ice nuclei (IN concentration determined by lidar measurements directly before and after cirrus cloud occurrence implies a value of around 0.1 cm−3 (in comparison normal IN conditions: 0.01 cm−3. This leads to a cirrus cloud with rather small ice crystals having a mean radius of 12 μm and a modification of the ice particle number (0.08 cm−3 instead of 3 × 10−4 cm−3 under normal IN conditions. The effectiveness of ice nuclei was estimated by the use of the microphysical model and the backward trajectories based on ECMWF data, establishing a freezing threshold of around 105% relative humidity with respect to ice in a temperature range from −45 to −55 °C . Only with these highly efficient ice nuclei was it possible for the cirrus cloud to be formed in a slightly supersaturated environment.

  5. Climatic implications of glacial evolution in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland) since the Little Ice Age maximum. The cases of the Gljúfurárjökull and Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in northern Iceland, between meridians 19°30'W and 18°10'W, jutting out into the North Atlantic to latitude 66°12'N and joining the central highlands to the south. About 150 glaciers located on the Tröllaskagi peninsula reached their Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum at the end of the 19th century. The sudden warming at the turn of the 20th century triggered a continuous retreat from the LIA maximum positions, interrupted by a reversal trend during the mid-seventies and eighties in response to a brief period of climate cooling. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships between glacial and climatic evolution since the LIA maximum. For this reason, we selected three small debris-free glaciers: Gljúfurárjökull, and western and eastern Tungnahryggsjökull, at the headwalls of Skíðadalur and Kolbeinsdalur, as their absence of debris cover makes them sensitive to climatic fluctuations. To achieve this purpose, we used ArcGIS to map the glacier extent during the LIA maximum and several dates over four georeferenced aerial photos (1946, 1985, 1994 and 2000), as well as a 2005 SPOT satellite image. Then, the Equilibrium-Line Altitude (ELA) was calculated by applying the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) and Area Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR) approaches. Climatological data series from the nearby weather stations were used in order to analyze climate development and to estimate precipitation at the ELA with different numerical models. Our results show considerable changes of the three debris-free glaciers and demonstrates their sensitivity to climatic fluctuations. As a result of the abrupt climatic transition of the 20th century, the following warm 25-year period and the warming started in the late eighties, the three glaciers retreated by ca. 990-1330 m from the LIA maximum to 2005, supported by a 40-metre ELA rise and a reduction of their area and volume of 25% and 33% on average

  6. Valge mehe koorem / Riina Kaljurand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Riina, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Maailmapanga majandusanalüütiku arenguriikide abiprogrammide ja arenguabi poliitika analüüs William Easterly raamatus The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. - Penguin Press, 2006

  7. Interactions between mafic eruptions and glacial ice or snow: implications of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, eruption for hazard assessments in the central Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D.; Cashman, K. V.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, demonstrated the importance of addressing hazards specific to mafic eruptions in regions where interactions with glacial ice or snow are likely. One such region is the central Oregon Cascades, where there are hundreds of mafic vents, many of which are Holocene in age. Here we present field observations and quantitative analyses of tephra deposits from recent eruptions at Sand Mountain, Yapoah Cone, and Collier Cone (all advance, which lasted from ~2 to 8 ka in the central Oregon Cascades (Marcott et al., 2009). During the Neoglacial, winter snowfall was likely ~23% greater and summer temperatures ~1.4°C cooler than present (Marcott, 2009). Although ice did not advance to the elevation of the Sand Mountain vents during this time, the eruption could have occurred through several meters of snow. We have also seen very fine-grained tephra at Yapoah Cone, which is located at a higher elevation and may have interacted with glacial ice. In addition to being characterized by unusually fine grainsize, the Yapoah tephra blanket is deposited directly on top of hyaloclastite in several locations. Tephra from Collier Cone is not characterized by unusually fine grainsize, but several sections of the deposit exhibit features that suggest deposition on top of, or interbedding with, snow that later melted away. Identification of features in mafic tephra that suggest interactions with glacial ice or snow has significant implications for regional volcanic hazard assessments. Specifically, the unique hazards posed by Eyjafjallajökull, especially hazards to air travel caused by unusually fine-grained tephra, could be repeated in the Cascades. Although glacial ice is presently limited to elevations above ~2300 m in the central Oregon Cascades, winter snowpack can exceed 5 m at elevations of ~1800 m and above. If a cinder cone eruption were to occur during winter months, interaction with snow could generate phreatomagmatic activity and

  8. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods) are caused by subglacial geothermal activity melting overlying ice, or by draining of ice-dammed lakes. They pose a recurring hazard along Iceland's south coast where volcano-glacial interactions create often unpredictable, high-magnitude floods. Gathering information about past floods is crucial for projecting findings to present day scenarios and developing future predictions for contemporary flood routes. Understanding the physical setting or surrounding environment is essential in palaeo-flood reconstruction as drainage routes are ultimately defined by local topography and changing ice cover. At Sólheimajökull glacier, which drains the southern portion of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, field evidence has been collected of a Tenth Century flood, recorded in the Icelander's Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). It was an exceptional event in terms of generation, magnitude and geomorphic impact. Although now fragmented and piecemeal, many of its direct (and indirect) geomorphological and sedimentary markers are still relatively well preserved and have been identified, mapped and dated to unravel the sequence of events played out during this significant episode in the glacial history and complex regional flood chronology. VolcVis, an innovative, bespoke visualisation platform, is developed and applied for the first time in visualising volcanic jökulhlaup. The platform is created using the Microsoft XNA game development framework, which facilitates rapid game engine production by providing a set of tools utilising a managed runtime environment. VolcVis can render large amounts of data efficiently and still provide an extremely high level of interaction with the data being presented, including full freedom of motion. This enables synthesis and presentation of field results from Sólheimajökull in a novel way, creating an interactive, multi-perspective, three-dimensional (3D) prototype model. The platform combines Digital Elevation

  9. Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We report results from a field experiment investigating the influence of volcanic tephra coverage on glacier ablation. These influences are known to be significantly different from those of moraine debris on glaciers due to the contrasting grain size distribution and thermal conductivity. Thus far, the influences of tephra deposits on glacier ablation have rarely been studied. For the experiment, artificial plots of two different tephra types from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes were installed on a snow-covered glacier surface of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Snow-surface lowering and atmospheric conditions were monitored in summer 2015 and compared to a tephra-free reference site. For each of the two volcanic tephra types, three plots of variable thickness ( ˜ 1.5, ˜ 8.5 and ˜ 80 mm) were monitored. After limiting the records to a period of reliable measurements, a 50-day data set of hourly records was obtained, which can be downloaded from the Pangaea data repository (pangaea.de" target="_blank">https://www.pangaea.de; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.876656). The experiment shows a substantial increase in snow-surface lowering rates under the ˜ 1.5 and ˜ 8.5 mm tephra plots when compared to uncovered conditions. Under the thick tephra cover some insulating effects could be observed. These results are in contrast to other studies which depicted insulating effects for much thinner tephra coverage on bare-ice glacier surfaces. Differences between the influences of the two different petrological types of tephra exist but are negligible compared to the effect of tephra coverage overall.

  10. Illusioonivaba ajastukroonika / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Roos, Jaan. Läbi punase öö I-IV. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanduse Selts, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2004. Varem ilmunud: Postimees, 7. august 1997 ; Tartu Postimees, 27. märts 2000 ; Tartu Postimees, 11. september 2001 ; Tartu Postimees, 18. märts 2004

  11. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  12. Long-term health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a prospective cohort study in 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodversdottir, Heidrun; Petursdottir, Gudrun; Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Gislason, Thorarinn; Hauksdottir, Arna

    2016-09-08

    To examine the long-term development of physical and mental health following exposure to a volcanic eruption. Population-based prospective cohort study. In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. Data were collected at 2 time points: in 2010 and 2013. Adult residents in areas close to the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (N=1096), divided according to exposure levels, and a non-exposed sample (n=475), with 80% participation rate in 2013. Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic) and previous month (recent), and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, GHQ-12), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD). In the exposed group, certain symptoms were higher in 2013 than in 2010, for example, morning phlegm during winter (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.49 to 3.06), skin rash/eczema (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.76 to 4.65), back pain (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05) and insomnia (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.30), in addition to a higher prevalence of regular use of certain medications (eg, for asthma (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 7.77)). PTSD symptoms decreased between 2010 and 2013 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.61), while the prevalence of psychological distress and perceived stress remained similar. In 2013, the exposed group showed a higher prevalence of various respiratory symptoms than did the non-exposed group, such as wheezing without a cold (high exposure OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.27 to 4.47) and phlegm (high exposure OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.48 to 5.55), some symptoms reflecting the degree of exposure (eg, nocturnal chest tightness (medium exposed OR 3.09; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.46; high exposed OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.30 to 11.79)). The findings indicate that people exposed to a volcanic eruption, especially those most exposed, exhibit increased risk of certain symptoms 3-4 years after the eruption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  13. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 – detection of volcanic plume using in-situ measurements, ozone sondes and lidar-ceilometer profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flentje

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic emissions from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption on the Southern fringe of Iceland in April 2010 were detected at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW station Zugspitze/Hohenpeissenberg (Germany by means of in-situ measurements, ozone sondes and ceilometers. Information from the German Meteorological Service (DWD ceilometer network (Flentje et al., 2010 aided identifying the air mass origin. We discuss ground level in-situ measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and particulate matter as well as ozone sonde profiles and column measurements of SO2 by a Brewer spectrometer. At Hohenpeissenberg, a number of reactive gases, e.g. carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, and particle properties, e.g. size distribution and ionic composition, were additionally measured during this period. Our results describe the arrival of the volcanic plume at Zugspitze and Hohenpeissenberg during 16 and 17 April 2010 and its residence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL for several days thereafter. The ash plume was first seen in the ceilometer backscatter profiles at Hohenpeissenberg in about 6–7 km altitude. After entrainment into the PBL at noon of 17 April, largely enhanced values of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid and super-micron-particle number concentration were recorded at Zugspitze/Hohenpeissenberg till 21 April.

  14. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  15. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  16. Pollution from the 2014-15 Bárðarbunga eruption monitored by snow cores from the Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Pálsson, Finnur; Oelkers, Eric; Lutz, Stefanie; Benning, Liane G.; Stefánsson, Andri; Kjartansdóttir, Ríkey; Gunnarsson-Robin, Jóhann; Ono, Shuhei; Ólafsdóttir, Rósa; Jónasdóttir, Elín Björk; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition of Icelandic rain and snow is dominated by marine aerosols, however human and volcanic activity can also affect these compositions. The six month long 2014-15 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years and it released into the atmosphere an average of 60 kt/day SO2, 30 kt/day CO2, 500 t/day HCl and 280 t/day HF. To study the effect of this eruption on the winter precipitation, snow cores were collected from the Vatnajökull glacier and the highlands northeast of the glacier. In addition to 29 bulk snow cores from that precipitated from September 2014 until March 2015, two cores were sampled in 21 and 44 increments to quantify the spatial and time evolution of the chemical composition of the snow. The pH and chemical compositions of melted snow samples indicate that snow has been affected by the volcanic gases emitted during the Bárðarbunga eruption. The pH of the melted bulk snow cores ranged from 4.41 to 5.64 with an average value of 5.01. This is four times greater H+ activity than pure water saturated with the atmospheric CO2. The highest concentrations of volatiles in the snow cores were found close to the eruption site as predicted from CALPUFF SO2 gas dispersion quality model. The anion concentrations (SO4, Cl, and F) were higher and the pH was lower compared to equivalent snow samples collected during 1997-2006 from the unpolluted Icelandic Langjökull glacier. Higher SO4 and Cl concentrations in the snow compared with the unpolluted rainwater of marine origin confirm the addition of a non-seawater SO4 and Cl. The δ34S isotopic composition confirms that the sulphur addition is of volcanic aerosol origin. The chemical evolution of the snow with depth reflects changes in the lava effusion and gas emission rates. Those rates were the highest at the early stage of the eruption. Snow that fell during that time, represented by samples from the deepest part of the snow cores, had the lowest pH and

  17. Heavy metals in moss samples exposed to tHe atmospHeric dust after eruption of eyjafjallajökull volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Ochota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volcanic ash, which is ejected during volcanic eruptions, flies in the air and spreads by the wind over large distances. It is a magmatic source and as such may contain heavy metals. The aim of the study was to carry out investigation on heavy metal content: Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr in samples of moss bags exposed to atmospheric dust containing volcanic ash in Sosnowiec (Poland after eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. Materials and methods: Samples have been exposed to atmospheric dust after volcanic eruption for 2 months, and were mineralised in 70% HNO3 and 30% H2O2. The content of Pb and Cd was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ETAAS and Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (FAAS. Results: During the experiment the content of lead in samples of moss increased by 54,9 μg/g, cadmium by 3,41 μg/g, manganese by 150 μg/g, iron by 6,09 mg/g, zinc by 514 μg/g, copper by 20,77 μg/g and chromium by 6,99 μg/g. Conclusions: In Sosnowiec the comparable increase of metal content was from several to 41 times higher than in the areas not exposed to volcanic ash. It indicates that volcanic ash can be a potential source of heavy metals in the environment and, consequently, affect our health.

  18. Hydro-morphodynamic modelling of a volcano-induced sediment-laden outburst flood at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, M.; Wright, N.; Sleigh, P. A.; Carrivick, J.; Staines, K.

    2013-12-01

    Outburst floods are one of the most catastrophic natural hazards for populations and infrastructure. Such high-magnitude sudden onset floods generally comprise of an advancing intense kinematic water wave that can induce considerable sediment transport. The exploration and investigation of sediment-laden outburst floods cannot be limited solely to water flow but must also include the flood-induced sediment transport. Understanding the complex flow-bed interaction process in large (field) scale outburst floods is still limited, not least due to a lack of well-constrained field data, but also because consensus on appropriate modelling schemes has yet to be decided. In recent years, attention has focussed on the numerical models capable of describing the process of erosion, transport and deposition in such flows and they are now at a point at which they provide useful quantitative data. Although the "exact" measure of bed change is still unattainable the numerical models enhance and improve insights into large outburst flood events. In this study, a volcano-induced jökulhlaup or glacial outburst flood (GLOF) at Sólheimajökull, Iceland is reproduced by novel 2D hydro-morphodynamic model that considers both bedload and suspended load based on shallow water theory. The simulation of sediment-laden outburst flood is shown to perform well, with further insights into the flow-bed interaction behaviour obtained from the modelling output. These results are beneficial to flood risk management and hazard prevention and mitigation. In summary, the modelling outputs show that (1) the quantity of bed erosion and deposition are sensitive to the sediment gain size, yet, the influences are not so significant when considering flow discharge; (2) finer resolution of topography increases the computational time significantly yet the results are not affected correspondingly; (3) the bed changes simulated by the present model achieves reasonably good agreement with those by the

  19. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The April–May, 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that large improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8–28 μm diameter. We evaluate the results of our model results with a posteriori ash emissions using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "Normal" flying zone in up to 14 % (6–16 %, 2 % (1–3 % and 7 % (4–11 %, respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m−3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5 % (0.2–2.8 % and 0.9 % (0.1–1.6 % occurred, while the current "No-Fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m−3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  20. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-07-01

    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  1. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Schmidt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980–2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB. This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs from the period 2001–2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995–2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995–2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981–2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes

  2. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hervo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010, the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD. In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m−3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm−3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98, showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m−2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m−2. Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23

  3. Edinburghi festival kui kogemus / Riina Oruaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oruaas, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Edinburghis toimuvast rahvusvahelisest teatri- ehk etenduskunstide festivalist Fringe 2008 (8. - 31. VIII 2008). Pikemalt mõningatest tantsu- ja sõnalavastusest ning teatrikriitikute tööst seoses festivaliga

  4. Kuressaarest kaks laureaaditiitlit / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Maakondlikust etlejate konkursist. Žüriisse kuulusid Maret Oomer, Asta Leiten ja Kalle Piiskoppel. 5.-7. klasside arvestuses I koht: Marleen Petersell. Äramärkimist leidsid: Kristian Käresk, Maarja-Liis Mölder ja Anita Tuula. 7.-9. klasside arvestuses I koht: Oliver Taul. Esile tõsteti: Rauno Reinas, Riko Osila, Linda Maisväli ja Piia Puuraid. 10.-12. klasside arvestuses I koht: Karl Sakrits. Ära märgiti: Elin Küti, Virgo Ernits, Maria Orb. Kommenteerisid Asta Leiten, Liann Saage-Vahur. Ka Kuressaares toimunud vabariiklikust etlejate konkursist, kommentaare jagasid Merle Rekaya, Rita Ilves. Zhürisse kuulusid Aare Toikka, Tiina Rebane, Hans Kaldoja, Kristiina Omer ja Keete Viira. Peapreemia nooremas vanuseastmes Markkus Pulgale, keskmises vanuseastmes Anna Talvile ja vanemas vanuseastmes Doris Täkkerile.

  5. Naiskodukaitse aastatel 1925-1940 / Riina Nemvalts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nemvalts, Riina

    2003-01-01

    Järg 17. mai, lk. 16 ; 20. mai, lk. 6 ; 24. mai, lk. 16 ; 31. mai, lk. 12 ; 5. juuni, lk. 10 ; 14. juuni, lk. 16 ; 19. juuni, lk. 10 ; 21. juuni, lk. 16 ; 26. juuni, lk. 6 ; 28. juuni, lk. 18 ; 1. juuli, lk. 10 ; 3. juulil, lk. 10 ; 5. juuli, lk.16

  6. Punane Veski ja plakatikunsti algus / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Prantsuse plakatikunsti loojast Jules Cheret'st, ühest silmapaistvamast plakati- ja maalikunstnikust Henri Toulouse-Lautrecist, tema plakatite kangelannadest, kankaani tantsinud Louise Weberist ja Jane Avrilist ning Moulin Rouge'ist

  7. Picasso kõrge hind / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Pablo Picassost, tema loomingust, 2003.a Malagas Picasso muuseumi ja kunstniku sünnikodu avamisest, maailma kallemailt müüdud maalide TOP 10-sse kuuluvatest maalidest "Poiss piibuga" (1905) ja "Dora Maar kassiga" (1941), hindadest. Maailma kalleimad oksjonil müüdud maalid: I - Jackson Pollocki "Nr.5, 1948" (hind:140 miljonit dollarit), II - William De Kooningi "Woman III" (1952-53), III - Gustav Klimti "Adele Bloch-Bauer I portree" (1907)

  8. Pärlid juveelide kuningannad / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Pärlite erinevatest kasutusviisidest. Pärlite kandmise ajaloost. Kuulsad pärlid: Pearl of Allah, La Peregrina, La Pellegrina, La Perle Napoleon. Kunstpärlite tootmisest. Pärlite kasvatamisest Jaapanis

  9. 20 miljonit keskkonnaprojektidele / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Jõgevamaa keskkonnaprojektid said Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskuselt (KIK) toetust. Suuremad toetusesaajad olid Põltsamaa vallavalitsuse piirkondliku jäätmejaama projekt, Mustvee linnavalitsuse ja Puurmani vallavalitsuse veekaitseprojektid

  10. From yesterday till tomorrow / Riina Reinvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinvelt, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi peamised kogumissuunad 2000-te algul: argielu strateegiad Nõukogude Eestis, eestivenelaste ja vanausuliste subkultuurid Ida-Virumaal ja Peipsi järve piirkonnas, traditsioonilised töövõtted internetis, Karula Rahvuspargi pärandkultuur

  11. Kassinurme saab Kassirabaks / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    30. juulil esietendub Jõgeva Linna Teatri vabaõhulavastus "Kassirabal", milles teevad kaasa ka professionaalsed näitlejad Ülle Lichtfeldt, Ines Aru ja Luule Komissarov ning Jõgeva, Põltsamaa, Tallinna, Mäetaguse ja teiste paikade harrastusnäitlejad

  12. Edasi loodusesse! Aga kuhu? / Riina Oruaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oruaas, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Tantsulavastustest: Oksana Titova, Päär Pärenson ja Juhan Ulfsak "Roots", Kaja Kanni sooloetendus "There are Laika dogs living in Estonia", Tiina Mölder, Kaja Kann ja Bush Hartshor "Naine ja Hunt"

  13. Eridiplom õppefilmi eest / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti 42. amatöörfilmide festivalil Tallinna Kinomajas tunnistati parimaks õppefilmiks põltsamaalase Väino Valdmanni "Valli Lember-Bogatkina meistriklass". Kolm auhinda (seejuures parima täiskasvanud autorifilm) sai"Elevanti nägema" (autorid S. Dürdoth, M. Apel, L. Shamis, K. Saar) Ka teistest auhinnasaajatest

  14. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  15. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-09-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties as well as the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the period 21-24 April 2010. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements along with inversion schemes were initialized together with lidar observations to deliver the aforementioned products. The well-known FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) model used for volcanic dispersion simulations is initiated as well in order to estimate the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic particles. Compared with the lidar measurements within the planetary boundary layer over Athens, FLEXPART proved to be a useful tool for determining the state of mixing of ash with other, locally emitted aerosol types. The major findings presented in our work concern the identification of volcanic particles layers in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the volcanic source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) from the surface and up to 10 km according to the lidar measurements. Mean hourly averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth was found to vary from 0.01 to 0.18 at 355 nm and from 0.02 up to 0.17 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (S) ranged between 60 and 80 sr at 355 nm and 44 and 88 sr at 532 nm. The mean effective radius of the volcanic particles estimated by applying inversion scheme to the lidar data found to vary within the range 0.13-0.38 μm and the refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. This high variability is most probably attributed to the

  17. Suurem, pikem, lõikamata / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  18. Troopiline paradiis otse Euroopa südames / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Berliini-Dresdeni kiirtee ääres asuvast troopilisest veekeskusest Tropical Islands, mis pakub siseruumis rannapuhkust ja rõõmustab puhkajat ookeani, vihmametsa, kämpinguala, kohvikute, jõusaali, saunade, erinevate meelelahutusetendustega jne

  19. Mis on õiglane kaubandus? / Riina Kuusik ; interv. Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Riina

    2006-01-01

    ETV saate "Tasakaal" tegijad külastasid Nicaraguat ja Costa Ricat, et vaadata, kuidas elavad ja töötavad "õiglase kaubanduse" süsteemi kuuluvad talunikud, õiglase kaubanduse (fairtrade) mõistest

  20. Rootslanna Eestis kirjutas uue rootsi keele õpiku / Riina Noodapera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noodapera, Riina, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Carina Adolfssoni elust ja töötamisest Eestis. Rets. rmt.: Adolfsson, Carina. Sverige på svenska : lärobok i svenska för nybörjare : rootsi keele õpik algajatele : textbook in Swedish for beginners. Tallinn : Infotrükk, 2007. 179 lk.

  1. Lenz, Eestis unustatud geenius / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2001-01-01

    Tartus toimunud rahvusvahelise Lenzi-konverentsi (Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz) publik nägi väljasõidul Põltsamaale Lenzi kirjutatud näidendit "Haavatud peigmees", mis esitati Tartu üliõpilasteatri poolt Põltsamaa lossihoovis. Lav. Kalev Kudu

  2. Nukkude salapärane maailm / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Nukkudest, nende ajaloost, valmistamisviisidest ja materjalidest, kasutamise eesmärkidest, matrjoshkadest, barbie'st, seksikatest Bratz-nukkudest ja nende mõjust laste psüühhikale, nukust kui moe propageerijast ning nukumööblist

  3. OÜ Same sai tootearendustoetust / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Tabiveres põllu- ja teehooldusmasinaid tootev OÜ Same sai Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse kaudu üle poole miljoni krooni tootearendustoetust, mille abil töötab firma välja uue, senisest paindlikuma ja multifunktsionaalsema ketas-liivapuisturi

  4. Prantsusmaa silub Ida-Euroopga suhteid / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Prantsusmaa peaminister Jean-Pierre Raffarin kohtus Pariisis Ida-Euroopa ajakirjanikega ja rääkis EL-i riikide suhetest ja majanduskoostööst. Vt. samas: Andres Kasekamp. Näpuga viibutamise aeg on möödas. Lisa: Jean-Pierre Raffarin (55)

  5. Teatriekspressiga Äksist Põltsamaale / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgevamaa harrastus- ja projektitruppide vabaõhulavastuste esietendustest 2006. aastal : Priit Aimla "Saadjärve saamise lugu" (Tabivere Harrastusteater, lavastaja Tõnis Lepp), Oskar Lutsu loomingust inspireeritud Veiko Märka "Sabani sõlmes Luts" (Palamuse Amatöörteater, lavastaja Raivo Adlas), Marina Carri "Kassirabal" projektitrupi esituses, lavastaja Ain Saviauk, Mati Tiku "Legend" (Saare Valla Metsateater, lavastaja autor), Ain Saviaugu "Ulm ehk Unistus Liivimaast" (Põltsamaa teater Ellunäod, lavastaja autor)

  6. Kõik on kusagil olemas / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Deivi Oru (34) maalinäitusest "Sentimentaalsed maastikud" Põltsamaa kultuurikeskuse galeriis. Kunstniku elukäigust ja loomingust Eestis ja Hispaanias: kampsunite kudumisest maalikunstini. Hispaanias kasutab ta nime Monica del Norte

  7. Kes kunstnik on selle pildi teinud ? / Riina Noodapera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noodapera, Riina, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Autor selgitab Eesti paadipõgenike foto ajalugu. Samas lisatud ka foto, millel kujutatud Lennart Meri, Christina Anderson, Helle Meri, Ellen Holmert ja Thorsten Andersson. Foto on tehtud 1995. a. seoses Lennart Meri külaskäiguga Gotlandile 1995. a.

  8. Majanduslikult soodsaim pakkumus ja pakkumuste hindamise kriteeriumid / Riina Karro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karro, Riina

    2011-01-01

    Majanduslikult soodsaima pakkumuse ja madalaima hinnaga pakkumuse vahest ning majanduslikult soodsaima pakkumuse kui hindamiskriteeriumi sisunõuetest. Kvalifikatsiooni puudutavate tingimuste kasutamisest hindamiskriteeriumina

  9. Riina Vändre is the best P.R. manager in Estonia / Riina Vändre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vändre, Riina, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Turu-uuringute AS-i poolt ajakirjanike hulgas läbi viidud küsitluse tulemusel Eesti parimaks suhtekorraldajaks valitud Eesti Energia avalike suhete juht oma tööst monopoolse suurettevõtte maine kujundamisel

  10. The model of Internet-based marketing communication / Katrin Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Turunduskommunikatsioon Interneti teel erineb traditsioonilisest turunduskommunikatsioonist, võimaldades sõnumite ja tagasiside liikumise protsessi kahesuunalisust ning muutes seega kogu turunduskommunikatsiooni õppimis-(või tundmaõppimis-)protsessiks. Skeemid. Tabelid

  11. Iga neljas Eestimaa laps elab allpool vaesuspiiri / Elle Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Elle, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Lääne Elu, 25. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 25. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Lõunaleht, 25. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 26. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Den za Dnjom, 26. jaan. 2007, lk. 18; Meie Maa, 26. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Nädaline, 30. jaan. 2007, lk. 4; Vooremaa, 30. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 1. veebr. 2007, lk. 2. Yorki ülikooli ja UNICEF-i laste heaoluindeksi uuring paigutab Eesti lapsed EL-i 25 riigi seas eelviimasele kohale. Parlamendiliige tõstatab Eesti perepoliitika valupunktid

  12. Propaganda mitu nägu / Kulle Raig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raig, Kulle, 1940-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Lehtonen, Pekka. Tehtävä Tallinnassa : neuvostopropagandaa ja itsenäisyysinnostusta. Helsinki : Into, 2016 ; Lehtonen, Pekka. Ülesandega üle lahe : propaganda mitu nägu. Tallinn : K&K, 2016

  13. Portree kirjanikust tema sõprade keskel / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Kronberg, Janika. Hästi valitud sõbrad : artikleid Ristikivist ja tema kirjanduslikust ümbrusest. Tallinn : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi Teaduskirjastus : Karl Ristikivi Selts, 2016 (EKLA töid kirjandusest ja kultuuriloost ; 9)

  14. Muddy water substitutes for coal; Grumsevann erstatter kull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    The awful, muddy water of the third largest river in the world is becoming a considerable power source for China. The Yangtze River is being harnessed, slowly but surely. Ten years have passed since they cut the first sod and now the first turbines are producing power in what will be the world's biggest hydropower plant. From 2009 the Three Gorges Plant will supply 84.60 TWh per year, but this is not enough to meet the power demand in one of the fastest growing economies of the world. China plans to build 2000 new small-scale power stations and some tens of large power stations every year. It was in 1993 that Chinese authorities defied the world opinion and decided to develop the dam and power station at Three Gorges. The opposition from the Western world has essentially focused on the forced relocation of 1.2 million people, the complex environmental consequences, and the catastrophe that would result if the dam should burst.

  15. Tuuleenergia kasutamisvõimalused Eestis / Ain Kull, Valdur Tiit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Ain, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Autorite hinnangul on seni Eestis ulatuslik tuulejõu kasutamine raskendatud nii finantsprobleemide, kodumaise tootmise puudumise, rannikupiirkondade elektriliinide väikese võimsuse kui ka Narva põlevkivijaamade alakoormatuse tõttu. Tabel

  16. Introduction : [artiklikogumikule Ecumenical theological education] / Anne Kull, Pille Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Anne, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Sissejuhatus kogumikule, mis sisaldab artikleid Tartu Ülikoolis 11.-14. jaan. 2007 toimunud konverentsi "Ecumenical theological education : pedagogical perspectives and practical experiences" ettekannetest

  17. "Semiosfäär", 1982 : kommentaariks / Kalevi Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Kalevi, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Kommenteeritakse Juri Lotmani mõiste "semiosfäär" esmakordset eestikeelset trükitekstis kasutamist ning mõiste "käitumise sfäär" määratlemist VIII teoreetilise bioloogia kevadkooli teesidevihikus 1982. aastal. Vt. ka: Lotman, Juri. Kaks lähenemisviisi käitumisele // Acta Semiotica Estica. III. Lk. 221

  18. Direktiivsed aktipaarid eestikeelsetes infodialoogides ja nende automaatne tuvastamine / Olga Gerassimenko, Riina Kasterpalu, Mare Koit ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Analüüsitakse ametiasutustesse tulnud telefonikõnesid, eesmärgiga arendada intelligentset kasutajaliidest, mis võimaldaks suhelda andmebaasiga eesti keeles. Täpsemalt keskendutakse dialoogiakti direktiivsetele naabruspaaridele

  19. Väliskaubandus, jaanuar-oktoober 2008 = Foreign trade, January-October 2008 / Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerner, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Eesti väliskaubanduse näitajatest 2008. aasta jaanuarist kuni oktoobrini: Eesti kaupade eksport oli 113,1 miljardit krooni, import 145,2 miljardit krooni, kaubavahetuse puudujääk oli 32,1 miljardit krooni. Peamisteks partnerriikideks olid 2008. aasta jaanuar-oktoober Soome, Rootsi, Venemaa ja Saksamaa. Graafikud. Tabelid

  20. Eesti väliskaubandus aastal 2007 = Estonian's foreign trade in 2007 / Allan Aron, Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aron, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti väliskaubanduse näitajatest 2007. aastal: Eesti kaupade eksport oli 125,5 miljardit krooni, import 177,1 miljardit krooni, kaubavahetuse puudujääk oli 51,6 miljardit krooni. Peamisteks partnerriikideks olid 2007. aastal Soome, Rootsi ja Läti. Olulisemad ekspordi- ja impordiartiklid. Graafikud. Tabel. Diagrammid

  1. Fotokaameraga Sotšis, Adleris ja Eesti Aiakeses / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Ants Paju, kunstnik Tiina Sääliku ja Tartus tegutseva Tarbatu segakoori osalemisest 13. septembril Anton-Hansen Tammsaare majamuuseumi taasavamisel Sotši lähedal külas Eesti Aiake (kohtuti ka kohalike eestlaste kooriga Sügis), kontsertidest Sotši sanatooriumides ja orelisaalis. Tiina Säälik avas Jõgeva Kultuurikeskuse galeriis reisipiltidega fotonäituse

  2. Suulise eesti keele korpus ja inimese suhtlus arvutiga / Tiit Hennoste, Olga Gerassimenko, Riina Kasterpalu ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hennoste, Tiit, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustatakse Tartu Ülikooli suulise eesti keele korpuse ehitust, transkribeerimise põhimõtteid ja dialoogiaktide annoteerimiseks kasutatavat tüpoloogiat. Inimese ja arvuti vahelise suhtluse rakendusena analüüsitakse ametiasutustesse helistavate klientide esmaseid päringuid

  3. Nagu Indiana Jones / Riina Mägi ; komment. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Poola Vabariigi saatkonnas esitleti kahte Hendrik Lillepuu tõlkeraamatut: Herbert, Zbigniew. Valitud luuletused. - Jõgevamaa : H. Lindepuu, 2008 ja Szymborska, Wislawa. Oma aja lapsed. - Laiuse : H. Lindepuu, 2008

  4. Jaapanlased näevad Eestis uut turgu / Kazuhisa Sano ; interv. Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sano, Kazuhisa

    2005-01-01

    Jaapani suurima turismifirma Japan Travel Bureau tegevjuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ettevõtluse Sihtasutusega sõlmitud koostöölepet, turismikoostöö arendamist Eestiga, jaapani turistide huvi Soome vastu, muljeid Eestist. Lisa: Jaapanlased Eestis

  5. Zhenshtshina, razozlivshaja Putina = Naine, kes vihastas Putinit / Astrid Kannel ; interv. Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kannel, Astrid, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Ajakirjanik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Võidupäeva pidustuste raames Moskvas toimunud Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini pressikonverentsi, ajakirjanikutööd, eraelu ning hobisid. Lisa: Astrid Kannel CV

  6. Sinine Laguun - sinine pärl mustade laavaväljade embuses / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Islandi loodusest, geisritest ning kuumaveeallikatest ja nende kasutamisest saare kütteallikatena ning spaaturismis, täpsemalt Sinise Laguuni nimelise termaaljärve juurde ehitatud ülimoodsast sama nimelisest kompleksist, kus on nii spaa, restoran, kliinik psoriaasihaigetele, kui ka konverentsikeskus

  7. Mozarti kadunud autograaf võtab publiku ees kuju / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis asuvast Mozarti autograafist 27. klaverikontserdi B-duur käsikirjast. Tiina Õuna uurimistööst Mozarti noodikäsikirja teekonna Viinist Tallinna uurimisel. 30. septembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast kontserdist, kus ettekandele tuleb ka 27. klaverikontsert

  8. Archaeological Excavations at Musumägi hill in Viljandi / Riina Rammo, Martti Veldi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rammo, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Erinevate kultuurkihtide leiumaterjalist, nendes esinenud loomaluudest ja keraamikast. Musta kultuurkihi võib dateerida viikingiaega ja pruun kiht annab tunnistust inimtegevusest mäel veel hilisrauaajal.

  9. Kavandatavad muudatused puuetega inimeste sotsiaaltoetuste süsteemis / Riina Riisalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riisalo, Riina

    2006-01-01

    Puuetega inimeste sotsiaaltoetuste seaduse muudatustest, mille jõustumisel 2008. aastal paranevad puuetega inimeste võimalused saada teenuseid, vajalikul määral toetuseid ja konkureerida tööturul. Erinevate vanuserühmade puhul hakatakse rakendama erinevaid sotsiaaltoetuste määramise skeeme

  10. Archaeological investigations in medieval Viljandi the castle and its surroundings / Arvi Haak, Riina Juurik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haak, Arvi

    2007-01-01

    Kaevamistest ordulinnuses, uuringutest III eeslinnusel (Esimesel Kirsimäel) peavärava piirkonnas, järelevalvetöödest linnusest lääne poole jääval alal, uuringutest Tartu tänav 28A ja 30 kruntidel. Keraamikaleidude põhjal tekkis asustus Tartu tänav 30 piirkonnas 14. sajandi teisel poolel või veelgi varem

  11. Rain Sepp - kontorita juht ülemaailmses äris / Riina Kallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Mobiiltelefonilogosid ning -helinaid müüva Jipii! portaali rahvusvahelise võrgu juht Rain Sepp ettevõtte arengust ja teenustest, tööst rahvusvahelise võrgu juhina, töö spetsiifilisusest, Eesti meeskonnast ning Läti, Leedu, Soome ja Londoni tiimis valitseva tööõhkkonna erinevustest. Vt. samas: 10% muusikarahast tuleb helinast; iTouch plc; www.jippii.ee

  12. Alguses oli HELI ja PÄRT, siis Jalaka LAVASTUS / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Tõnu Kaljuste ja Peeter Jalaka lavastusest "Alguses oli", lavastuse aluseks Arvo Pärdi teosed "In Principio" ja "Miserere", 17. augustil Noblesse valukojas toimunud etendusest, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste. Arvo Pärdi pidunädalate ürituste loetelu

  13. Palamusel näidatakse "Pingviinide marssi" / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    AS Tallinnfilm ja Palamuse rahvamaja vahel sõlmitud kokkuleppe järgi hakkab Tallinnfilm väärtfilme Palamusele tooma iga kuu. Esimesena tuuakse näha Prantsusmaa 2005.a. valminud dokumentaalfilm "Pingviinide marss" ("La Marche de l'empereur") : režissöör Luc Jacquet

  14. Kaks näitlejapreemiat Viribus Unitisele / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    13. apr. lõppenud üleriigilisest kooliteatrite festivalist. Jõgevamaad esindav Põltsamaa kultuurikeskuse näitering Viribus Unitis võitis kaks näitlejapreemiat. Need said Veiko Porkanen ja Priit Pius

  15. Eestlased saavad arengumaade õnnele söömisega kaasa aidata / Riina Kuusk ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse kaubamärgi Fair Trade esindaja vastab küsimustele, kas Eesti ostjat saab meelitada õilsate eesmärkide nimel rohkem maksma, kas eestlane on valmis oma tarbimist muutma, et kusagil kaugel mõnd inimest toetada, milline läbimüügisiht on Fair Trade'il Eestis, kas õiglane kaubandus võib oma pakkumiste ja kampaaniatega hakata ohustama Eesti põllumeest

  16. Minimalism, sooja südamega / Malle Pajula, Eva Toome ; kommenteerinud Riina Harik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Malle, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Perekond Kremmi napi ja läbimõeldud kujunduse ning tervikliku valguslahenduse ja välibasseiniga eramust Tiskres, mis pälvis konkursil "Kaunis Kodu 2008" sisekujundaja kaasabil loodud kauneima kodu tiitli

  17. Retsepte äärmise vaesuse likvideerimiseks meie eluajal / Riina Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Raamatu "The end of poverty: economic Possibilities of our time" autor, ÜRO peasekretäri erinõunik prof. Jeffrey Sachs tõdeb, et esmakordselt ajaloos on praegusel põlvkonnal äärmise vaesuse likvideerimiseks arengumaades vajalikud teadmised, oskused ja vahendid. Autor paneb arenenud riikidele südamele, et arenguabi tõstmine 0,7%-ni SKP-st võib 2025. aastaks aidata 1/5 elanikkonnast nn arenguredeli esimesele pulgale

  18. President Ilves ja Simon Peres avasid Tallinna uue sünagoogi / Evely Baum, Riina Leminsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baum, Evely

    2007-01-01

    16. mail 2007 avati pidulikult Tallinna uus juudi sünagoog. Avamistseremoonial osalesid ka Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja peaminister Andrus Ansip, Iisraeli asepeaminister Simon Peres, Iisraeli pearabi Yona Metzger, Venemaa pearabi Berl Lazar

  19. Ilmar Külveti mälestusteose esitlus Tartus / Riina Kindlam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kindlam, Riina, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    7. novembril 2005 Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis. Kogumik pealkirjaga "Vana arm ei roosteta" ilmus ajakirjaniku 85. sünnipäevaks. Raamatuesitlusel esinesid Anne Valmas, Janika Kronberg, Vaike Külvet, Piret Noorhani

  20. Ellunäod toovad välja "Rasputini" / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    7. aug. Pilistvere vanas rehehoones esietenduvast Ain Saviaugu kirjutatud ja lavastatud suvetükist "Rasputin". Suvelavastuse toob välja Põltsamaa Teater Ellunäod koos professionaalsete näitlejatega. Nimiosas mängib näitlejast riigikogulane Indrek Saar

  1. Hotelli Telegraaf sisekujundus. Tallinn, Vene 9 / Külli Salum, Riina Harik, Martin Aunin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salum, Külli, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    I ja II korruse plaan, värv. välisvaade, 18 sisevaadet; fotod: Kaido Haagen; juurdeehituse arhitekt: M. Aunin. Sisearhitektid K. Salum ja R. Harik pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia

  2. Eetiline mood Londoni moenädalal / Riina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Riina

    2009-01-01

    Londoni moenädala märksõnadeks olid keskkonnasäästlikkus, õiglane kaubandus (fair trade), sotsiaalne vastutus jne. Keskkonnaõigluse fondi EJF puuvillavastasest kampaaniast. Messil osalenud disainerite loomingust

  3. Presidendipaar külastas New Yorgi Eesti Kooli / Kärt Ulman ; fotod: Riina Sõrra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulman, Kärt

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves külastasid 25. septembril 2010 New Yorgi Eesti Kooli. Õhtusel vastuvõtul kohalikele eestlastele tutvustas president programmi "Talendid koju". Proua Evelin Ilvesel oli võimalus USA presidendi abikaasa Michelle Obama kutsel külastada mahefarmi Stone Barnsis. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 20.-27.09.2010

  4. Viis raamatutäit poola näidendeid / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Tõlkija Hendrik Lindepuult ilmus viies tõlkekogumik poola dramaturgia tippteoseid tutvustavast sarjast. Seekord said kaante vahele Tadeusz Rozewiczi näidendid "Valge abielu", "Lõks" ja "Vana naine haub"

  5. Linnapea, keda rõõmustab titekisa / Jüri Ratas ; interv. Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratas, Jüri, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema suhtumist opositsiooni kriitikasse, linna juhtimist, perekonda, lapsepõlve, spordiga tegelemist, sõpruskonda, eraettevõtlusest loobumist ning suhteid kirikuga. Lisa: Jüri Ratas (27). Vt. samas lühiintervjuud linnapea abikaasa Karin Ratasega. Kommenteerib Jüri Ratase endine klassijuhataja Nõmme gümnaasiumist, võrkpallitreener Raimund Pundi

  6. Sotsiaaltöötaja muutuvas keskkonnas / Riina Kiik, Arne GrınningsΜter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiik, Riina, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli ning Norra töö- ja sotsiaaluuringute instituudi Fafo projekti "Vaesus, sotsiaalabi ja sotsiaalne kaasatus - arengud Eestis ja Lätis võrdlevas perspektiivis" käigus uuriti sotsiaaltöö ning sotsiaalpoliitika suhteid, sotsiaaltöö abi vajavate sihtrühmade muutumist. Skeem. Tabel. Vt. samas: Lõppes Eesti, Läti ja Norra ühine uurimisprojekt

  7. Kirev moepillerkaar / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad ja Kuldnõela gala Viru keskuses. Eesti parima moekunstniku tiitli pälvis Riina Põldroos. Kommentaarid Riina Põldroosilt, Aldo Järvsoolt, Urmas Väljaotsalt, Kirill Safonovilt. 17 ill

  8. Stalo izvestno imja lutshshego dizainera Estonii za proshlõi god

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kuldnõela nominentide gala toimus 7. märtsil FIBIT moepäevadel Viru Keskuses. Kuldnõela auhinna sai Riina Põldroos. Riina Põldroosi, Jaanika Sootna, Oksana Tanditi ja Tiia Orgna kollektsioonidest sõnas ja pildis

  9. Kodutus Eestis - kas indiviidi või ühiskonna probleem? / Jüri Kõre, Riina Kiik, Eva Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõre, Jüri, 1953-

    2005-01-01

    Kodutuse ajaloolisest taustast ja põhjustest. Tartu linna kodutute hulgas 2003.-2004. a. tehtud uurimusest ning Eva Kõivu magistritööst "Kodutus Tartu linnas: Põhjused ja võimalikud lahendused". Diagrammid: Tartu koduta inimeste jaotus kodutuse kestuse järgi; Intervjueeritute sissetulekuallikad

  10. Ärma talu iseteadlik perenaine Evelin Int-Lambot / Evelin Int-Lambot ; interv. Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Int-Lambot, Evelin, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti tipp-poliitiku Toomas Hendrik Ilvese abikaasa, paljude arvamuslugude autor räägib oma elust metsatalus, lapse kasvatamisest, poliitikast, elu väärtushinnangutest. Kommenteerivad: Rain Pikand, Ando Kiviberg

  11. Jaan Poska 150. sünniaastapäevaks valmib temast kõnelev film / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2015-01-01

    Juristi ja poliitiku Jaan Poska elust ja tema pärandist valmiva filmi produtsent ja režissöör on Toomas Lepp, üks stsenariste Peeter Järvelaid. Filmi kohta jagab selgitusi Tallinna Ülikooli õigusajaloo ja võrdleva õiguse professor ning sihtasutuse Jaan Poska Mälestusfond nõukogu esimees Peeter Järvelaid

  12. Juhan Parts : "Panus tuleks teha tipptehnoloogiale ja koostööle teadlastega" / Juhan Parts ; interv. Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgevamaal visiidil viibinud majandusminister Juhan Parts ettevõtete Valmeco ja Werol Tehased külastusest ja seal nähtust, Venemaa puidutarnetest, Eesti metsanduspoliitikast, Tallinn-Tartu maantee ehitusest, reisirongiliiklusest, ettevõtluse arengu võimalustest regioonis

  13. Muhu uhkus - Pädaste Mõis sai esimeseks viietärni-hotell väljaspool Tallinna / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Augustis 2009 tunnustas Eesti Hotellide ja Restornide Liit Pädaste Mõisa neljanda hotellina Eestis ja esimesena väljaspool Tallinna asuvaks viietärni-hotelliks. Pädaste mõisa rajatud spa-hotelli ja restorani tootearendusest

  14. Liisingfinatseerimise olemus ja õiguslik regulatsioon : [bakalaureusetöö] / Riina Raie ; Akadeemia Nord, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Liia Kubja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raie, Riina

    2001-01-01

    Liisingfinantseerimise alused, mõiste, liisingu rahvusvaheline laienemine, areng Eestis, liisingu maksustamine ja raamatupidamisarvestus, liisingfinantseerimise teostamine, liisingfinantseerimise pettused

  15. Eesti ettevõtete kaubavahetus tehnoloogilisuse vaatepunktist = Trade of Estonia's enterprises from point of view of technology / Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerner, Riina

    2011-01-01

    Tööstusharude jaotus tehnoloogilise intensiivsuse järgi. Töötleva tööstuse kaubavahetuse areng ja statistika, teadlaste ja inseneride arv. Eesti võrdlus teiste Euroopa Liidu riikidega. Tabelid

  16. Lootsikulood... Soomaa...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    29. sept. esines Kärdla kultuurikeskuses ühendus Kummutikunst. Kata-Riina Luide esitas mononäidendi "Lootsikulood". Dekoratsiooniks oleva slaidiprogrammi autor on Tiit Leito. Lavastas Kata-Riina Luide. Autor ja puukujude valmistaja Andres Koidu. Kummutikunsti on asutanud Ugala teatri näitleja Kata-Riina Luide ja puukujur Andres Koidu

  17. Kontsernisisese cash pooling'u kasutamise võimalikud piirangud / Karl Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Karl, 1987-

    2011-01-01

    Cash pooling’ust kui finantsjuhtimise ühest alaliigist. Cash pooling’u kasutamise piirangutest: äriseadustiku §-des 159 ja 281 sätestatud laenukeelust ning emaettevõtja kohustuste võimalikust rikkumisest

  18. Economic loss caused by GMOs in Estonia / Irene Kull, Villu Kõve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Irene, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Lepinguvälisest vastutusest, tootja vastutusest, vastutusest suurema ohu allikaga tekitatud kahju eest, geneetiliselt muundatud organismidega tekitatud kahjust, varaline kahjust, mittevaraline kahjust

  19. Ühe novelli lugu : subjektiivne kirjanduslooline etüüd / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2015-01-01

    Mait Metsanurga pikemast novellist "Dora Praats", mis ilmus 1943. a. vene keeles; avaldatud ka 16-osalise järjejutuna Toronto ajalehes "Vaba Eestlane" (8. veebr. - 2. aprill 1958) ning Mait Metsanurga novellikogumikus "Kreeps" (Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2005)

  20. Ühesugused sõnad - erinevad tähendused / Anne Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Metafoorid muudavad viisi, kuidas mõeldakse probleemidest. kujutades ojekti või sündmust sarnasena mingile teisele objektile või sündmusele. Autor analüüsib näitena Lynn Randolphy maali "Laboratoorium, ehk Onkohiire kannatuslugu" (1994)

  1. Impact of multiple glacial surges - a geomorphological map from Brúarjökull, East Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Schomacker, Anders

    2008-01-01

    of individual landforms. We mapped subglacial lineations such as flutes and drumlins on till plains, pitted outwash, eskers, minor meandering ridges, crevasse fill ridges, ice-free dead-ice moraine and concertina ridges, outwash fans and lake sediment plains. In addition, erosional drainage channels, ice...

  2. Metal scavenging by calcium carbonate at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L S; Makovicky, E.

    2014-01-01

    . Boxwork textures were observed within the porous calcite that probably originated from transformation of a metastable phase such as ikaite (CaCO3·6 H2O). A gradual decrease of conductivity from 1.8mS/cm at the river water outlet to 1.1mS/cm downstream and a clear drop in dissolved metal concentration...... were also scavenged from the river water, including Al, Fe, K, P, S, Si, Ti, V and the rare earth elements (REE). Our thermodynamic modeling suggests that, in addition to calcite and ikaite, silica, clay minerals, ferrihydrite, gibbsite and amorphous Ca, Mg carbonate minerals were supersaturated...

  3. Partiklid jah, jaa ning jajaa naaberpaari järelliikmena müügiläbirääkimistes / Riina Kasterpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasterpalu, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Vastavate partiklite funktsionaalsetest ülesannetest, kasutamisest ja tähendustest müügivestlustes telefoni teel peetud müügiläbirääkimisi analüüsides. Järgneb: Keel ja Kirjandus, 2005, nr. 12

  4. Linnateatri uhiuuel plaadil laulavad näitlejad Olav Ehala laule / Olav Ehala, Riina Roose ; intervjueerinud Maria Lee Liivak ; toimetanud Triin Sinissaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehala, Olav, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    "Thijl Ulenspiegeli" lavastustest Eestis, heliplaadist "Thijl Ulenspiegel ja teisi laule". Plaadil esitavad O. Ehala muusikat Tallinna Linnateatri näitlejad Tallinna Kammerorkestri saatel. CD-plaadile salvestatud laule sai kuulda kontsertidel "Tallinna Linnateatel laulab. Õnnelik õhtu"

  5. Eesti lasteaed - tänavune laureaat / Muusa Ericsson, Silvi Somp, Riina-Maj Larsson-Mänd ; küsitl. Mai Raud-Pähn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ericsson, Muusa

    1996-01-01

    EV 78. aastapäeval, 24. veebruaril 1996 Stockholmi Eesti Majas korraldatud Rootsi Eestlaste Liidu vastuvõtul tehti teatavaks REL Kultuuriauhinna kolleegiumi otsus anda 1996. a. auhind Eesti Lasteaiale

  6. Eesti kaubavahetus majanduse põhikategooriate järgi = Foreign trade of Estonia by broad economic categories / Riina Kerner, Allan Aron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerner, Riina

    2010-01-01

    Eesti väliskaubanduse näitajatest 2009. aastal: Eesti kaupade eksport oli 101,3 miljardit krooni, import 114,1 miljardit krooni, kaubavahetuse puudujääk oli 12,8 miljardit krooni. Majanduse põhikategooriate järgi oli suurim osatähtsus kaubavahetuses vahetarbekaupadel, neile järgnesid tarbekaubad ja kapitalikaubad. Diagramm. Graafikud

  7. Eesti saetööstuse konkurentsivõime analüüs / Riina Lättemägi, Priit Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lättemägi, Riina

    2004-01-01

    Eesti saetööstuse konkurentsivõimest läbi konkurentsivõime indeksite ja ekspordi turuosade. Kodumaiste ning välisinvesteeringuga ettevõtete ekspordile orienteerituse ja tootlikkuse võrdlus. Graafikud. Tabelid

  8. TEMPUS Joint European Project CD-JEP-25227-2004 "Health promotion and nurses' guidance skills" / Tiina Juhansoo, Mare Tupits, Riina Shor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juhansoo, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest projektist, mille eesmärk oli ette valmistada õppekavad õendus- ja ämmaemanduse eriala üliõpilastele ning töötavatele õdedele kroonilise haiguse puhuse tervisedenduse ja haigusega toimetuleku õpetamiseks nii haigele kui tema pereliikmele

  9. Rahvastiku elamistingimused Euroopa riikides rahvaloenduste andmetel = The living conditions of the population in European countries according to the data of population censuses / Riina Leinbock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leinbock, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Eesti rahvastiku elamistingimuste võrdlus teiste Euroopa Liitu kuuluvate riikide rahvastiku elamistingimustega, mis põhineb Euroopa Liidu Statistikaameti poolt Euroopa riikides aastatel 1999-2002 korraldatud rahvaloenduste ja Eestis 2000. aastal läbi viidud rahvaloenduse tulemustel. Diagrammid

  10. Oluline lepingurikkumine taganemisõiguse eeldusena : [magistritöö] / Monika Palu ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palu, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Olulise lepingurikkumise mõistest ja selle rakendusalast, objektiivsetest elementidest, tahtlusest või raskest hooletusest kohustuse rikkumisel olulise lepingurikkumise subjektiivsete elementidena, rikkumise liikidest

  11. Frantsiisilepingu eelne teavitamiskohustus : [bakalaureusetöö] / Epp Aasaru ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasaru, Epp

    2003-01-01

    Frantsiisilepingu olemus ja õiguslik reguleerimine, teavitamiskohustus, õiguskaitsevahendid teavitamiskohustuse rikkumisel (täitmisnõue, tehingu tühistamine, lepingust taganemine ja ülesütlemine, kahjuhüvitisnõuded)

  12. VAT on leasing : [teadusmagistritöö] / Denis Polman ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Irene Kull, Lasse Lehis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polman, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Liisingu mõiste erinevusi, liisingtehingute käibemaksustamise ülevaade, liisingutehingute käive Euroopa Liidu ühtse käibemaksusüsteemi seisukohalt, liisingu käibemaksukäsitlus Eestis. - Kaitses 16. 01. 2004. a. Tartu Ülikoolis

  13. Kummutikunstnikud jutustavad lugusid / Aime Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Aime, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Ühendus Kummutikunst esitab 28. augustil Soomaa Rahvuspargi külastuskeskuses lühinäidendi "Lootsikulood", millele järgneb seminar ettekannete ja filmidega. Lav. ja näitleja Kata-Riina Luide. Aut. Andres Koidu. Kummutikunsti on asutanud Ugala teatri näitleja Kata-Riina Luide ja puukujur Andres Koidu

  14. Lepingust taganemisest olulise lepingurikkumise tõttu modernses lepinguõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Marko Mehilane ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mehilane, Marko, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    Lepingust taganemine olulise lepingurikkumise tõttu ÜRO rahvusvaheliste müügilepingute konventsioonis, UNIDROIT rahvusvaheliste kaubanduslepingute printsiipides, Euroopa lepinguõiguse printsiipides ja võlaõigusseaduses, oluline lepingurikkumine - võimalus ühetaoliseks tõlgendamiseks

  15. Õiguste kuritarvitamise keeld Eesti tsiviilõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Gerly Lõhmus ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Gerly, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Õiguste kuritarvitamise keelust Eesti tsiviilõiguses, kohaldamise eeldustest, liikidest. Õiguste kuritarvitamisest kahju tekitamise eesmärgil, tagajärgedest, eristamisest heade kommete vastasest käitumisest

  16. Elukutselise võistkonnasportlase õiguslikust seisundist ja õiguste kaitsest : [bakalaureusetöö] / Liina Teras ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teras, Liina

    1999-01-01

    Spordisuhete reguleerimisest: seadusandlik, spordisisene, lepinguõiguslik. Võistkonnasportlase õiguslik seisund, mängijaleping - sõlmimine, poolte kohustused, lepingu rikkumine ja lõpetamine, kahju hüvitamine, õigusvaidluste lahendamine ja kohtupraktika

  17. Nõudeõiguse loovutamine ja võla ülekandmine : [bakalaureusetöö] / Liina Pohlak ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pohlak, Liina

    1995-01-01

    Nõudeõiguse loovutamine (ajalooline kujunemine, mõiste ja tingimused, vorminõuded, loovutamise kord, tagajärjed, võlgniku kaitse), võla ülekandmine (ajalooline kujunemine, mõiste, kord, tagajärjed). Vt. ka: Juridica (1995) nr. 6, lk. 238-240

  18. Korteriomandist tulenevad õigussuhted (probleemide võrdlev käsitlus) : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kaupo Paal ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paal, Kaupo, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Korteriomandi kujunemine, eeldused, põhjused, ajaloolis-võrdlev ülevaade, korteriomandi olemus - sellest tulenevad õigused ja kohustused, korteriomanike ühisus Saksamaal, Šveitsis, Skandinaaviamaades, Eestis

  19. Sõltuvussuhtes sõlmitud käendusleping : [magistritöö] / Laura Kask ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Laura, 1988-

    2013-01-01

    Käendusest kui isiklikust tagatisest, perekondlikest sõltuvussuhetest käenduslepingus, sõltuvussuhtest juriidiliste isikute kohustuste käendamisel, sõltuvussuhtes sõlmitud globaalsest tagatiskokkuleppest

  20. Väärtpaberite pantimise õiguslikud aspektid : [bakalaureusetöö] / Ardo-Heiki Ingar ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingar, Ardo-Heiki

    2006-01-01

    Väärtpaberitagatistest Eesti õiguskorras, tagamistehingud ja tagatised, väärtpaberitehingute tagamine pandiga, Euroopa Parlamendi ja nõukogu finantstagatiskokkulepete direktiivi rakendamine Eesti õiguskorras, Eesti väärtpaberitagatiste regulatsiooni vastavus EBRD poolt

  1. Teavitamiskohustus ja tarbija kaitse elektrooniliste sidevahendite kaudu sõlmitavates lepingutes (direktiivi ettepanek) : [bakalaureusetöö] / Erik Salur ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salur, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Tarbijakaitselistest eesmärkidest teavitamiskohustuse kehtestamisel, elektrooniliste sidevahenditega sõlmitud lepingutest kui reguleerimisobjektidest, nõuetest edastatava teabe sisule ja vormile, teavitamiskohustuste rikkumise tagajärgedest

  2. Design and construction of a testbed for the application of real volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grimsvötn eruptions to microgas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konradin; Fischer, Christian; Lange, Martin; Schulz, Uwe; Naraparaju, Ravisankar; Kramer, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that volcanic ash clouds emitted from erupting volcanoes pose a considerable threat to the aviation. The volcanic ash particles can damage the turbine blades and their thermal barrier coatings as well as the bearings of the turbine. For a detailed investigation of this damaging effect a testbed was designed and constructed, which allowed to study the damaging effects of real volcanic ash to an especially for these investigations modified microgas turbine. The use of this microgas turbine had the advantage that it delivers near reality conditions, using kerosene and operating at similar temperatures as big turbines, but at a very cost effective level. The testbed consisted out of a disperser for the real volcanic ash and all the equipment needed to control the micro gas turbine. Moreover, in front and behind the microgas turbine the concentration and the distribution of the volcanic ash were measured online by optical particle counters (OPCs). The particle concentration and size distribution of the volcanic ash particles in the intake in front of the microgas turbine was measured by an optical particle counter (OPC) combined with an isokinetic intake. Behind the microgas turbine in the exhaust gas additionally to the measurement with a second OPC ash particles were caught with an impactor, in order to enable the later analysis with an electron microscope concerning the morphology to verify possible melting processes of the ash particles. This testbed is of high importance as it allows detailed investigations of the impact of volcanic ash to jet turbines and appropriate countermeasures.

  3. Pilveteenuse osutamisel tekkiva õigussuhte kvalifitseerimine Eesti õiguses : [magistritöö] / Kristel Tuul ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Kristel, 1990-

    2014-01-01

    Pilveteenuse mõistest ja pilveteenuste liikidest, pilveteenuse osutamisel sõlmitava lepingu esemest, pilveteenuse lepingu subjektidest, pilveteenuse lepingu sisu kujunemisest, pilveteenuse lepingu sisu vastavusest litsentsi-, teenuse osutamise ja kasutuslepingu tunnustele

  4. Eluruumi kvaliteedi mittevastavus lepingutingimustele müüja ja kinnisvaramaakleri vastutuse alusena : [magistritöö] / Monika Pihlak ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Monika, 1990-

    2015-01-01

    Kinnisasjadele eluruumidena esitatavatest nõuetest, ostja teadmisest või teadma pidamisest asja mittevastavusest, müüja teavitamiskohustusest, VÕS § 218 lg 1 kui vastutusstandardist ja rikkumisele tuginemisest, maakleri teavitamiskohustusest ja selle rikkumise tagajärgedest

  5. Kohustiste mittetäitmine ja selle õiguslikud tagajärjed : [bakalaureusetöö] / Krista Soa ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soa, Krista

    1995-01-01

    Kohustiste mittetäitmise mõiste, liigid ja õiguslikud tagajärjed, kahjude hüvitamise kohustus kohustise mittetäitmisel, natuuras täitmisele sundimine ja ühepoolse lõpetamise õigus kohustise mittetäitmisel

  6. Hoiuleping - Rooma eraõigusest võlaõigusseaduse eelnõuni : [bakalaureusetöö] / Ergo Blumfeldt ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blumfeldt, Ergo, 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Hoiulepingu piiritlemine tänapäeva võlaõigusseaduse süsteemis, hoiulepingu kui iseseisva lepinguliigi väljakujunemine Rooma õiguses, hoiuleping kehtivas õiguses ning võlaõigusseaduse eelnõus

  7. Eluasemelaenu lepingupoolte huvide kaitse - abinõude kriitika ja lahendused : [bakalaureusetöö] / Susann Mikli ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikli, Susann, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Eluasemelaenu lepingust ja täitmise tagamisest, krediidiandja ja krediidisaaja positsioonist eluasemelaenulepingu sõlmimisel, eluasemelaenu tagamise probleemi lahendustest Euroopa riikides, lahendusvõimalustest Eesti õiguses

  8. Vastuväited globaalse tagatiskokkuleppe realiseerimisnõudele : [magistritöö] / Kaspar Koppel ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Kaspar, 1988-

    2014-01-01

    Globaalsest tagatiskokkuleppe mõistest ja kasutamisest, globaalse tagatiskokkuleppe tühisusest vastuolu tõttu heade kommetega, globaalse tagatiskokkuleppe tühisusest tüüptingimusena ja vastuolust hea usu põhimõttega

  9. Kohustiste täitmine ja tagamise vahendid : [bakalaureusetöö] / Marek Sepp ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Kohustiste täitmine, nõuetekohase täitmise printsiip, vastastikune täitmine, deponeerimine, kohustiste täitmine natuuras; kohustiste täitmise tagamine (käendus, garantii, leppetrahv, käsiraha, pant)

  10. AIJ in Russia. Converting from coal to bioenergy in Kaliningrad[AIJ, Activities Implemented Jointly]; AIJ i Russland. Konvertering fra kull til bioenergi i Kaliningrad i Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen, Thor Henning; Veiby, Ole

    2000-07-01

    This report discusses energy- and environmental consequences of converting from a coal-fired heating plant to a biomass-fired heating plant in a large residential area in Kaliningrad. The results of the study are based on accurate technical measurements on the plants, data collection and price information from the suppliers of equipment and fuel. The costs of CO{sub 2} reduction are found to be NOK 40 - 45 per tonne. This compares favourably with national taxes on climate gases, which in Norway amount to NOK 160 - 400 per tonne reduced CO{sub 2}. The study will form the basis of a pilot project on the implementation of flexible mechanisms for reducing the emission of climate gases as agreed upon in the Kyoto Protocol.

  11. Üürniku poolt asjale tehtud kulutuste hüvitamine : [magistritöö] / Kristjan Mugra ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mugra, Kristjan

    2011-01-01

    Kulutuste hüvitamise eesmärgist, lepingulisel alusel hüvitamisele kuuluvatest kulutustest, asja omaniku nõusolekul tehtud muudatuste ja parenduste hüvitamisest, nõuetest lepinguvälistel alustel

  12. Seaduses kohustuse kohta sätestatu kohaldamine mittetäielikele kohustustele : [bakalaureusetöö] / Glen Roosaar ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Glen, 1986-

    2013-01-01

    Eraõiguse üldsätete kohaldamisest mittetäielike kohustustele, õiguspõhimõtete rollist mittetäielike kohustuste sisustamisel, kohustuse rikkumisest ja vastutuse sätete kohaldamisest mittetäielikele kohustustele, mittetäieliku kohustuse ümberkujundamisest täielikuks kohustuseks

  13. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  14. Pre-Viking and early Viking Age sacrifical place at Viidumäe, west Saaremaa / Marika Mägi, Indrek Jets, Riina Riiel, Raili Allmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Viidumäe ohverduskoht on eriti märkimisväärne selle poolest, et kuulub perioodi,millest Saaremaal muistised peaaegu puuduvad. Leiukoht osutab, et Eesti rannikukultuuri skandinaavitumine, mis on jälgitav alates 10. sajandist, sai alguse juba hiljemalt 8. sajandil

  15. Euroopa Liidu 10 uue liikmesriigi väliskaubandus aastatel 2004-2007 = Foreign trade of the 10 new member states of EU in 2004-2007 / Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerner, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis analüüsitakse uute ja vanade liikmesriikide väliskaubanduse arengut, Euroopa Liiduga ühinemise mõju Eesti väliskaubandusele, Eesti ja teiste uute liikmesriikide väliskaubanduse ühiseid ja erinevaid jooni. Tabelid, graafikud, diagrammid

  16. "Mina olin siin", võib vastu hambaid saada / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Noortefilmi "Mina olin siin" võtetel. Filmi aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag, lavastab Rene Vilbre, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, peaosas Rasmus Kaljujärv, produtsendiks Riina Sildos

  17. Sass Henno romaani järgi valmib film

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas jätkuvad noortefilmi "Mina olin siin" võtted. Filmi aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", lavastab Rene Vilbre, peaosas on Rasmus Kaljujärv, produtsendiks Riina Sildos

  18. Õpetaja ja õpilane vahetavad päid Ugalas ja NO-s / Margus Mikomägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikomägi, Margus, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Ugala teatri lavastusest "Nii nagu taevas" (Kay Pollaki samanimelise filmi dramatiseering), lavastaja Ingo Normet. Margus Vaheri ja Kata-Riina Luide osatäitmistest. Ka lavastusest "Pea vahetus" NO99 teatris, autor-lavastaja Uku Uusberg

  19. Suurlinlik lukshotell / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Historitsistlikust hoonest Tallinna vanalinnas Vene tn. 9 (1874. a.), arhitekt Peter Schreiberg. Apteegi tänavale jäävast juurdeehitisest, arhitekt Martin Aunin, sisekujundajad Külli Salum ja Riina Harik

  20. Tuul väljal / Ene-Reet Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soovik, Ene-Reet

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Woolf, Virginia. Esseed/ inglise k. tlk. Malle Talvet, Jaak Rähesoo. Tallinn : Hortus Litterarum, 1997; Woolf, Virginia. Orlando : elulugu / inglise k. tlk. Riina Jesmin. Tallinn : Perioodika, 1997. (Loomingu Raamatukogu; 31-34)

  1. Antidepressandid tõusev trend / Monica Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Monica, 1981-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti inimesed neelavad praegu vähemalt kaks korda rohkem antidepressante kui aastatuhande alguses. Miks? selgitavad psühhiaatrid Peeter Jaanson, Andres Lehtmets,Viktooria Saat, perearstid Ingrid Alt ja Riina Raudsik ning mõju kommenteerivad patsiendid

  2. Milline kevad tuleb? / Kätlin Karik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karik, Kätlin

    2016-01-01

    Oma kevadisi rõivakollektsioone tutvustavad Ülle Pohjanheimo, Ivo Nikkolo, Althea/Thea Pilvet, Roberta Einer, Monton, Aldo Järvsoo, Ketlin Bachmann, Riina Põldroos, Kriss Soonik, Tiina by Tiina/Tiina Talumees, Iris Janvier

  3. Emotsionaalselt raske vabadus / Teeli Remmelg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmelg, Teeli

    2007-01-01

    Endine KPMG osakonnajuht ja tunnustatud maksuspetsialist Kadri Arula leiab, et uue töö leidmine pole sugugi nii lihtne, eriti kui tahetakse vahetada eriala. CV: Kadri Arula. Kommenteerivad Riina Rohelaan ja Mare Teichmann

  4. Praktika õpetab ja avab uksi / Teresa-Katriin Liivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivak, Teresa-Katriin

    2008-01-01

    Oma praktikakogemustest räägivad Tallinna Ülikoolis reklaami ja imagoloogiat õppinud Karl Saluveer, Tööstushariduskeskuses juuksuriks õppiv Riina Valbrit ja Tartu Ülikoolis arstiteaduskonna lõpetanud Krista Täks

  5. Maffia, hullus ja Sannikovi maa / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Roberts, Gregory David. Shantaram. 1.-2. raamat / tõlkinud Riina Jesmin. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Akutagawa, Ryūnosuke. Mandariinid tihnikus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Põder, Rein. Kauge. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2011

  6. Heitlik ilm süvendab luu- ja liigesevalu / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Kliinikumi sisekliiniku reumatoloogia dotsendi Riina Kallikormi, Kuressaare erakliiniku Luukas reumatoloogi Reinhold Birkenfeldti ja Ida-Tallinna Keskhaigla reumatoloogi Tõnu Peetsi kinnitusel on kõik krooniliste reumaatiliste haigustega inimesed ilmatundlikud

  7. Na dvore zima, na podiume leto / Vladimir Zaitsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Riias toimunud moenädalast Riga Fashion Week. Näidati kollektsioone kevad-suveks 2007. Osalesid moekunstnikud Baltimaadest, Itaaliast ja Venemaalt. Eestit esindasid Oksana Tandit, Riina Põldroos ja Ivo Nikkolo ja firma Sangar

  8. Kazhdõi mog bõ vozglavit Dom... / Fabrizio Talia ; interv. Alina Lind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talia, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    Moemaja Moschino peadisaineri, SuperNoova žürii liikme Fabrizio Taliaga konkursist SuperNoova, tööst Moschino jaoks. Konkursil osalenutest meeldisid Aldo Järvsoo, Riina Põldroos ja Xenia Jedomskihh

  9. Disainkaminad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Salongides Tulering, Tulepesad ja 12 kaminat ning Tondi kaminasalongis pakutavad kaminad. Kaminad Liina Ainomäe, Annes Arro, Kaire Kemp-Tischleri, Jorma Holmi, Külli Salumi ja Riina Hariku sisekujundusega ning Meelis Pressi prpjekteeritud eramutes

  10. "Berlinale" võistluslainelt / Endel Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Endel

    2007-01-01

    Lühidalt 57. Berliini filmifestivalil linastuvatest filmidest. Avafilm on Olivier Dahani "La Mome" Edith Piafist. Lastefilmide võistlusprogrammis on ka "Leiutajateküla Lotte". Riina Sildos on lühifilmide žüriis

  11. Eesti kineastide dessant Berliini / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    57. Berlinale lastefilmide võistlusprogrammis on ka "Leiutajateküla Lotte". Rain Tolk esindab Eestit Euroopa noorte näitlejate tutvustuspromotsioonis Shooting Star. Riina Sildos on lühifilmide žüriis

  12. Res Publica nõuab Leinatammelt 44 600 krooni / Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Res Publica nõuab Reformierakonda üle läinud Tarmo Leinatammelt maksmata jäänud liikmemaksu, fraktsioon kutsub teda üles loobuma kohast Riigikogus. Erakonna pressiesindaja Riina Vändre selgitus

  13. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  14. Lugupeetud kunstnikud, arhitektid ja sõbrad!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Kunstnike Liidu ja Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastavahetuspeo kava 28. XII. Esinevad Raivo Kelomees (EKA ja Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli videoprojektid), EKA moeosakond. Nova Moda esitleb: Ruta Depp, Ketlin Bachman, Riina Põldroos, Kati Simpson

  15. Privaatautonoomia piiramine hinna ja saadava väärtuse vahekorra määramisel : [magistritöö] / Vadim Doronin ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Doronin, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    Privaatautonoomia põhimõttest ja õigluse argumendist lepingu sisu hindamisel. Ajaloolises perspektiivis privaatautonoomia põhimõttest ning hinna ja saadava väärtuse vahekorrast lepingus. Liigkasuvõtmisest

  16. Hinnanguvõimalusega tühiste tüüptingimuste näidiskataloog võlaõigusseaduse eelnõus : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kaidi Meristo ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meristo, Kaidi

    2000-01-01

    Tüüptingimuste registreerimise tähtsus, mõiste, üldised nõuded kehtivuseks, ebamõistlik või ebapiisavalt määratud tähtaeg, lepingutingimuste ühepoolse muutmise õigus, tahteavalduse fiktsioon, ebamõistlikult suur summa

  17. Aktsiaseltsi ja osaühingu kapitalinõuete rikkumine kontsernisisese cash pooling`u raames : [magistritöö] / Karl Kull ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Andres Vutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Karl, 1987-

    2011-01-01

    Cash poolingust kontsernis ja sellega seonduvatest kapitalinõuetest, kapitali sissemaksmise ja suurendamise nõuete rikkumistest, emaettevõtjale laenu andmise keelu rikkumisest, aktsionäri ja osaniku kohustuste rikkumisest

  18. Pärimisõiguse põhimõtete rakendamise ulatus Eesti pärimisõiguses : [teadusmagistritöö] / Urve Liin ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liin, Urve, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Kaitses 29. 11. 2006. a. Tartu Ülikoolis. - Koosneb U. Liini publikatsioonidest: On reform of Estonian succession law // Juridica International. III. Tartu, 1998, lk. 105-109 ; Pärimisõiguse põhimõtetest // Juridica (1999) nr. 3, lk. 141-147 ; Grundzüge des neuen estnischen Erbrechts // Jahrbuch für Ostrecht, Band 41/2. München, 2000, lk. 261-281 (kaasautor: Hausmann, Rainer) ; Abikaasa seadusjärgse pärimisõiguse reform Eestis Euroopa arengute taustal // Juridica (1998) nr. 4, lk. 174-180 ; Laws of succession in Europe and Estonia : how we got to where we are and where we should be heading // Juridica International. VI. Tartu, 2001, lk. 114-124 ; Testeerimisvõime vanuselisest alampiirist Eesti pärimisseaduses // Juridica (2000) nr. 6, lk. 343-350 ; Abikaasade vastastikusest testamendist // Juridica (2001) nr. 1, lk. 35-45 (kaasautor: Nagel, Ursula) ; Pärimisleping ja selle seosed võlaõigusega // Juridica (2003) nr. 10, lk. 697-707 ; Pärandi üleminek pärijale: vastuvõtusüsteem versus loobumissüsteem // Juridica (2003) nr. 1, lk. 45-56

  19. Võlgniku võimalused hagi tagamise korras peatada garantii andja poolt väljamakse tegemine võlausaldajale : [magistritöö] / Kristjan Mägi ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    Sõltumatu garantii tagamisfunktsioonist, võlgniku huvide kaitsest, väljamakse peatamise võimalustest ja meetmetest, hagi tagamise korras väljamakse peatamise taotluse põhistamisest ja tõenditest

  20. Töövõtu- ja käsunduslepingute sätete kohaldamine tarkvaraarenduse lepingutele : magistritöö / Maarja Lehemets ; juhendaja: Karmen Turk, kaasjuhendaja: Irene Kull ; Tartu Ülikool, sotsiaalteaduste valdkond, õigusteaduskond, eraõiguse osakon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehemets, Maarja, 1990-

    2018-01-01

    Tarkvarateenuse spetsiifika ja tarkvaraarenduse lepingute kvalifitseerimine, töövõtulepingu ja käsunduslepingu sätete kohaldamine tarkvaraarenduse lepingu rikkumistele ning tarkvaraarenduse lepingute lõpetmisele ja lõppemisele

  1. Ostu-müügi lepingust Venemaa uues tsiviilkoodeksis ja Läti tsiviilseadustikus : (võrdlevalt Eesti võlaõigusseaduse eelnõuga) : [bakalaureusetöö] / Carry Plaks ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plaks, Carry, 1977-

    1999-01-01

    Venemaa tsiviilkoodeks, ostu-müügi leping seal, nende eriliigid, jaemüük, müügilepingu regulatsioon Läti tsiviilõiguses, eriliigid, erinevused Eesti, Läti ja Vene müügilepingute regulatsioonis

  2. Veebiplatvormile loodud kasutajakonto üleandmise nõue veebireklaami teenuse osutamise lepingus : magistritöö / Mari Anne Rosalie Valberg ; juhendaja Irene Kull ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond, eraõiguse osakond

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valberg, Mari Anne Rosalie, 1994-

    2018-01-01

    Veebireklaami eesmärgil loodud kasutajakonto õiguslik olemus, veebiplatvormi roll veebireklaami teenuse osutamise lepingus reklaami tellija ja reklaami teostaja vahe, veebireklaami teenuse osutamiseks loodud kasutajakonto ülendmise nõude õiguslik alus ja nõuet välistavad asjaolud

  3. PACTA SUNT SERVANDA põhimõte ja eluasemelaenu ennetähtaegne ülesütlemine krediidisaaja makseraskuste tõttu : magistritöö / Kairi Toomsalu ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomsalu, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu 11. koosseisule esitatud eelnõudest ja lepinguõiguse üldpõhimõtetest, kohustuste täitmisest eluasemelaenu tagatise võõrandamisega, täitmishuvi rahuldamise muudest õiguslikest võimalustest, täitmisnõuet välistavatest või piiravatest vastuväidetest

  4. Lepingu aluseks olnud asjaolude muutumine majanduskriisi tulemusel ja kinnisasja müügilepingust taganemisõigus VÕS § 97 alusel : [bakalaureusetöö] / Marko Laur ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Anton Sigal, Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Kohustuste vahekorra muutumist tõendavatest asjaoludest majanduskriisi tingimustes. Lepingupoole subjektiivsetest võimalustest arvestada majanduskriisi mõjuga lepinguliste kohustuuste tasakaalule, lepingupoolte kokkulepetest taganemisõiguse kohta asjaolude muutumisel

  5. Archaeological excavations at a bronze age grave and a 6th - 10 th century cult site at Aunamägi in Tõnija-Põlluküla village, southern Saaremaa / Marika Mägi, Raili Allmäe, Riina Riiel ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Kaevamised Saunamäel korraldati Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilaste seminarkaevamistena. Kogu kaevamiste ala moodustas umbes 170 m2. Märkimisväärne Tuulingumäe ja Saunamäe kompleksi juures on see, et need olid mõeldud suhteliselt piiratud hulgale. Sellised väikesed pühapaigad viitavad rituaalidele, mida sooritasid üksikud valitud isikud. Kõik artiklis mainitud kultusekohad jäävad Läänemere põhjaosa rannikualadele, kus eelviikingiajal kujunes ühine kultuurisfäär

  6. Peamised vaidlusküsimused töölepingu lõpetamisel töötajapoolsel töölepingu tingimuste rikkumisel : [bakalaureusetöö] / Riina Rebane ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Inge-Maret Orgo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Riina

    2003-01-01

    Üldised lähtekohad, töölepingu lõpetamine tulenevalt töös esinevatest olulistest puudustest, alkoholi tarvitamisest tingitud lõpetamine, omavoliline töölt puudumine, usalduse kaotamine, vääritu teo tõttu, protseduurireeglite järgimisega seotud probleemide tõttu

  7. Algasid Henno "Mina olin siin" järgi tehtava filmi võtted

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eile algasid noortefilmi "Mina olin siin" võtted. Filmi aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag, lavastab Rene Vilbre, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, peaosas Rasmus Kaljujärv, produtsendiks Riina Sildos

  8. Suur rahvusvaheline välisbalti arhiivide konverents südasuvises Tartus / Mai Raud-Pähn ; fotod Madis Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud-Pähn, Mai, 1920-

    2006-01-01

    Ettekannetega esinesid: Tiiu Kravtsev, Riina Reinvelt, Juta Kivimäe, Piret Noorhani, Merike Kiipus, Anu Korb, Anne Valmas, Mihkel Volt, Mare Rand, Inga Kuljus, Enn Mainla, Roland Weiler, Teas Tanner, Tiina Kirss, Jüri Kivimäe, Enda-Mai Michelson-Holland, Andrae, Carl Göran, Katrin Meerits ja Maie Barrow

  9. Arengukoostöö aitab Nicaraguas kasvatada õiglast kohvi / Silvia Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Silvia, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Koos Soome Õiglase Kaubanduse propageerijatega Nicaraguas ja Costa Rical viibinud Eesti arengukoostöö eestvedaja Riina Kuusik ja filmioperaator Elen Lotman räägivad kohalike väiketootjate ja läänest appi tulnud Õiglast Kaubandust propageerivate valitsusväliste organisatsioonide koostööst

  10. Baltoscandal näitas Euroopa absurdi / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    Rakveres 10. juulil lõppenud 11. rahvusvahelisest teatrifestivalist Baltoscandal. Prantslase Gerald Kurdiani kontsertetendusest "This is the Hello Monster!". Riina Maidre ja Maike Londi kontsertetendusest "PostUganda". Philippe Quesne'i ja tema trupi Vivarium Studio lavastusest "Big Bang". Taani tantsija Mette Ingvartseni lavastusest "Giant City". Akhe inseneriteatri lavastusest "Faust. 2360 sõna". Hollandi trupi Dood Paard lavastusest "Answer Me"

  11. Vene teater = The Russian Theatre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Vabaduse väljak 5 asuva Vene teatri interjööri renoveerimine. Sisearhitekt Aivar Oja (FRA Disain), kaasa töötas Riina Luuk (Vaikla Disain). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 2 plaani, lõige, 10 värv. sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  12. Saaremaa - kokkuhoidev kogukond

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Saaremaa Politseiprefektuuri töötajad Ants Ley, Meelis Juhandi, Hillar Peegel, Juri Krotman, Veigo Väli, Rainer Antsaar ja Riina Paju. Koostööpartneritena kommenteerivad Prits Liblik, Taivo Vaik, Toomas Luik ja Toomas Kasemaa. Vt. samas: Ajalooline Kuressaare politseimaja

  13. Kes tegelikult lõid Res Publica? / Valeri Kalabugin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalabugin, Valeri

    2005-01-01

    Enne erakonnaks kuulutamist oli Res Publica Eesti iseseisvust ja demokraatiat taotlev ühendus, kuhu on kuulunud mitmed poliitika- ning ühiskonnategelased. Vt. samas: Ühendus Res Publica avaldus. Küsimustele vastavad Res Publica avalike suhete juht Riina Vändre, Riigikogu liige Mart Nutt, ajakirjanik Toomas Kümmel

  14. Kabareeinstallatsioon: uue teatri fragmentaarium / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Nüüdisteatri keelest ja kabareelikkusest lavastustes: „Skaala surm” - idee ja lavastus: Riina Maidre ja Nero Urke, „All Tomorrow’s Parties” - autorid Inga Salurand ja Hendrik Kaljujärv, „Location X: Black Side” - esitaja ja koreograaf: Taneli Törma

  15. Nee omingud, päävad ja õhtad / Enda Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naaber, Enda, 1938-

    2006-01-01

    Järvesalu, Irma. Nänne kink oo nee õhtad : murdeluulet / toimetaja Kadri Tüür ; illustratsioonid: Viire Jagomägi ; kujundanud Riina Uisk. Tupenurme : I. Järvesalu, 2006. Sisaldab katkendeid luuletustest "Nänne kink", "Me jõudsime mere juure", "Kuoruke" ja "Meri"

  16. Dr. Ruta Kruuda fond andis välja esimesed stipendiumid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Poliitikauuringute Keskuse PRAXIS juurde loodud dr Ruta Kruuda fond andis 10. märtsil 2006. a. välja oma esimesed stipendiumid, mille said Tervise Arengu Instituudi teadur Riina Raudne ja Tartu Ülikooli magistrand Liina Raju. Tema magistritöö keskendub HIV-nakkuse ja AIDSi teema kui avaliku arutelu objekti käsitlusele Eestis

  17. Õitsemise tšempionid püsilillepeenral / Kaja Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Kaja, 1959-

    2014-01-01

    Helga Taimeaia perenaine Ülli-Riina Sildnik soovitab pikalt õitsvaid püsililli: mandel-piimalill Purpurea, harilik ussitatar, suureõieline iminõges, harilik tõrvalill, Borisi mõõl, kurerehad, siberi iiris, vene ussilakk jt

  18. Rahvaliidu kants Palamusel käärib / Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Rein, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvaliidu Jõgeva maakonna juhi Riina Kulli väitel pole ükski sotsiaaldemokraat ega Rahvaliidu liider käinud kohapeal kahe erakonna võimalikku liitumist selgitamas. Palamuse elanike arvamusi Rahvaliidu ja SDE võimaliku ühinemise kohta

  19. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  20. FIBIT - Fashion is back in Tallinn / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Moepäevad FIBIT Viru keskuses. Üks idee algatajaid on moekunstnik Katrin Kuldma. 1. oktoobril näidatakse soome moekunstniku Ritva-Liisa Pohjalaineni kollektsiooni Allergia - From Dreams to the Unique. Teisi moedemonstratsioone, millede stilistideks on Riina Põldroos, Aldo Järvsoo, Tanel Veenre ja Katrin Kuldma. Rõivad on valitud Viru keskuse kauplustest

  1. Eesti Energia võttis elektri salaja ära : elektritarbija, kellel jäi kord enda süül, siis aga panga, Eesti Energia ja tarbija enda vahelise arusaamatuse tõttu elektri eest tasumata, leidis end ootamatult elektrita jäetuna / Kai Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Kai

    2003-01-01

    Otsekorralduslepinguga elektriarve tasumata jätnud kliendilt elektri väljalülitamisest. Kommenteerivad Eesti Energia pressiesindaja Riina Vändre, tarbijakaitseameti pressiesindaja Kristina Vaksmaa, Hansapanga Eesti meediasuhete juht Kristiina Tamberg ja Eesti Ühispanga pressiesindaja Evelin Pull

  2. Mälu pole ainult meil, vaid ka meie haigustel / Tiina Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Tiina, 1949-

    2007-01-01

    Pärnus toimunud Eesti arstide Astra Zeneca ABC-konverentsi märksõna oli mälu. Konverentsil esinesid professorid Endel Tulving, Alan Altraja ja Anto Raukas, dotsendid Tiina Ristimäe ja Ursel Soomets, kirjandusteadlane Rutt Hinrikus, zooloog Aleksei Turovski ning arstid Anu Ambos ja Riina Kütner

  3. Hea õpetamise grandi saajad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Õpetamise uurimist alustavad grandi toel Andrus Org, Riina Oruaas, Natalja Zagura (humanitaar- ja kunstide valdkond), Stefano Braghiroli, Aet Kiisla, Tiiu Taur (sotsiaalteadused), Marje Oona, Oivi Uibo, Daisy Volmer (meditsiinitead.), Svetlana Ganina, Natalja Lepik ja Raivo Raid (loodus- ja täppistead.)

  4. Kui koolist saab villand / Aivi Pargi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pargi, Aivi, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Mitme riigi pedagoogid leiavad, et põhikoolieas kooli pooleli jätmine on uus sotsiaalne nähtus, mida saab ennetada õpetajatele uusi oskusi andes ning vanematega koostööd tehes. Kommenteerivad Riina Veidenbaum, Tiina Kivirand

  5. Maalehe Raamatu aiaabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas 2006. a. ilmunud raamatust "Praktiline aiarajaja käsiraamat" (toimetaja Deborah Parker, peatoimetaja Christopher Brickell), Herman Hacksteini ja Wota Wehmeyeri "Kiviktaimlaleksikonist" (toimetaja Riina Tammsaar), 2007. a. ilmunud Börje Erikssoni ja Pär Schyllanderi raamatust "Veekogud aias" (toimetajad R. Tammsaar ja Signe Siim, fotod: Bertil K. Johanson), Bertil K. Johansoni raamatust "Aialilled" (toimetaja R. Tammsaar)

  6. Lotte vallutab maailma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikk animafilm "Leiutajateküla Lotte", autoriteks Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk, on kohe valmimas. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon, projekti produtsent on Riina Sildos

  7. Lotte maandub Cannes'is / Janno Põldma, Heiki Ernits ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldma, Janno, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikk animafilm "Leiutajateküla Lotte", autoriteks Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk on valmis. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon, projekti produtsent on Riina Sildos

  8. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  9. Angela Merkel. Saksa raudne naiskantsler vallutab mõjuvõimsalt maailma / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 6. sept. lk. 7. Ajakiri Forbes on nimetanud Saksamaa kantsleri Angela Merkeli maailma mõjuvõimsamaks naiseks. Riina Kionka ja Andres Kasekamp iseloomustavad kantsleri poliitikat ja rahvusvahelist rolli. Eesti peaministri Andrus Ansipi kohtumistest A. Merkeliga

  10. Kuidas värvata tarka juhti?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tipp- ja kesktaseme juhtide värbamisest räägivad: Piret Lukk SEB Eesti Ühispangast, Kaidi Kask Rautakesko AS-ist, Sven Suurraid ja Riina Beljajeva Express Post AS-ist, Sirje Tammiste omanimelisest konsultatsioonibüroost, Ursula Muddi Nordnet Eesti AS-ist ja Ülle Matt Elcoteq Eesti AS-ist

  11. Inimese murdmine ühiskonna prismas / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Epp Kubu näitus "Raha ajab lapsi taga" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 8. maini 2011. Kristina Kiviranna ja Riina-Ingel Keskpaiga ehk Lumi Kylma näitus "Escape" ("Põgenemine") Tallinnas Aatriumi galeriis 21. maini 2011. Johanna Sipilä (Soome) ja Katrin Piile maalinäitus "Jonathan Krani" Tallinnas Polymeri kunstikonteineris 1. maini 2011

  12. Täna õhtul Berliinis, 57. korda / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    57. Berlinale avamise eel. Programmidest, ava- ja lõpufilmidest. Lastefilmide võistlusprogrammis on ka "Leiutajateküla Lotte". Rain Tolk esindab Eestit Euroopa noorte näitlejate tutvustuspromotsioonis Shooting Star. Riina Sildos on lühifilmide žüriis

  13. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  14. Telegraafi tunnustati auga olla maailma 65 vingema hotelli hulgas / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas Vene tänav 9 19. saj. hoones asuvast luksushotellist "Telegraaf". Renoveerimisprojekti ja juurdeehituse autor Martin Aunin, sisekujundus Külli Salumilt ja Riina Harikult. Hotell avati 2007. a. mais. Väljaanne Conde Nast Traveller nimetas Telegraafi aasta ihaldatumate hotellide sekka

  15. Linnahall ja tema järelelu = The after-history of the Linnahall concert hall / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Linnahallist, arhitektid Raine Karp ja Riina Altmäe, sisearhitektide rühma juhtis Ülo Sirp. Selle asemel, et kuulutada Linnahall möödunud aegadesse kuuluvaks, võiks autori sõnul teda vaadata sillana mineviku lootuste ja praeguse linnaga seotud soovide vahel

  16. 3,7 miljonit võimalust üksinduseks / Kai Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kutman, Kai, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    21. aprillil Berliinis Kulturbrauerei Kesselhausis esietendunud Age Veeroosi ooperist "Grid", libreto autor ja lavastaja Korneel Hamers, dirigent Taavi Kull, videokunstnik Julian bergheim, lavakujunduse autor Julia Rommel. Lk. 17 lühiintervjuu heliloojaga

  17. Ökokontor on õhu- ja loomingurikas / Nelli Pello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pello, Nelli

    2007-01-01

    Tööruumide säästvast renoveerimisest looduslike materjalidega. Tartu trükikojast Triip, reklaamiagentuuri Dreamers kontorist, Säästva Arengu Klubi büroost. Kommenteerivad Eva Peedimaa, Katrin Kull

  18. ÜRO Lastefond toetab Memme Musi eest võitlejaid / Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärismaa, Sirje, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu liige, UNICEF-i Eesti president Elle Kull ning haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi järelevalvetalituse peainspektor Tiina Peterson kohtusid Räpina vallavanema Inge Hirmoga, kes on lasteaia Memme Musi sulgemise poolt

  19. [Tutvustus doktoritööle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tutv. rmt.: Kõve, Villu. Varaliste tehingute süsteem Eestis : [doktoritöö] / juhendaja: Irene Kull. - Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2009. - 437 lk. - (Dissertationes iuridicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 22)

  20. Viin, Hitler ja Oskar Luts / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Saarikoski, Pentti. On või ei ole ; Euroopa serval ; Bretagne'i päevik / soome keelest tõlkinud Piret Saluri. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Kull, Aivar. Oskar Luts : pildikesi kirjanikupõlvest. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2007

  1. Elu on väärt riskideski / Juta Üts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Üts, Juta, 1934-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Noorte Naiste ja Noorte Meeste Kristlik Ühing aitab läbi projektide "Terve Eesti laps" ja "Elu on väärt ka riskides" õpetada astma- ja suhkruhaigetele lastele toimetulekut oma haigusega. Projekte tutvustavad Tallinna NNKÜ ja NMKÜ peasekretär Katrin Ohno, Tallinna Kesklinna Lastepolikliiniku päevastatsionaari töötaja Viive Sirge ning endokrinoloog dr. Riina Shor

  2. Kamuflaažmaja / Mihkel Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Mihkel, 1983-

    2013-01-01

    Oskuslikult mändide vahele sobitatud eramu Tallinna lähedal. Arhitektid Illimar Truverk ja Priit Hamer (Arhitekt11/Agabus, Endjärv & Truverj Arhitektid). Sisearhitektid Külli Salum ja Riina Harik (Saha In). Veel lõplikult teostamata maastikuarhitektuurse lahenduse kavandasid Kätlin Ölluk ja Kadi Markna. Ehitusaeg: 2010-2012. Elamispind: 409/160 m²

  3. Loomingu preemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Luuleauhind - Paul-Eerik Rummo (luuletsükkel "Õnnelik"); proosa - Peeter Sauter ("Pätt ja pihiisa"); esseistika - Madis Kõiv ("Nõnda lausus Jaan Kaplinski") ja Lauri Sommer ("Mõnest Uku Masingu kujundatud jõujoonest. Ekstaasi ja teksti suhe"); kriitika - Jan Kaus ("Külluse tekst, teksti küllus" ja "Kuninga vari ja vari-kuninga helk"); tõlkeauhind - Riina Jesmin (Joseph Conradi "Salakuulaja")

  4. Loomingu aastapreemiad selgunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Luuleauhind - Paul-Eerik Rummo (luuletsükkel "Õnnelik"); proosa - Peeter Sauter ("Pätt ja pihiisa"); esseistika - Madis Kõiv ("Nõnda lausus Jaan Kaplinski") ja Lauri Sommer ("Mõnest Uku Masingu kujundatud jõujoonest. Ekstaasi ja teksti suhe"); kriitika - Jan Kaus ("Külluse tekst, teksti küllus" ja "Kuninga vari ja vari-kuninga helk"); tõlkeauhind - Riina Jesmin (Joseph Conradi "Salakuulaja")

  5. Paremad preemiatega pärjatud / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. aasta preemiad pälvisid: Tartu Lotte lasteaia interjöör (sisearhitektid Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, disainerid Sirli Ehari, Tea Tammelaan); Tartu rokibaar Underground (arhitekt Margus Mänd); Tallinna hotell Telegraaf (sisearhitektid Külli Salum, Riina Harik); Sakubü bürooruumid (sisearhitektid Urmo Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla); Andres Labi ja Janno Roosi disainitud valgusti Labak

  6. Ringiratast meie vabariigi pealinnas / Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaus, Jan, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Esilinastus mängufilm "Täna öösel me ei maga" : stsenaristid Kristian Taska, Jaan Tätte : režissöör Ilmar Taska : operaator Istvan Borbas : produtsent Kristian Taska : peaosades Carmen Kass, Peter Franzen; Maria Avdjushko, Priit Võigemast : Taska Productions. Esilinastus 4. märts 2004. Lisatud Jaan Tätte, Riina Rõõmuse ja Kaur Kenderi kommentaarid.

  7. Edukas äritegevus ja kunst käivad käsikäes / Reinhold Würth ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Würth, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Intervjuu suurärimehe ja kunstimetseeni Reinhold Würthiga, kelle kontserni kontori- ja laohoone (arhitekt Priit Kaljapulk, sisekujundaja Piret Mudist) avati 31. VII Assakul. Hoone juurde kuuluv galerii avati Jaan Elkeni koostatud näitusega, mille avamistseremoonia kujundas Riina Vanhanen. R. Würthi kunstikogust, mille põhjal ta avas 1991. a. Künzelsau-Gaisbachis muuseumi. 2001. a. avati Schwäbischis Kunsthalle Würth. Eesti galeriiga seotud plaanidest

  8. Kulinaarne palverännak piki Telliskivi tänavat / Martin Hanson, Ines Haak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2013-01-01

    Toidukriitik Martin Hanson ja sisearhitekt Ines Haak Tallinna Telliskivi tänavat palistavatest söögipaikadest: restoran Kolm Sibulat (sisearhitektuur: Aivar Mühlbach, omanikud, 2012-2013), bistroo Kukeke (Anni Arro, Riina Eerik, 2011-2012), kohvik Reval (Ville Lausmäe, Kadi Karmann, Peeter Klaas, 2013), restoran F-Hoone (Ville Jehe, Steve Heinlo, 2010), baar Pudel (Raul Tiitus, Tarmo Piirmets, 2012-2013)

  9. Kevadfestival oli metsateemaline

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini Türi Kevadfestivali raames: Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamisest 30. mail Türi kultuurimajas, pianisti Kadri-Ann Sumera esinemisest festivali avakontserdil "Metsastseenid" 29. mail Türi kultuurimajas, regilaulude laulmisest Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendusest 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas

  10. Hotell "Telegraaf" Tallinnas Vene tänaval = Hotel Telegraaf on Vene Street, Tallinn / Mihkel Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Mihkel, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Endise Kommertspanga (ehitatud 1874. a. arhitekt P. Schreiberi projekti järgi N. Thamme juhtimisel) ja hilisema Tallinna Telegraafi hoonesse Vene t. 9 rajatud hotell. Arhitekt: Martin Aunin. Projekteerija: EA Reng AS. Konstruktor: Riho Märtson. Sisekujundajad: Külli Salum, Riina Harik. Projekt: 2004, valmis: 2007. I ja III korruse plaan, 2 värv. välisvaadet, 4 sisevaadet

  11. Hotell Telegraaf = Hotel Telegraaf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hotelli Telegraaf (Vene 9, Tallinn) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. Juurdeehitise arhitekt: Martin Aunin. Sisearhitektid: Külli Salum ja Riina Harik (SAHA IN OÜ). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I ja II korruse plaan, värv. välisvaade, 18 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  12. "Leiutajateküla Lotte" sai toetust Euroopa filmifondilt / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu juures tegutsev Eurimages'i fond määras toetuse Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikale filmile, mille autoriteks on Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon. Kommentaariks vastavad küsimustele EFSA peadirektor Martin Aadamsoo, projekti produtsent Riina Sildos ja Eesti Televisiooni juht Ilmar Raag

  13. Saksa esimene saadik : eestlastel on rohkem ühist sakslaste kui soomlastega / Henning von Wistinghausen ; interv. Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wistinghausen, Henning von

    2004-01-01

    Saksamaa esimene suursaadik taasiseseisvumise järgses Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti liitumist EL-iga, euroskeptitsismi, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese väidet, et Saksa kantsler Helmut Kohl oli kuni 1997. aastani Balti riikide EL-iga liitumise vastu. Suure probleemina Eestis näeb ta lõhet, mis on tekkinud sissetulekutes ning maa ja linna vahel. Kommenteerib Riina Kionka

  14. Põlvkondade triloogia Von Krahli teatris / Hedi-Liis Toome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toome, Hedi-Liis

    2010-01-01

    Von Krahli teatri lavastustest: William Shakespeare "Kuningas Lear", mängib Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia 8. lend, lavastaja Peeter Jalakas (esietendus 30. jaan. 2010); "The End" - autorid, lavastajad ja näitlejad: Mari Abel, Tiina Tauraite, Riina Maidre, Erki Laur, Taavi Eelmaa, Juhan Ulfsak (esietendus 19. märts 2010); "Mehed lumes" Peter Freucheni jutustuse "Olavi lugu" ainetel lavastanud Mart Koldits ja Kristjan Sarv, kes ka ise mängivad (17. aprill 2010)

  15. Loeme veel! / Kristi Pärn-Valdoja, Katrin Pauts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn-Valdoja, Kristi, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    TNS Emor väärtushinnangute uuringu RISC 2006 andmetel on igapäevane lugemisharjumus 29 protsendil Eesti naistest ja 20 protsendil meestest. Tallinna abilinnapea Kaia Jäppinen, investeerimistoodete turundusjuht Piret Reinson, KUMU direktor Sirje Helme, laulja Maarja-Liis Ilus ning näitleja Riina Maide kõige enam nende elu ja tegevust mõjutanud raamatutest. Lisa: Millised on Hollywoodi naiste lemmikraamatud?

  16. Altkäemaksu või pistise võtmise või andmise kui korruptiivse käitumisega tekitatud kahju hüvitamise nõue juhtorgani liikme vastu : [magistritöö] / Asso Prii ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Irene Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Asso, 1986-

    2013-01-01

    Juriidilise isiku juhtorgani liikmest KarS-i ametialaste süütegude toimepanijana, juhtorgani liikme altkäemaksu või pistise andmise või võtmisega seotud korruptiivsest käitumisest kui kohustuse rikkumisest tsiviilõiguslikus mõttes, tekitatud kahjust

  17. Estonian arts and crafts still alive / Jana Belugina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belugina, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Lühidalt eesti käsitöö ajaloost. Rahvarõivad ja neid kandvad nukud moodustavad siiani suurima osa eesti käsitöö toodetest. Platsiveere Meistrid (Pikk 15) müüb rahvarõivaid, mis on valmistatud sama tehnoloogiaga, mida kasutati sajandeid tagasi. Käsitööesemeid kogub ja säilitab Eesti Rahva Muuseum. 1929. a. loodud Eesti Rahvakunsti ja Käsitöö Liidust, Eesti Käsitöö Majast (Pikk 22), kus asub ka tekstiilikunstnik Riina Tombergi töötuba

  18. ESL aastapreemia 2007 žürii koosoleku protokoll : 7. aprill 2008 = Estonian Society of Interior Architects annual award 2007 : official minutes of the meeting of the jury : 7 April 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    2007. a. ühiskondliku interjööri preemia: Tea Tammelaan, Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland (Lotte lasteaed), ajaloolise interjööri preemia: Külli Salum, Riina Harik (hotell Telegraaf), büroointerjööri preemia: Urmo Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla (Sakubü büroo), publitsistika preemia: Karen Jagodin, Tiit Jürna (näitusekataloog "Tamm ja Asi", eripreemia: Margus Mänd (klubi Underground). Žürii koosseis

  19. Kuidas ühiskondlikus leppes lubatud hea tuntavaks tehakse? / Jaak Aaviksoo, Jüri Tamm, Kaul Nurm...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Küsimusele "missugune oleks nende panus ja plaan esimese aasta jooksul ühiskondlikus leppes fikseeritud eesmärkide saavutamiseks" vastavad Tartu Ülikooli rektor Jaak Aaviksoo, EOK asepresident Jüri Tamm, Eestimaa Talupidajate Keskliidu peadirektor Kaul Nurm, Eesti Kirikute Nõukogu täitevsekretär Eerik Jõks, Eesti Ühistegelise Liidu juhatuse esimees Urmas Laht, Eesti Väike- ja Keskettevõtjate Assotsiatsiooni juhataja Riina Danilson ning Reformierakonna pressinõunik Peep Lillemägi. Samas ka karikatuur

  20. Konserthuset Göteborg - 21. oktober 1995 kl. 15.00 Stora Salen. I avslutning till Estival 95 Estniska Kulturdagar i Göteborg : [kontserdi kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1995-01-01

    Erkki-Sven Tüür: Insula deserta für strakorkester W. A. Mozart: vesperae solennes de confessore K 339; Eduard Tubin: Piano concertino; L. v. Beethoven: Fantasi c-moll för piano, kör och orkester, op. 80. Göteborger Symphoniker, dirigent Neeme Järvi. Solister: Vardo Rumessen, piano; Kaia Urb, sopran; Riina Airenne, mezzosopran; Mati Kõrts, tenor; Uku Joller, bas. Estniska Gosskören, Venno Laul. Esinejate lühitutvustus

  1. Kevadfestival pakub põnevaid elamusi / Ireen Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Ireen

    2008-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini toimuva Türi Kevadfestivali raames: koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendus 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas (autoriteks kirjanik Leelo Tungal ja helilooja Tõnis Kaumann), Kadri-Ann Sumera kontsert pealkirjaga "Metsastseenid" 29. mail, Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamine, ansambli Svetilen kontsert 30. mail Türi kirikus, regilaulude laulmine Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, festivali lõppkontsert Türi kirikus 1. juunil (esineb organist Ulla Krigul)

  2. Kevadfestival kutsub metsa ja kontserdisaali / Iren Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Iren

    2008-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini toimuva Türi Kevadfestivali raames: koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendus 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas (autoriteks kirjanik Leelo Tungal ja helilooja Tõnis Kaumann), Kadri-Ann Sumera kontsert pealkirjaga "Metsastseenid" 29. mail, Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamine, ansambli Svetilen kontsert 30. mail Türi kirikus, regilaulude laulmine Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, festivali lõppkontsert Türi kirikus 1. juunil (esineb organist Ulla Krigul)

  3. Milliseid erialaseid teadmisi ja oskusi olete kasutanud oma praeguses ametis? : vastavad infoteaduse eriala vilistlased / interv. Hela Ojasaar, Margot Mahlapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vastavad: EV Presidendi Kantselei direktori asetäitja, üldosakonna juhataja Riina Roomet, Mahtra Talurahvamuuseumi direktor Tiia-Helle Schmitte, EBS-i raamatukogu juhataja Eda Pihu, Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni nõunik (Riigikogu) Külli Kask, Kultuuriministeeriumi raamatukogunõunik Meeli Veskus, Võrumaa Keskraamatukogu direktor Inga Kuljus, Lääne Maakonna Keskraamatukogu direktor Ilme Sepp, Riigiarhiivi direktor Marge Tiidus, kirjastuse Pilgrim juht Tiina Ristimets, Tallinna Keskraamatukogu direktor Kaie Holm, Eesti ENIC/NARIC Keskuse infospetsialist Liia Tüür, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Tiiu Valm, Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogu teenindusdirektor Mare-Nelli Ilus, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia raamatukogunduse ja infoteaduste osakonna juhataja Ilmar Vaaro

  4. Marati maja müük võib olla aasta suurtehing / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2008-01-01

    Kinnisvarafond Baltic Property Trust ostis Tallinnas Marati hoone. Müüja, Prisma Prindi Kinnisvara juhi Urmas Osila sõnul on tegemist selle aasta suurima tehinguga. Vt. samas: Marati hoone Tartu mnt 63; Baltic Property Trust. Kommenteerivad Kaur-Kaspar Kull ja Ruben Gornischeff

  5. Review, comments and perspectives with regard to Renata Sõukand's doctoral dissertation Herbal landscape / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  6. Renata Sõukandi väitekiri Ravimtaimemaastik [Herbal landscape] / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  7. Deputat Riigikogu v bojevike v stilje kung-fu / Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelimhanova, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve ca 40 milj. krooni, tootjad Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti) võtted algavad täna Vihterpalu rabas. Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  8. Eesti teeb koos soomlaste ja hiinlastega kung-fu filmi / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve 39 milj. krooni) tootjad on Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti (3,9 milj. krooni). Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  9. Soome kaudu Hiinasse / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve 39 milj. krooni) tootjad on Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti (3,9 milj. krooni). Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  10. Eestis algasid kung-fu-filmi võtted / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve ca 40 milj. krooni, tootjad Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti) võtted algavad täna Vihterpalu rabas. Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  11. Soome-Hollandi-Hiina-Eesti ühisfilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" ("Jade Warrior", rezh Antti-Juhani Annila) filmivõtted algavad 2.VIII Soomes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve 39 milj. krooni) tootjad on Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti (3,9 milj. krooni). Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  12. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  13. English for lawyers / Liina Soobik ; [preface: Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soobik, Liina, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Kasutatud tekstide autorid: Peep Pruks, Merit-Ene Ilja, Ilona Nurmela, Kristi Raba, Andreas Kangur, Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma, Kalle Merusk, Maret Altnurme, Jaan Ginter, Aare Tark, Norman Aas, Lasse Lehis, Hannes Veinla, Jaan Sootak, Eerik Kergandberg, Paul Varul, Jaanus Ots, Urve Liin, Irene Kull, Merle Muda, Gaabriel Tavits, Andres Vutt, Kadri Siibak, Ellen Ridaste, Heiki Pisuke, Andrus Siibak

  14. 33 CFR 161.25 - Vessel Traffic Service New York Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Raritan Bay to the Raritan River Rail Road Bridge; and then north including the waters of the Arthur Kill... waters of the Kill Van Kull and Upper New York Bay north to a line drawn east-west from the Holland...

  15. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  16. Page | 39 VIOLENCE AGAINST PERSONS (PROHIBITION) ACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    One begins to wonder, what is the role of the Nigerian ... of threatening behavior, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or ..... of kulling her husband, Lowo Oyediran and was arraigned before the Chief ... deep cuts all over his body, claiming that the boy was an Ogbanje,52 it was the police officers that.

  17. Kips / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    2009-01-01

    Katkendeid Rait Avestiku raamatust "Urmas Kibuspuu 31 aastat" (Tänapäev, 2009). Meenutavad vend Marko Kibuspuu, venna abikaasa Helle, Reet ja Ivo Linna, Ilo Kokamägi, Aarne Üksküla, Anne Paluver, Ago-Endrik Kerge, Elle Kull

  18. Validation of AVHRR- and MODIS-derived albedos of snow and ice surfaces by means of helicopter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the validation of surface albedos of snow and glacier ice as derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite data. For this purpose we measured surface albedos from a helicopter over Vatnajökull, Iceland, and

  19. Kinofestival na finishnoi prjamoi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    20.-29. juunini toimuvast Moskva XXV rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Festivali filme : Irina Jevtejeva "Peterburg", Kaneto Shindo "Öökull", Paula van der Oest'i "Kuuvalgus" ("Moonlight"), Franco Zeffirelli Maria Callase elule pühendatud "Callas Forever" (nimiosas Fanny Ardant, kes ka festivalile saabus)

  20. Igavese armastuse sõdalane : mitte just klassika, aga ajaloo verstapost küll / Ilmar Raag

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raag, Ilmar, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendavast fantaasiafilmist "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina, Hollandi, Eesti ühistöö) : stsenarist Iiro Küttner, režissöör Antti-Jussi Annila, võitluskunstide koreograaf Yu Yan Kai, osades - Tommi Eronen, Zhang Jingchu, Markku Peltola, Elle Kull

  1. Üllatav seiklusfantaasia Soomest / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina, Hollandi ja Eesti ühistöö) : režissöör Antti-Jussi Annila : võitluskunstide koreograaf Yu Yan Kai : osades Tommi Eronen, Zhang Jingchu, Elle Kull. Lisa "Soome film sai Hiinas hea lepingu

  2. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  3. Graben formation during the Bárðarbunga rifting event in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    to the dike emplacement in the shallow crust, which generated in few days an 8 km long by 0.8 km wide graben (depression) structure. The new graben extends from the northern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier and to the north to the eruptive fissure. We analyze

  4. Saksa-Eesti Foorum tähistas vabariigi 88. aastapäeva / Aino Siebert ; fotod: Aino Siebert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siebert, Aino

    2006-01-01

    Heidelbergi Providenz kiriku saalis, avasõnad ütles allakirjutanu, natolaste tervitused ütles Ilmar Tamm, üliõpilaste nimel esines Liisi Karindi, peokõne pidas Kaspar Näf, kontsertosas esinesid Triin Maran ja Triinu Kull-Boutahir

  5. Ekspressi 10võistlus : grande finale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Eesti Ekspressi 10. sünnipäevale pühendatud fotokonkurss. Eesti Ekspressi T-särgid saavad Uku Visnapuu, Meljo Mutso, Andres Maarits, Raili Laiv, Martin Allik, H. Veide, Kairi Kull, Urmas Liit, Ahto Murumaa, Tiit Mõtus, Endel Puusalu, Egon Kivi, Ivika Kärner

  6. Eesti puidufirma laieneb Sri Lankale / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti puidufirma Hapa Group alustab tootmist Sri Lankal, lootes suurendada kasumit odava toorme ja tööjõu kasutamise läbi. Lisa: Mõned faktid Hapa Groupi kohta. Diagramm: Tööjõud Sri Lankal 10 korda odavam. Kommenteerivad August Kull, Jaak Leimann, Ilmar Petersen ja Alar Kolk

  7. IJslandse inzichten op Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, S.

    2013-01-01

    Vulkaanuitbarstingen onder gletsjers, zoals de vliegverkeer-verlammende uitbarsting van de vulkaan Eyjafjallajökull in IJsland in 2010, lijken in veel opzichten op vulkaanuitbarstingen die ooit op Mars voorkwamen. Dankzij de landschappelijke gelijkenissen tussen onze aarde en Mars is het mogelijk om

  8. Lateglacial and holocene tephrostratigraphy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel

    the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption. The observations of the Hässeldalen Tephra and Fosen Tephra expand the previously known depositional extent of these two tephra horizons. At Hallegård on Bornholm a distinct horizon of Laacher See-like tephra is registered c. 60 cm below the Laacher See Tephra. The tephra, here...

  9. Martin S. Kulli fenomen / Arno Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Arno, 1950-

    2011-01-01

    Kriitik Arno Oja küsib, kes on salapärane romaanikangelane ja harrastusajaloolane Martin S. Kull (kas Ervin Õunapuu?) ning annab hinnangu tema raamatutele "Tartu koonduslaager", "Tapva hämaruse päevaraamat" ja "Elmar Ilp. Veri mu kätel"

  10. Juhtub ka nii... : Koigi raamatukogu - 90 (või hoopis 102?) / Mare Nurmsalu, Pille-Riin Kranich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmsalu, Mare

    2009-01-01

    Koigi Raamatukogu oli seniste andmete põhjal asutatud 1919. aastal. Eesti Riigiarhiivist leitud allikate järgi on raamatukogu Koigis olemas juba 12 aastat varem. Raamatukogu ajaloost ja tänapäevast. Lisa: Koigi raamatukogu Järvamaa Keskraamatukogu pilgu läbi / Malle Kull

  11. Sanakirjoja juristeille ja ekonomeille / Jari J Marjanen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marjanen, Jari J.

    1994-01-01

    Arvustus: Virolais-suomalais-englantilais-saksalais-venäläinen pörssisanakirja = Eesti-soome-inglise-saksa-vene börsisõnastik = Estonian-Finnish-English-German-Russian stock exchange dictionary = Estnisch-finnisch-englisch-deutsch-russishes Börsenwörterbuch / koost. Uno Liivaku, Uno Mereste ; Suomalais-virolainen lakikielen sanakirja = Soome-eesti õigussõnaraamat / toim. Rein Kull, Aime Vettik

  12. Eksportnaja sostavljajushtshaja estonskogo brenda / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2003-01-01

    Valitsus otsustas luua spetsiaalse komisjoni, et töötada välja strateegiad Eesti konkurentsivõime tõstmiseks maailmas. Eesti Ekspordiagentuuri ekspertkomisjoni esimees, mööblifirma AS-i Thulema juht August Kull leiab, et selle saavutamiseks peavad hea reputatsiooni endale kindlustama kõik meie tooted, mitte üksnes üksikute ettevõtete oma. Puidu- ja mööblitööstuse ettevõtete toodangu perspektiivist Euroopa Liidus

  13. Libatse "vabaõhumuuseumist" Pärnu-Jaagupisse / Tõnu Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Tõnu, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Tõnu Kanni ja Henn Soodla seitsmes matk Pärnumaa 20. sajandi väärtarhitektuuri jälgedes, kaasas kunstiteadlane Epp Lankots, kes peab Libatset kompaktseks, hästi planeeritud mitmekesise hoonetüpoloogiaga asulaks koos nägusa haljastusega - tüüpprojektide "Kullipesa" ja "Ella" arhitektid on Tõnu Kull ja Ülevi Eljand, kaupluse projekteerija - Olga Bruns

  14. Integrated Office Information System (IOIS) Summary Report. Automated Session Manager Analysis, Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1984, Keen and Scott Morton 1978, Richman 1987, Straub and Beauclair 19881. Previous research has shown the benefits of information technology in...been shown to foster collaboration, communication, deliberation, and negotiation [Apple et al 1986, Beauclair 1987, Easton 1988, Gray 1981, Kull 19821...Illinois. 7. Beauclair , R. A., 1987, "An Experimental Study of the Effects of GDSS Process Support Applica- tions on Small Group Decision Making

  15. 1. XII kell 13 avatakse Pärnu uue kunsti muuseumis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Jõulunäitus "Kunst kuulub lastele!" kunstnike ja laste töödest. 6.-8. XII tekstiilipäevad (Anu Raud, Hilja Kulles); 13.-15. XII piparkoogipäevad; 20.-21. XII inglipäevad (kutsutud Ilon Wikland); 27-29. XII unenäopäevad (Enn Tegova). Saab vaadata Lasse Naukarise filmi "Kunstniku elu"

  16. Vabadusvõitluse veteran soovitab igale noorele aastakese Siberit / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Vt. ka Infopress, 27.02.2004, lk. 34, 131. Muuseumi "KGB kongid" loojast ja õpilasvabadusvõitlejast Päivu Kullist, kes vangistati 1950. aastal ning saadeti asumisele Siberisse. Lisatud sõnum "President autasustab Eesti iseseisvuspäeva puhul seitset ammust vabadusvõitlejat", kus ordeni saajatena on loetletud Aime Espenberg, Valev Kaska, Päivu Kull, Juhan Lumiste, Mango Daniel, Johannes Kivimäe, Lea Rebane

  17. Hinge kaudu võimu juurde / Danah Zohar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zohar, Danah

    2006-01-01

    Vt. järelkaja Director, 2006/Apr, nr. 4, lk. 8, kus arvamust avaldavad Thulema nõukogu esimees August Kull, GO Traveli nõukogu esimees Tiit Pruuli ja Eest Ekspressi vastutav väljaandja Hans H. Luik. 12 põhimõttest, millega edendada vaimselt intelligentset juhtimist. Vt. samas: Tammemäe, Aira. Kuidas sündis Camino de Santiago juhtimiskoolitus. Lisa: Mida saab Santiago teel õppida? Kommenteerivad Mare Pork, Hannes Tamjärv

  18. Eesti teatri aastaauhinnad 2004

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Lavastajaauhind Tiit Ojasoo, naisnäitleja auhind Epp Eespäev, meesnäitleja Hendrik Toompere jun, naiskõrvalosatäitja Kadri Lepp, meeskõrvalosatäitja Herardo Kontreras, kunstnikuauhind Jaak Vaus, žürii eriauhind lavastaja Anne Türnpule ja kunstnik Liina Tepandile "Valgelaev ja taevakäijad" eest, kriitikuauhind Kristiina Garancis, Kristallkingakese auhind Mirtel Pohla ja Kaspar Jancis, muusikalavastuse auhind "Eesti ballaadid" kooslusele ja Heli Veskusele, tantsulavastuse auhind Maria Seletskajale ja ZUGA Ühendatud Tantsijatele, Priit Põldroosi preemia Aime Unt, Ants Lauteri preemia Indrek Saar, Liina Vahtrik, Salme Reegi preemia Peeter Tammearu, Aleksander Kurtna preemia Martin Algus, Natalie Mei preemia Eldor Renter, balleti- ja tantsulavastuse eriauhind Kaie Kõrb, Georg Otsa preemia Mati Kõrts, parima teatritöötaja auhind : Riina Roose, Jane Kaas, Ott Mölter, Eda Kaljo, Aino Kartul, Kaja Kupp, Ain Jürisson, Jelena Oleinikova, Kalle Kuningas ja Moonika Lausvee

  19. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and Síðujökull

  20. Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

  1. Kas teie arvates tuleks Ülejõe pargid Emajõe vasakkaldal taashoonestada? / intervjueerinud Ivi Drikkit ja Jüri Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Vastasid: Mati Tolmoff, Veljo Ipits, Toomas Savi, Verni Loodmaa, Väino Kull, Toomas Kapp, Triin Anette Kaasik, Kristjan Karis, Hele Everaus, Margot Fjuk, Janika Mölder, Hannes Astok, Jaak Adamsoo, Martin Parmas, Toivo Kabanen, Oleg Nesterenko, Tõnu Ints, Piret Uluots, Peep Peterson, Marju Lauristin, Jarno Laur, Arno Arukask, Ülo Veldre, Toomas Jürgenstein, Veera Sirg, Maie Pastik, Elmut Paavel, Avo Rosenvald, Toivo Maimets, Peeter Tulviste, Joel Luhamets, Jüri Kõre, Ants Kask, Enn Tarto, Tarmo Punger, Merle Jääger, Vladimir Šokman, Boris Habramov, Jevgenia Lindevaldt, Harri Jallajas, Natalja Trošina, Olev Raju, Nikolai Põdramägi

  2. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A; Witham, CS; Theys, N; Richards, NAD; Thordarson, T; Szpek, K; Feng, W; Hort, MC; Woolley, AM; Jones, AR; Redington, AL; Johnson, BT; Hayward, CL; Carslaw, KS

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We h...

  3. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability...... of the global aeromobility system. In this paper an account is given of how the event was experienced by a European academic attending a number of North American conferences at precisely the time of the eruption. The paper is an attempt to describe how people reacted emotionally as well as rationally......, attempting to find strategies for coping with the consequences of the eruption....

  4. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  5. Laboratory tests for diagnosis of food allergy: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G; Frémont, S

    2003-04-01

    Numerous biological tests point to the diagnosis of food sensitization: detection of specific IgEs by Rast techniques, multi-detection assays, immunoblotting, screening of basophil activation (BAT or FAST), assays for leukotriene LTC4 release (CAST), measurement of plasma histamine, serum tryptase, serum ECP, urinary EDN, completed by mannitol-lactulose test evaluating intestinal permeability, assay of fecal IgEs, Rast for specific IgG4. Primary screening for anti-food IgEs by multi-detection assays seeks justification from insufficient clinical data and false positive tests are common in patients sensitized to pollens or latex, on account of in vitro cross reactivities (CR). Multiple CR explain positive Rast to vegetal food allergens in such patients. Biological tests should not be performed as the first line of diagnosis. In vivo sensitisation is assessed by positive prick-tests, demonstrating the bivalence of allergens, as well as the affinity of specific IgEs, two conditions necessary to bridge membrane bound specific IgEs, leading to the release of mediators. Prick-tests are closer to clinical symptoms than biological tests. However, the diagnosis of food allergy is based on standardised oral challenges. Exceptions are high levels of specific IgEs to egg (> 6 kUl/l), peanut (> 15 kUl/l), fish (> 20 kUl/l) and milk (> 32 kUl/l), reaching a 95% predictive positive value. Rast inhibition tests are useful to identify masked allergens in foods. Research developments will have impact on the development of new diagnostic tools: allergen mixes reinforcing a food extract by associated recombinant major allergens, multiple combination of recombinant allergens (chips) or tests with synthetic epitopes aimed a the prediction of recovery. Laboratory tests take place in the decision free for the diagnosis for the food allergy and the follow-up of the levels specific IgEs is a tool to assess outcome and contributes to predict recovery or persistent allergy. Up to now the

  6. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  7. Õigusteaduse osa Eesti õiguskorra kujunemises : teaduskonverents professor Kalle Meruski 60. juubeli auks / koost. Peep Pruks. K. Meruski bibliograafia: Maia Ruttu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisu: Programm. Õigusteaduse rollist Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse aluspõhimõtete sisustamisel / Raul Narits. Keskkonnaõiguse kodifitseerimise teaduslikud alused / Hannes Veinla. "Kord Vestmann peal ja Piibeleht all, siis jälle..." : praktika ja õigusteaduse vahekord õiguse kujundamisel 19. sajandi Läänemereprovintsides / Marju Luts-Sootak. Teaduslik analüüs tsiviilõigusloomes / Paul Varul. Õiguslaenud ja võrdlev õigusteadus Eesti eraõiguse süsteemi kujundamisel / Irene Kull. Professor Meruski juubeliks / Märt Rask. Kolleegi kiituseks / Raul Narits. Professor Kalle Merusk : õpetaja ja inimene / Ivo Pilving. Kalle Merusk : valikbibliograafia 1990-2009 / koost. Maia Ruttu

  8. Neural network multispectral satellite images classification of volcanic ash plumes in a cloudy scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Picchiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the potential use of neural networks in the characterization of eruptive events monitored by satellite, through fast and automatic classification of multispectral images. The algorithm has been developed for the MODIS instrument and can easily be extended to other similar sensors. Six classes have been defined paying particular attention to image regions that represent the different surfaces that could possibly be found under volcanic ash clouds. Complex cloudy scenarios composed by images collected during the Icelandic eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull (2010 and Grimsvötn (2011 volcanoes have been considered as test cases. A sensitivity analysis on the MODIS TIR and VIS channels has been performed to optimize the algorithm. The neural network has been trained with the first image of the dataset, while the remaining data have been considered as independent validation sets. Finally, the neural network classifier’s results have been compared with maps classified with several interactive procedures performed in a consolidated operational framework. This comparison shows that the automatic methodology proposed achieves a very promising performance, showing an overall accuracy greater than 84%, for the Eyjafjalla - jökull event, and equal to 74% for the Grimsvötn event. 

  9. X-ray microanalysis of volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, S L; Buse, B

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated the disruptive nature of high-level volcanic ash emissions to the world's air traffic. The chemistry of volcanic material is complex and varied. Different eruptions yield both compositional and morphological variation. Equally a single eruption, such as that in Iceland will evolve over time and may potentially produce a range of volcanic products of varying composition and morphology. This variability offers the petrologist the opportunity to derive a tracer to the origins both spatially and temporally of a single particle by means of electron microbeam analysis. EPMA of volcanic ash is now an established technique for this type of analysis as used in tephrachronology. However, airborne paniculate material may, as in the case of Eyjafjallajökull, result in a particle size that is too small and too dispersed for preparation of standard EPMA mounts. Consequently SEM-EDS techniques are preferred for this type of quantitative analysis . Results of quantitative SEM-EDS analysis yield data with a larger precision error than EPMA yet sufficient to source the original eruption. Uncoated samples analyzed using variable pressure SEM yield slightly poorer results at modest pressures.

  10. Changes in shear-wave splitting before volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    We have shown that observations of shear-wave splitting (SWS) monitor stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before earthquakes which allows the time, magnitude, and in some circumstances fault-plane of impending earthquakes to be stress-forecast. (We call this procedure stress-forecasting rather than predicting or forecasting to emphasise the different formalism.) We have stress-forecast these parameters successfully three-days before a 1988 M5 earthquake in SW Iceland, and identified characteristic anomalies retrospectively before ~16 other earthquakes in Iceland and elsewhere. SWS monitors microcrack geometry and shows that microcracks are so closely spaced that they verge on fracturing and earthquakes. Phenomena verging on failure in this way are critical-systems with 'butterfly wings' sensitivity. Such critical-systems are very common. The Earth is an archetypal complex heterogeneous interactive phenomenon and must be expected to be a critical-system. We claim this critical system as a New Geophysics of a critically-microcracked rock mass. Such critical systems impose a range of fundamentally-new properties on conventional sub-critical physics/geophysics, one of which is universality. Consequently it is expected that we observe similar stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before volcanic eruptions to those before earthquakes. There are three eruptions where appropriate changes in SWS have been observed similar to those observed before earthquakes. These are: the 1996 Gjálp fissure eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland; a 2001 flank eruption on Mount Etna, Sicily (reported by Francesca Bianco, INGV, Naples); and the 2010 Eyjafjajökull ash-cloud eruption, SW Iceland. These will be presented in the same normalised format as is used before earthquakes. The 1996 Gjálp eruption showed a 2½-month stress-accumulation, and a ~1-year stress-relaxation (attributed to the North Atlantic Ridge adjusting to the magma injection beneath the Vatnajökull Ice Cap). The

  11. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Stockton, A. M.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Rader, E.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Extraterrestrial studies are typically conducted on mg samples from cm-scale features, while landing sites are selected based on m to km-scale features. It is therefore critical to understand spatial distribution of organic molecules over scales from cm to the km, particularly in geological features that appear homogenous at m to km scales. This is addressed by FELDSPAR, a NASA-funded project that conducts field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology [1]. Here, we present recent findings from a 2016 and a 2017 campaign to multiple Martian analogue sites in Iceland. Icelandic volcanic regions are Mars analogues due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, temperature extremes [2], and are relatively young and isolated from anthropogenic contamination [3]. Operationally, many Icelandic analogue sites are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are also faced by robotic exploration [1, 2]. Four field sites were evaluated in this study. The Fimmvörðuháls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Mælifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjökull glacier. Holuhraun is a basaltic spatter and cinder cone formed by 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the Vatnajökull glacier. Dyngjusandur is a plain kept barren by repeated aeolian mechanical weathering. Samples were collected in nested triangular grids from 10 cm to the 1 km scale. We obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation to create digital elevation models. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was obtained with an ASD spectrometer and chemical composition was measured by a Bruker handheld XRF. All sites chosen were homogeneous in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and reflectance spectra at all scales greater than 10 cm. Field lab ATP assays were conducted to monitor microbial habitation, and home

  12. Intercomparison of Metop-A SO2 measure- ments during the 2010- 2011 Icelandic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elissavet Koukouli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Avi­ ation Hazards, was introduced after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 to facilitate the development of an optimal End­to­End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Predic­ tion. The Eyjafjallajökull plume drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people. The limitations in volcanic plume monitoring and prediction capabilities gave birth to this observational system which is based on comprehensive satellite­derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground­based measurements. Inter­comparison of the volcanic total SO2 column and plume height observed by GOME­2/Metop­A and IASI/Metop­A are shown before, during and after the Eyjaf­ jallajökull 2010 eruptions as well as for the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. Co­located ground­based Brewer Spectro­ photometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre for de Bilt, the Nether­ lands, are also compared to the different satellite estimates. Promising agreement is found for the two different types of instrument for the SO2 columns with linear regression coefficients ranging around from 0.64 when comparing the different instruments and 0.85 when comparing the two different IASI algorithms. The agree­ ment for the plume height is lower, possibly due to the major differences between the height retrieval part of the GOME2 and IASI algorithms. The comparisons with the Brewer ground­based station in de Bilt, The Nether­ lands show good qualitative agreement for the peak of the event however stronger eruptive signals are required for a longer quantitative comparison. 

  13. Growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure is developed to determine the Froude number Fr, the effective power index for thermal conduction ν, the ablation-front thickness L 0 , the ablation velocity V a , and the acceleration g of laser-accelerated ablation fronts. These parameters are determined by fitting the density and pressure profiles obtained from one-dimensional numerical simulations with the analytic isobaric profiles of Kull and Anisimov [Phys. Fluids 29, 2067 (1986)]. These quantities are then used to calculate the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability using the theory developed by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4665 (1996)]. The complicated expression of the growth rate (valid for arbitrary Froude numbers) derived by Goncharov et al. is simplified by using reasonably accurate fitting formulas. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Application of Pareto optimization method for ontology matching in nuclear reactor domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenachi, N. Madurai; Baba, M. Sai

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the need for ontology matching and describes the methods to achieve the same. Efforts are put in the implementation of the semantic web based knowledge management system for nuclear domain which necessitated use of the methods for development of ontology matching. In order to exchange information in a distributed environment, ontology mapping has been used. The constraints in matching the ontology are also discussed. Pareto based ontology matching algorithm is used to find the similarity between two ontologies in the nuclear reactor domain. Algorithms like Jaro Winkler distance, Needleman Wunsch algorithm, Bigram, Kull Back and Cosine divergence are employed to demonstrate ontology matching. A case study was carried out to analysis the ontology matching in diversity in the nuclear reactor domain and same was illustrated.

  15. LATIS3D: The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.; Makarewicz, A.M.; Kim, B.M.; Gentile, N.A.; Yang, Y.B.; Brlik, M.; Vincent, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications

  16. Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne C.; Tupper, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The risks to safe and efficient air travel from volcanic-ash hazards are well documented and widely recognized. Under the aegis of the International Civil Aviation Organization, globally coordinated mitigation procedures are in place to report explosive eruptions, detect airborne ash clouds and forecast their expected movement, and issue specialized messages to warn aircraft away from hazardous airspace. This mitigation framework is based on the integration of scientific and technical capabilities worldwide in volcanology, meteorology, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, which led to a nearly week-long shutdown of air travel into and out of Europe, has prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve how hazardous airspace is defined and communicated. Volcanic ash will continue to threaten aviation and scientific research will continue to influence the risk-mitigation framework.

  17. Steni muinasjutuvõistluse võitjad selgunud / Ants Roos, Ann Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Ants

    2008-01-01

    Steni XVI muinasjutuvõistluse žüriisse kuulusid: Ann Roos, Ants Roos, Leelo Tungal, Krista Kumberg, Leida Olszak, Ülle Väljataga. Tulemused: I koht Siim Niinelaid, II koht Julius Air Kull, III koht Mihkel Rammu. Žürii eriauhinnad: Anna Kristin Peterson, Elis Ruus, Rain Hallikas, Mariliis Peterson, Marjaliisa Palu, Karl Kirsimäe, Margaret Pulk. Ergutusauhinnad: Karmel Klaus, Martti Kaljuste, Kristina Korell, Mirjam Võsaste, Mihkel Põder, Iirys Kalde, Miriam Jamul, Mari-Ann Mägi, Ketlin Saar, Liisbeth Kirss. Muud eriauhinnad said: Allan Läll, Berle Mees, Anett Kuuse, Karl Erik Kübarsepp, Grete Tamm, Siim Niinelaid, Kaisa Marie Sipelgas, Ellen Anett Põldmaa, Evelin Laul, Karl Laas, Karl Stamm, Kerli Retter

  18. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenco F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA, has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  19. LATIS3D The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    London, R A; Gentile, N A; Kim, B M; Makarewicz, A M; Vincent, L; Yang, Y B

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications.

  20. Summary Report for ASC L2 Milestone #4782: Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hornung, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Black, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    This document serves as a detailed companion to the powerpoint slides presented as part of the ASC L2 milestone review for Integrated Codes milestone #4782 titled “Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes”, due on 9/30/2014, and presented for formal program review on 9/12/2014. The program review committee is represented by Mike Zika (A Program Project Lead for Kull), Brian Pudliner (B Program Project Lead for Ares), Scott Futral (DEG Group Lead in LC), and Mike Glass (Sierra Project Lead at Sandia). This document, along with the presentation materials, and a letter of completion signed by the review committee will act as proof of completion for this milestone.

  1. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirable to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.

  2. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Estonia : 3-4-1-1-2000 (17 March 2000) : review of the petition of the Legal Chancellor seeking to declare "Supplementary Budget for 1999" Act partially null and void

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendi 3-4-1-1-00 (Õiguskantsleri taotlus Seaduse "Riigi 1999. aasta lisaeelarve" § 1 Osa 155. Vabariigi Valitsuse reserfond kirje "Elamuseaduse täitmiseks - 103 000 000" (krooni), aga samuti § 1 Osa 013. Segatulud kirje 013.99.05 Riigimetsa Majandamise Keskuse eelarveaasta lõpu jäägi vähendamine 33 000 000 (krooni) kehtetuks tunnistamiseks) tekst inglise keeles. - Lisatud: Dissenting opinion by Jüri Ilvest, Eerik Kergandberg, Jüri Rätsep, pp. 29-30 ; Concurring opinion by Uno Lõhmus, pp. 31-34 ; Concurring opinion by Jüri Põld, Tõnu Anton, Henn Jõks, Ott Järvesaar, Ants Kull, Jaano Odar, Harri Salmann, pp. 34-38

  3. Spain as an emergency air traffic hub during volcanic air fall events? Evidence of past volcanic ash air fall over Europe during the late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Ortiz, José E.; Torres, Trino; Lowe, John J.; Menzies, Martin A.

    2010-05-01

    Past volcanic eruptions often leave visible ash layers in the geological record, for example in marine or lake sedimentary sequences. Recent developments, however, have shown that non-visible volcanic ash layers are also commonly preserved in sedimentary deposits. These augment the record of past volcanic events by demonstrating that past ash dispersals have been more numerous and widely disseminated in Europe than previously appreciated. The dispersal ‘footprints' of some large late Pleistocene European eruptions are examined here in the light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For example, the Vedde Ash which was erupted from Iceland around 12 thousand years ago, delivered distal (and non-visible) glass deposits as far south as Switzerland and as far east as the Ural Mountains in Russia, with an overall European distribution remarkably similar to the dominant tracks of the recent Eyjafjallajökull plumes. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption has demonstrated that relatively small amounts of distal volcanic ash in the atmosphere can seriously disrupt aviation activity, with attendant economic and other consequences. It has raised fundamental questions about the likelihood of larger or more prolonged volcanic activity in the near future, and the possibility of even more serious consequences than those experienced recently. Given that there are several other volcanic centres that could cause such disruption in Europe (e.g. Campania and other volcanic centres in Italy; Aegean volcanoes), a key question is whether there are parts of Europe less prone to ash plumes and which could therefore operate as emergency air traffic hubs during times of ash dispersal. Although not generated to answer this question, the recent geological record might provide a basis for seeking the answer. For example, four palaeo-records covering the time frame of 8 - 40 Ka BP that are geographically distributed across Spain have been examined for non-visible distal ash content. All four have

  4. Application of Pareto optimization method for ontology matching in nuclear reactor domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenachi, N. Madurai [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Tamil Nadu (India). Planning and Human Resource Management Div.; Baba, M. Sai [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Tamil Nadu (India). Resources Management Group

    2017-12-15

    This article describes the need for ontology matching and describes the methods to achieve the same. Efforts are put in the implementation of the semantic web based knowledge management system for nuclear domain which necessitated use of the methods for development of ontology matching. In order to exchange information in a distributed environment, ontology mapping has been used. The constraints in matching the ontology are also discussed. Pareto based ontology matching algorithm is used to find the similarity between two ontologies in the nuclear reactor domain. Algorithms like Jaro Winkler distance, Needleman Wunsch algorithm, Bigram, Kull Back and Cosine divergence are employed to demonstrate ontology matching. A case study was carried out to analysis the ontology matching in diversity in the nuclear reactor domain and same was illustrated.

  5. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  6. Improved Near Real Time WRF-Chem Volcanic Emission Prediction and Impacts of Ash Aerosol on Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuefer, M.; Webley, P. W.; Hirtl, M.

    2017-12-01

    We use the numerical Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to investigate the regional effects of volcanic aerosol on weather. A lot of observational data have become available since the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. The observed plume characteristics and meteorological data have been exploited for volcanic WRF-Chem case studies. We concluded that the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume resulted in significant direct aerosol effects altering the state of the atmosphere over large parts of Europe. The WRF-Chem model runs show near surface temperature differences up to 3ºC, altered vertical stability, changed pressure- and wind fields within the atmosphere loaded with ash aerosol. The modeled results have been evaluated with lidar network data, and ground and balloon based observations all over Europe. Besides case studies, we use WRF-Chem to build an improved volcanic ash decision support system that NOAA can use within the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) system. Realistic eruption source parameter (ESP) estimates are a main challenge in predicting volcanic emission dispersion in near real time. We implemented historic ESP into the WRF-Chem preprocessing routine, which can be used as a first estimate to assess a volcanic plume once eruption activity is reported. In a second step, a range of varying plume heights has been associated with the different ash variables within WRF-Chem, resulting in an assembly of different plume scenarios within one WRF-Chem model run. Once there is plume information available from ground or satellite observations, the forecaster has the option to select the corresponding ash variable that best matches the observations. In addition we added an automatic domain generation tool to create near real time WRF-Chem model runs anywhere on the globe by reducing computing expenses at the same time.

  7. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carboni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is an important atmospheric constituent that plays a crucial role in many atmospheric processes. Volcanic eruptions are a significant source of atmospheric SO2 and its effects and lifetime depend on the SO2 injection altitude. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on the METOP satellite can be used to study volcanic emission of SO2 using high-spectral resolution measurements from 1000 to 1200 and from 1300 to 1410 cm−1 (the 7.3 and 8.7 µm SO2 bands returning both SO2 amount and altitude data. The scheme described in Carboni et al. (2012 has been applied to measure volcanic SO2 amount and altitude for 14 explosive eruptions from 2008 to 2012. The work includes a comparison with the following independent measurements: (i the SO2 column amounts from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull plumes have been compared with Brewer ground measurements over Europe; (ii the SO2 plumes heights, for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn eruptions, have been compared with CALIPSO backscatter profiles. The results of the comparisons show that IASI SO2 measurements are not affected by underlying cloud and are consistent (within the retrieved errors with the other measurements. The series of analysed eruptions (2008 to 2012 show that the biggest emitter of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grímsvötn. Our observations also show a tendency for volcanic SO2 to reach the level of the tropopause during many of the moderately explosive eruptions observed. For the eruptions observed, this tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 (e.g. 0.2 Tg for Dalafilla compared with 1.6 Tg for Nabro and of the volcanic explosive index (between 3 and 5.

  8. Punctuated Holocene climate of Vestfirðir, Iceland, linked to internal/external variables and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.

    2018-06-01

    Emerging Holocene paleoclimate datasets point to a non-linear response of Icelandic climate against a background of steady orbital cooling. The Vestfirðir peninsula (NW Iceland) is an ideal target for continued climate reconstructions due to the presence of a small ice cap (Drangajökull) and numerous lakes, which provide two independent means to evaluate existing Icelandic climate records and to constrain the forcing mechanisms behind centennial-scale cold anomalies. Here, we present new evidence for Holocene expansions of Drangajökull based on 14C dates from entombed dead vegetation as well as two continuous Holocene lake sediment records. Lake sediments were analyzed for both bulk physical (MS) and biological (%TOC, δ13C, C/N, and BSi) parameters. Composite BSi and C/N records from the two lakes yield a sub-centennial qualitative perspective on algal (diatom) productivity and terrestrial landscape stability, respectively. The Vestfirðir lake proxies suggest initiation of the Holocene Thermal Maximum by ∼8.8 ka with subsequent and pronounced cooling not apparent until ∼3 ka. Synchronous periods of reduced algal productivity and accelerated landscape instability point to cold anomalies centered at ∼8.2, 6.6, 4.2, 3.3, 2.3, 1.8, 1, and 0.25 ka. Triggers for cold anomalies are linked to variable combinations of freshwater pulses, low total solar irradiance, explosive and effusive volcanism, and internal modes of climate variability, with cooling likely sustained by ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. The climate evolution reflected by our glacial and organic proxy records corresponds closely to marine records from the North Iceland Shelf.

  9. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  10. Geomorphic change detection in proglacial areas using repetitive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Glacial forelands exposed due to the glacier recession are one of the most dynamically transformed landscapes in Polar and mountainous areas. These areas are supposed to be intensively changed by various geomorphological processes related to the glacial retreat and meltwater activity, as well as paraglacial adjustment of topography. This study deals with landscape transformation in an annual time-scale in the foreland of Hørbyebreen and Rieperbreen (Svalbard) and Fjallsjökull and Kviárjökull (Iceland) to assess landscape changes in 2014-2016 period. The main aim of this study is to map and quantify landforms development in detailed spatial scale to provide an insight into geomorphological processes which occurred shortly after the retreat of the ice margin. Low-altitude aerial photographs were taken using small quadcopter equipped with 12 MP camera. Images were acquired at an elevation between 40 and 60 m above the ground level. The images were subsequently processed using structure-from-motion approach to produce orthomosaics ( 3 cm cell size) and digital elevation models (DEMs) with 5-10 cm cell size. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences — which enabled us to calculate the amount of material loss or deposition. Accuracy of the orthophotos and DEMs was improved using ground control points measured with dGPS. Over the 2014-2016 period repetitive UAV-based surveys revealed and quantify changes in landscape including: (1) glacier thinning; (2) ice-cored moraines degradation; (3) development of terminoglacial and supraglacial lakes; (4) debris flow activity. Short-time dynamics of different components showed very high variability over time and space illustrating relative importance of ice backwasting and downwasting as well as glacifluvial processes for studied forelands The research was founded by Polish National Science Centre (project granted by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/ST10/06494).

  11. Investigating the use of the Saharan dust index as a tool for the detection of volcanic ash in SEVIRI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Isabelle; Mackie, Shona; Watson, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Despite the similar spectral signatures of ash and desert dust, relatively little has been done to explore the application of dust detection techniques to the problem of volcanic ash detection. The Saharan dust index (SDI) is routinely implemented for dust monitoring at some centres and could be utilised for volcanic ash detection with little computational expense, thereby providing a product that forecasters already have some familiarity with to complement the suite of existing ash detection tools. We illustrate one way in which the index could be implemented for the purpose of ash detection by applying it to three scenes containing volcanic ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland and the 2011 eruption of Puyehue, Chile. It was also applied to an image acquired over Etna in January 2011, where a volcanic plume is clearly visible but is unlikely to contain any ash. These examples demonstrate the potential of the SDI as a tool for ash monitoring under different environmental and atmospheric conditions. In addition to presenting a valuable qualitative product to aid monitoring, this work includes a quantitative assessment of the detection skill using a manually constructed expert ash mask. The optimum implementation of any technique is likely to be dependent on both atmospheric conditions and on the properties of the imaged ash (which is often unknown in a real-time situation). Here we take advantage of access to a 'truth' rarely available in a real-time situation and calculate an ash mask based on the optimum threshold for the specific scene, which is then used to demonstrate the potential of the SDI. The SDI mask is compared to masks calculated from a simplistic implementation of the more traditional split window method, again exploiting our access to the 'truth' to set the most appropriate threshold for each scene, and to a probabilistic method that is implemented without reference to the 'truth' and which provides useful insights into the likely

  12. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  13. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  14. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  15. Mastimännid ja muu mets : mitmekülgsuse võlu Eesti proosast aastal 2007 / Sirje Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Sirje, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade 2007. aasta eesti proosast. Käsitletakse järgimisi autoreid ja nende teoseid: Ene Mihkelson "Katkuhaud", Andrus Kivirähk "Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu", Jaan Kaplinski "Seesama jõgi", Tõnu Õnnepalu "Flandria päevik", Toomas Vint "Mäluauguga naine", Indrek Hargla "French ja Koulu Tarbatus", Kalle Käsper "Buridanid IV", Jaan Tooming "Teekond mäe südamesse", Ustav Mikelsaar "Tunnimehed", Henn Mikelsaar "Teema variatsioonidega", Reet Kudu "Pidupäevad võõrsil", Mara Maret Aronovich "Tagasikäiguga edasi", Aimée Beekman "Proovielu", Valentine Nõlvak "Ellujääja : mälestused", Mehis Heinsaar "Rändaja õnn", Maimu Berg "Unustatud inimesed", Mats Traat "Sarviku armastus : valik kultuuriloolisi novelle", Mihkel Mutt "Siseemigrant : novellid Rui taevalike kommentaaridega", Paavo Kivine "Kaks kavaleri", Kärt Hellerma "Ma armastasin David Copperfieldi", Piret Bristol "Paralleelmeri", Imre Siil "Mereröövlite loss", Kalju Saaber "Issanda loomaaed. Viru sektor", Veiko Märka "Lendas üle marmortahvli", Vahur Afanasjev "Kaadrid otsustavad, ehk, Sööbik ja Pisik seiklevad jälle, ehk, Eesti rahva lühike, kuid õnnelik ajalugu, Ehk kirjalik komejant tühjusest", Aarne Ruuben "Lugusid Anveltist ja Kingissepast", Epp Annus "Sina, Matilda", Peeter Helme "Puudutus", Ivar Sild "Tantsiv linn", Tui Hirv "Tähe tänav. Per musica ad astra", Tiina Laanem "Väikesed vanamehed", Angela Hofberg (pseud.) "Päev nagu elu", Marion Andra "Vähemalt...", Olle Lauli "Niguliste õpilased", Aarne Biin "Linna valitsemine", Erik Tohvri "Mürgiliblikas", Riina Kangur "Elisa", Kerttu Rakke "Küpsiseparadiis", Epp Petrone ja Dagmar Reintam "Õun ära süüa?", Elme Väljaste "Päriselu Proletariaadi puiesteel", Ketlin Priilinn "Hõbeingel", Ira Lember "Kohvik pärnade all", Paul Pajos "Krimijutud edasijõudnuile", Andres Anvelt "Punane elavhõbe", Klaara ja Kaarel Kivi "Mõrvasügis", Tiit Sepa "Hommik ühele", Lembit Uustulnd "Ruutuemanda sündroom : rahvusvaheline

  16. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  17. Monitoring volcanic ash cloud top height through simultaneous retrieval of optical data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zakšek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash cloud-top height (ACTH can be monitored on the global level using satellite remote sensing. Here we propose a photogrammetric method based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary and polar orbiting satellites to overcome some limitations of the existing methods of ACTH retrieval. SEVIRI HRV band and MODIS band 1 are a good choice because of their high resolution. The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. MODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. The proposed method was tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. The parallax between MODIS and SEVIRI data can reach 30 km, which implies an ACTH of approximately 12 km at the beginning of the eruption. At the end of April eruption an ACTH of 3–4 km is observed. The accuracy of ACTH was estimated to be 0.6 km.

  18. A Summary Case Report on the Health Impacts and Response to the Pakistan Floods of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, Pakistan suffered nationwide floods after unprecedented monsoon rains overwhelmed the Indus basin. The ensuing floods claimed 1985 lives, injured 2946 people and affected over 20.2 million people. Seventy-eight out of 121 districts were affected and at one stage one-fifth of the country’s land was inundated with water. Indiscriminate damage was caused to housing, educational and health facilities, communication networks, power plants and grids, irrigation channels, agricultural land and livestock. Over 37 million medical consultations were reported within one year of the floods with acute respiratory infection, skin diseases, acute diarrhoea and suspected malaria forming the most common presentations. Rescue and relief operations were organised through the National Disaster Management Authority and a UN Cluster Approach was adopted for providing humanitarian assistance. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) played a pivotal role in coordinating relief efforts between cluster groups and providing communication platforms for identifying gaps and sharing information. This paper attempts to collate information available in the public domain into a summary report based on key principles described by Kulling et al. (2010) on health crisis reporting. PMID:23591385

  19. Minimum Information Loss Based Multi-kernel Learning for Flagellar Protein Recognition in Trypanosoma Brucei

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosma brucei (T. Brucei) is an important pathogen agent of African trypanosomiasis. The flagellum is an essential and multifunctional organelle of T. Brucei, thus it is very important to recognize the flagellar proteins from T. Brucei proteins for the purposes of both biological research and drug design. In this paper, we investigate computationally recognizing flagellar proteins in T. Brucei by pattern recognition methods. It is argued that an optimal decision function can be obtained as the difference of probability functions of flagella protein and the non-flagellar protein for the purpose of flagella protein recognition. We propose to learn a multi-kernel classification function to approximate this optimal decision function, by minimizing the information loss of such approximation which is measured by the Kull back-Leibler (KL) divergence. An iterative multi-kernel classifier learning algorithm is developed to minimize the KL divergence for the problem of T. Brucei flagella protein recognition, experiments show its advantage over other T. Brucei flagellar protein recognition and multi-kernel learning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stuefer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new functionality within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem that allows simulating emission, transport, dispersion, transformation and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. Emissions from both an explosive eruption case and a relatively calm degassing situation are considered using the most recent volcanic emission databases. A preprocessor tool provides emission fields and additional information needed to establish the initial three-dimensional cloud umbrella/vertical distribution within the transport model grid, as well as the timing and duration of an eruption. From this source condition, the transport, dispersion and sedimentation of the ash cloud can be realistically simulated by WRF-Chem using its own dynamics and physical parameterization as well as data assimilation. Examples of model applications include a comparison of tephra fall deposits from the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt (Alaska and the dispersion of ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. Both model applications show good coincidence between WRF-Chem and observations.

  1. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  2. High-Precision In Situ 87Sr/86Sr Analyses through Microsampling on Solid Samples: Applications to Earth and Life Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Di Salvo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical protocol for high-precision, in situ microscale isotopic investigations is presented here, which combines the use of a high-performing mechanical microsampling device and high-precision TIMS measurements on micro-Sr samples, allowing for excellent results both in accuracy and precision. The present paper is a detailed methodological description of the whole analytical procedure from sampling to elemental purification and Sr-isotope measurements. The method offers the potential to attain isotope data at the microscale on a wide range of solid materials with the use of minimally invasive sampling. In addition, we present three significant case studies for geological and life sciences, as examples of the various applications of microscale 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios, concerning (i the pre-eruptive mechanisms triggering recent eruptions at Nisyros volcano (Greece, (ii the dynamics involved with the initial magma ascent during Eyjafjallajökull volcano’s (Iceland 2010 eruption, which are usually related to the precursory signals of the eruption, and (iii the environmental context of a MIS 3 cave bear, Ursus spelaeus. The studied cases show the robustness of the methods, which can be also be applied in other areas, such as cultural heritage, archaeology, petrology, and forensic sciences.

  3. A Bayesian method to rank different model forecasts of the same volcanic ash cloud: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Webley, P.; Mastin, Larry G.; Schwaiger, Hans F.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions often spew fine ash high into the atmosphere, where it is carried downwind, forming long ash clouds that disrupt air traffic and pose a hazard to air travel. To mitigate such hazards, the community studying ash hazards must assess risk of ash ingestion for any flight path and provide robust and accurate forecasts of volcanic ash dispersal. We provide a quantitative and objective method to evaluate the efficacy of ash dispersal estimates from different models, using Bayes theorem to assess the predictions that each model makes about ash dispersal. We incorporate model and measurement uncertainty and produce a posterior probability for model input parameters. The integral of the posterior over all possible combinations of model inputs determines the evidence for each model and is used to compare models. We compare two different types of transport models, an Eulerian model (Ash3d) and a Langrangian model (PUFF), as applied to the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. The evidence for each model benefits from common physical characteristics of ash dispersal from an eruption column and provides a measure of how well each model forecasts cloud transport. Given the complexity of the wind fields, we find that the differences between these models depend upon the differences in the way the models disperse ash into the wind from the source plume. With continued observation, the accuracy of the estimates made by each model increases, increasing the efficacy of each model’s ability to simulate ash dispersal.

  4. Simulation of Random Events for Air Traffic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Puechmorel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Resilience to uncertainties must be ensured in air traffic management. Unexpected events can either be disruptive, like thunderstorms or the famous volcano ash cloud resulting from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, or simply due to imprecise measurements or incomplete knowledge of the environment. While human operators are able to cope with such situations, it is generally not the case for automated decision support tools. Important examples originate from the numerous attempts made to design algorithms able to solve conflicts between aircraft occurring during flights. The STARGATE (STochastic AppRoach for naviGATion functions in uncertain Environment project was initiated in order to study the feasibility of inherently robust automated planning algorithms that will not fail when submitted to random perturbations. A mandatory first step is the ability to simulate the usual stochastic phenomenons impairing the system: delays due to airport platforms or air traffic control (ATC and uncertainties on the wind velocity. The work presented here will detail algorithms suitable for the simulation task.

  5. A geophone wireless sensor network for investigating glacier stick-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Hart, Jane K.; Basford, Philip J.; Bragg, Graeme M.; Ward, Tyler; Young, David S.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed an innovative passive borehole geophone system, as part of a wireless environmental sensor network to investigate glacier stick-slip motion. The new geophone nodes use an ARM Cortex-M3 processor with a low power design capable of running on battery power while embedded in the ice. Only data from seismic events was stored, held temporarily on a micro-SD card until they were retrieved by systems on the glacier surface which are connected to the internet. The sampling rates, detection and filtering levels were determined from a field trial using a standard commercial passive seismic system. The new system was installed on the Skalafellsjökull glacier in Iceland and provided encouraging results. The results showed that there was a relationship between surface melt water production and seismic event (ice quakes), and these occurred on a pattern related to the glacier surface melt-water controlled velocity changes (stick-slip motion). Three types of seismic events were identified, which were interpreted to reflect a pattern of till deformation (Type A), basal sliding (Type B) and hydraulic transience (Type C) associated with stick-slip motion.

  6. A summary case report on the health impacts and response to the pakistan floods of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Omar

    2013-04-11

    In July 2010, Pakistan suffered nationwide floods after unprecedented monsoon rains overwhelmed the Indus basin. The ensuing floods claimed 1985 lives, injured 2946 people and affected over 20.2 million people. Seventy-eight out of 121 districts were affected and at one stage one-fifth of the country's land was inundated with water. Indiscriminate damage was caused to housing, educational and health facilities, communication networks, power plants and grids, irrigation channels, agricultural land and livestock. Over 37 million medical consultations were reported within one year of the floods with acute respiratory infection, skin diseases, acute diarrhoea and suspected malaria forming the most common presentations. Rescue and relief operations were organised through the National Disaster Management Authority and a UN Cluster Approach was adopted for providing humanitarian assistance. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) played a pivotal role in coordinating relief efforts between cluster groups and providing communication platforms for identifying gaps and sharing information. This paper attempts to collate information available in the public domain into a summary report based on key principles described by Kulling et al. (2010) on health crisis reporting.

  7. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  8. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  9. Aircraft and Volcanic Ash a Key Focus of EGU Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-05-01

    The erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland, which has intermittently disrupted European air traffic since 14 April, provided a dramatic backdrop for the recent European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, about 2700 kilometers to the east. EGU organized several last-minute conference sessions about the eruption, and a number of scientists, including some from Iceland, discussed the latest situation, monitoring and assessment needs, and new guidance about flying through volcanic ash, which volcanologist and incoming EGU president-elect Donald Dingwell of the University of Munich, Germany, called “one of the ugliest cocktails nature throws up.” Although the eruption was small compared with those at Mount St. Helens in 1980 or Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the event produced an estimated 0.1 ± 0.05 cubic kilometer of tephra between 14 and 16 April, according to preliminary numbers from the Institute of Earth Sciences in Reykjavik, Iceland (see the related news item in this issue). An enormous amount of ash from the eruption got lofted into the jet stream toward the United Kingdom and the European mainland. European air traffic controllers, operating under the best guidance and guidelines available at that time—which indicated no flying in ash—shut down European air space to avoid a potential catastrophe if ash clogged up an aircraft's engines.

  10. Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Plume Particle-Type Characterization from Space-Based Multi-angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Limbacher, James

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Research Aerosol algorithm makes it possible to study individual aerosol plumes in considerable detail. From the MISR data for two optically thick, near-source plumes from the spring 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallaj kull volcano, we map aerosol optical depth (AOD) gradients and changing aerosol particle types with this algorithm; several days downwind, we identify the occurrence of volcanic ash particles and retrieve AOD, demonstrating the extent and the limits of ash detection and mapping capability with the multi-angle, multi-spectral imaging data. Retrieved volcanic plume AOD and particle microphysical properties are distinct from background values near-source, as well as for overwater cases several days downwind. The results also provide some indication that as they evolve, plume particles brighten, and average particle size decreases. Such detailed mapping offers context for suborbital plume observations having much more limited sampling. The MISR Standard aerosol product identified similar trends in plume properties as the Research algorithm, though with much smaller differences compared to background, and it does not resolve plume structure. Better optical analogs of non-spherical volcanic ash, and coincident suborbital data to validate the satellite retrieval results, are the factors most important for further advancing the remote sensing of volcanic ash plumes from space.

  11. The European air traffic management response to volcanic ash crises: towards institutionalised aviation crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopagne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010 covered Europe and created an unprecedented situation. It resulted in an almost complete lockdown of European airspace in the period from 15th to 21st April, 2010: more than 100,000 flights were cancelled, 10 million people were affected and over US$1.8bn was lost by airlines globally. This paper presents the air traffic management (ATM) view of the situation. Through an analysis of the evolution of the events in the affected region, the paper will provide more details on ATM planning, reaction and follow-up actions. Furthermore, the influence of this event on the identification of further improvements needed to advance volcanic procedures internationally will be discussed. Actions undertaken since the end of the event - the establishment of the European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell, running of the International Civil Aviation Organization VOLCEX 11/01 volcanic ash exercise and European response to the Grimsvötn eruption in May 2011 - will be discussed at the end of the paper.

  12. Changing compositions in the Iceland plume; Isotopic and elemental constraints from the Paleogene Faroe flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Elemental and Sr, Nd, Hf and high precision Pb isotopic data are presented from 59 low-Ti and high-Ti lavas from the syn-break up part of the Faroe Flood Basalt Province. The depleted MORB-like low-Ti lavas erupted in the rift zone between the Faroe Islands and central East Greenland around......-type component similar in geochemistry to the Icelandic Öræfajökull lavas. This component is believed to be recycled pelagic sediments in the plume but it can alternatively be a local crustal or lithospheric mantle component. The enriched Faroe high-Ti lavas erupted inland from the rift have isotopic...... compositions very similar to the enriched Icelandic neo-volcanics and these lava suites apparently share the two enriched plume end-members IE1 and IE2 (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 2, 2004). The lack of mixing between high and low-Ti melts at the time of break up, is explained by a zoned plume where only low...

  13. High resolution 3D confocal microscope imaging of volcanic ash particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Gill, Ian; Petford, Nick

    2017-07-15

    We present initial results from a novel high resolution confocal microscopy study of the 3D surface structure of volcanic ash particles from two recent explosive basaltic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011), in Iceland. The majority of particles imaged are less than 100μm in size and include PM 10 s, known to be harmful to humans if inhaled. Previous studies have mainly used 2D microscopy to examine volcanic particles. The aim of this study was to test the potential of 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy as a reliable analysis tool for these materials and if so to what degree high resolution surface and volume data could be obtained that would further aid in their classification. First results obtained using an Olympus LEXT scanning confocal microscope with a ×50 and ×100 objective lens are highly encouraging. They reveal a range of discrete particle types characterised by sharp or concave edges consistent with explosive formation and sudden rupture of magma. Initial surface area/volume ratios are given that may prove useful in subsequent modelling of damage to aircraft engines and human tissue where inhalation has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  15. Læring i praksis. Tilrettelegging for å fremme refleksjonskompetanse og læringsutbytte hos studenter i praksis. Erfaringer fra en pilotstudie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Høium

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Studien belyser erfaringer med en tilpasset veiledningsmodell i gruppe, for å styrke profesjonell kompetanse hos vernepleiestudenter i praksis. Intervensjonen er gjennomført i forhold til 32 bachelorstudenter fra tre ulike kull. Den tar utgangspunkt i en obligatorisk veiledningsgruppe som foregår inne på høgskolen, midtveis i en av deres praksisperioder. Hovedmålsettingen var å se i hvilken grad veiledningsmodellen bidro til utbytte og læringseffekt i forhold til målsetting for praksisperioden. Et annet mål med studien har vært å skaffe erfaringer med hvordan refleksjon og kritisk tenkning kan læres gjennom praktisk student veiledning. Resultater fra undersøkelsen viste at den tilpassede veiledningsmodellen som her ble benyttet, bidro til å fremme refleksjonskompetanse og læringsutbytte hos studentene. Dette gir grunnlag for videre optimisme med tanke på å styrke vernepleiestudentenes læring og profesjonelle kompetanse. Betydningen forsterkes ved at refleksjonskompetanse fremheves som en sentral kvalitetsvariabel, både fra myndighetene og fra fagfeltet. En videre utfordring vil være å raffinere modellen ytterligere med tanke på utprøving og tilpasset implementering gjennom ulike praksisperioder i studiet.

  16. A chironomid-based reconstruction of summer temperatures in NW Iceland since AD 1650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Caseldine, C. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Jarvis, S.; Wastegård, S.; Crowford, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Few studies currently exist that aim to validate a proxy chironomid-temperature reconstruction with instrumental temperature measurements. We used a reconstruction from a chironomid percentage abundance data set to produce quantitative summer temperature estimates since AD 1650 for NW Iceland through a transfer function approach, and validated the record against instrumental temperature measurements from Stykkishólmur in western Iceland. The core was dated through Pb-210, Cs-137 and tephra analyses (Hekla 1693) which produced a well-constrained dating model across the whole study period. Little catchment disturbance, as shown through geochemical (Itrax) and loss-on-ignition data, throughout the period further reinforce the premise that the chironomids were responding to temperature and not other catchment or within-lake variables. Particularly cold phases were identified between AD 1683-1710, AD 1765-1780 and AD 1890-1917, with relative drops in summer temperatures in the order of 1.5-2°C. The timing of these cold phases agree well with other evidence of cooler temperatures, notably increased extent of Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciers. Our evidence suggests that the magnitude of summer temperature cooling (1.5-2°C) was enough to force LIA Icelandic glaciers into their maximum Holocene extent, which is in accordance with previous modelling experiments for an Icelandic ice cap (Langjökull).

  17. Amaranthus Palmeri'nin mücadelesinde kullanılabilecek herbisitlerin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de ilk defa Adana’nın Doğusu, Osmaniye ve Hatay bölgesinde görülen ve istilacı potansiyele sahip Amaranthus palmeri yabancı otunun mısır, yer fıstığı, soya fasülyesi ve turunçgil alanlarında kullanılan bazı çıkış öncesi (Oxyfluorfen, Pendimethalin+ Terbuthylazine) ve çıkış sonrası (Glufosinate-ammonium, Glyphosate, Nicosulfuron, 2,4-D, Bentazone, Bentazone + İmazamox) herbisitlerle mücadelesinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Sera koşullarında yürütülen bu çalışmalarda kull...

  18. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    (Rampino and Self 1984, Pyle et al 1996, Self and Rampino 2012). But as yet, there is little evidence for the consequences of this scale of eruption for the climate system (Miles et al 2004), and few data against which to test simulations of stratospheric sulfur-injection 'geoengineering' scenarios of a similar scale and frequency (e.g. English et al 2012). A hint of the new volcano-observing capability came during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. For a few days in April 2010 meteorological conditions, coupled with a dramatic increase in volcanic ash production, led to the wide dispersal of fine volcanic particles across northern Europe; an event which was widely tracked by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments, augmented by in situ measurements from balloons and aircraft (Bennett et al 2010, Flentje et al 2010, Harrison et al 2010, Stohl et al 2011). Despite the interest in Eyjafjallajökull at the time, this was, geologically, only a very modest eruption with limited sulfur emissions and an impact restricted mainly to the regional troposphere (e.g. Thomas and Prata 2011, Walker et al 2012). Then, in June 2011, a previously dormant volcano in north-east Africa began to erupt violently. Little is known about Nabro, which is a partially collapsed volcano that straddles the Eritrea-Ethiopia border, and has had no known historical activity (Wiart and Oppenheimer 2005). Despite the remote location, and lack of prior warning, the event and its aftermath were remarkably well captured by remote-sensing instruments, as demonstrated in the new letter by Sawamura et al (2012). Using both ground-based and satellite-borne laser-ranging (lidar) data, Sawamura et al (2012) were able to extract detailed information about the nature of the volcanic aerosol layer, and its spread around the globe. The eruption started strongly, with substantial ash plumes for the first 48 h, rising to 9-14 km altitude (Smithsonian Institution 2011, Bourassa et al 2012), that carried at

  19. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðarbunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar; Hreinsdó ttir, Sigrú n; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Frið riksdó ttir, Hildur; Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stephanie; Á rnadó ttir, Þ ó ra; Geirsson, Halldó r; Hooper, Andrew; Roberts, Matthew; Bennett, Rick; Sturkell, Erik; Jó nsson, Sigurjó n|

    2015-01-01

    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga Caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland, marking the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1984). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation in areas outside the ice cap and on nunataks within the ice cap suggesting a lateral propagation of magma, from the Bárðabunga system. The sesimicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. A second fissure eruption started in Holuhraun on August 31 which is still ongoing at the time of this writing. In the months prior to the onset of the activity, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the Bárðarbunga indicating a volume increase in the roots of the volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a simultaneous deflation centered within the caldera and a lateral growth of a dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on opposite sides of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Significant movements where detected on GPS site more then 80 km away from the tip of dyke. Displacements indicated the fastest rate of widening at any time in the most distal segment of the dyke throughout its evolution. After the dyke stopped propagating, the inflation continued, decaying exponentialy with time. On September 4, five days into the second fissure eruption, the movements associated with the dyke where no longer significant. As the fissure eruption continues, a slowly decaying contraction is observed around the Bárðarbunga central volcano, both shown in the piston like

  20. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  1. The Effects of Volcano-Induced Ozone Depletion on Short-lived Climate Forcing in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Photodissociation of oxygen maintains the stratopause ~50°C warmer than the tropopause. Photodissociation of ozone warms the lower stratosphere, preventing most of this high-energy DNA-damaging solar radiation from reaching the troposphere. Ozone depletion allows more UV energy to reach the lower troposphere causing photodissociation of anthropogenic ozone and nitrogen dioxide. UV energy also penetrates the ocean >10 m where it is absorbed more efficiently than infrared radiation that barely penetrates the surface. Manmade chlorofluorocarbons caused ozone depletion from 1965 to 1994 with slow recovery predicted over the next 50+ years. But the lowest levels of ozone followed the eruptions of Pinatubo (1991 VEI=6), Eyjafjallajökull (2010 VEI=4), and Grímsvötn (2011 VEI=4). Each of the relatively small, basaltic eruptions in Iceland caused more ozone depletion than the long-term effects of chlorofluorocarbons, although total ozone appears to return to pre-eruption levels within a decade. Ozone depletion by 20% increases energy flux thru the lowermost troposphere by 0.7 W m-2 for overhead sun causing temperatures in the lower stratosphere to drop >2°C since 1958 in steps after the 3 largest volcanic eruptions: Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Pinatubo. Temperatures at the surface increased primarily in the regions and at the times of the greatest observed ozone depletion. The greatest warming observed was along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (65.4°S) where minimum temperatures rose 6.7°C from 1951 to 2003 while maximum temperatures remained relatively constant. Minimum total column ozone in September-October was 40-56% lower than in 1972 almost every year since 1987, strongly anti-correlated with observed minimum temperatures. Sea ice decreased 10%, 7 ice shelves separated, 87% of the glaciers retreated and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed. Elsewhere under the ozone hole, warming of continental Antarctica was limited by the high albedo (0.86) of

  2. Unrest at Bárdarbunga: Preparations for possible flooding due to subglacial volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardardottir, Jorunn; Roberts, Matthew; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Einarsson, Bergur; Thorarinsdottir, Tinna; Johannesson, Tomas; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Egilson, David; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Imo hydrological-monitoring-team

    2015-04-01

    Located partly beneath northwest Vatnajökull, Iceland, the Bárdarbunga volcanic system comprises an ice-capped central volcano and a fissure swarm extending beyond the ice margin. During the last 1100 years the volcano has erupted on at least 26 occasions. Outburst floods (jökulhlaups) on a scale of >100,000 m3 s-1 are known to have occurred during major explosive eruptions. Repeated jökulhlaups from Bárdarbunga have inundated the Jökulsá á Fjöllum River, which drains over 200 km northwards from the Dyngjujökull outlet glacier to the north coast of Iceland. Depending on the location of the eruption within the 80 km2 caldera, jökulhlaups could also flow northwards along Skjálfandafljót River and towards west and southwest into present-day tributaries of the extensively hydropower-harnessed Thjórsá River. On 16 August 2014, an intense earthquake swarm began within the Bárdarbunga caldera. Seismicity propagated from the caldera, extending ~10 km northwards of the ice margin where a fissure eruption developed in late August and remains ongoing in early January 2015. In connection with the lateral migration of magma from the caldera, the ice surface of Bárdarbunga has lowered by over 60 m; also associated with increased geothermal heat on the caldera rim, as manifested by the development of ice-surface depressions. In preparation for a subglacial eruption in the Bárdarbunga volcanic system, the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has made several assessments of likely hydrological hazards. Assessments were undertaken on Jökulsá á Fjöllum and Skjálfandafljót at key locations where preliminary evacuation plans for populated areas were made in cooperation with the local police. Floodwater extent was estimated for key infrastructures, such as bridges, telecommunication and power lines for maximum discharge levels ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 m3 s-1. The estimations were made using either simple Manning's calculations or HEC-RAS modelling

  3. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðarbunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga Caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland, marking the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1984). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation in areas outside the ice cap and on nunataks within the ice cap suggesting a lateral propagation of magma, from the Bárðabunga system. The sesimicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. A second fissure eruption started in Holuhraun on August 31 which is still ongoing at the time of this writing. In the months prior to the onset of the activity, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the Bárðarbunga indicating a volume increase in the roots of the volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a simultaneous deflation centered within the caldera and a lateral growth of a dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on opposite sides of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Significant movements where detected on GPS site more then 80 km away from the tip of dyke. Displacements indicated the fastest rate of widening at any time in the most distal segment of the dyke throughout its evolution. After the dyke stopped propagating, the inflation continued, decaying exponentialy with time. On September 4, five days into the second fissure eruption, the movements associated with the dyke where no longer significant. As the fissure eruption continues, a slowly decaying contraction is observed around the Bárðarbunga central volcano, both shown in the piston like

  4. The future of volcanic ash-aircraft interactions from technical and policy perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, T. J.; Guffanti, M.

    2010-12-01

    Since the advent of jet-powered flight in the 1960s, the threat of volcanic ash to aviation operations has become widely recognized and the mitigation of this threat has received concerted international attention. At the same time the susceptibility to operational disruption has grown. Technical improvements to airframes, engines, and avionic systems have been made in response to the need for improved fuel efficiency and the demand for increased capacity for passenger and freight traffic. Operational demands have resulted in the growth of extended overseas flight operations (ETOPS), increased flight frequency on air traffic routes, and closer spacing of aircraft on heavily traveled routes. The net result has been great advances in flight efficiency, but also increased susceptibility to flight disruption, especially in heavily traveled regions such as North Atlantic-Europe, North America, and the North Pacific. Advances in ash avoidance procedures, pilot and air manager training, and in detection of ash-related damage and maintenance of aircraft and engines have been spurred by noteworthy eruptions such as Galunggung, Indonesia, 1982; Redoubt, Alaska, 1989-1990; and Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991. Comparable advances have been made in the detection and tracking of volcanic ash clouds using satellite-based remote sensing and numerical trajectory forecast models. Following the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, the global aviation community again focused attention on the issue of safe air operations in airspace affected by volcanic ash. The enormous global disruption to air traffic in the weeks after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption has placed added emphasis for the global air traffic management system as well as on the equipment manufacturers to reevaluate air operations in ash-affected airspace. Under the leadership of the International Civil Aviation Organization and the World Meteorological Organization, efforts are being made to address this

  5. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  6. Volcanic ash modeling with the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model: quantification of offline modeling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash modeling systems are used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of volcanic ash and to generate forecasts that quantify the impacts from volcanic eruptions on infrastructures, air quality, aviation, and climate. The efficiency of response and mitigation actions is directly associated with the accuracy of the volcanic ash cloud detection and modeling systems. Operational forecasts build on offline coupled modeling systems in which meteorological variables are updated at the specified coupling intervals. Despite the concerns from other communities regarding the accuracy of this strategy, the quantification of the systematic errors and shortcomings associated with the offline modeling systems has received no attention. This paper employs the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model to quantify these errors by employing different quantitative and categorical evaluation scores. The skills of the offline coupling strategy are compared against those from an online forecast considered to be the best estimate of the true outcome. Case studies are considered for a synthetic eruption with constant eruption source parameters and for two historical events, which suitably illustrate the severe aviation disruptive effects of European (2010 Eyjafjallajökull) and South American (2011 Cordón Caulle) volcanic eruptions. Evaluation scores indicate that systematic errors due to the offline modeling are of the same order of magnitude as those associated with the source term uncertainties. In particular, traditional offline forecasts employed in operational model setups can result in significant uncertainties, failing to reproduce, in the worst cases, up to 45-70 % of the ash cloud of an online forecast. These inconsistencies are anticipated to be even more relevant in scenarios in which the meteorological conditions change rapidly in time. The outcome of this paper encourages operational groups responsible for real-time advisories for aviation to consider employing computationally

  7. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2 gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21–28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  8. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  9. A Bed-Deformation Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2001-12-01

    Although deformation of sediment beneath ice masses may contribute to their motion and may sometimes enable fast glacier flow, both the kinematics and mechanics of deformation are controversial. This controversy stems, in part, from subglacial measurements that are difficult to interpret. Measurements have been made either beneath ice margins or remotely through boreholes with interpretive limitations caused by uncertain instrument position and performance, uncertain sediment thickness and bed geometry, and unknown disturbance of the bed and stress state by drilling. We have used a different approach made possible by the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, which enables human access to the bed of Engabreen, Norway, beneath 230 m of temperate ice. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 percent sand and gravel, 20 percent silt, 5 percent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation (tiltmeters), dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding water to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sediment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.2 MPa. Subsequent pump tests, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures greater than 70 percent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice separated from the sediment when effective normal stress was lowest, arresting shear deformation. Displacement profiles during pump tests were similar to those observed by Boulton and co-workers at Breidamerkurjökull, Iceland, with rates of shear strain increasing upward toward the glacier sole. Such deformation does not require viscous deformation resistance and is expected in a

  10. Warming, Sheep and Volcanoes: Land Cover Changes in Iceland Evident in Satellite NDVI Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Raynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a greening Arctic, Iceland stands out as an area with very high increases in the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2010. We investigated the possible sources of this anomalous greening in Iceland’s dynamic landscape, analyzing changes due to volcanism and warming temperatures, and the effects of agricultural and industrial land use changes. The analysis showed the increases were likely due to reductions in grazing in erosion-prone rangelands, extensive reclamation and afforestation efforts, as well as a response to warming climate, including glacial retreat. Like Scandinavia and much of the rest of the Arctic, Iceland has shown a recent reduction in NDVI since 2002, but still above pre-2000 levels. Theil-Sen robust regression analysis of MODIS NDVI trends from 2002 to 2013 showed Iceland had a slightly negative NDVI trend of 0.003 NDVI units/year (p < 0.05, with significant decreases in an area three times greater (29,809 km2 than that with increases (9419 km2. Specific areas with large decreases in NDVI during the last decade were due to the formation of a large reservoir as a part of a hydroelectric power project (Kárahnjúkar, 2002–2009, and due to ashfall from two volcanic eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull, 2010; Grímsvötn, 2011. Increases in NDVI in the last decade were found in erosion control areas, around retreating glaciers, and in other areas of plant colonization following natural disturbance. Our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of MODIS NDVI for identifying the causes of changes in land cover, and confirms the reduction in NDVI in the last decade using both the AVHRR and MODIS satellite data.

  11. Mantle and crustal contribution in the genesis of Recent basalts from off-rift zones in Iceland: Constraints from Th, Sr and O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Condomines, Michel; Fourcade, Serge

    1992-05-01

    Along the two volcanic off-rift zones in Iceland, the Sn˦fellsnes volcanic zone (SNVZ) and the South Iceland volcanic zone (SIVZ), geochemical parameters vary regularly along the strike towards the centre of the island. Recent basalts from the SNVZ change from alkali basalts to tholeiites where the volcanic zone reaches the active rift axis, and their 87Sr/ 86Sr and Th/U ratios decrease in the same direction. These variations are interpreted as the result of mixing between mantle melts from two distinct reservoirs below Sn˦fellsnes. The mantle melt would be more depleted in incompatible elements, but with a higher 3He/ 4He ratio ( R/Ra≈ 20) beneath the centre of Iceland than at the tip of the Sn˦fellsnes volcanic zone ( R/Ra≈ 7.5). From southwest to northeast along the SIVZ, the basalts change from alkali basalts to FeTi basalts and quartz-normative tholeiites. The Th/U ratio of the Recent basalts increases and both ( 230Th/ 232Th ) and δ 18O values decrease in the same direction. This reflects an important crustal contamination of the FeTi-rich basalts and the quartz tholeiites. The two types of basalts could be produced through assimilation and fractional crystallization in which primary alkali basaltic and olivine tholeiitic melts 'erode' and assimilate the base of the crust. The increasingly tholeiitic character of the basalts towards the centre of Iceland, which reflects a higher degree of partial melting, is qualitatively consistent with increasing geothermal gradient and negative gravity anomaly. The highest Sr isotope ratio in Recent basalts from Iceland is observed inÖr˦fajökull volcano, which has a 3He/ 4He ratio ( R/Ra≈ 7.8) close to the MORB value, and this might represent a mantle source similar to that of Mauna Loa in Hawaii.

  12. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  13. Atmospheric aerosol dispersion models and their applications to environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Mazur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Numerical models of dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are widely used to forecast the spread of contaminants in the air and to analyze the effects of this phenomenon. The aim of the study is to investigate the possibilities and the quality of diagnosis and prediction of atmospheric transport of aerosols in the air using the dispersion model of atmospheric pollutants, developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM in Warsaw. Material and methods. A model of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants, linked with meteorological models in a diagnostic mode, was used to simulate the transport of the cloud of aerosols released during the crash near the town of Ożydiw (Ukraine and of volcanic ash – during the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. Results. Possible directions of dispersion of pollutants in the air and its concentration in the atmosphere and deposition to the soil were assessed. The analysis of temporal variability of concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere confirmed that the model developed at IMWM is an effective tool for diagnosis of air quality in the area of Poland as well as for determination of exposure duration to the aerosol clouds for different weather scenarios. Conclusions. The results are a confirmation of the thesis, that because in the environmental risk assessment, an important element is not only current information on the level of pollution concentrations, but also the time of exposure to pollution and forecast of these elements, and consequently the predicted effects on man or the environment in general; so it is necessary to use forecasting tools, similar to presented application. The dispersion model described in the paper is an operational tool for description, analysis and forecasting of emergency situations in case of emissions of hazardous substances.

  14. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  15. A robust method to forecast volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Pavolonis, Mike; Sieglaff, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Ash clouds emanating from volcanic eruption columns often form trails of ash extending thousands of kilometers through the Earth's atmosphere, disrupting air traffic and posing a significant hazard to air travel. To mitigate such hazards, the community charged with reducing flight risk must accurately assess risk of ash ingestion for any flight path and provide robust forecasts of volcanic ash dispersal. In response to this need, a number of different transport models have been developed for this purpose and applied to recent eruptions, providing a means to assess uncertainty in forecasts. Here we provide a framework for optimal forecasts and their uncertainties given any model and any observational data. This involves random sampling of the probability distributions of input (source) parameters to a transport model and iteratively running the model with different inputs, each time assessing the predictions that the model makes about ash dispersal by direct comparison with satellite data. The results of these comparisons are embodied in a likelihood function whose maximum corresponds to the minimum misfit between model output and observations. Bayes theorem is then used to determine a normalized posterior probability distribution and from that a forecast of future uncertainty in ash dispersal. The nature of ash clouds in heterogeneous wind fields creates a strong maximum likelihood estimate in which most of the probability is localized to narrow ranges of model source parameters. This property is used here to accelerate probability assessment, producing a method to rapidly generate a prediction of future ash concentrations and their distribution based upon assimilation of satellite data as well as model and data uncertainties. Applying this method to the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, we show that the 3 and 6 h forecasts of ash cloud location probability encompassed the location of observed satellite-determined ash cloud loads, providing an

  16. A study on the use of radar and lidar for characterizing ultragiant aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pappalardo, G.

    2013-09-01

    19 April to 19 May 2010, volcanic aerosol layers originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano were observed at the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the National Research Council of Italy Atmospheric Observatory, named CIAO (40.60°N, 15.72°E, 760 m above sea level), in Southern Italy with a multiwavelength Raman lidar. During this period, ultragiant aerosols were also observed at CIAO using a colocated 8.45 mm wavelength Doppler radar. The Ka-band radar signatures observed in four separate days (19 April and 7, 10, and 13 May) are consistent with the observation of nonspherical ultragiant aerosols characterized by values of linear depolarization ratio (LDR) higher than -4 dB. Air mass back trajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosols observed by the radar. The observed values of the radar reflectivity (Ze) are consistent with a particle effective radius (r) larger than 50-75 µm. Scattering simulations based on the T-matrix approach show that the high LDR values can be explained if the observed particles have an absolute aspect ratio larger than 3.0 and consist of an internal aerosol core and external ice shell, with a variable radius ratio ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 depending on the shape and aspect ratio. Comparisons between daytime vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient (β) as measured by lidar and radar LDR reveal a decrease of β where ultragiant particles are observed. Scattering simulations based on Mie theory show how the lidar capability in typing ultragiant aerosols could be limited by low number concentrations or by the presence of an external ice shell covering the aerosol particles. Preferential vertical alignment of the particles is discussed as another possible reason for the decrease of β.

  17. Total grain-size distribution of four subplinian-Plinian tephras from Hekla volcano, Iceland: Implications for sedimentation dynamics and eruption source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janebo, Maria H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bonadonna, Costanza; Carey, Rebecca J.

    2018-05-01

    The size distribution of the population of particles injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic explosive eruption, i.e., the total grain-size distribution (TGSD), can provide important insights into fragmentation efficiency and is a fundamental source parameter for models of tephra dispersal and sedimentation. Recent volcanic crisis (e.g. Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Iceland and Córdon Caulle 2011, Chile) and the ensuing economic losses, highlighted the need for a better constraint of eruption source parameters to be used in real-time forecasting of ash dispersal (e.g., mass eruption rate, plume height, particle features), with a special focus on the scarcity of published TGSD in the scientific literature. Here we present TGSD data associated with Hekla volcano, which has been very active in the last few thousands of years and is located on critical aviation routes. In particular, we have reconstructed the TGSD of the initial subplinian-Plinian phases of four historical eruptions, covering a range of magma composition (andesite to rhyolite), eruption intensity (VEI 4 to 5), and erupted volume (0.2 to 1 km3). All four eruptions have bimodal TGSDs with mass fraction of fine ash (primary fragmentation. Due to differences in plume height, this contrast is not seen in samples from individual sites, especially in the near field, where lapilli have a wider spatial coverage in the Plinian deposits. The distribution of pyroclast sizes in Plinian versus subplinian falls reflects competing influences of more efficient fragmentation (e.g., producing larger amounts of fine ash) versus more efficient particle transport related to higher and more vigorous plumes, displacing relatively coarse lapilli farther down the dispersal axis.

  18. Terminal zone glacial sediment transfer at a temperate overdeepened glacier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, D. A.; Cook, S. J.; Graham, D. J.; Midgley, N. G.; Fallick, A. E.; Storrar, R.; Toubes Rodrigo, M.; Evans, D. J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Continuity of sediment transfer through glacial systems is essential to maintain subglacial bedrock erosion, yet transfer at temperate glaciers with overdeepened beds, where subglacial fluvial sediment transport should be greatly limited by adverse slopes, remains poorly understood. Complex multiple transfer processes in temperate overdeepened systems has been indicated by the presence of large frontal moraine systems, supraglacial debris of mixed transport origin, thick basal ice sequences, and englacial thrusts and eskers. At Svínafellsjökull, thrusts comprising decimetre-thick debris-rich bands of stratified facies ice of basal origin, with a coarser size distribution and higher clast content than that observed in basal ice layers, contribute substantially to the transfer of subglacial material in the terminal zone. Entrainment and transfer of material occurs by simple shear along the upper surface of bands and by strain-induced deformation of stratified and firnified glacier ice below. Thrust material includes rounded and well-rounded clasts that are also striated, indicating that fluvial bedload is deposited as subglacial channels approach the overdeepening and then entrained along thrusts. Substantial transfer also occurs within basal ice, with facies type and debris content dependent on the hydrological connectedness of the adverse slope. A process model of transfer at glaciers with terminal overdeepenings is proposed, in which the geometry of the overdeepening influences spatial patterns of ice deformation, hydrology, and basal ice formation. We conclude that the significance of thrusting in maintaining sediment transfer continuity has likely been overlooked by glacier sediment budgets and glacial landscape evolution studies.

  19. Advances in Monitoring, Modelling and Forecasting Volcanic Ash Plumes over the Past 5 Years and the Impact on Preparedness from the London VAAC Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Lisk, I.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted and run by the Met Office, the London VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) is responsible for issuing advisories on the location and likely dispersion of ash clouds originating from volcanoes in the North East Atlantic, primarily from Iceland. These advisories and additional guidance products are used by the civil aviation community to make decisions on airspace flight management. London VAAC has specialist forecasters who use a combination of volcano source data, satellite-based, ground-based and aircraft observations, weather forecast models and dispersion models. Since the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, which resulted in the decision by many northern European countries to impose significant restrictions on the use of their airspace, London VAAC has been active in further developing its volcanic ash monitoring, modelling and forecasting capabilities, collaborating with research organisations, industry, other VAACs, Meteorological Services and the Volcano Observatory in Iceland. It has been necessary to advance operational capabilities to address evolving requirements, including for more quantitative assessments of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Here we summarise advances in monitoring, modelling and forecasting of volcanic ash plumes over the past 5 years from the London VAAC perspective, and the realization of science into operations. We also highlight the importance of collaborative activities, such as the 'VAAC Best Practice' Workshop, where information is exchanged between all nine VAACs worldwide on the operational practices in monitoring and forecasting volcanic ash, with the aim of working toward a more harmonized service for decision makers in the aviation community. We conclude on an evaluation of how better we are prepared for the next significant ash-rich Icelandic eruption, and the challenges still remaining.

  20. FUTUREVOLC: A European volcanological supersite in Iceland, a monitoring system and network for the future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Kristinsson, I.; Loughlin, S. C.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Hooper, A. J.; Kylling, A.; Witham, C. S.; Bean, C. J.; Braiden, A.; Ripepe, M.; Prata, F.; Jordan, C. J.; Team, F.

    2013-12-01

    FUTURVOLC is a collaborative project funded through a FP7 Environment 'supersite' call of the European Union, with 26 partners in 10 countries. The main objectives of FUTUREVOLC are to establish an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure, develop new methods to evaluate volcanic crises, increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes and improve delivery of relevant information to civil protection and authorities. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise in seismology, volcano deformation, volcanic gas and geochemistry, infrasound, eruption monitoring, physical volcanology, satellite studies of plumes, meteorology, ash dispersal forecasting, and civil protection. The consortium members together with a more extensive group of collaborators, has applied to CEOS for making the Iceland volcanoes a permanent geohazard supersite. In summer 2013 FUTUREVOLC partners improved volcano monitoring in Iceland by installing new equipment, including seismometers, GPS receivers, an infrasound array, and electrical sensors. A key element of the project is to combine Icelandic ground based monitoring data with satellite observations in an improved manner. This applies to different disciplines, including e.g. deformation from ground observations and InSAR, and quantification of volcanic ash clouds during eruptions by combining measurements from ground based infrared (IR) cameras and satellite microwave and IR detectors. The FUTUREVOLC project has open data policy for real-time data streams, near real-time data and science products. Implementation of a data hub will begin in 2013 with making available data for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access of monitoring data through one common interface will allow timely information on magma movements from combined interpretation of relocated earthquake sources, magma sources inferred from ground and space geodetic data, and measurements of volcanic volatiles. For better response during eruptions, the

  1. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  2. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  3. Bar deposition in glacial outburst floods: scaling, post-flood reworking, and implications for the geomorphological and sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marren, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The appearance of a flood deposit in the geomorphological and sedimentary record is a product of both the processes operating during the flood, and those that occur afterwards and which overprint the deposit with a record of 'normal' processes. This paper describes the creation and modification of jökulhlaup barforms in the Skeiðará river, relating the changes to post-flood fluvial processes and glacier retreat. Large compound bars formed from the amalgamation of unit bars up to 1.5 km long. Nearly half of the total discharge of the November 1996 jökulhlaup on Skeiðarársandur was discharged through the Skeiðará river. The flood deposits have been extensively reworked since, up until 2009 when the channel was abandoned, effectively leaving the Skeiðará as a terrace, when retreat of Skeiðarárjökull directed meltwater to the adjacent Gígjukvísl river system. Large compound bars formed in the flood channel, with their location governed by the macro-scale topography of the flood channel, and their size by upstream channel width in accordance with bar-scaling theory. Jökulhlaup bars are therefore scale invariant and formed in a similar fashion to braid bars in non-jökulhlaup braided rivers. Post-flood fragmentation and reworking of the bars consistently increased the length-width ratio of preserved bar fragments from approximately two and one half to over five. When combined with earlier work on the Skeiðará jökulhlaup bars, and studies of jökulhlaup deposits elsewhere on Skeiðarársandur these observations increase our understanding of the preservation potential and final form of jökulhlaup deposits and provide the basis for an improved model for the recognition of jökulhlaup deposits in the geomorphological and sedimentary record.

  4. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madankan, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pouget, S. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Singla, P., E-mail: psingla@buffalo.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Bursik, M. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Dehn, J. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States); Jones, M. [Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo (United States); Patra, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pavolonis, M. [NOAA-NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research (United States); Pitman, E.B. [Department of Mathematics, University at Buffalo (United States); Singh, T. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Webley, P. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions – height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters – are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 14–16 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  5. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Fred; Woodhouse, Mark; Huppert, Herbert E.; Prata, Andrew; Thordarson, Thor; Carn, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  6. Volcanic ash dosage calculator: A proof-of-concept tool to support aviation stakeholders during ash events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Prata, A.; Shine, K. P.; Irvine, E.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic ash clouds produced by Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 resulted in `no fly zones' which paralysed European aircraft activity and cost the airline industry an estimated £1.1 billion. In response to the crisis, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), in collaboration with Rolls Royce, produced the `safe-to-fly' chart. As ash concentrations are the primary output of dispersion model forecasts, the chart was designed to illustrate how engine damage progresses as a function of ash concentration. Concentration thresholds were subsequently derived based on previous ash encounters. Research scientists and aircraft manufactures have since recognised the importance of volcanic ash dosages; the accumulated concentration over time. Dosages are an improvement to concentrations as they can be used to identify pernicious situations where ash concentrations are acceptably low but the exposure time is long enough to cause damage to aircraft engines. Here we present a proof-of-concept volcanic ash dosage calculator; an innovative, web-based research tool, developed in close collaboration with operators and regulators, which utilises interactive data visualisation to communicate the uncertainty inherent in dispersion model simulations and subsequent dosage calculations. To calculate dosages, we use NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) to simulate several Icelandic eruption scenarios, which result in tephra dispersal across the North Atlantic, UK and Europe. Ash encounters are simulated based on flight-optimal routes derived from aircraft routing software. Key outputs of the calculator include: the along-flight dosage, exposure time and peak concentration. The design of the tool allows users to explore the key areas of uncertainty in the dosage calculation and to visualise how this changes as the planned flight path is varied. We expect that this research will result in better informed decisions from key stakeholders during

  7. Lidar observation of Eyjafjallajoekull ash layer evolution above the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Parlange, Mark; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; Wienhold, F.; Engel, I.; Brabec, M.; Crisian, A.; Peter, T.; Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, R.

    2010-05-01

    The Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull started to emit significant amounts of volcanic ash and SO2 on 15th April 2010, following the initial eruption on 20th March 2010. In the next days, the ash was dispersed over large parts of Europe resulting in the closure of the major part of the European airspace. Information about spatial and temporal evolution of the cloud was needed urgently to define the conditions for opening the airspace. Satellite, airborne and ground observations together with meteorological models were used to evaluate the cloud propagation and evolution. While the horizontal extents of the volcanic cloud were accurately captured by satellite images, it remained difficult to obtain accurate information about the cloud base and top height, density and dynamics. During this event lidars demonstrated that they were the only ground based instruments allowing monitoring of the vertical distribution of the volcanic ash. Here we present observational results showing the evolution of the volcanic layer over the Swiss plateau. The measurements were carried out by one Raman lidar located in Payerne, two elastic lidars located in Neuchatel and Zurich, and a backscatter sonde launched from Zurich. The observations by the lidars have shown very similar time evolution, coherent with the backscatter sonde profiles and characterized by the appearance of the ash layer on the evening of 16th, followed by descend to 2-3 km during the next day and final mixing with the ABL on 19th. Simultaneous water vapor data from the Payerne lidar show low water content of the ash layer. The CSEM and EPFL gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the European Commission under grant RICA-025991.

  8. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    moraines here formed as push moraines in two groups separated by a former proglacial basin and are composed dominantly of pre-existing proglacial outwash gravel through efficient bulldozing of the glacier front (Lukas, 2012). These findings show a range of mechanisms responsible for moraine formation. Furthermore, basal freeze-on processes incorporating subglacial sediment (till) have not been recorded in high-mountain moraine formation, suggesting a commonality of seasonal climatic controls between the glacier dynamics of high-mountain glaciers and those in more lowland, maritime settings. References Andersen, J.L., and Sollid, J.L., 1971, Glacial Chronology and Glacial Geomorphology in the Marginal Zones of the Glaciers, Midtdalsbreen and Nigardsbreen, South Norway: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, v. 25, no. 1, p. 1-38, doi: 10.1080/00291957108551908. Beedle, M.J., Menounos, B., Luckman, B.H., and Wheate, R., 2009, Annual push moraines as climate proxy: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, no. 20, p. L20501, doi: 10.1029/2009GL039533. Boulton, G.S., 1986, Push-moraines and glacier-contact fans in marine and terrestrial environments: Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 677-698. Evans, D.J.A., and Benn, D.I., 2004, A Practical Guide to the Study of Glacial Sediments: Hodder Education, London, United Kingdom. Hewitt, K., 1967, Ice-Front Deposition and the Seasonal Effect: A Himalayan Example: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, v. 42, p. 93-106. Kjær, K.H., and Krüger, J., 2001, The final phase of dead-ice moraine development: processes and sediment architecture, Kötlujökull, Iceland: Sedimentology, v. 48, p. 935-952. Krüger, J., 1995, Origin, chronology and climatological significance of annual-moraine ridges at Myrdalsjökull, Iceland: The Holocene, v. 5, no. 4, p. 420-427. Lukas, S., 2012, Processes of annual moraine formation at a temperate alpine valley glacier: insights into glacier dynamics and climatic controls: Boreas, v

  9. Retrieving simulated volcanic, desert dust and sea-salt particle properties from two/three-component particle mixtures using UV-VIS polarization lidar and T matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. David

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During transport by advection, atmospheric nonspherical particles, such as volcanic ash, desert dust or sea-salt particles experience several chemical and physical processes, leading to a complex vertical atmospheric layering at remote sites where intrusion episodes occur. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to analyse this complex vertical layering in the case of a two/three-component particle external mixtures. This methodology relies on an analysis of the spectral and polarization properties of the light backscattered by atmospheric particles. It is based on combining a sensitive and accurate UV-VIS polarization lidar experiment with T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back trajectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization lidar is used to efficiently partition the particle mixture into its nonspherical components, while the T-matrix method is used for simulating the backscattering and depolarization properties of nonspherical volcanic ash, desert dust and sea-salt particles. It is shown that the particle mixtures' depolarization ratio δ p differs from the nonspherical particles' depolarization ratio δns due to the presence of spherical particles in the mixture. Hence, after identifying a tracer for nonspherical particles, particle backscattering coefficients specific to each nonspherical component can be retrieved in a two-component external mixture. For three-component mixtures, the spectral properties of light must in addition be exploited by using a dual-wavelength polarization lidar. Hence, for the first time, in a three-component external mixture, the nonsphericity of each particle is taken into account in a so-called 2β + 2δ formalism. Applications of this new methodology are then demonstrated in two case studies carried out in Lyon, France, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash with sulfate particles (case of a two-component mixture and to the mixing of dust with sea-salt and water-soluble particles

  10. Lidar data assimilation for improved analyses of volcanic aerosol events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    data in a variational data assimilation algorithm. The implemented method is tested by the assimilation of CALIPSO attenuated backscatter data that were taken during the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010. It turned out that the implemented module is fully capable to integrate unexpected aerosol events in an automatic way into reasonable analyses. The estimations of the aerosol mass concentrations showed promising properties for the application of observations that are taken by lidar systems with both, higher and lower sophistication than CALIOP.

  11. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    scientists and stakeholders, and enabling the generation of products and services useful for civil protection, societal infrastructure and international aviation. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption demonstrated that eruption and dispersion of volcanic ash in the atmosphere can have far-reaching detrimental effects on aviation. The aviation community is therefore an important stakeholder in volcano monitoring, but interaction between the two communities is not well established. Traditionally Met Offices provide services vital to aviation safety and therefore have strong ties to the aviation community, with internationally established protocols for interaction. The co-habitation of a Met Office with a VO establishes a firm connection between these communities and allows adaptation of already established protocols to facilitate access to information and development of services for aviation, as well as sources of support for the VO.

  12. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was

  13. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task

  14. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP, in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in

  15. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Tair, Erta Ale, Manda Hararo, Dalafilla, Nabro, Ol Doinyo Lengai, Nyiamulagira, Nyiragongo, Etna, Stromboli, Eyjafjallajökull, Grimsvötn, Soufriere Hills) showing radiant fluxes above ~0.5 GW and/or SO2 columns in excess of ~6 DU. Porting of automated thermal algorithms on MTSAT's JAMI (orbiting at 145°E) was developed on the eruptions of Merapi, Semeru Kliuchevskoi, Bezymianny and Shiveluch in 2006-2007, calibrated on the frequent activity of Batu Tara, and demonstrated on the 2012-2013 large eruption of Tolbachik.

  16. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2017-04-01

    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  17. Statistical analysis of dispersal and deposition patterns of volcanic emissions from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P.; Takemi, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iguchi, Masato; Jenkins, Susanna F.

    2018-04-01

    With the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) in 2010, interest in the transport of volcanic ash after moderate to major eruptions has increased with regards to both the physical and the emergency hazard management aspects. However, there remain significant gaps in the understanding of the long-term behaviour of emissions from volcanoes with long periods of activity. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan) provides us with a rare opportunity to study such activity, due to its eruptive behaviour and dense observation network. In the 6-year period from 2009 to 2015, the volcano was erupting at an almost constant rate introducing approximately 500 kt of ash per month to the atmosphere. The long-term characteristics of the transport and deposition of ash and SO2 in the area surrounding the volcano are studied here using daily surface observations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and SO2 and monthly ashfall values. Results reveal different dispersal patterns for SO2 and volcanic ash, suggesting volcanic emissions' separation in the long-term. Peak SO2 concentrations at different locations on the volcano vary up to 2 orders of magnitude and decrease steeply with distance. Airborne volcanic ash increases SPM concentrations uniformly across the area surrounding the volcano, with distance from the vent having a secondary effect. During the period studied here, the influence of volcanic emissions was identifiable both in SO2 and SPM concentrations which were, at times, over the recommended exposure limits defined by the Japanese government, European Union and the World Health Organisation. Depositional patterns of volcanic ash exhibit elements of seasonality, consistent with previous studies. Climatological and topographic effects are suspected to impact the deposition of volcanic ash away from the vent: for sampling stations located close to complex topographical elements, sharp changes in the deposition patterns were observed, with ash deposits for neighbouring stations as close as

  18. Holocene evolution of aquatic bioactivity and terrestrial erosion inferred from Skorarvatn, Vestfirðir, Iceland: Where is the Little Ice Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harning, D.; Geirsdottir, A.; Miller, G. H.

    2016-12-01

    Icelandic lake sediment is well suited to provide high-resolution, well-dated continuous archives of North Atlantic climate variability. We provide new insight into the Holocene climate evolution of Vestfirðir, NW Iceland, from a 10.3 ka multi-proxy lake sediment record from non-glacial lake Skorarvatn. Age control is derived from a combination of tephrochronology and 14C-dated macrofossils. Sediment samples were analyzed for both physical (MS, density) and biological (TC, TN, δ13C, δ15N, C/N, BSi) climate proxies, providing a sub-centennial record of aquatic bioactivity and terrestrial landscape stability, and hence, summer temperature. The lake basin was ice free by at least 10.3 ka yet the waning Icelandic Ice Sheet persisted in the catchment until 9.3 ka. The local Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), inferred from maximum aquatic bioactivity, spans 8.9 to 7.2 ka but was interrupted by significant cooling at 8.2 ka. In accordance with other Icelandic climate records documenting progressively cooler summers following the HTM, our record reveals reduced aquatic productivity and elevated terrestrial erosion toward the present. Superimposed on this 1st order trend are abrupt episodes of cooling, inferred from low aquatic bioactivity and/or enhanced landscape instability, at 6.4, 4.2, 3, 2.5 and 1.5 ka. Surprisingly, there is no clear indication of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in our record despite evidence for the local ice cap, Drangajökull, attaining maximum areal coverage at this time. Persistently low temperatures inferred from reduced aquatic productivity plateau at 2 ka whereas increasing terrestrial erosion ceases at 1 ka. Lack of a catchment erosion signal during the LIA may be the result of depleted catchment soils and/or perennially frozen ground preventing the mobilization of soil and vegetation. With the exception of the LIA, Skorarvatn's qualitative summer temperature record corresponds closely to summer sea surface temperature and sea ice records on the

  19. Looking Backward and Forward: A Decadal View of Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In many scientific fields, decades are the time intervals of choice for retrospective and prospective reflections and speculations. AGU Session V02 seeks to apply this perspective to the assessment of where volcanology has been since 2000 and where it is headed in the next ten years. Most sciences progress through incremental observational, experimental and theoretical steps, accelerated by the identification of new socially-relevant applications, technological breakthroughs or conceptual insights, and jolted by largely unanticipated events. Volcanology is unusual in the dominant role that unpredictable eruptive observations play in controlling the evolution of the discipline. As a result, the most important constraints on how the field will change are virtually unknowable. At a session at the Fall AGU meeting in 2000 on "Volcanology 2010" a dozen talks sought to forecast how volcano science and policy would change in the next ten years, focusing on such topics as seismology, petrology, remote sensing, deformation, volcano-tectonic interactions, communications, graduate education, international cooperation, numerical modeling, database querying, and networking of observatories. While progress occurred in many of these areas, what was perhaps the most important influence on volcanology was not mentioned: for the first 9.5 years of the decade, there were no eruptions disastrous or novel enough to garner global public or political attention, with associated prioritization by funding agencies. The notable exception was the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in mid-2010, which captured the western world’s attention due to the magnitude of the disruption, the frustrating inability of scientists to provide guidance, and the fortunate lack of casualties. We can expect continuing technical advances in all aspects of geoscience to improve the understanding of volcanic processes in the coming decade. However, another natural disaster in 2010 might hold more relevance for how

  20. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Natalie J.; Huntley, Nathan; Dacre, Helen F.; Goldstein, Michael; Thomson, David; Webster, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations for a small operational

  1. Strain Anomalies during an Earthquake Sequence in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Haines, A. J.; Geirsson, H.; Hreinsdottir, S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) accommodates E-W translation due to oblique spreading between the North American/Hreppar microplate and Eurasian plate, in South Iceland. Strain is released in the SISZ during earthquake sequences that last days to years, at average intervals of 80-100 years. The SISZ is currently in the midst of an earthquake sequence that started with two M6.5 earthquakes in June 2000, and continued with two M6 earthquakes in May 2008. Estimates of geometric strain accumulation, and seismic strain release in these events indicate that they released at most only half of the strain accumulated since the last earthquake cycle in 1896-1912. Annual GPS campaigns and continuous measurements during 2001-2015 were used to calculate station velocities and strain rates from a new method using the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS). This new method allows higher resolution of strain rates than other (older) approaches, as the strain rates are estimated by integrating VDoHS rates obtained by inversion rather than differentiating interpolated GPS velocities. Estimating the strain rates for eight 1-2 year intervals indicates temporal and spatial variation of strain rates in the SISZ. In addition to earthquake faulting, the strain rates in the SISZ are influenced by anthropogenic signals due to geothermal exploitation, and magma movements in neighboring volcanoes - Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull. Subtle signals of post-seismic strain rate changes are seen following the June 2000 M6.5 main shocks, but interestingly, much larger strain rate variations are observed after the two May 2008 M6 main shocks. A prominent strain anomaly is evident in the epicentral area prior to the May 2008 earthquake sequence. The strain signal persists over at least 4 years in the epicentral area, leading up to the M6 main shocks. The strain is primarily extension in ESE-WNW direction (sub-parallel to the direction of plate spreading), but overall shear across the N

  2. A comparison of new, old and future densiometic techniques as applied to volcanologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Matthew; Moreland, William; Dobson, Kate; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Fitton, Godfrey; Lee, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The density of any material imposes a primary control upon its potential or actual physical behaviour in relation to its surrounds. It follows that a thorough understanding of the physical behaviour of dynamic, multi-component systems, such as active volcanoes, requires knowledge of the density of each component. If we are to accurately predict the physical behaviour of synthesized or natural volcanic systems, quantitative densiometric measurements are vital. The theoretical density of melt, crystals and bubble phases may be calculated using composition, structure, temperature and pressure inputs. However, measuring the density of natural, non-ideal, poly-phase materials remains problematic, especially if phase specific measurement is important. Here we compare three methods; Archimedes principle, He-displacement pycnometry and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMT) and discuss the utility and drawbacks of each in the context of modern volcanologic study. We have measured tephra, ash and lava from the 934 AD Eldgjá eruption (Iceland), and the 2010 AD Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland), using each technique. These samples exhibit a range of particle sizes, phases and textures. We find that while the Archimedes method remains a useful, low-cost technique to generate whole-rock density data, relative precision is problematic at small particles sizes. Pycnometry offers a more precise whole-rock density value, at a comparable cost-per-sample. However, this technique is based upon the assumption pore spaces within the sample are equally available for gas exchange, which may or may not be the case. XMT produces 3D images, at resolutions from nm to tens of µm per voxel where X-ray attenuation is a qualitative measure of relative electron density, expressed as greyscale number/brightness (usually 16-bit). Phases and individual particles can be digitally segmented according to their greyscale and other characteristics. This represents a distinct advantage over both

  3. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  4. Reconstructing volcanic plume evolution integrating satellite and ground-based data: application to the 23 November 2013 Etna eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poret, Matthieu; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Costa, Antonio; Andronico, Daniele; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin

    2018-04-01

    Recent explosive volcanic eruptions recorded worldwide (e.g. Hekla in 2000, Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, Cordón-Caulle in 2011) demonstrated the necessity for a better assessment of the eruption source parameters (ESPs; e.g. column height, mass eruption rate, eruption duration, and total grain-size distribution - TGSD) to reduce the uncertainties associated with the far-travelling airborne ash mass. Volcanological studies started to integrate observations to use more realistic numerical inputs, crucial for taking robust volcanic risk mitigation actions. On 23 November 2013, Etna (Italy) erupted, producing a 10 km height plume, from which two volcanic clouds were observed at different altitudes from satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS). One was retrieved as mainly composed of very fine ash (i.e. PM20), and the second one as made of ice/SO2 droplets (i.e. not measurable in terms of ash mass). An atypical north-easterly wind direction transported the tephra from Etna towards the Calabria and Apulia regions (southern Italy), permitting tephra sampling in proximal (i.e. ˜ 5-25 km from the source) and medial areas (i.e. the Calabria region, ˜ 160 km). A primary TGSD was derived from the field measurement analysis, but the paucity of data (especially related to the fine ash fraction) prevented it from being entirely representative of the initial magma fragmentation. To better constrain the TGSD assessment, we also estimated the distribution from the X-band weather radar data. We integrated the field and radar-derived TGSDs by inverting the relative weighting averages to best fit the tephra loading measurements. The resulting TGSD is used as input for the FALL3D tephra dispersal model to reconstruct the whole tephra loading. Furthermore, we empirically modified the integrated TGSD by enriching the PM20 classes until the numerical results were able to reproduce the airborne ash mass retrieved from satellite data. The resulting TGSD is inverted by best-fitting the field, ground

  5. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns

  6. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark repository of the two remote sensing supersites is under construction, providing high-resolution LIDAR topography and hyperspectral data for land-cover and landform classification. Furthermore, a multi-temporal and multi-source archive stretching back to 1945 allows a decadal evaluation of landscape and ecological changes for the two remote sensing super sites by the development of automated change detection techniques. The development of innovative pattern recognition and machine learning-based approaches to image classification and change detection is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project, aiming to extract and compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible. Ground reference data collected through a field campaign will be used to validate the implemented methods, which outputs are then inferred with geological and vegetation models. Here, preliminary results of an automatic land-cover classification based on hyperspectral image analysis are reported. Furthermore, the EMMIRS project

  7. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations

  8. Volcanic Ash Cloud Observations with the DLR-Falcon over Europe during Airspace Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Reitebuch, Oliver; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Rahm, Stephan; Scheibe, Monika; Lichtenstern, Michael; Forster, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    At the time of the EGU conference, the volcano ash plume originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in Iceland was probed during 9 flights with the DLR Falcon research aircraft in the region between Germany and Iceland at 1-11 km altitudes between April 19 and May 3, 2010. The Falcon was instrumented with a downward looking, scanning 2-µm-Wind-Lidar (aerosol backscattering and horizontal wind, 100 m vertical resolution), and several in-situ instruments. The particle instrumentation, including wing station probes (PCASP, FSSP-300) cover particle number and size from 5 nm to some tens of µm. Further in-situ instruments measured O3, CO, SO2, H2O, and standard meteorological parameters. Flight planning was based on numerical weather forecasts, trajectory-based particle-dispersion models, satellite observations and ground based Lidar observations, from many sources. During the flight on April 19, 2010, layers of volcanic ash were detected first by Lidar and then probed in-situ. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the volcanic ash layers over Eastern Germany was highly variable at that time. Calculations with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART indicate that the volcanic ash plumes measured by the Falcon had an age of 4-5 days. The concentrations of large particles measured in the volcanic aerosol layers are comparable to concentrations measured typically in fresh (age 3000 kg/s, strong chemistry - Lidar signal and FSSP-300 signal strongly dependent on refractive index, ash density, particle size spectrum 1- 50 µm - Mid-European airspace closure was justified until Sat. April 17; thereafter ageing ash clouds dominated. - Keflavik/Iceland was found to be free of ash as predicted on April 29 - May 2 - The Quality of forecasts was found to be quite reliable for aviation planning - For the future we recommend combinations of models + lidar + satellite + in-situ - We suggest an improved linking between operations and academia - The DLR Falcon will

  9. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: A study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. MethodsA physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. ResultsIcelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% < 4 μm), but the samples did not display physicochemical characteristics of pathogenic particulate in terms of composition or morphology. Ash particles were generally angular, being composed of fragmented glass and crystals. Few fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m2 g−1, which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO•), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after ‘refreshing’ sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m−2, with mafic samples releasing more iron

  10. Long-period seismicity reveals magma pathways above a laterally propagating dyke during the 2014-15 Bárðarbunga rifting event, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer; Donaldson, Clare; White, Robert S.; Caudron, Corentin; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Hudson, Thomas S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg

    2018-05-01

    The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun rifting event comprised the best-monitored dyke intrusion to date and the largest eruption in Iceland in 230 years. A huge variety of seismicity was produced, including over 30,000 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VTs) associated with the dyke propagation at ∼6 km depth below sea level, and large-magnitude earthquakes accompanying the collapse of Bárðarbunga caldera. We here study the long-period seismicity associated with the rifting event. We systematically detect and locate both long-period events (LPs) and tremor during the dyke propagation phase and the first week of the eruption. We identify clusters of highly similar, repetitive LPs, which have a peak frequency of ∼1 Hz and clear P and S phases followed by a long-duration coda. The source mechanisms are remarkably consistent between clusters and also fundamentally different to those of the VTs. We accurately locate LP clusters near each of three ice cauldrons (depressions formed by basal melting) that were observed on the surface of Dyngjujökull glacier above the path of the dyke. Most events are in the vicinity of the northernmost cauldron, at shallower depth than the VTs associated with lateral dyke propagation. At the two northerly cauldrons, periods of shallow seismic tremor following the clusters of LPs are also observed. Given that the LPs occur at ∼4 km depth and in swarms during times of dyke-stalling, we infer that they result from excitation of magmatic fluid-filled cavities and indicate magma ascent. We suggest that the tremor is the climax of the vertical melt movement, arising from either rapid, repeated excitation of the same LP cavities, or sub-glacial eruption processes. This long-period seismicity therefore represents magma pathways between the depth of the dyke-VT earthquakes and the surface. Notably, we do not detect tremor associated with each cauldron, despite melt reaching the base of the overlying ice cap, a concern for hazard monitoring.

  11. Graben formation during the Bárðarbunga rifting event in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    On the 16th of August 2014, an intense seismic swarm was detected at the Bárðarbunga caldera (central Iceland), which migrated to the east and then to the northeast during the following days. The swarm, highlighting magma propagation pathway from the caldera, migrated laterally during the following two weeks over 40 km. By the end of August, a volcanic eruption had started along a north-south oriented fissure located ~45 km from the caldera. Here we focus on the near-field deformation related to the dike emplacement in the shallow crust, which generated in few days an 8 km long by 0.8 km wide graben (depression) structure. The new graben extends from the northern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier and to the north to the eruptive fissure. We analyze the temporal evolution of the graben by integrating structural mapping using multiple acquisitions of TerraSAR-X amplitude radar images, InSAR and ground-truth data with GPS and structural measurements. Pixel-offset tracking of radar amplitude images shows clearly the graben subsidence, directly above the intrusion pathway, of up to 6 meters in the satellite line-of-sight direction. We installed a GPS profile of 15 points across the graben in October 2014 and measured its depth up to 8 meters, relative to the flanks of the graben. Field structural observations show graben collapse structures that typically accompany dike intrusions, with two tilted blocks dipping toward the graben axis, bordered by two normal faults. Extensive fractures at the center of the graben and at the graben edges show a cumulative extension of ~8 meters. The formation of the graben was also accompanied by strong seismic activity locally, constraining the time frame period of the main graben formation subsidence. Our results show a rare case of a graben formation captured from space and from ground observations. Such structures are the dominant features along rift zones, however, their formation remain poorly understood. The results also provide

  12. Forecast communication through the newspaper Part 1: Framing the forecaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2015-04-01

    This review is split into two parts both of which address issues of forecast communication of an environmental disaster through the newspaper during a period of crisis. The first part explores the process by which information passes from the scientist or forecaster, through the media filter, to the public. As part of this filter preference, omission, selection of data, source, quote and story, as well as placement of the same information within an individual piece or within the newspaper itself, can serve to distort the message. The result is the introduction of bias and slant—that is, the message becomes distorted so as to favor one side of the argument against another as it passes through the filter. Bias can be used to support spin or agenda setting, so that a particular emphasis becomes placed on the story which exerts an influence on the reader's judgment. The net result of the filter components is either a negative (contrary) or positive (supportive) frame. Tabloidization of the news has also resulted in the use of strong, evocative, exaggerated words, headlines and images to support a frame. I illustrate these various elements of the media filter using coverage of the air space closure due to the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland). Using the British press coverage of this event it is not difficult to find examples of all media filter elements, application of which resulted in bias against the forecast and forecaster. These actors then became named and blamed. Within this logic, it becomes only too easy for forecasters and scientists to be framed in a negative way through blame culture. The result is that forecast is framed in such a way so as to cause the forecaster to be blamed for all losses associated with the loss-causing event. Within the social amplification of risk framework (SARF), this can amplify a negative impression of the risk, the event and the response. However, actions can be taken to avoid such an outcome. These actions

  13. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: a study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David E; Horwell, Claire J; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-09-11

    The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. Icelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m 2  g -1 , which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO • ), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after 'refreshing' sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m -2 , with mafic samples releasing more iron than silicic samples. All samples were non-reactive in a test of red blood cell-membrane damage. The primary particle-specific concern is the potential for future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to generate fine, respirable material and, thus, to

  14. Iron dissolution from volcanic ash in low-pH atmospheric water: a key control on volcanic iron input to the surface ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, E.; Delmelle, P.; Ayris, P. M.; Opfergelt, S.

    2012-12-01

    to 6 h suggest that early Fe release is not due solely to the dissolution of surface salts, as has been suggested in previous ash leach studies. The initial preferential release of Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and K relative to Si may indicate silicate leaching by proton exchange.The approach of leachate ratios to bulk ratios over time suggests progression towards congruent dissolution of the silicate network. Notably, the two samples which exhibited the highest Fe release were unique in displaying a preferential release of Fe2+ relative to Fe3+ (Fe2+/Fe3+leachate = 4.3 and 2.1), suggesting that Fe speciation in the ash may act as a key control on ash Fe solubility. Remarkably, the ash from the second explosive phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland, which exhibited a strong enrichment in soluble fluoride (F) inherited from gas-ash interaction within the eruption plume, displayed a total Fe release 5 to 10 times greater than that of the other ash samples. Calculations of silicate glass dissolution rates based on ash and leachate compositions suggest that the presence of soluble F significantly enhances Fe solubility in this sample. Therefore, plume processing of the ash is posited to exert a key control on the Fe release behaviour in solution of volcanic ash sourced from different eruptions.

  15. From academy to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    is necessary to have a proprietary ARC which has been successfully studied in preclinical studies and then in phase I and II trials in an indication covering a high number of patients. Prostate cancer can be such an indication. First the recently approved drugs for the treatment of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant cancer (mCRPC) leave a lot of space for improvement. Second, an antibody, directed to extra-cellular part of PSMA (J591) and labeled with lutetium-177, has been developed by Weill Cornell Medical College in the USA and has shown good tolerance and dose-dependent anti-tumor effect in phases I and II trials in mCRPC patients Based on these exciting results, ATLAB Pharma is now preparing a Phase III study. References: [1] Press OW, Palanca-Wessels M.C.; Selection of first-line therapy for advanced follicular lymphoma, J. Clin. Oncol. 2013 - 31: 1496- 1499; [2] Liersch, T.; Meller, J.; Kulle, B.; Behr, T.M.; Markus, P.; Langer, C., et al.; Phase II trial of carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunotherapy with 131 I-labetuzumab after salvage resection of colorectal metastases in the liver: five-year safety and efficacy results, J. Clin. Oncol. 2005 - 23: 6763-70; [3] Tagawa, S.T.; Akhtar, N.H.; Osborne, J.; Christos, P.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Kahn, R.; Ecker, C.; Morris, M.J.; Milowsky, M.I.; Bander, N.H.; Nanus, D.M.; Phase II trial of 177 lutetium radiolabeled anti-PSMA antibody J591( 177 Lu-J591) for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (metCRPC): survival update and expansion cohort with bio-markers. ASCO 2013, Genitourinary cancer meeting, Orlando 14-16 February, 2013. (author)

  16. Teach First Norway - who joins and what are their initial motivations for teaching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Nesje

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivasjon for å undervise er et tema som er mye diskutert i offentlige debatter og i forskningslitteraturen. Grunnen til dette er at læreres profesjonelle motivasjon har vist seg å påvirke elevenes motivasjon, læreres tilfredshet i jobben, fravær og turnover i læreryrket, samt rekruttering av nye lærere. Alternative lærerutdanninger som tilbyr en raskere vei inn i læreryrket har i de senere årene blitt etablert, både i Norge og internasjonalt. Denne studien undersøker om den profesjonelle motivasjonen til kandidater som rekrutteres til disse programmene har spesielle kjennetegn. Artikkelen undersøker både motivasjon for undervisning og motivasjon for å delta i det alternative lederopplærings- og lærerutdanningsprogrammet Teach First Norway. Datamaterialet består av spørreskjemadata og intervjudata fra ett kull (N=13 Teach First Norway-kandidater. Basert på spørreskjemadata ble det utført en klyngeanalyse som fant tre motivasjonsprofiler: “Lav altruistisk motivasjon”, “Interesse for undervisning” og “Høy altruistisk motivasjon”. Ved hjelp av kvalitative intervjuer ble motivasjonsprofilene utdypet. Resultatene viser at samspillet mellom deltakernes ulike motivasjonsfaktorer er kompleks og unik. Det stereotype bildet av en Teach First Norway-kandidat som bruker programmet som et springbrett inn i lederstillinger i næringslivet nyanseres som følge av funnene.Nøkkelord: alternativ lærerutdanning, motivasjon for å undervise, karriere, Teach First NorwayAbstractTeacher motivation is a widely discussed topic in public debates and educational research literature. Prior research has found that teachers’ professional motivation impacts students’ motivation, teachers’ professional satisfaction, teacher absenteeism and turnover, as well as the recruitment of new teachers. Recently, the introduction of alternative teacher education programmes has provided a faster way into the teaching profession. This study

  17. A first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland): from the volcanic crisis in 2014 towards a tool for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Jónsdottir, Kristín; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Larsen, Gudrun; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Bárdarbunga volcano is part of a large volcanic system that had its last confirmed eruption before the present unrest in 1910. This system is partially covered by ice within the Vatnajökull glacier and it extends further to the NNE as well as to SW. Based on historical data, its eruptive activity has been predominantly characterized by explosive eruptions, originating beneath the glacier, and important effusive eruptions in the ice-free part of the system itself. The largest explosive eruptions took place on the southern side of the fissure system in AD 1477 producing about 10 km3 of tephra. Due to the extension and location of this volcanic system, the range of potential eruptive scenarios and associated hazards is quite wide. Indeed, it includes: inundation, due to glacial outburst; tephra fallout, due to ash-rich plume generated by magma-water interaction; abundant volcanic gas release; and lava flows. Most importantly these phenomena are not mutually exclusive and might happen simultaneously, creating the premise for a wide spatial and temporal impact. During the ongoing volcanic crisis at Bárdarbunga, which started on 16 August, 2014, the Icelandic Meteorological Office, together with the University of Iceland and Icelandic Civil Protection started a common effort of drawing, day-by-day, the potential evolution of the ongoing rifting event and, based on the newest data from the monitoring networks, updated and more refined scenarios have been identified. Indeed, this volcanic crisis created the occasion for pushing forward the creation of the first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We adopted the approach suggested by Newhall and Pallister (2014) and a preliminary ET made of nine nodes has been constructed. After the two initial nodes (restless and genesis) the ET continues with the identification of the location of aperture of future eruptive vents. Due to the complex structure of the system and historical eruptions, this third node

  18. Yrkesstolthet og frafall i kokkeyrket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Eben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hvorfor vurderer så mange kokker å skifte yrke når det samtidig viser seg at mange også er stolte av yrket sitt (Spetalen, Eben & Jahnlu, 2016; St. Olav Hospital, 2013, Tidemann & Myklebust, 2005? Denne artikkelen vil rette oppmerksomheten på mulige årsaker til dette, og hvorfor restaurantkokker vurderer å endre arbeidsplass eller yrkesmulighet. Restaurantbransjen er i rask utvikling og befolkningen spiser stadig oftere på restaurant (Bugge & Lavik, 2007. Samtidig synker rekruteringen til kokkeyrket (Sundquist, 2016. Det er derfor viktig å drøfte hvilke faktorer som har betydning for at restaurantkokker forlater yrket etter forholdsvis kort tid.Problemstillingen er; Hvorfor vurderer så mange kokker å skifte yrke når de er så stolte av yrket sitt?I denne artikkelen er det gjennomført en reanalyse av grunnlagsmaterialet som ble presentert i rapporten «Yrkesutøvelse i restaurant og matfagene – Arbeidsoppgaver, prioriteringer og forskjeller» (Spetalen, Eben & Jahnlu, 2016. I tillegg til denne univariate analysen har jeg også sammenliknet gjennomsnitt og testet hypoteser ved hjelp av T-test og ANOVA i SPSS (Johannessen, 2009; Pallant, 2013.  Studenter ved bachelorutdanningen i Restaurant og matfag, kull 2013 ved Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, tok utgangspunkt i dataene fra Spetalen et al. (2016 i sine bacheloroppgaver. I samarbeid med tre studenter er det gjennomført kvalitative intervjuer med til sammen 23 nåværende og tidligere kokker. For å forklare dataene har jeg trukket inn det organisasjonsteoretiske begrepet «turnover» siden dette er et tydelig problem i restaurantbransjen. Faktorer som tiltrekker og frastøter medarbeideren i forhold til yrket, er også med i diskusjonen for å forklare funnene (Lashley, 2000; Brochs-Haukedal, 2010; Kuvås, 2013. Med bakgrunn i funnene fra de kvalitative intervjuene kan man anta at følgende årsaker veier tungt når kokker aktivt søker annen yrkeskarriere:Ledelse – mangel p

  19. Petrography and petrology of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Bali, Enikő; Jakobsson, Sigurður; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Höskuldssson, Ármann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; The 2014 Nornahraun Eruption Team

    2015-04-01

    The on-going fissure eruption north of Dyngjujökull is becoming the largest of its kind in Iceland since the 1783-84 Laki eruption. The erupted lava is olivine tholeiite, containing up to 5% normative olivine. It is relatively macrocryst-poor, initially containing less than 1% phenocrysts by volume, increasing to over 1% as the eruption has progressed. Plagioclase is the dominant macrocryst phase but olivine and augite are also present. In most of the samples, crystallization of the groundmass is substantial, with plagioclase and augite as the key groundmass minerals and minor olivine. It features subophitic texture, typical for olivine tholeiites, where the interstitial glass contains dendritic Fe-Ti oxide. During the first two months of the eruption, magma composition has been constant, displaying uniform major and trace element composition and nearly uniform isotopic compositions (Halldórsson et al. (a), this session). The major and trace element contents, in addition to the isotope ratios of lead, are indistinguishable from basalts in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Halldórsson et al. (b), this session). The compositional trends are consistent with crystallization along the ol-plag-cpx cotectic. Crystallization depth estimates, based on the pressure dependence of the cotectic (Yang et al., 1996), indicate that the magma equilibrated at a minimum depth between 6-9 km, consistent with depth estimates derived from CO2-bearing fluid inclusions trapped in plagioclase phenocrysts (Bali et al., this session). The bulk of the earthquakes associated with this volcano-tectonic episode are also in this range (e.g., Sigmundsson et al., 2015). Calculations with several different magma geothermometers suggest that the temperature of the magma as it rises to the surface is about 1170-1180°C, in good agreement with on-site measurements by thermal imaging cameras. The eruption has been characterized by steady, high emission of SO2. The sulfur-rich nature of the lava is

  20. Holocene eruption history in Iceland - Eruption frequency vs. Tephra layer frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladottir, B. A.; Larsen, G.

    2012-12-01

    preservation conditions at a particular location can be good at one time but poor at another, e.g. after deposition of metre thick tephra suffocating the vegetation. Several locations must be studied in order to prevent localised bias in the data. A good approximation of how many tephra layers are lost from the soil record is vital to estimate actual eruption frequency in prehistoric time from the tephra layer frequency. One way to obtain that information is to compare the historical tephra record from the soil to all available records of historical volcanic activity, in particular written records and, in case of volcanoes within ice caps, the tephra stratigraphy preserved in the ice. The ratio between preserved historical tephra layers and known historical eruptions from other records provides a preservation ratio that can be used with the tephra layer frequency to estimate the actual eruption frequency of a volcano, assuming that the preservation is the same during historical and prehistoric time. The preservation ratio of Grímsvötn and Bárdarbunga tephra calculated from soil sections around Vatnajökull shows that only one out of four eruptions in these volcanoes is recorded in the soil.

  1. Volcanic ash and aviation–The challenges of real-time, global communication of a natural hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Peter; Tupper, Andrew C.; Guffanti, Marianne C.; Loughlin, Sue; Casadevall, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    aviation user community. There have been many multifaceted volcanic eruptions in complex meteorological conditions during the history of the IAVW. Each new eruption brings new insights into how the warning system can be improved, and each reinforces the lessons that have gone before. The management of these events has improved greatly since the major ash encounters in the 1980s, but discontinuities in the warning and communications system still occur. A good example is a 2014 ash encounter over Indonesia following the eruption of Kelut where the warnings did not reach the aircraft crew. Other events present enormous management challenges – for example the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland was, overall, less hazardous than many less publicised eruptions, but numerous small to moderate explosions over several weeks produced widespread disruption and a large economic impact. At the time of writing, while there has been hundreds of millions of US dollars in damage to aircraft from encounters with ash, there have been no fatalities resulting from aviation incidents in, or proximal to volcanic ash cloud. This reflects, at least in part, the hard work done in putting together a global warning system - although to some extent it also reflects a measure of good statistical fortune. In order to minimise the risk of aircraft encounters with volcanic ash clouds, the global effort continues. The future priorities for the IAVW are strongly focused on enhancing communication before, and at the very onset of a volcanic ash-producing event (typically the more dangerous stage), together with improved downstream information and warning systems to help reduce the economic impact of eruptions on aviation.

  2. The operational eEMEP model version 10.4 for volcanic SO2 and ash forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Birthe M.; Schulz, Michael; Wind, Peter; Valdebenito, Álvaro M.; Fagerli, Hilde

    2017-05-01

    concentrations with more certainty for forecast or scientific analysis purposes, a finer resolution is needed. The model is further developed to simulate ash from highly explosive eruptions. A possibility of increasing the number of vertical layers, achieving finer vertical resolution, as well as a higher model top, is included in the eEMEP version. Ash size distributions may be altered for different volcanic eruptions and assumptions. Since ash particles are larger than typical particles in the standard model, gravitational settling across all vertical layers is included. We attempt finally a specific validation of the simulation of ash and its vertical distribution. Model simulations with and without gravitational settling for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption are compared to lidar observations over central Europe. The results show that with gravitation the centre of the ash mass can be 1 km lower over central Europe than without gravitation. However, the height variations in the ash layer caused by real weather situations are not captured perfectly well by either of the two simulations, playing down the role of gravitation parameterization imperfections. Both model simulations have on average an ash centre of mass below the observed values. Correlations between the observed and corresponding model centres of mass are higher for the model simulation with gravitational settling for four of the six stations studied here. The inclusion of gravitational settling is suggested to be required for a volcanic ash model.

  3. Real-time monitoring of seismicity and deformation during the Bárdarbunga rifting event and associated caldera subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Roberts, Matthew; Barsotti, Sara; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Hensch, Martin; Bergsson, Bergur; Kjartansson, vilhjálmur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Friðriksdóttir, Hildur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Guðmundsson, Magnús; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Heimisson, Elías; Hjorleifsdóttir, Vala; Soring, Jón; Björnsson, Bogi; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    We present a monitoring overview of a rifting event and associated caldera subsidence in a glaciated environment during the Bárðarbunga volcanic crisis. Following a slight increase in seismicity and a weak deformation signal, noticed a few months before the unrest by the SIL monitoring team, an intense seismic swarm began in the subglacial Bárðarbunga caldera on August 16 2014. During the following two weeks, a dyke intruded into the crust beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, propagating 48 km from the caldera to the east-north-east and north of the glacier where an effusive eruption started in Holuhraun. The eruption is still ongoing at the time of writing and has become the largest eruption in over 200 years in Iceland. The dyke propagation was episodic with a variable rate and on several occasions low frequency seismic tremor was observed. Four ice cauldrons, manifestations of small subglacial eruptions, were detected. Soon after the swarm began the 7x11 km wide caldera started to subside and is still subsiding (although at slower rates) and has in total subsided over 60 meters. Unrest in subglacial volcanoes always calls for interdisciplinary efforts and teamwork plays a key role for efficient monitoring. Iceland has experienced six subglacial volcanic crises since modern digital monitoring started in the early 90s. With every crisis the monitoring capabilities, data interpretations, communication and information dissemination procedures have improved. The Civil Protection calls for a board of experts and scientists (Civil Protection Science Board, CPSB) to share their knowledge and provide up-to-date information on the current status of the volcano, the relevant hazards and most likely scenarios. The evolution of the rifting was monitored in real-time by the joint interpretation of seismic and cGPS data. The dyke propagation could be tracked and new, updated models of the dyke volume were presented at the CPSB meetings, often daily. In addition, deformation

  4. PREFACE: Advanced Metrology for Ultrasound in Medicine12-14 May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Adam

    2011-02-01

    Conference logo AMUM 2010 is the successor to the first AMUM conference held in 2004, which was the conference featured in the very first issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/1/1). Like its predecessor, AMUM 2010 proved to be very successful and provided a fantastic opportunity for the world's ultrasound experts from medicine, industry and academia to explore the measurement challenges presented by new and emerging clinical ultrasound equipment. 2010 was a very difficult year economically for much of the world, and then air travel over Europe was thrown into chaos by prolonged ash clouds from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April. So it was something of a relief to see such good attendance; this is a clear indication of the need for this conference with its focus on metrology in medical ultrasound. There were a total of 70 attendees: of these 34 were from the UK, 16 from the rest of Europe, and 20 from outside Europe. National Metrology Institutes from no fewer than nine different countries were represented, some of them very new to the field, some with a recent growth of interest in ultrasound, and others with a well-established reputation. I was particularly pleased to see younger researchers from those NMIs new to ultrasound attend and have the chance to mix with such a wide grouping of their peers and present their work. There was also a strong attendance by industry including the major imaging companies such as GE Healthcare, Siemens, Philips Healthcare, Hitachi Medical, Aloka, Medison and the newer Supersonic Imagine; and more specialist companies such as Imasonic, Onda Corporation, Unisyn Medical Technologies, and Polytec and Precision Acoustics, our partner in organizing the event. The conference was spread over 3 days with plenty of time for discussions over coffee; the afternoon of the 3rd day was dedicated to laboratory visits within NPL. We were fortunate to have some excellent Keynote

  5. Contribution of the FUTUREVOLC project to the study of segmented lateral dyke growth in the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Guðmundsson, Gunnar B.; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Björnsson, Helgi; Bean, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project (a 26-partner project funded by FP7 Environment Programme of the European Commission, addressing topic "Long-term monitoring experiment in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept) set aims to (i) establish an innovative volcano monitoring system and strategy, (ii) develop new methods for near real-time integration of multi-parametric datasets, (iii) apply a seamless transdisciplinary approach to further scientific understanding of magmatic processes, and (iv) to improve delivery, quality and timeliness of transdisciplinary information from monitoring scientists to civil protection. The project duration is 1 October 2012 - 31 March 2016. Unrest and volcanic activity since August 2014 at one of the focus areas of the project in Iceland, at the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, near the middle of the project duration, has offered unique opportunities for this project. On 16 August 2014 an intense seismic swarm started in Bárðarbunga, the beginning of a major volcano-tectonic rifting event forming over 45 km long dyke extending from the caldera to Holuhraun lava field outside the northern margin of Vatnajökull. A large basaltic, effusive fissure eruption began in Holuhraun on 31 August which had by January formed a lava field with a volume in excess of one cubic kilometre. We document how the FUTUREVOLC project has contributed to the study and response to the subsurface dyke formation, through increased seismic and geodetic coverage and joint interpreation of the data. The dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, grew laterally for over 45 km at a variable rate, with an influence of topography on the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground

  6. VolcLab: A balloon-borne instrument package to measure ash, gas, electrical, and turbulence properties of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Release of volcanic ash into the atmosphere poses a significant hazard to air traffic. Exposure to appreciable concentrations (≥4 mg m-3) of ash can result in engine shutdown, air data system loss, and airframe damage, with sustained lower concentrations potentially causing other long-term detrimental effects [1]. Disruption to flights also has a societal impact. For example, the closure of European airspace following the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull resulted in global airline industry losses of order £1100 million daily and disruption to 10 million passengers. Accurate and effective measurement of the mass of ash in a volcanic plume along with in situ characterisation of other plume properties such as charge, turbulence, and SO2 concentration can be used in combination with plume dispersion modelling, remote sensing, and more sophisticated flight ban thresholds to mitigate the impact of future events. VolcLab is a disposable instrument package that may be attached to a standard commercial radiosonde, for rapid emergency deployment on a weather balloon platform. The payload includes a newly developed gravimetric sensor using the oscillating microbalance principle to measure mass directly without assumptions about particles' optical properties. The package also includes an SO2 gas detector, an optical sensor to detect ash and cloud backscatter from an LED source [2], a charge sensor to characterise electrical properties of the plume [3], and an accelerometer to measure in-plume turbulence [4]. VolcLab uses the established PANDORA interface [5], to provide data exchange and power from the radiosonde. In addition to the VolcLab measurements, the radiosonde provides standard meteorological data of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity, and GPS location. There are several benefits of using this instrument suite in this design and of using this method of deployment. Firstly, this is an all-in-one device requiring minimal expertise on the part of the end

  7. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    al., 2005). REFERENCES: Bindeman, I.N., et al., 2012. Terra Nova 24, 227-232. Gústafsson, L.E., et al., 1989. Jökull, v. 39, 75-89. Gústafsson, L.E., 1992. PhD dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin. Jonasson, K., 2007. Journal of Geodynamics, 43, 101-117. Kamber, B.S., et al., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol. 240 (2), 276-290. Martin, E., et al., 2011. Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 311, 28-38. Óskarsson, B.V., & Riishuus, M.S., 2013. J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 267, 92-118. Walker, G.P.L., 1966. Bull. Volcanol., 29 (1), 375-402.

  8. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    from all the PVHAs can be combined at the end. This will allow to: 1) possibly add the contribution of new volcanic systems, 2) compare and hierarchically rank the tephra fallout risk among both all the considered volcanoes and, possibly, other kinds of risk, and 3) quantitatively assess the overall tephra fallout hazard over the target area. As practical application, we selected a first subset consisting of the five most hazardous volcanic systems for tephra fallout that could affect the selected target area. These are the ones with the highest number of eruptions in the last 1100 years (Katla, Hekla, Grímsvötn) and the ones located closest to the target area (Reykjanes and Snæfellsjökull). PVHA is computed using the PyBetVH tool (an improvement of the Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard -BET_VH- model) and tephra dispersal is modelled by means of VOL-CALPUFF numerical code. Katla volcanic system is used as pilot case study because of its eruptive history and behaviour are well known and documented. We found that some considerations and results derived from the study of Katla could be general and applied to the other considered volcanoes and, more in general, to other Icelandic volcanic systems. The work was financially supported by the European Science Foundation (ESF), in the framework of the Research Networking Programme MeMoVolc.

  9. In situ measurement of the Icelandic Holuhraun/ Bárðarbunga volcanic plume in an early "young state" using a LOAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignelles, Damien; Roberts, Tjarda; Carboni, Elisa; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Dagsson Waldhauserovà, Pavla; Berthet, Gwenael; Jegou, Fabrice; Baptiste Renard, Jean; Olafsson, Haraldur; Bergsson, Baldur; Yeo, Richard; Fannar Reynisson, Njall; Grainger, Roy; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lurton, Thibaut; Duverger, Vincent; Coute, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    analysis of IASI satellite remote sensing data, thus demonstrating in-situ validation of this recent satellite algorithm (Carboni et al. 2015). This experimentation shows that under such difficult field campaign conditions (strong wind, low temperatures, only car batteries for power supply, night time and active volcano close to the launch site) it is possible to launch meteorological balloons with novel payloads to directly sample in-situ the near-source plume, determine the plume altitude, identify dynamical phases of the plume and document the size distribution of particles inside a plume which is only a quarter of an hour old. Carboni, E., Grainger, R., Walker, J., Dudhia, A., Siddans, R.: A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11417-11434, 2012/doi:10.5194/acp-12-11417-2012, 2012. Gíslason, S.R., Stefánsdóttir, G., Pfeffer, M.A., Barsotti, S., Jóhannsson, Th., Galeczka, I., Bali, E., Sigmarsson, O., Stefánsson, A., Keller, N.S., Sigurdsson, Á., Bergsson, B., Galle, B., Jacobo, V.C., Arellano, S., Aiuppa, A., Jónasdóttir, E.B., Eiríksdóttir, E.S., Jakobsson, S., Guðfinnsson, G.H., alldórsson, S.A., Gunnarsson, H., Haddadi, B., Jónsdóttir, I., Thordarson, Th., Riishuus, M., ögnadóttir, Th., Dürig, T., Pedersen, G.B.M., Höskuldsson, Á., Gudmundsson, M.T.: Environmental pressure from the 2014-15 eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland. Geochem. Persp. Let. 1, 84-93, 2015. Renard, J.B., Dulac, F., Berthet, G., Lurton, T., Vignelles, D., Jégou, F., Tonnelier, T., Thaury, C., Jeannot, M., Couté, B., Akiki, R., Verdier, N., Mallet, M., Gensdarmes, F., Charpentier, P., Duverger, V., Dupont, J.V., Mesmin, S., Elias, T., Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Giacomoni, J., Gobbi, M., Hamonou, E., Olafsson, H., Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Camy-Peyret, C., Mazel, C., Décamps, T., Piringer, M., Surcin, J., and Daugeron, D.: LOAC: a small aerosol optical

  10. Mathematical and numerical aspects of low mach number flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schochet, St.; Bresch, D.; Grenier, E.; Alazard, T.; Gordner, A.; Sankaran, V.; Massot, M.; Sery, R.; Pebay, P.; Lunch, O.; Mazhorova, O.; Turkel, O.E.; Faille, I.; Danchin, R.; Allain, O.; Birken, P.; Lafitte, O.; Kloczko, T.; Frick, W.; Bui, T.; Dellacherie, S.; Klein, R.; Roe, Ph.; Accary, G.; Braack, M.; Picano, F.; Cadiou, A.; Dinescu, C.; Lesage, A.C.; Wesseling, P.; Heuveline, V.; Jobelin, M.; Weisman, C.; Merkle, C.

    2004-07-01

    diphasic system (S. DELLACHERIE); a preconditioning technique for biphasic flows with interfaces (C. DINESCU, B. LEONARD, C. HIRSCH); two models for the simulation of multiphase flows in oil and gas pipelines (I. FAILLE); physics and insects require compressible low Mach number flow (W. FRICK); multigrid for low mach number flows including acoustic modes (A. GORDNER); adaptive finite element method for low mach number flows (V. HEUVELINE); using multiple scales asymptotics in the construction of low Mach number numerics (R. KLEIN); a matrix-free implicit method for flows at all speeds (T. KLOCZKO, A. BECCANTINI, C. CORRE); linear growth rate for the quasi-isobaric ablation front model of Kull-Anisimov (O. LAFITTE); augmented projection methods for incompressible and dilatable flows (J. CLATCHE, M. JOBELIN, C. LAPUERTA, P. ANGOT, B. PIAR); a numerical accuracy study for level set formulations (A.C. LESAGE, O. ALLAIN, A. DERVIEUX) 3D computer simulation of convective instability in the multicomponent solution (O. MAZHOROVA, V. KOLMYCHKOV, Y. POPOV, P. BONTOUX, M. El GANAOUI); multicomponent reactive flows: symmetrization and the low Mach number limit (M. MASSOT, V. GIOVANGIGLI); computation of low mach number flows with a generalized Gibbs relation (C.L. MERKLE, V. SANKARAN, D. LI); a Mach-uniform pressure correction algorithm (K. NERINCK, J. VIERENDEELS, E. DICK); application of Turkel preconditioning method in external free convection and incompressible flows (T.H. NGUYEN-BUI, B. DUBROCA, P.H. MAIRE); a half-explicit, non-split projection method for low mach number flows (P.P. PEBAY, H. N. NAJIM, J. POUSIN); combustion in low Mach number isotropic turbulence (F. PICANO, P. GUALTIERI, B. FAVINI); calculation of low Mach number acoustics: a comparison of MPV, EIF and linearized Euler equations (S. ROLLER, T. SCHWARTKOFF, M. DUMBSER, C.D. MUNZ) comparison of pressure-based and density-based methods for low Mach number CFD computations (V. SANKARAN, C. MERKLE); the

  11. Do reactions to volcanic eruptions give insight into crisis management: An example from Icelandair Gefa viðbrögð við eldgosi innsýn í krísustjórnun: Dæmi frá Icelandair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regína Ásdísardóttir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull had an extensive impact on the Icelandic society, especially on air traffic due to the volcanic ash cloud which emerged. Flight disturbance also occurred in large parts of Europe, causing air routes to close down, hindering passengers to proceed with their travelling. Icelandair, Iceland´s largest airline company, was hugely affected by this extreme situation, which made the continuing of operations a great challenge. The subject of this article is to investigate whether and how a case study on Icelandair´s reactions, during the peak of disturbance on operations, can give an insight into crisis management. The research is explorative with the purpose of understanding various variables and influencing factors on crisis management and to bring out interesting questions for future investigations. In the article the concepts of crisis and crisis management are defined, the course of events and Icelandair´s reactions are expounded, and results and conclusions are summarized in answers to the research questions. The main conclusions are; first that the situation that occurred in Icelandair because of the volcanic eruption can be defined as a crisis. Second, that a crisis committee, information and co-operation with stakeholders were important factors in the company´s reaction. Third, that due to the particular type of crisis in question, based on the experience and knowledge within the company, Icelandair´s reactions unfolded as emergent activities.Eldgosið í Eyjafjallajökli árið 2010 hafði víðtæk áhrif á íslenskt samfélag, ekki síst á flugsamgöngur vegna öskuskýsins sem myndaðist við það. Truflanir á flugi teygðu anga sína um stóran hluta Evrópu þannig að flugleiðir lokuðust og farþegar komust ekki leiðar sinnar. Icelandair fór ekki varhluta af ástandinu og stóð frammi fyrir miklum erfiðleikum við að halda uppi þjónustu við farþega sína. Viðfangsefni

  12. EDITORIAL: Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J.; MD; FACP

    2009-10-01

    conscious state, funded by Intelect Medical Inc. References [1] 1972 Editorial: Psychosurgery Lancet 7767 69-70 [2] Fins J J 2002 The ethical limits of neuroscience The Lancet Neurology 1 213 [3] Fins J J 2003 From psychosurgery to neuromodulation and palliation: history's lessons for the ethical conduct and regulation of neuropsychiatric research Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 14 303-19 [4] Fins J J 2004 Deep brain stimulation Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Vol 2 3rd edn, ed S G Post (New York: MacMillan Reference) pp 629-34 [5] Fins J J 2004 Neuromodulation, free will and determinism: lessons from the psychosurgery debate Clinical Neuroscience Research 4 113-18 [6] Fins J J 2009 Deep brain stimulation: ethical issues in clinical practice and neurosurgical research Neuromodulation eds E Krames, P H Peckham and A Rezai (London: Elsevier) pp 81-91 [7] Schiff N D, Giacino J T, Kalmar K, Victor J D, Baker K, Gerber M, Fritz B, Eisenberg B, O'Connor J, Kobylarz E J, Farris S, Machado A, McCagg C, Plum F, Fins J J, Rezai A R 2007 Behavioral improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injury Nature 448 600-3 [8] Schiff N D and Fins J J 2007 Deep brain stimulation and cognition: moving from animal to patient Current Opinion in Neurology 20 638-42 [9] Schiff N D, Giacino J T and Fins J J 2009 Deep brain stimulation, neuroethics and the minimally conscious state: moving beyond proof of principle Arch. Neurology 66 697-702 [10] CMS 160.24 NCD for deep brain stimulation for essential tremor and Parkinson's disease, 1~April~2003 [11] CMS Manual System 100-04 Medicare claims processing, transmittal 128, 26 March 2004 http://www.cms.hhs.gov/Transmittals/Downloads/R128CP.pdf [12] Schwalb J M, Riina H A, Skolnick B, Jaggi J L, Simuni T and Baltuch G H 2001 Revision of deep brain stimulator for tremor: technical note J. Neurosurg. 94 1010-12 [13] Speelman J D and Bosch D A 1998 Resurgence of functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease: a historical perspective

  13. 6th International Symposium on Molecular Allergology (ISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hilger

    2016-10-01

    -patient quantification of allergen-specific IgE Petra Zavadakova, Aurélie Buchwalder, Fabien Rebeaud, Iwan Märki Symposium 4: Relevance of molecular diagnostics for intervention and treatment O7 Longitudinal analysis of Bet v 1-specific epitope repertoires during birch pollen immunotherapy Barbara Gepp, Nina Lengger, Christian Möbs, Wolfgang Pfützner, Christian Radauer, Barbara Bohle O8 A natural CCD-free tool: is polistes sp. venom suitable for polybia paulista diagnosis and therapy? Karine Marafigo De Amicis, Alexandra Sayuri Watanabe, Clovis Eduardo Galvao, Daniele Danella Figo, Jose Roberto Aparecido Santos-Pinto, Mario Sergio Palma, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Jorge Kalil, Fatima Ferreira, Gabriele Gadermaier, Keity Souza Santos Symposium 5: The advent of molecular allergology in epidemiology O9 Peanut oleosins: from identification to diagnostic testing Christian Schwager, Skadi Kull, Frauke Schocker, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Meinhard Becker, Uta Jappe O10 Endotypes of oral allergy syndrome in childhood: a molecular diagnostic approach Carla Mastrorilli, Salvatore Tripodi, Carlo Caffarelli, Riccardo Asero, Arianna Dondi, Giampaolo Ricci, Carlotta Povesi Dascola, Elisabetta Calamelli, Andrea Di Rienzo Businco, Annamaria Bianchi, Tullio Frediani, Carmen Verga, Iride Dello Iacono, Diego Peroni, Giuseppe Pingitore, Roberto Bernardini, Paolo Maria Matricardi Symposium 6: Molecular AIT: which approaches will make it to market? O11 Mbc4: an innovative molecule to tackle birch pollen and concomitant food allergies Heidi Hofer, Claudia Asam, Michael Hauser, Peter Briza, Martin Himly, Christof Ebner, Fatima Ferreira O12 Challenges and solutions associated with the production of recombinant Bet v 1 allergen as a therapeutic protein Emmanuel Nony, Maxime Le Mignon, Pierrick Lemoine, Karine Jain, Kathy Abiteboul, Monica Arvidsson, Sabina Rak, Philippe Moingeon Clinical Cases: Breakthroughs and headaches from CRD: interactive session CC1 Anaphylaxis caused by lipid transfer proteins: a