WorldWideScience

Sample records for kowalski evan kraft

  1. SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE JEZIORO KOWALSKIE RESERVOIR LOCATED IN THE GLOWNA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaskuła

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research is the analysis of bed elevation changes caused by sediment accumulation in the Jezioro Kowalskie reservoir. The Jezioro Kowalskie reservoir is a two stage reservoir constructed in such a way that the upper preliminary zone is separated from the main part of the reservoir. The split of the reservoir parts is done with a small pre-dam, located in Jerzykowo town. The analysis of such a construction impact on changes of bed elevations in the reservoir in different flow conditions is presented. The HEC-RAS 5.0 Beta model is used for simulations. The sediment transport intensity is calculated from England-Hansen and Meyer-Peter and Muller formulae. The results showed the processes of sediment accumulation and slight erosion occuring in the preliminary zone of the reservoir. The choice of the flow intensity does not have a huge importance. Similar results are obtained for low as well as high flows. The results confirm, that two stage construction with separated preliminary zone is effective method preventing from the sedimentation of the reservoir.

  2. [Evans syndrome, pregnancy, and preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, E; Martínez-Abundis, C E; González-Ortiz, C M

    2001-02-01

    Evans' syndrome is an unusual illness of autoimmune etiology, characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. This is more frequent in females throughout first half of the life and during pregnancy. The present paper describes two pregnant women with Evans syndrome associated to preeclampsia. This report emphasizes how the hematology and coagulation abnormalities of preeclampsia could be added to those abnormalities observed in Evans' syndrome. This association constitutes a severe disease of difficult treatment.

  3. Lyn Evans decelerates!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After more than 40 years at CERN, 15 of which were dedicated to ensuring that the LHC comes to completion, Lyn Evans is retiring. The Imperial College Professor and recently-elected Fellow of the British Royal Society has set himself new challenges, but plans to keep strong links with CERN. His big thank you goes to the many hundreds of people who built one of the most complex scientific instruments ever conceived by mankind. Note from the Editor: It is unusual for the Bulletin to adopt a question-and-answer style. However, we recognise that, with someone of Lyn’s stature, the appropriate thing to do is simply to give him the floor. Bulletin: Lyn, are you really leaving CERN? I am retiring but I will not completely lose contacts with CERN and the LHC. It’s time to slow down for me now but I will join the CMS Collaboration. I will help with the link between the experiment and the machine. Bulletin: After many years as LHC Project Manager...

  4. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  5. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  6. Awards for Lyn Evans and Philippe Lebrun

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Lyn Evans has received the American Physical Society’s Robert R. Wilson Prize, while Philippe Lebrun has been awarded an honorary doctorate by the Wrocław University of Technology in Poland. Lyn Evans in front of an LHC dipole magnet. Philippe Lebrun (centre) with the Dean of the Faculty of mechanical and power engineering of the Wrocław University during the ceremony (courtesy of Laurent Tavian).Numerous honours are going to the LHC and those behind it even before this exceptional machine begins operation. The LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans, has recently been awarded the "Robert R. Wilson Prize for Achievement in the Physics of Particle Accelerators" by the American Physical Society (APS). According to the citation, the prize was awarded "for a sustained career of technical innovation and leadership in the SPS proton-antiproton collider, culminating in the construction and commissioning of the LHC&am...

  7. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  8. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  9. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  10. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  11. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  12. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Ishizu, Atsushi; Nakano, Junzo

    1981-01-01

    Pre-irradiation of wood in alkaline aqueous ethanol increases kraft pulp yield by up to 1.2%, as already reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the pulp yield gain, the behaviors of lignin and carbohydrates during pre-irradiation and cooking were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1) γ-Irradiation of guaiacylethane in alkaline aqueous ethanol produced 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-guaicylethane, which is formed by radical coupling between α-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol and guaiacylethane radical having an unpaired electron at C-5. 5,5'-Dehydrodiguaiacylethane, which may be a predominant product produced by γ-irradiation in the absence of ethanol, was also detected. 2) The yield of vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation of MWL decreased with an increase of γ-ray dosage. The presence of ethanol during γ-irradiation lessened the extent of this decrease and also the degradation of cellobiose. 3) Gel filtration of the products obtained by γ-irradiation of MWL and cellobiose in the presence of 14 C-ethanol showed the possible combination between ethanol and MWL or cellobiose. 4) Molecular weight distributions of kraft lignin obtained from pre-irradiated beech chips were compared with those obtained from unirradiated chips. This result shows that γ-irradiation in the presence of ethanol decreases the ability of lignin to condense during kraft cooking. (author)

  13. Síndrome de Evans en lactantes

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Montes, Olivia Alejandra; Escobar-Orduño, Martha Cecilia; Lozano-Garcidueñas, Mónica; Valle-Leal, Jaime Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de Evans se caracteriza por la disminución de, al menos, dos líneas celulares en ausencia de otros diagnósticos. Anteriormente, se definía como el desarrollo simultáneo o secuencial de trombocitopenia inmune primaria y anemia hemolítica autoinmune sin etiología específica. Se ha reportado una incidencia del 37% y una mortalidad del 10% de este síndrome. Casos clínicos: Se presenta la información clínica y la evolución del síndrome de Evans en dos pacientes lactant...

  14. A strange case of Evans syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease presenting hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. It may be associated with other autoimmune or lymphoproliferative diseases. It can have an extremely serious disease course and, in rare cases, this can even be life-threatening. First-line treatment consists of steroids and/or immunoglobulin. Further therapy with rituximab, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs can be considered in unresponsive patients. We report a case of Evans syndrome in a 54-year old woman admitted to the Emergency Department (ED for asthenia. Etiopathogenic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects are discussed. In contrast to many cases described in the literature, our patient had a satisfactory response to corticoids. We also discuss how to make a specific diagnosis, even in a suburban ED with limited resources, in order to admit patients to the appropriate hospital department and allow the correct therapy to be started as early as possible.

  15. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0640] FRL-9829-3 RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... comments on the May 23, 2013, proposed rule titled, ``Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review'' is being extended by...

  16. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory

  17. Loe lisaks / Anthony de Kowalsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kowalsky, Anthony de

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustused : Mark Ravenhilli "Võta mind!" Vanemuises, lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar Tartu Sadamateatris; näitleja Kristjan Sarve aktsioon "99x" Henry Milleri "Vähi pöörijoonest", mida näitleja esitab 99 korda ja Eesti teatri parima meesnäitleja auhinnaga pärjatud Üllar Saaremäe nimirollist lavastuses "Cyrano de Bergerac" Rakvere Teatris

  18. Eesti naksitrallid Poolas / Flavek Kowalsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kowalsky, Flavek

    2000-01-01

    8. märtsist Sopoti galeriis "Marzenie Provincionalnej Dziewczyny" ("Provintsitüdruku Unistus") samanimelise näitusesarja näitus "Provintsipoisi unistus". Kuraator Paulina M. Olowska. Eestlaste Jasper Zoova, Tarrvi Laamannni ja Kiwa töödest. Kunstiväljapanekule sekundeerinud muusikaõhtul klubis "Sfinks" esinesid T. Laamannn ja Kiwa pop-projektiga "Nervous cowboys".

  19. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  20. Kraft Lignin Depolymerization in an Ionic Liquid without a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the depolymerization of lignin was successfully achieved by the thermal treatment of kraft lignin in butyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride ([DBUC4+][Cl-] without a catalyst. The thermal treatment experiments were performed in an oven at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 1 h. The changes in kraft lignin structure over the course of depolymerization were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and 1H / 31P NMR analyses. GPC chromatograms indicated that the retention time of the original kraft lignin had shifted toward higher values after the thermal treatment, which indicated lignin depolymerization. The average molecular weight of the lignin obtained after 1 h reaction time decreased by 23, 70, and 58 wt% for the treatment at 150, 200, and 250 °C, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated the cleavage of β-O-4 bonds of kraft lignin. The 1H NMR spectra showed demethylation of all treated kraft lignins. Moreover, the 31P NMR analysis demonstrated that the demethylation phenomenon of the treated kraft lignin contributed to the formation of catechol groups.

  1. Optimizing the Internal Medicine Clinic at Evans Army Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonilla, Jose

    2003-01-01

    ...) 2002, the Internal Medicine (IM) clinic at Evans Army Community Hospital, Fort Carson, Colorado, failed to meet access to care standards for routine appointments, and was only marginally successful in meeting standards for urgent appointments...

  2. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  3. Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

  4. Studies of lignin transformation in polyoxometalate (POM) bleaching of kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Kolby C. Hirth; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate changes occurring in lignin during polyoxometalate delignification of kraft pulp, residual lignins of a series of POM- delignified kraft pulps of decreasing kappa number were isolated and characterized. Oxidative treatment of commercial unbleached kraft pulp was performed using complex POM solutions containing the active [SiVW11O40]anion. For...

  5. Ole Bjørn Kraft 1893-1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Houlberg

    2010-01-01

    Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister.......Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister....

  6. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  7. Computer model for economic study of unbleached kraft paperboard production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    1984-01-01

    Unbleached kraft paperboard is produced from wood fiber in an industrial papermaking process. A highly specific and detailed model of the process is presented. The model is also presented as a working computer program. A user of the computer program will provide data on physical parameters of the process and on prices of material inputs and outputs. The program is then...

  8. Recyclable zein-coated kraft paper and linerboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Parris; Marguerite Sykes; Leland C. Dickey; Jack L. Wiles; Thomas J. Urbanik; Peter H. Cooke

    2002-01-01

    Recyclability of kraft paper and linerboard coated with commercial zein and paraffin wax or a zein-lipid mixture was evaluated using conventional recycling processes. Zein, an alcohol-soluble protein from corn, exhibits both grease and water vapor barrier properties. Strength properties, grease resistance, and water vapor barrier proper-ties were measured on handsheets...

  9. Measurement of cellulose content, Kraft pulp yield and basic density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous descriptions of multisite and multispecies near infra-red (NIR) spectroscopic calibrations for predicting cellulose content (CC) and Kraft pulp yield (KPY) in eucalypt woodmeal demonstrated that large, single calibrations provide precise predictions for a wide range of sites and species. These have since been used ...

  10. Pregnancy and Evans´ syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Artucio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evans´ syndrome is the coexistence of autoimmune thrombocytopenia with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. It is rarely found during the course of a pregnancy. This makes treatment options more difficult, since some therapeutic drugs are teratogenic. The effects of Evans´ syndrome in the fetus and newborn are unknown given the low number of reported cases. We report the case of a patient with preconceptional diagnosis of Evans´ syndrome, who develops a hemolytic crisis during the course of a pregnancy, and diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, treated at Clínica Ginecotocológica “A” at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Treatment options and evolution are analyzed, as well as previous reports.

  11. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  12. Posthumous Pardons, the Home Office and the Timothy Evans Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Examines the legal issues surrounding the exercise of the prerogative of mercy to grant posthumous pardons either to those convicted of a capital offence or those executed for offences under military law, specifically during the First World War. Focuses on the policy considerations leading to the Home Secretary’s decision to recommend the grant of a posthumous pardon for Timothy Evans in 1966.

  13. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  14. EVANS SYNDROME IN A 10 YEAR OLD GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariputra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome is a coexistence of simultaneous or sequential positive direct Coombs test in conjunctionwith  immune-mediated  thrombocytopenia with no known underlying etiology. The  clinical  course  ischronic and relapsing, and the therapy is generally progressive. Recurrences of thrombocytopenia, anemiaand neutropenia are common, as well as episodes of hemorrhage and serious infections. Noncrossreactingautoantibodies are directed against red cells, platelets, and neutrophils antigens. Evans syndrome isa rare condition, no predilection is known and its exact prevalent is unknown. We report a case of Evanssyndrome in 10 years old girl with severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Patient came with clinicalsymptoms of severe anemia. The laboratory evaluation showed severe anemia, increased reticulocytecount, anisopoikilocytosis erythrocyte, increased unconjugated bilirubin, positive direct Coombs testand thrombocytopenia. Patient was then managed with high doses of corticosteroids and showed goodresponse from both clinical and laboratory evaluations. [MEDICINA 2015;46:61-66].Sindrom Evans adalah suatu penyakit yang ditandai dengan adanya hasil positif pada direct Coombstest dan trombositopenia yang diperantarai  imun secara simultan atau sekuensial tanpa penyebabyang  jelas. Perjalanan klinis umumnya bersifat kronis, sering mengalami relaps dan memerlukanterapi yang progresif. Kejadian trombositopenia, anemia, neutropenia, perdarahan dan episode infeksiberat berulang umum terjadi. Pada sindrom ini, terjadi reaksi autoantibodi spesifik terhadap antigensel darah merah, trombosit dan juga neutrofil. Sindrom Evans merupakan kasus yang jarang ditemukandan dengan predileksi serta prevalensi yang belum banyak diketahui. Kami melaporkan satu kasusSindrom Evans pada anak perempuan usia 10 tahun.  Pasien dengan gejala klinis anemia berat dan padapemeriksaan laboratorium menunjukkan suatu anemia berat, peningkatan hitung retikulosit, gambaraneritrosit

  15. Mergers and acquisitions : the case of Kraft Foods and Cadbury

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Sara Isabel de Paula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to focus on a determinant aspect of Corporate Finance that is Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A). This dissertation not only provides a practical analysis of main issued regarding a process of M&A, but also provides a theoretical framework about M&A. Specifically, this dissertation explores the real case of Kraft Foods - world’s second largest manufacturer and packager food products – and Cadbury - the world’s second largest confectionery firm. ...

  16. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  17. Internationalisation; KonKraft-rapport 4; Internasjonalisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    disintegrate. The obvious strategy to pursuit is to strengthen Norway's position as a dynamic and leading competence center for oil- and gas activities. Recruitment and development of sufficient competencies is generally a major challenge for the oil- and gas trade. Shortage of human capital leads to increased wage pressure which in the long run may weaken profits and competitiveness. In some of the petroleum clusters the companies try to find solutions to counteract the negative effects of the battle for the best brains. Through the project KonKraft INTSOK has unveiled high ambitions concerning increased internationalisation throughout the Norwegian petroleum cluster, except for Northern Norway. Here there is still an opposition against activities in the region, as well as in the Barents sea. INTSOK's intention with the project has been to describe its multitude. Therefore eight very different environments where selected to make a closer study on the development in different regions. The environments represent a variety of sizes, geography and trades. Some of the clusters are new or under establishment, others are already in full operation. Together the eight environments cover a major part of the value chain in the Norwegian offshore sector. The project has clearly demonstrated that cluster development contributes both to internationalisation as well as keeping the companies in Norway. Some main findings: The positive development in the drilling cluster of Southern Norway - the Node cluster - has created strong impact: The cluster ranks among the world's leading on drilling equipment and barely any oil or gas environment has had a similar expansion. The Kongsberg environment is not an offshore cluster, but an overall technology cluster where offshore applications is one of several technology areas. The companies develop and produce a broad range of advanced products and systems. The turnover among the offshore companies amounts to 65% of the total turnover for

  18. Spectral Analysis and Dirichlet Forms on Barlow-Evans Fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhurst, Benjamin; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We show that if a Barlow-Evans Markov process on a vermiculated space is symmetric, then one can study the spectral properties of the corresponding Laplacian using projective limits. For some examples, such as the Laakso spaces and a Spierpinski P\\^ate \\`a Choux, one can develop a complete spectral theory, including the eigenfunction expansions that are analogous to Fourier series. Also, one can construct connected fractal spaces isospectral to the fractal strings of Lapidus and van Frankenhu...

  19. Experience with Evans syndrome in an academic referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Jaime-Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the experience of one referral service with patients diagnosed with Evans syndrome, the treatment and response and to briefly review current treatment strategies and results.METHODS: Patients enrolled in this study fulfilled criteria for Evans syndrome. Data were retrieved from the clinical files and electronic databases of the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González". Treatment modalities and response and the use of additional therapies were evaluated. The literature was reviewed in the context of the clinical course of the studied patients.RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with Evans syndrome in the study period. Patient 1 was treated with steroids, relapsed twice and was again treated with steroids. Patient 2 treated initially with steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin was subsequently lost to follow-up. A good response was achieved in Patients 3 and 4, who were treated with steroids plus rituximab; patient 4 also received danazol as a second-line therapy. However both relapsed and subsequently underwent splenectomy at ten and nine months, respectively. One patient, number 5, treated with steroids, danazol and rituximab did not relapse within four years of follow-up and Patient 6, who received steroids plus danazol did not relapse within three years of follow-up.CONCLUSION: Evans syndrome is an uncommon hematologic condition rarely diagnosed and not widely studied. Clinicians must have it in mind when evaluating a patient with a positive direct antiglobulin test, anemia and thrombocytopenia, since prognosis depends on its early recognition and opportune therapy, but even this leads to variable results.

  20. Hiro and Evans currents in Vertical Disruption Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Xujing Li Team; Sergei Galkin Team

    2014-10-01

    The notion of Tokamak Magneto-Hydrodynamics (TMHD), which explicitly reflects the anisotropy of a high temperature tokamak plasma is introduced. The set of TMHD equations is formulated for simulations of macroscopic plasma dynamics and disruptions in tokamaks. Free from the Courant restriction on the time step, this set of equations is appropriate for high performance plasmas and does not require any extension of the MHD plasma model. At the same time, TMHD requires the use of magnetic field aligned numerical grids. The TMHD model was used for creation of theory of the Wall Touching Kink and Vertical Modes (WTKM and WTVM), prediction of Hiro and Evans currents, design of an innovative diagnostics for Hiro current measurements, installed on EAST device. While Hiro currents have explained the toroidal asymmetry in the plasma current measurements in JET disruptions, the Evans currents explain the tile current measurements in tokamaks. The recently developed Vertical Disruption Code (VDE) have demonstrated 5 regimes of VDE and confirmed the generation of both Hiro and Evans currents. The results challenge the 24 years long misinterpretation of the tile currents in tokamaks as ``halo'' currents, which were a product of misuse of equilibrium reconstruction for VDE. This work is supported by US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH1146.

  1. Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C.; Caron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation

  2. Kraft Foods, Inc. in India — The Cadbury Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Pai; Ram Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    When the United States-based Kraft Foods, Inc. (KFI) acquired the United Kingdom-based Cadbury plc, KFI got entry into the Indian market. KFI CEO, Irene Rosenfeld had targeted the developing markets as key for the company to achieve a 5% organic growth rate and the strong position of Cadbury India augured well for expanding KFI's presence in that market. However, after nearly a year since the acquisition, KFI was moving slowly in India and appeared content to consolidate Cadbury's market pres...

  3. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  4. Evans Blue Dye: A Revisit of Its Applications in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linpeng; Xue, Xing; Yu, Peipei; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Evans blue (EB) dye has owned a long history as a biological dye and diagnostic agent since its first staining application by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. Due to its high water solubility and slow excretion, as well as its tight binding to serum albumin, EB has been widely used in biomedicine, including its use in estimating blood volume and vascular permeability, detecting lymph nodes, and localizing the tumor lesions. Recently, a series of EB derivatives have been labeled with PET isotopes and can be used as theranostics with a broad potential due to their improved half-life in the blood and reduced release. Some of EB derivatives have even been used in translational applications in clinics. In addition, a novel necrosis-avid feature of EB has recently been reported in some preclinical animal studies. Given all these interesting and important advances in EB study, a comprehensive revisiting of EB has been made in its biomedical applications in the review.

  5. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  6. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  7. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm indicating the presence of lignin in the released coloring matter. Enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20 % reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity...

  8. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  9. Bioconversion of oxygen-pretreated Kraft lignin to microbial lipid with oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus DSM 1069

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zhen [Hunan Univ. Changsha (China); Zeng, Guangming [Hunan Univ. Changsha (China); Huang, Fang [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kosa, Matyas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Huang, Danlian [Hunan Univ. Changsha (China); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Kraft lignin (KL) from black liquor is an abundantly available, inexpensive aromatic resource that is regarded as a low value compound by the pulp and paper industry, necessitating the development of new applications.

  10. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  11. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (PMo stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P Mo stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H 2 O 2 . The P Mo stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P Mo stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  12. Conversion of kraft lignin over hierarchical MFI zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Soo; Lee, Hyung Won; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Wookdong; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of kraft lignin was carried out using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hierarchical mesoporous MFI was used as the catalyst and another mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was also used for comparison. The characteristics of mesoporous MFI were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3. Two catalyst/lignin mass ratios were tested: 5/1 and 10/1. Aromatics and alkyl phenolics were the main products of the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin over mesoporous MFI. In particular, the yields of mono-aromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were increased substantially by catalytic upgrading. Increase in the catalyst dose enhanced the production of aromatics further, which is attributed to decarboxylation, decarbonlyation, and aromatization reactions occurring over the acid sites of mesoporous MFI.

  13. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  14. Negotiation time table and realization timetable in the grid connection process according to KraftNAV; Verhandlungs- und Realisierungsfahrplan im Netzanschlussverfahren nach der KraftNAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, Felix [Sozietaet Alber Buchmann Stefan Rechtsanwaelte, Reutlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the ordinance for the regulation of the grid connection from plants of power production (KraftNAV), the conditions of the grid connection were concretized by power station projects with a nominal output of at least 100 MW with an electrical potential of at least 110 kV. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the negotiation timetable and realization timetable in the grid connection procedure according to the KraftNAV. The following aspects are treated: Procedure for the grid connection according to KraftNAV in the overview; Promise of the connection and reservation fee; Negotiation timetable; Realization timetable; Requirement timetable; Duties to supply information.

  15. Caracterização de compostos reduzidos de enxofre gerados na produção de celulose kraft e pré-hidrólise kraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Moraes de Moura

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um problema ambiental da indústria de celulose kraft é o odor causado pela emissão dos compostos reduzidos de enxofre gerados pela deslignificação de madeiras de um modo em geral. Para monitorar essas emissões, existem equipamentos simples, desenvolvidos para a medição contínua do "total reduced sulphur" (TRS, tal como o analisador coulométrico. Neste trabalho, foram analisados sulfeto de hidrogênio (H2S, metil mercaptana (CH3SH, dimetil sulfeto [(CH32S] e dimetil dissulfeto [(CH32S2], gerados em deslignificações laboratoriais kraft e pré-hidrólise kraft de dois grupos de madeiras de folhosas. Um dos grupos de madeiras continha 25% e o outro 20% de lignina, base peso seco. Foi observado que as madeiras com menores teores de lignina geraram significativamente menores quantidades de compostos reduzidos de enxofre de TRS. Não foram notadas diferenças significativas nas quantidades totais geradas entre os processos de deslignificação estudados. O processo pré-hidrólise kraft foi mais sensível aos teores de lignina da madeira que o processo kraft. Recomenda-se, por isso, trabalhar com madeiras com menores teores de lignina quando do uso do processo pré-hidrólise kraft para produção de celulose. As principais formas geradas de TRS foram dimetil sulfeto e metil mercaptana.

  16. A multi-criteria decision analysis of management alternatives for anaerobically digested kraft pulp mill sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Eikelboom

    Full Text Available The Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA procedure was used to compare waste management options for kraft pulp mill sludge following its anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is advantageous because it produces biogas that may be used to generate electricity, heat and biofuels. However, adequate management of the digested sludge is essential. Landfill disposal is a non-sustainable waste management alternative. Kraft pulp mill digested sludge applied to land may pose risks to the environment and public health if the sludge has not been properly treated. This study is aimed to compare several recycling alternatives for anaerobically digested sludge from kraft pulp mills: land application, landfill disposal, composting, incineration, pyrolysis/gasification, and biofuel production by algae. The MCDA procedure considered nine criteria into three domains to compare digested sludge recycling alternatives in a kraft pulp mill: environmental (CO2 emission, exposure to pathogens, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery, economic (overall costs, value of products and technical (maintenance and operation, feasibility of implementation. The most suitable management options for digested sludge from kraft pulp mills were found to be composting and incineration (when the latter was coupled with recycling ash to the cement industry. Landfill disposal was the worst option, presenting low performance in feasibility of implementation, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery.

  17. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  18. A multi-criteria decision analysis of management alternatives for anaerobically digested kraft pulp mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, Martijn; Lopes, Alice do Carmo Precci; Silva, Claudio Mudadu; Rodrigues, Fábio de Ávila; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2018-01-01

    The Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) procedure was used to compare waste management options for kraft pulp mill sludge following its anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is advantageous because it produces biogas that may be used to generate electricity, heat and biofuels. However, adequate management of the digested sludge is essential. Landfill disposal is a non-sustainable waste management alternative. Kraft pulp mill digested sludge applied to land may pose risks to the environment and public health if the sludge has not been properly treated. This study is aimed to compare several recycling alternatives for anaerobically digested sludge from kraft pulp mills: land application, landfill disposal, composting, incineration, pyrolysis/gasification, and biofuel production by algae. The MCDA procedure considered nine criteria into three domains to compare digested sludge recycling alternatives in a kraft pulp mill: environmental (CO2 emission, exposure to pathogens, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery), economic (overall costs, value of products) and technical (maintenance and operation, feasibility of implementation). The most suitable management options for digested sludge from kraft pulp mills were found to be composting and incineration (when the latter was coupled with recycling ash to the cement industry). Landfill disposal was the worst option, presenting low performance in feasibility of implementation, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery. PMID:29298296

  19. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  20. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  1. Mesta/Kenaf as raw material for Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, V. P.; Shiveshwar, R. M.; Meshramkar, P. M.; Deb, U. K.; Jaspal, N. S.; Biyani, B. P.

    1980-03-15

    In recent years, the shortage of conventional raw materials for pulping has intensified a world-wide search for alternate raw materials. Among other cellulosic materials, attention has focused on agricultural residues and annual plants. In this category, Kenaf, also called Mesta, has been studied as a fiber source in many countries including the USA, Phillippines and India. A comprehensive study on kraft pulping of mesta was carried out where the fiber morphology, pulping, bleaching and papermaking characteristics were investigated. Black liquor properties were also determined. The results of this study are reported and compared to the conventional raw material bamboo. The investigation has shown that mesta is easily pulped and bleached and forms sheets of excellent strength properties, comparable to or better than bamboo pulps. The black liquor from mesta is similar to bamboo in calorific value but is very low in silica, which is highly desirable from the chemical recovery point of view. As with all agricultural residues and annual plants, mesta has a high bulk per unit weight. The problems arising from this, e.g., baling, transportation, proper utilization of digester capacity, have to be studied before mesta can be widely accepted in the paper industry.

  2. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  3. Experimental Studies on the Hydrotreatment of Kraft Lignin to Aromatics and Alkylphenolics Using Economically Viable Fe-Based Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Chowdari, Ramesh Kumar; Hita, Idoia; Heeres, Hero Jan

    Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H-2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 degrees C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin

  4. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. Estimated ventricle size using Evans index: reference values from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraj, D; Rabiei, K; Marlow, T; Jensen, C; Skoog, I; Wikkelsø, C

    2017-03-01

    Evans index is an estimate of ventricular size used in the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Values >0.3 are considered pathological and are required by guidelines for the diagnosis of iNPH. However, there are no previous epidemiological studies on Evans index, and normal values in adults are thus not precisely known. We examined a representative sample to obtain reference values and descriptive data on Evans index. A population-based sample (n = 1235) of men and women aged ≥70 years was examined. The sample comprised people living in private households and residential care, systematically selected from the Swedish population register. Neuropsychiatric examinations, including head computed tomography, were performed between 1986 and 2000. Evans index ranged from 0.11 to 0.46. The mean value in the total sample was 0.28 (SD, 0.04) and 20.6% (n = 255) had values >0.3. Among men aged ≥80 years, the mean value of Evans index was 0.3 (SD, 0.03). Individuals with dementia had a mean value of Evans index of 0.31 (SD, 0.05) and those with radiological signs of iNPH had a mean value of 0.36 (SD, 0.04). A substantial number of subjects had ventricular enlargement according to current criteria. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the range of values among older individuals. © 2017 EAN.

  6. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Hemicelluloses in Bleached Kraft Pulp Using Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Hu, Thomas Q; Jang, Ho Fan; Grant, Edward

    2016-12-01

    The hemicellulose composition of a pulp significantly affects its chemical and physical properties and thus represents an important process control variable. However, complicated steps of sample preparation make standard methods for the carbohydrate analysis of pulp samples, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), expensive and time-consuming. In contrast, pulp analysis by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) requires little sample preparation. Here we show that ATR FT-IR with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing offers a convenient means for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemicelluloses in bleached kraft pulp and alkaline treated kraft pulp. The pulp samples investigated include bleached softwood kraft pulps, bleached hardwood kraft pulps, and their mixtures, as obtained from Canadian industry mills or blended in a lab, and bleached kraft pulp samples treated with 0-6% NaOH solutions. In the principal component analysis (PCA) of these spectra, we find the potential both to differentiate all pulps on the basis of hemicellulose compositions and to distinguish bleached hardwood pulps by species. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis gives a 0.442 wt% root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for the prediction of xylan content and 0.233 wt% RMSEP for the prediction of mannan content. These data all support the idea that ATR FT-IR has a great potential to rapidly and accurately predict the content of xylan and mannan for bleached kraft pulps (softwood, hardwood, and their mixtures) in industry. However, the prediction of xylan and mannan concentrations presented a difficulty for pulp samples with modified cellulose crystalline structure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Antraquinona e surfactante para otimizaçao do processo Kraft com Pinus Spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocelin, Ezequiel Zatoni

    2013-01-01

    A madeira de Pinus é atualmente a matéria-prima mais utilizada na obtenção de fibras longas para papel, juntamente com o processo Kraft pela sua versatilidade e por produzir fibras com boa resistência. As atuais perspectivas florestais apontam para uma escassez da madeira de Pinus para os diversos fins, seja para madeira processada, seja para celulose e papel. O processo Kraft tem como desvantagem o baixo rendimento em celulose, devido à solubilização não somente da lignina como também parte ...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  10. Detoxification of kraft pulp ECF bleaching effluents by catalytic hydrotreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Mohedano, A F; Rodríguez, J J

    2007-02-01

    Two different effluents from the D(1) and E(1) stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were treated by catalytic hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using commercial and homemade Pd/AC catalysts. The reactor was fed with the bleaching effluent and a H(2)/N(2) gas stream. The variables studied were space-time (1.4-5g(cat)min/mL), gas to liquid flow ratio (286-1000vol.), gas feed concentration (H(2):N(2), 1:1-1:7.3vol.), temperature (25-100 degrees C) and pressure (1-11bar). Hydrotreatment performance was evaluated in terms of ecotoxicity, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and colour removal. In all the runs, the ecotoxicity of the effluents decreased as a result of the treatment, achieving reductions that ranged from 70% to 98%. Simultaneously to the reduction of toxicity, the hydrotreatment led to a decrease of the colour of the effluents, being the decrease significantly higher in the case of E(1) effluent. The AOX content was reduced by 85% and 23% for E(1) and D(1) effluents, respectively. In the case of D(1) effluent the removal of ecotoxicity was significantly higher than that of AOX, which indicates that much of the toxicity of the effluent must be associated to non-chlorinated organics. In spite of the important reduction of ecotoxicity, the biodegradability of the effluents only increased slightly. The homemade catalysts, prepared from activated carbons with a high external or non-microporous surface area and mesopore volume and a convenient surface chemistry showed a higher efficiency than the commercial one.

  11. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  12. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  13. Effects of a Chitosan Coating Layer on the Surface Properties and Barrier Properties of Kraft Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable chitosan can be applied as a coating on the surface of kraft paper in order to improve its barrier properties against water vapor and air. The food packaging industry can benefit from the addition of chitosan to its current packaging, and in turn reduce pollution from plastic packaging plants. This paper discusses the film formation of chitosan, the permeability of paper coated with a chitosan layer, and the influence on the paper’s surface and barrier properties under different process conditions. SEM (scanning electron microscope, AFM (atomic force microscope, ATR-FTIR (Fourier transmission infrared spectroscope with attenuated total reflection, and PDA (penetration dynamics analysis were used to analyze the properties of chitosan’s film formation and permeability. A controlled experiment showed that the chitosan layer was smoother than the surface of the uncoated kraft paper, had better film formation, and that there was no chitosan penetration through the kraft paper. The barrier properties against water vapor were strongest when there was a higher concentration of chitosan solution at the optimum pH, stirring speed, and those with a thicker coating on the kraft paper.

  14. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  15. Reinforcing Natural Rubber with Cellulose Nanofibrils Extracted from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunmei Zhang; Tianliang Zhai; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Yi Dan; Lih-Sheng Turng

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing, casting, and evaporation of pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex and an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) extracted from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that there were no micro-scaled aggregates observed in the nanocomposites...

  16. Solution blow spun nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystals from Eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower the...

  17. An environmental systems analysis of the Kraft pulp industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warit, J.

    2006-01-01

    The pulp industry inThailandis of economic and social importance because of its production value, the revenues from export and the employment in this sector. The eucalyptus-based Kraft pulp industry plays an

  18. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1). Effect of alcohol additives on pre-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Meshitsuka, G; Nakano, J [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1979-12-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2 in all, over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking.

  19. Kinetics of Strong Acid Hydrolysis of a Bleached Kraft Pulp for Producing Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) are predominantly produced using the traditional strong acid hydrolysis process. In most reported studies, the typical CNC yield is low (approximately 30%) despite process optimization. This study investigated the hydrolysis of a bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp using sulfuric acid between 50 and 64 wt % at temperatures of 35−80 °C...

  20. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  1. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  2. Effectiveness of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil in a child with refractory evans syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Farruggia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evans Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease consisting of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. It may be associated with other autoimmune or lymphoproliferative diseases. Its course can be extremely serious and, rarely, even life-threatening; thus it represents a excellent treatment challenge for the pediatric hematologist. First line treatment consists of steroids and/or immunoglobulin; further therapy with rituximab, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs can be considered in unresponsive patients. We describe a baby with refractory Evans Syndrome that was cured by prolonged administration of mycophenolate mofetil and remained disease-free for 4 years after the discontinuation of treatment.

  3. Monotypic no longer: a new species of Panca Evans (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Moncini) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Lamas, Gerardo

    2017-05-19

    A new species belonging to the previously monotypic genus Panca Evans, 1955, P. moseri Dolibaina, Carneiro & O. Mielke sp. nov., from grasslands areas of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil is described. Adults and male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated, described in detail, and compared with the type species of the genus, Lerodea subpunctuli Hayward, 1934, and with its externally most similar and sympatric species, Vidius mictra Evans, 1955. The systematic position of the genus Panca and its association with lowland open natural habitats of South America are discussed.

  4. Comics Activism: An Interview with Comics Artist and Activist Kate Evans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an interview with comics artist Kate Evans, author of 'Red Rosa' (2015 and 'Threads: From the Refugee Experience' (2017, as well as a number of other comics, about her recent work, which operates at the intersection of several of the most exciting genre developments in comics in recent years. In the interview Evans reflects on recent shifts in comics journalism, as well as other trends in the field such as the rise of graphic memoir, through examples taken from Evans’s own work as well as that of Joe Sacco, Lynda Barry, Alison Bechdel and others.

  5. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes centrifugal recovery as an improved method for collection of lignin isolated from black liquor obtained from a South African kraft mill. Precipitation of lignin was achieved by utilising 6 M sulphuric acid. Recovery...

  6. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  7. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT OF Eucalyptus globulus WOOD IN KRAFT PULPING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20,53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23,02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18,5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2,49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2,2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1,2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4,2% is obtained

  8. Katayama fever in scuba divers - A report of 3 cases | Evans | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katayama fever in scuba divers - A report of 3 cases. A.C. Evans, D.J. Martin, B.D. Ginsburg. Abstract. Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had contact with a large dam in an ·endemic area of the eastern Transvaal ...

  9. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, as part of Evans' syndrome, caused by cold reactive IgG autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, AS; Muis, N; DeGraaf, SSN

    1996-01-01

    We describe a boy with Evans' syndrome, consisting of immune thrombocytopenic purpura at age 2 and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at age 4. AIHA was caused by cold Ige autoantibodies. This is unusual because AIHA is generally associated with either warm IgG antibodies or cold IgM antibodies.

  10. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  11. 76 FR 7832 - Evans Solutions, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI10-20-000] Evans Solutions... original and seven copies should be filed with: Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First...-acre man-made lake; (2) a powerhouse containing two 5-MW turbines and twelve 5-MW generators; (3) a...

  12. Chemoselective N-arylation of aminobenzamides via copper catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zu, Weisai; Zhang, Jinli; Xu, Liang

    2017-11-15

    Chemoselective N-arylation of unprotected aminobenzamides was achieved via Cu-catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids for the first time. Simple copper catalysts enable the selective arylation of amino groups in ortho/meta/para-aminobenzamides under open-flask conditions. The reactions were scalable and compatible with a wide range of functional groups.

  13. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  14. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  15. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  16. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  17. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  18. Alkali-treated kraft lignin as a component in flakeboard eesins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Lin Kuo; Chung-Yun Hse; Dee-Hua Huang

    1991-01-01

    Southern pine kraft lignin was reacted with NaOH (15 and 20% based on dry lignin) at 170, 200, and 250°C for 30 and 60 min. Sweetgum flake boards bonded with phenolic resins containing 50% hydroxymethylated lignin prepared from some of the alkali treated lignins were compared with boards bonded with a neat PF resin. Results indicate that boards bonded with lignin-...

  19. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Germgard; Muhammad Asif Javed

    2011-01-01

    In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out...

  20. Process parameters affecting the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp with peroxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandranupap, P.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters affecting eucalyptus kraft pulp delignification with peroxyacetic acid were investigated. The results showed that pH was an important factor. The delignification rate increased with increasing pH to the value of 6. High delignification rate was obtained when the pulp was chelated with Na4-EDTA prior to the peroxyacetic acid stage. Therefore, delignification reaction rate depends on peroxyacid charge, temperature, pH and metal content of pulp.

  1. The energy efficiency partnership - Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.C.; Donoghue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During the past twenty years, inordinate shifts in the supply and demand of energy have forced both electric utility companies and their customers to investigate new and innovative ways to satisfy the ever increasing demand for electricity. The Energy Efficiency Partnership, developed between Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company, presents an exemplary study of how two corporate giants creatively solved the problem of uncontrolled energy costs and its positive effect on the overall operations of Kraft General Foods, Framingham. But the Energy Efficiency Partnership did more than reduce energy costs, it provided benefits to all parties on the playing field. To understand its significance, a review of the partnership's history is paramount. The first official announcement of the Energy Efficiency Partnership was made on April 9, 1990. Framingham, MA, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Kraft General Foods Framingham, and Boston Edison Company have joined forces in a $3.6 million dollar energy partnership that will help keep 250 industrial jobs in Massachusetts and could lead to the future expansion of the international food company's Framingham facility

  2. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  3. Kraft lignin chain extension chemistry via propargylation, oxidative coupling, and Claisen rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanghamitra; Sadeghifar, Hasan; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2013-10-14

    Despite its aromatic and polymeric nature, the heterogeneous, stochastic, and reactive characteristics of softwood kraft lignin seriously limit its potential for thermoplastic applications. Our continuing efforts toward creating thermoplastic lignin polymers are now focused at exploring propargylation derivatization chemistry and its potential as a versatile novel route for the eventual utilization of technical lignins with a significant amount of molecular control. To do this, we initially report the systematic propargylation of softwood kraft lignin. The synthesized derivatives were extensively characterized with thermal methods (DSC, TGA), (1)H, (13)C, and quantitative (31)P NMR and IR spectroscopies. Further on, we explore the versatile nature of the lignin pendant propargyl groups by demonstrating two distinct chain extension chemistries; the solution-based, copper-mediated, oxidative coupling and the thermally induced, solid-state, Claissen rearrangement polymerization chemistries. Overall, we show that it is possible to modulate the reactivity of softwood kraft lignin via a combination of methylation and chain extension providing a rational means for the creation of higher molecular weight polymers with the potential for thermoplastic materials and carbon fibers with the desired control of structure-property relations.

  4. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Soda-anthraquinone, kraft and organosolv pulping of holm oak trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaejos, J; López, F; Eugenio, M E; Tapias, R

    2006-11-01

    The operating conditions for an organosolv (ethyleneglycol) and two alkaline (soda-anthraquinone and kraft) processes for obtaining cellulose pulp and paper from holm oak (Quercus ilex) wood trimmings were optimized. A range of variation for each process variable (viz. temperature, cooking time and soda or ethyleneglycol concentration) was established and a central composite experimental design involving three independent variables at three different variation levels was applied. The results obtained with the three cooking processes used were compared and those provided by the kraft process were found to be the best. Thus, the tensile index values it provided (5.9-16.3 N m/g) were 23.7% and 41.5% better than those obtained with the soda-AQ and ethyleneglycol processes, respectively. Also, the kraft process provided the best burst index, brightness and kappa number values. Based on the optimum working ranges, the temperature and cooking time were the variables resulting in the most and least marked changes, respectively, in pulp properties.

  6. Automated method to compute Evans index for diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on brain CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto

    2017-03-01

    The early diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) considered as a treatable dementia is important. The iNPH causes enlargement of lateral ventricles (LVs). The degree of the enlargement of the LVs on CT or MR images is evaluated by using a diagnostic imaging criterion, Evans index. Evans index is defined as the ratio of the maximal width of frontal horns (FH) of the LVs to the maximal width of the inner skull (IS). Evans index is the most commonly used parameter for the evaluation of ventricular enlargement. However, manual measurement of Evans index is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present an automated method to compute Evans index on brain CT images. The algorithm of the method consisted of five major steps: standardization of CT data to an atlas, extraction of FH and IS regions, the search for the outmost points of bilateral FH regions, determination of the maximal widths of both the FH and the IS, and calculation of Evans index. The standardization to the atlas was performed by using linear affine transformation and non-linear wrapping techniques. The FH regions were segmented by using a three dimensional region growing technique. This scheme was applied to CT scans from 44 subjects, including 13 iNPH patients. The average difference in Evans index between the proposed method and manual measurement was 0.01 (1.6%), and the correlation coefficient of these data for the Evans index was 0.98. Therefore, this computerized method may have the potential to accurately compute Evans index for the diagnosis of iNPH on CT images.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Optimum Softwood Lignin Content for the Production of Bioethanol in a Repurposed Kraft Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is one possible pretreatment for softwood to economically produce bioethanol. This work evaluates the techno-economic potential of using the kraft process for producing bioethanol from softwoods in a repurposed or co-located kraft mill. Pretreated loblolly pine was enzymatically hydrolyzed at low enzyme dosages of 5 and 10 FPU/g of substrate. Pretreated residue with 13% lignin content had the highest sugar recovery, 32.7% and 47.7% at 5 and 10 FPU/g, respectively. The pretreated residues were oxygen delignified and refined. In all cases, oxygen delignification improved sugar recovery, while refining was mostly effective for pulps with high lignin content. At 5 FPU/g, the sugar recovery for all kraft pulps was 51 to 53% with oxygen delignification and refining. Increasing the enzyme dosage to 10 FPU/g increased the sugar recovery for these pulps to greater than 60%. Economic analysis for the pulps with different initial lignin content showed that kraft pulps with an initial lignin content of 6.7% with oxygen delignification had an ethanol yield of 285 L/ODt wood and the lowest total production cost of $0.55/L. Pulps with initial lignin content of 18.6% had a total production cost of $0.64/L with an ethanol yield of 264 L/ODt wood.

  8. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par) Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Mora, Fernando David; Garcés Fiallos, Felipe Rafael

    2012-01-01

    More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par) Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life c...

  9. Sotsiaalne ettevõtlus lahendab murekohti / Mervi Raudsaar, Roger Evans ; intervjueerinud Merilyn Merisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mervi, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    TÜ ettevõtluskeskuse kaasabil loetakse kevadsemestril Tartu ülikoolis, Eesti maaülikoolis, Tallinna ülikoolis ja EBS-is inglise- ja eestikeelset õppeainet "Sotsiaalse ettevõtluse alused". Loenguid loevad TÜ majandusteaduskonna ettevõtluse assistent Mervi Raudsaar, külalisprofessor Roger Evans Šotimaalt ning Margarita Sokolova Heateo Sihtasutusest. Ainekursus valmib koostöös Heateo Sihtasutuse ja EASiga

  10. Minimum wage effects on employment and school enrollment: reply to Evans and Turner

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William L. Wascher

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented results suggesting that minimum wage increases have important consequences for both the employment opportunities of youths and their decision to enroll in school. In this paper, we show that the recent claim made by William Evans and Mark Turner that our results are sensitive to changes in the definition of the enrollment rate is based upon an analysis that uses a mismeasured minimum wage index. When the data are constructed properly, our original conclusions are...

  11. Only One? The Default Interventionist Perspective as a Unimodel-Commentary on Evans & Stanovich (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W

    2013-05-01

    Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) defend the dual-processing theories of higher cognition after first criticizing them on fundamental grounds. To make that possible, they resurrect the very distinctions between the two alleged "types" of processing that they formerly had rejected. At the end, however, the default-interventionist model they embrace, seems similar to the single-process unimodel they contest. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Foam separation of Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue using a simple separatory bottle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Dhweeja; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-09-29

    A simple separatory glass bottle was used to improve separation effectiveness and cost efficiency while simultaneously creating a simpler system for separating biological compounds. Additionally, it was important to develop a scalable separation method so this would be applicable to both analytical and preparative separations. Compared to conventional foam separation methods, this method easily forms stable dry foam which ensures high purity of yielded fractions. A negatively charged surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as the ligand to carry a positively charged Rhodamine-G, leaving a negatively charged Evans Blue in the bottle. The performance of the separatory bottle was tested for separating Rhodamine-G from Evans Blue with sample sizes ranged from 1 to 12mg in preparative separations and 1-20μg in analytical separations under optimum conditions. These conditions including N 2 gas pressure, spinning speed of contents with a magnetic stirrer, concentration of the ligand, volume of the solvent, and concentration of the sample, were all modified and optimized. Based on the calculations at their peak absorbances, Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue were efficiently separated in times ranging from 1h to 3h, depending on sample volume. Optimal conditions were found to be 60psi N 2 pressure and 2mM SDS for the affinity ligand. This novel separation method will allow for rapid separation of biological compounds while simultaneously being scalable and cost effective. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Recenzja książki: James Evans, The history and practice of ancient astronomy, Oford University Press, 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Dylewski, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Professor James Evans is a physicist working an University of Pudget Sound in the USA. His reseatch is focused on ancient astronomy and application of that knowledge. He also successfully attempted to build gnomon, astrolabe or analemna – instruments used in antuiquity and medieval times to make observations of celestial bodies. In his work, The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, professor Evans introduces the reader to the evolution of astronomical knowledge, from the simplest observ...

  14. Effects of Alkali Treatment and Polyisocyanate Crosslinking on the Mechanical Properties of Kraft Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of alkali treatment and polyisocyanate crosslinking on the mechanical properties of kraft fiber-reinforced UPE composites were investigated by means of tensile evaluation, SEM analysis, and XRD analysis. The results indicated that the alkali treatment decreased the tensile strength of the prepared composite before aging from 121 MPa to 97 MPa due to the decreased degree of crystallinity of the alkali-treated kraft fiber. Polyisocyanate crosslinking could apparently improve the mechanical properties and stability in terms of a 43% increase of non-aged tensile strength and 52% increase of hydrothermal-aged tensile strength compared with the controlled composite without crosslinking modification, which was attributable to the formation of strong chemical bonding between the interfaces of kraft fiber and polyester.

  15. Interactions of Kraft lignin and wheat gluten during biomaterial processing: evidence for the role of phenolic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtatip, Kaewta; Menut, Paul; Auvergne, Remi; Tanrattanakul, Varaporn; Morel, Marie-Helene; Guilbert, Stephane

    2010-04-14

    The chemical interactions between Kraft lignin and wheat gluten under processing conditions were investigated by determining the extent of the protein network formation. To clarify the role of different chemical functions found in lignin, the effect of Kraft lignin was compared with that of an esterified lignin, in which hydroxyl groups had been suppressed by esterification, and with a series of simple aromatics and phenolic structures with different functionalities (conjugated double bonds, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, and aldehyde). The protein solubility was determined by using the Kjeldahl method. The role of the hydroxyl function was assessed by the significantly lower effect of esterified lignin. The importance of the phenolic radical scavenging structure is evidenced by the effect of guaiacol, which results in a behavior similar to that of the Kraft lignin. In addition, the significant effect of conjugated double bonds on gluten reactivity, through nucleophilic addition, was demonstrated.

  16. Avaliação da madeira e da polpação kraft em clones de eucaliptos Wood evaluation and Kraft pulping in eucalypts clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Gomes Gouvêa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de celulose de baixo custo e alta qualidade requer madeira adequada e bem selecionada. A seleção de clones superiores tem sido realizada com base em critérios como densidade básica, rendimento gravimétrico da polpação e composição química da madeira, especialmente de celulose, hemiceluloses, extrativos e ligninas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características da madeira de Eucalyptus, por método destrutivo, e a produção de polpa celulósica kraft em seis clones. Utilizaram-se cinco árvores de cada clone, aos 3 anos de idade, plantadas em espaçamento 3,0 m x 3,3 m, nas regiões de Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara, Estado de Minas Gerais. A densidade básica foi medida em discos extraídos a 1,3 m de altura do solo (DAP e em cavacos da árvore inteira (amostra composta. A composição química foi medida em amostras de serragem, retiradas no DAP. Os cozimentos foram efetuados a partir de cavacos da árvore inteira. Verificou-se que a densidade medida no DAP foi ligeiramente superior à medida nos cavacos da árvore toda. A composição química geral da madeira foi muito influenciada pelo tipo de clone, local de plantio e interação. Locais mais montanhosos produziram madeira com maior teor de celulose e menor de hemicelulose. A madeira do clone F da região de Santa Bárbara e Cocais apresentaram madeiras de qualidade inferior para produção de polpa celulósica. Os melhores rendimentos de polpação kraft foram alcançados com o clone B nas regiões de Guanhães e Santa Bárbara.Low cost and high quality cellulose production demands appropriate wood. The selection of superior clones has been done based on some criteria as basic density, gravimetric yield of pulping and wood chemical composition, especially of cellulose, hemicelluloses, extractive and lignin contents. This study aimed at evaluating the characteristics of the Eucalyptus wood, by destructive methods, and the Kraft pulping

  17. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (P{sub Mo} stage); Branqueamento de polpa celulosica kraft de eucalipto com peroxido acido ativado por molibdenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil). Dept. Regional da Bahia; Silva, Vanessa Lopes; Barros, Denise Pires de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Sacon, Vera Maria; Silva, Marcelo Rodrigues da [Votorantim Celulose e Papel, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P{sub Mo} stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The P{sub Mo} stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P{sub Mo} stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  19. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA) PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Quaiyyum; A. Noori; Labooni Ahsan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita). Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. ...

  20. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  1. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  2. Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Namane_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 637 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Namane_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 2014... International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 1 August 2014 Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black...

  3. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  4. Application of xylanases from Amazon Forest fungal species in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Garcia Medeiros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude xylanase preparations from Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were used to treat Eucalyptus kraft pulp, prior to chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences. The enzyme pretreatment improved brightness and delignification of non-delignified and oxygen-bleached samples of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Xylanase preparations from T. longibrachiatum and P. corylophilum were more effective to reduce pulp kappa number. A small reduction in viscosity was obtained when the oxygen-bleached pulp was treated with xylanase preparation from A. niger. For all enzyme samples, the best release of chromophoric material from the pulp was at 237 nm. The enzyme preparation from P. corylophilum was responsible for the highest release of reducing sugar at a dosage interval of 10-20 IU/g dry weight pulp. Scanning electron microscopy studies of oxygen-bleached pulp after xylanase treatment revealed morphological changes, including holes, cracks, filament forming and peeling.Amostras de xilanases de extratos brutos de Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger e Trichoderma longibrachiatum foram utilizadas no branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto antes das seqüências alcalina e dióxido de cloro. O pré-tratamento enzimático melhorou a alvura e o processo de deslignificação de amostras de polpa kraft de eucalipto não-tratada e tratada com oxigênio. Amostras de xilanases de T. longibrachiatum e P. corylophilum foram mais efetivas na redução do número kappa da polpa. A polpa tratada com oxigênio sofreu uma pequena redução na sua viscosidade quando incubada com amostra de xilanase de A. niger. Para todas as amostras de xilanases, a maior liberação de cromóforos da polpa foi a 237 nm. A amostra de xilanase de P. corylophilum liberou maior quantidade de açúcar redutor da polpa, utilizando dosagem de 10-20 UI/g de peso seco da polpa. Estudos de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram várias altera

  5. Jens Kraft og "De vilde Folk" (1760) - manden, forfatterskbet, værket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2000-01-01

    had "set cultural development in motion." 7. Brief Account of the Savage Peoples from 1760, together with an address to the Academy of Young Noblemen at Sorø and Critical Letters for the Betterment of Taste, both from 1761, might be viewed as an interrelated group of sources bearing on one particular...... as religious concerns. 9. Kraft's reactions, as revealed by the contradictory tendencies in Brief Account of the Savage Peoples, testify to his unease with the paradoxes of modernity and its concomitant sense of value-loss. The dissertation is divided into three volumes.The first volume introduces the subject...

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  7. ESTUDO DA ADIÇÃO DA LIGNINA KRAFT NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DOS BRIQUETES DE RESÍDUOS DA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Gomes Gouvêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve global effectiveness of energy production, a strategy is the model of bio-refineries in which all the components of biomass are totally used to produce a range of products with aggregated value. The kraft lignin is one of the products originated in the process of cellulose production that can be used in making densified products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of the addition of extracted kraft lignin of black kraft liquor in briquette manufactures with furniture industry waste, in the form of shavings and panel particles in different proportions. The briquettes were produced in laboratory briquetting, using the temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 o C. The pressing and cooling time was 5 minutes and pressure 68,9 x 10 5 N.m -2 (1000 PSI. The briquette quality was evaluated through determining the mechanical properties. The kraft lignin in adequate proportions and temperature showed advantages in the increase of resistance and the durability of the briquettes. The kraft lignin presented advantages such as agglutinative in briquette productions from wood waste at a pressing temperature of 90 o C with addition of 20% of kraft lignin, and at pressing temperatures of 60 and 75 o C at a proportion of addition of 40 and 60% of kraft lignin to wood waste, respectively.

  8. Direct heat transfer considerations for improving energy efficiency in pulp and paper Kraft mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savulescu, Luciana Elena; Alva-Argaez, Alberto [Natural Resources (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The success of any process improvement study depends on the quality of the available data and the way in which the plant-specific characteristics are incorporated in the applied conceptual models; in the context of process integration studies these issues are directly related to the rules followed during the data extraction stage. Improving energy efficiency in a pulp and paper Kraft mill requires the identification of the most promising heat recovery network retrofit projects. In a retrofit analysis using pinch technology/process integration methods, only the process streams associated to the existing heat exchangers and some outlet streams (such as wastewater/effluent streams and vents) with high potential for heat recovery are usually included, while the energy exchanged through non-isothermal stream mixing (NIM) or direct heat transfer (DHT) is often assumed fixed and is not considered in the analysis. Relaxing this assumption requires extracting more data to represent the DHT design configuration that exists in the plant. However, different data extraction options can be considered to represent the DHT configuration depending on the associated process/operation constraints. This work describes a systematic procedure to extract and analyse the impacts of DHT on the overall energy efficiency of a Kraft process with a specific focus on mixing along the pulp line and in water tanks. (author)

  9. Direct heat transfer considerations for improving energy efficiency in pulp and paper Kraft mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savulescu, Luciana Elena; Alva-Argaez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The success of any process improvement study depends on the quality of the available data and the way in which the plant-specific characteristics are incorporated in the applied conceptual models; in the context of process integration studies these issues are directly related to the rules followed during the data extraction stage. Improving energy efficiency in a pulp and paper Kraft mill requires the identification of the most promising heat recovery network retrofit projects. In a retrofit analysis using pinch technology/process integration methods, only the process streams associated to the existing heat exchangers and some outlet streams (such as wastewater/effluent streams and vents) with high potential for heat recovery are usually included, while the energy exchanged through non-isothermal stream mixing (NIM) or direct heat transfer (DHT) is often assumed fixed and is not considered in the analysis. Relaxing this assumption requires extracting more data to represent the DHT design configuration that exists in the plant. However, different data extraction options can be considered to represent the DHT configuration depending on the associated process/operation constraints. This work describes a systematic procedure to extract and analyse the impacts of DHT on the overall energy efficiency of a Kraft process with a specific focus on mixing along the pulp line and in water tanks

  10. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Przybysz Buzała

    Full Text Available Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp's susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time, increased water retention value (WRV and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics.

  11. EFEITO DA QUALIDADE DA MADEIRA NO DESEMPENHO DA POLPAÇÃO KRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Morais de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the wood quality in the kraft pulping performance under two different pulping conditions at two delignification degrees based on results for the yield, brightness, viscosity, and k/ kappa corrected index. Eucalyptus wood (A, B, and C was analyzed about their physicochemical properties (basic and apparent density, insoluble and soluble lignin content, extractive content, ash and insoluble ash in hydrochloric acid and used for pulp production by modified kraft cooking, using two different pulping conditions: Condition I (PI - 16.5% effective alkali, 30% sulfidity, and 155º of cooking temperature; and Condition II (PII - 17.5% effective alkali, 32% sulfidity,and 147ºC cooking temperature. Both conditions were performed to kappa number 15.5 ± 0.5 and 18.0 ± 0.5. The following pulping parameters and pulp properties produced were evaluated: H factor, screened yield, viscosity, brightness, hexenuronic acid content, and the k/kappa corrected index. The A wood, which had lower extractives and lignin content in its constitution, as well as lower basic and apparent density when compared with B and C woods, showed good results for cooking parameters, especially the pulp produced at PII condition at kappa number 18.0 ± 0.5.Also, the A wood showed higher screened yield, brightness, and viscosity comparing to the other pulps produced. Those pulps produced with higher kappa number have lower k/kappa corrected index.

  12. Bio-based polyurethane prepared from Kraft lignin and modified castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Tavares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current challenges highlight the need for polymer research using renewable natural sources as a substitute for petroleum-based polymers. The use of polyols obtained from renewable sources combined with the reuse of industrial residues such as lignin is an important agent in this process. Different compositions of polyurethane-type materials were prepared by combining technical Kraft lignin (TKL with castor oil (CO or modified castor oil (MCO1 and MCO2 to increase their reactivity towards diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. The results indicate that lignin increases the glass transition temperature, the crosslinking density and improves the ultimate stress especially for those prepared from MCO2 and 30% lignin content from 8.2 MPa (lignin free to 23.5 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of rupture surface after uniaxial tensile tests show ductile-to-brittle transition. The results show the possibility to develop polyurethane-type materials, varying technical grade Kraft lignin content, which cover a wide range of mechanical properties (from large elastic/low Young modulus to brittle/high Young modulus polyurethanes.

  13. The impact of kappa number composition on eucalyptus kraft pulp bleachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of chemicals during ECF bleaching of kraft pulp correlates reasonably well with kappa number, which measures with KMnO4 the total amount of oxidizable material in the pulp. However, the method does not distinguish between the oxidizable material in residual lignin and other structures susceptible to oxidation, such as hexenuronic acids (HexAs, extractives and carbonyl groups in the pulp. In this study an attempt is made to separate the main contributors to the kappa number in oxygen - delignified eucalyptus Kraft pulps and evaluate how these fractions behave during ECF bleaching using chlorine dioxide as the sole oxidant (DEDD sequence. Residual lignin and HexAs proved to be the main fractions contributing to the kappa number and chlorine dioxide consumption in ECF bleaching. Pulp bleachability with chlorine dioxide increases with increasing HexAs content of the pulp but chlorine dioxide per se does not react with HexAs. Reduction of pulp with sodium borohydride under conditions for removing carbonyl groups has no impact on bleachability. No correlation was found between the pulp of the extractive content and pulp bleachability. The removal of HexAs prior to ECF bleaching significantly decreases the formation of chlorinated organics in the pulp (OX and filtrates (AOX as well as of oxalic acids in the filtrates.

  14. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production.

  15. Evans Syndrome Presented with Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Duodenal Neuroendocrine Tumor in an Elderly Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D'Ambrosio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is an autoimmune disorder characterized by simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and/or neutropenia. ES can be classified as a primary (idiopathic or secondary (associated with an underlying disease syndrome. We report a case of ES in an elderly patient in the presence of multiple trigger factors such as recent influenza vaccine, marginal zone lymphoma, and neuroendocrine tumor G1. Whether this association is casual or causal remains a matter of speculation. It is however necessary to have a thorough work-up in a newly diagnosed ES and a more accurate search of miscellaneous factors especially in elderly patients.

  16. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. in the crop of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L. in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life cycle management or control strategies of that disease, by performing this review both these important topics, bringing with it to this area of knowledge.

  17. Plasma volume methodology: Evans blue, hemoglobin-hematocrit, and mass density transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring absolute levels and changes in plasma volume are presented along with derivations of pertinent equations. Reduction in variability of the Evans blue dye dilution technique using chromatographic column purification suggests that the day-to-day variability in the plasma volume in humans is less than + or - 20 m1. Mass density determination using the mechanical-oscillator technique provides a method for measuring vascular fluid shifts continuously for assessing the density of the filtrate, and for quantifying movements of protein across microvascular walls. Equations for the calculation of volume and density of shifted fluid are presented.

  18. Solar generation of hydrogen; Wasserstofferzeugung auf solarer Basis. Thermische Dissoziation des Wassers mit dem Licht-Kraft-Werk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, G.

    2003-04-01

    Solar generation of hydrogen. The ''Licht-Kraft-Werke'' (LKW) is described. Due to this it will be possible to supply solid-state-lasers directly by sunlight. Supplied by lasers water should be split in a highest-temperature-reactor. An efficiency of more than 21% is supposed to be reached. (orig.)

  19. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R; Siistonen, H; Malkavaara, P [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  20. Structural characterization of Kraft lignins from different spent cooking liquors by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Costas, C.; Gouveia, S.; Sanromán, M.A.; Moldes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Three Kraft lignins isolated from black liquors of several paper pulp mills of the North of Spain and Portugal were structurally characterized by using monodimensional ( 1 H and 13 C) and bidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry. From the latter, 13 C– 1 H heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) were employed. Lignins from black liquors are usually burned for power generation. Nevertheless, they could become high value added products within a biorefinery context. In that case, a good understanding of their structure is a prior step to transform them. From all the NMR techniques studied, HSQC has risen as the most powerful tool in lignin characterization. Kraft cooking conditions and the type of wood seem to be the main factors that determine the differences observed in the lignins. All the samples have shown an important decrease in the number of β–O–4′ linkages, due to the Kraft process, and resinol has become the most resistant linkage to the process. Moreover, all samples seem to be mainly linked to a one polysaccharide: xylan. Several parameters like S/G ratio, portion of phenolic and aliphatic hydroxyls, amount of aromatic protons and other structural aspects were also estimated. - Highlights: • Lignins from three Kraft spent liquors were obtained by acid precipitation. • Structural characterization of the dissolved lignins was performed by NMR. • Wood source and pulping conditions determine the lignin characteristics. • Kraft process implies cleavage of β–O–4 linkages and survival of resinol linkages. • Comparison of the samples would aid decisions on its future revalorization

  1. Joint reproductive autonomy: does Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd provide for a gender-neutral approach to assisted reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technology encompasses methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Whilst these methods are more commonly used by couples suffering from problems of infertility, some forms of assistance are employed by fertile couples, for example pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. The overall regulatory framework in the UK is predominantly found in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The usual rules relating to consent and autonomy apply and were discussed in depth in Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and later in Evans v United Kingdom. This paper considers whether the Evans litigation envisages the possibility of further encouraging joint autonomy in the use of zygotes and whether there is a continuing right to autonomy by the party not bearing the pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  3. Comment on 'evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of blached kraft mill effluent by W.J. Parker, E.R. Hall and G.J. Farquhar'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    Comment on "Evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of bleached kraft mill effluent", is put forth. The data reproduced in Table 1 does not seem to be authentic as the method of preprationo of the chlorinated organic...

  4. Measurement of the increase in the capillary permeability in skin with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarava, S.; Goncalves, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of bradykinin and histamine with Evans blue labelled with iodine -125 or 131 is described. The activity upon vascular permeability was performed in the abdominal wall of rats injecting intravenously solution of labelled Evans blue and 0,1 ml of vasoactive drugs solution intradermally. Skin discs were cut with circular punch for external counting, quantitative results being compared with control discs. By using this method, satisfactory log dose-reponse curves were obtained for bradykinin and histamine that followed the general trend of S - shaped curves [pt

  5. Combined heat and power with the use of fuel cells; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, G; Lehmann, M [Deutsches Brennstoffzellenforum e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Fuel cell systems have the potential to cause increased efficiency, cleanness and decentralization in all areas of energy consumption. This article describes technical characteristics and current development status of the different fuel cell types with a view to their use as cogeneration facilities. The following types of fuel cell are examined: - Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), - Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). (orig.) [Deutsch] Brennstoffzellensysteme haben das Potential, in allen Sektoren des Endenergieverbrauchs wesentliche Verbesserungen bezueglich Effizienz, Sauberkeit und Dezentralisierung zu bewirken. In dem folgenden Aufsatz werden die technischen Eigenschaften und der aktuelle Entwicklungsstand verschiedener Brennstoffzellentypen im Hinblick auf ihren Einsatz in der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung beschrieben. Ein Ueberblick ueber neueste Demonstrationsprojekte informiert ueber den Stand der Technik. Konkrete - wenngleich unsichere - Angaben zur Wirtschaftlichkeit projektierter Brennstoffzellensystme ergeben, dass die genannten Vorteile der Brennstoffzellentechnologie moeglicherweise schon um die Jahrhundertwende auch oekonomisch interessant werden. (orig.)

  6. Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Wang, Xinqi; Zhang, YanLing; Xu, Yongjian; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a combined process involving pulp fractionation and cellulase treatment of each fraction for improving the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and reactivity of a kraft-based dissolving pulp. Three pulp fractions, namely long-fiber, mid-fiber and short-fiber fractions (LF, MF and SF, respectively), were used as the substrates. The results showed that the SF had the highest accessibility, lowest viscosity, and highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while the opposite was true for the LF. At a given viscosity, the combined process led to a lower polydispersity index (3.71 vs 4.98) and a higher Fock reactivity (85.6% vs 76.3%), in comparison to the conventional single-stage cellulase treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biobleaching chemistry of laccase-mediator systems on high-lignin-content kraft pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakar, F.S.; Ragauskas, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high-lignin-content softwood kraft pulp was reacted with laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (NHA), and violuric acid (VA). The biodelignification response with violuric acid was superior to both 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine. NMR analysis of residual lignins isolated before and after the biobleaching treatments revealed that the latter material was highly oxidized and that the magnitude of structural changes was most pronounced with the laccase - violuric acid biobleaching system. An increase in the content of carboxylic acid groups and a decrease in methoxyl groups were noted with all three laccase-mediator systems. The oxidation biobleaching pathway is directed primarily towards noncondensed C5 phenolic lignin functional structures for all three laccase-mediated systems. The laccase - violuric acid system was also reactive towards C5-condensed phenolic lignin structures. (author)

  8. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  9. The effect of temperature on the catalytic conversion of Kraft lignin using near-critical water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thi Dieu Huyen; Maschietti, Marco; Åmand, Lars-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of suspended LignoBoost Kraft lignin was performed in near-critical water using ZrO2/K2CO3 as the catalytic system and phenol as the co-solvent and char suppressing agent. The reaction temperature was varied from 290 to 370 C and its effect on the process was investigated...... in a continuous flow (1 kg/h). The yields of water-soluble organics (WSO), bio-oil and char (dry lignin basis) were in the ranges of 5–11%, 69–87% and 16–22%, respectively. The bio-oil, being partially deoxygenated, exhibited higher carbon content and heat value, but lower sulphur content than lignin. The main 1...

  10. Delignification of softwood kraft pulp by chlorine dioxide in a laboratory bleaching liquor displacement reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Y.; Izadyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    The chlorine dioxide delignification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp in the laboratory liquor displacement reactor (fixed bed reactor) was investigated and compared with conventional batch reactor. The comparison of two reactors was made based on the effective efficiency and overall efficiency of chlorine dioxide. Effective efficiency corresponds to the oxidizing capacity of chlorine dioxide which consumed by organic materials. Comparison of two reactors based on the effective efficiency showed that the selectivity of delignification significantly enhanced in the displacement reactor in which the primary reaction products are eliminated from reaction zone by displacing flow. On the other hand, the formation of high amounts of chlorate in the reaction zone of displacement reactor reduces the overall efficiency of chlorine dioxide delignification stage. Thus, in spite of significant decrease in useless secondary reactions, this type of reactor would not be cost effective in the industrial scale

  11. Impact of burning oil as auxiliary fuel in kraft recovery furnaces upon SO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someshwar, A.V.; Caron, A.L.; Pinkerton, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between burning medium sulfur oil as auxiliary fuel in kraft recovery furnaces and SO 2 emissions was examined. Analysis of long-term CEMS SO 2 data from four furnaces shows no increase in SO 2 emissions as a result of oil burning. The results of field tests conducted at four furnaces while co-firing oil with liquor (up to 34% of total heat input) show that (1) average SO 2 emissions during the oil firing period either decreased or remained unchanged; (2) the overall sulfur retention within the furnace remained consistently high (more than 90%) with increasing levels of oil burning; (3) apportioning stack SO 2 emissions between those derived from oil and black liquor was infeasible. The results indicate that the same alkali fume generation processes that lead to the efficient capture of SO 2 resulting from black liquor combustion may be responsible for the capture of SO 2 resulting from sulfur-containing oil combustion

  12. Effects of Kraft Mill effluent on the sexuality of fishes: An environmental early warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.P.; Bortone, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in kraft mill effluent (KME) has inhibited specific identification of causal agent(s). However, microbially degraded phytosterols (e.g. sitosterol or stigmastanol) in experimental exposures induce the same intersexual states that characterize affected female poeciliids sampled from KME streams. KME-polluted streams often exhibit a drastic reduction of fish species diversity and degrees of physiological stress, all of which suggests reduced reproduction in surviving forms. A potential ontogenetic or developmental response is demonstrated in American eels captured in one of these streams as well. The authors examine available information, including laboratory and experimental field exposures, and suggest directions for additional research as well as the need for environmental concern.

  13. Caffeic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of kraft pulp using recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Katsuyama, Yohei; Danyao, Du; Kahar, Prihardi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Teramura, Hiroshi; Wakai, Keiko; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minami, Hiromichi; Ogino, Chiaki; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kondo, Ahikiko

    2017-07-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) serves as a building block for thermoplastics and a precursor for biologically active compounds and was recently produced from glucose by microbial fermentation. To produce caffeic acid from inedible cellulose, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions were compared using kraft pulp as lignocellulosic feedstock. Here, a tyrosine-overproducing Escherichia coli strain was metabolically engineered to produce caffeic acid from glucose by introducing the genes encoding a 4-hydroxyphenyllactate 3-hydroxylase (hpaBC) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tyrosine ammonia lyase (fevV) from Streptomyces sp. WK-5344. Using the resulting recombinant strain, the maximum yield of caffeic acid in SSF (233 mg/L) far exceeded that by SHF (37.9 mg/L). In the SSF with low cellulase loads (≤2.5 filter paper unit/g glucan), caffeic acid production was markedly increased, while almost no glucose accumulation was detected, indicating that the E. coli cells experienced glucose limitation in this culture condition. Caffeic acid yield was also negatively correlated with the glucose concentration in the fermentation medium. In SHF, the formation of by-product acetate and the accumulation of potential fermentation inhibitors increased significantly with kraft pulp hydrolysate than filter paper hydrolysate. The combination of these inhibitors had synergistic effects on caffeic acid fermentation at low concentrations. With lower loads of cellulase in SSF, less potential fermentation inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid) accumulated in the medium. These observations suggest that glucose limitation in SSF is crucial for improving caffeic acid yield, owing to reduced by-product formation and fermentation inhibitor accumulation.

  14. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions.

  15. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  16. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway. Summary; KonKraft rapport 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  17. Oxidative pyrolysis of kraft lignin in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongbing; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of kraft lignin with partial (air) oxidation was studied in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor at reaction temperatures of 773 and 823 K. The bio-oil vapors were fractionated using a series of three condensers maintained at desired temperatures, providing a dry bio-oil with less than 1% water and over 96% of the total bio-oil energy. Oxygen feed was varied to study its effect on yield, composition, and energy recovery in the gas, char and oil products. The addition of oxygen to the pyrolysis process increased the production of gases such as CO and CO 2 . It also changed the dry bio-oil properties, reducing its heating value, increasing its oxygen content, reducing its average molecular weight and tar concentration, while increasing its phenolics concentration. The lower reaction temperature of 773 K was preferred for both dry bio-oil yield and quality. Autothermal operation of the pyrolysis process was achieved with an oxygen feed of 72 or 54 g per kg of biomass at the reaction temperatures of 773 and 823 K, respectively. Autothermal operation reduced both yield and total energy content of the dry bio-oil, with relative reductions of 24 and 20% for the yield, 28 and 23% for the energy content, at 773 and 823 K. - Highlights: • Autothermal pyrolysis of Kraft lignin is possible with introduction of air. • Under autothermal conditions, 24% of the dry bio-oil chemicals are lost at 773 K. • Partial oxidation helps produce more simple phenols and less pyrolytic lignin. • Bio-oil from lignin pyrolysis has a very high phenolics concentration

  18. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  19. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  20. Parvovirus B19-triggered acute hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in a child with Evans syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIS MANTADAKIS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thromocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Conclusion: Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present with reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  1. Separation of Evans and Hiro currents in VDE of tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2014-10-01

    Progress on the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) development and benchmarking will be presented. The DSC-3D is one-fluid nonlinear time-dependent MHD code, which utilizes fully 3D toroidal geometry for the first wall, pure vacuum and plasma itself, with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary and accurate resolution of the plasma surface current. Suppression of fast magnetosonic scale by the plasma inertia neglecting will be demonstrated. Due to code adaptive nature, self-consistent plasma surface current modeling during non-linear dynamics of the Vertical Displacement Event (VDE) is accurately provided. Separation of the plasma surface current on Evans and Hiro currents during simulation of fully developed VDE, then the plasma touches in-vessel tiles, will be discussed. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR Grant # DE-SC0004487.

  2. Evans syndrome with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated by hemopericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Kizilirmak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare hematological disease characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and/or neutropenia, all of which may be seen simultaneously or subsequently. Thrombotic events in ES are uncommon. Furthermore, non-ST segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI during ES is a very rare condition. Here, we describe a case of a 69-year-old female patient presenting with NSTEMI and ES. Revascularization via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was scheduled and performed. Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade occurred 5 h after PCI, and urgent pericardiocentesis was performed. Follow-up was uneventful, and the patient was safely discharged. Early recognition and appropriate management of NSTEMI is crucial to prevent morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of NSTEMI and ES, which is associated with increased bleeding risk, is a challenging scenario and these patients should be closely monitored in order to achieve early recognition and treatment of complications.

  3. Parvovirus B19-triggered Acute Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in a Child with Evans Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikidou, Panagiota; Grapsa, Anastassia; Bezirgiannidou, Zoe; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Mantadakis, Elpis

    2018-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with the presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  4. On the behavior of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2011-08-22

    Versatile Broensted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP relation is strongly coupled to the adsorbate geometry in the transition state. If it is final state-like the dissociative chemisorption energy can be considered as a descriptor for the dissociation. If it is initial state-like, on the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption energy is not suitable as descriptor for the dissociation. Dissociation of molecules with strong intramolecular bonds belong to the former and molecules with weak intramolecular bonds to the latter group. We show, for the prototype system La-perovskites, that there is a 'cyclic' behavior in the transition state characteristics upon change of the active transition metal of the oxide.

  5. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  6. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates cardiac fibrosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jung Eun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia leads to cardiac oxidative stress and an imbalance in glucose homeostasis. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised by cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on cardiac energy metabolism, antioxidant effect, and fibrosis in the hearts of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF rats. Methods Animals were separated into non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats and diabetes-prone OLETF rats with or without ALA (200 mg/kg/day administration for 16 weeks. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. The effect of ALA on AMPK signalling, antioxidant enzymes, and fibrosis-related genes in the heart of OLETF rats were performed by Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Results Western blot analysis showed that cardiac adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. Furthermore, the low antioxidant activity in OLETF rats was increased by ALA treatment. In addition to increased Sirius red staining of collagen deposits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ALA. Conclusions ALA enhances AMPK signalling, antioxidant, and antifibrogenic effect. Theses findings suggest that ALA may have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Public Lecture | The long road to the LHC | Prof. Lyn Evans, Dr. Daniel Treille and Prof. Peter Jenni | 9 October

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    “The long road to the LHC” by Prof. Lyn Evans, Dr. Daniel Treille and Prof. Peter Jenni. Thursday 9 October, 7.30 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Talk in English with simultaneous interpreting into French.  Entrance free. Limited number of seats. Reservation essential: +41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch   Lyn Evans. Lecture by Lyn Evans Abstract The key to the discovery of the Higgs boson has been the development of particle accelerators at CERN over the years. I will explain how a particle accelerator works and will follow the path from the construction of the Proton Synchrotron in the 1950s to the world’s most powerful colliding beam machine, the Large Hadron Collider. Biography Born in 1945, Lyn Evans has spent his whole career in the field of high energy physics and particle accelerators, participating in all the great projects of CERN. From 1993 he led the team that designed, built and commissioned the LHC. He is currently ...

  8. Sulfonato-imino copper(ii) complexes: fast and general Chan-Evans-Lam coupling of amines and anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin Duparc, V; Schaper, F

    2017-10-14

    Sulfonato-imine copper complexes with either chloride or triflate counteranions were prepared in a one-step reaction followed by anion-exchange. They are highly active in Chan-Evans-Lam couplings under mild conditions with a variety of amines or anilines, in particular with sterically hindered substrates. No optimization of reaction conditions other than time and/or temperature is required.

  9. EFFECT OF THE REACTION CONDITIONS OVER THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF METHYLCELLULOSE OBTAINED FROM PINUS RADIATA KRAFT BLEACHED CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    TAPIA, C.; SAPAG-HAGAR, J.; ANDRADE, C.T.; HASSÓN, J.; VALENZUELA, F.; BASUALTO, C.

    2002-01-01

    Kraft bleached cellulose from Pinus radiata was submitted to methylation reactions in heterogeneous media. After activation with 29% (w/w) NaOH solution, methylation reactions were carried out both with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and methyl iodide (MI). The effects of the pressing ratio, reaction time and type of methylation agent were studied. The better yields were obtained with dimethylsulphate and the pressing ratio and reaction time were not signficant over the yield. Methylcellulose (MC) of...

  10. Inter-laboratory comparisons of hexenuronic acid measurements in kraft eucalyptus pulps using a UV-Vis spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; H.F Zhou; Chai X.S.; Donna Johannes; Richard Pope; Cristina Valls; M. Blanca Roncero

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of a UV-Vis spectroscopic method (TAPPI T 282 om-13 “Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp”) for hexeneuronic acid measurements was conducted using three eucalyptus kraft pulps. The pulp samples were produced in a laboratory at kappa numbers of approximately 14, 20, and 35. The hexeneuronic acid contents of the three pulps were...

  11. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Performance of Side-Streams from Eucalyptus Processing as Sources of Polysaccharides and Lignins by Kraft Delignification

    OpenAIRE

    Paula C. R. Pinto; Cátia Oliveira; Carina Costa; Alírio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The performance of bark, branches, sawdust, forest biomass, and short-rotation eucalyptus in kraft delignification to produce polysaccharides and lignin is reported and discussed. A positive correlation was found between pulping severity required for delignification and lignin reactivity. Among all, branches feedstock is the best source of polysaccharides due to the high pulp yield (48-54%) with a satisfactory delignification degree. Branches lignin was characterized for the first time, evalu...

  13. The effect of amphipilic lignin derivatives addition on enzymatic hydrolysis performance of kraft pulp from sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatriasari, Widya; Nugroho Adi, D. T.; Laksana, R. P. B.; Fajriutami, T.; Raniya, R.; Ghozali, M.; Hermiati, E.

    2018-03-01

    Previously, the chemical characteristics of isolated lignin from Acacia mangium black liquor of kraft pulping was characterized. This lignin was blended with natural rubber latex (NR-L) as adhesive in laminated wood. In addition, lignin has potency for biosurfactant materials by modification of the hydrophobic into hydrophilic properties. Therefore, this study was intended to develop lignin as material for amphipilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) biosurfactant by reacting lignin with epoxilated polyethylene glicol (PEG). A-LD addition in slurries was used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of kraft pulp sweet bagasse sorghum (SSB). The main observation in EH performance was to investigate the effect of lignin isolation method (one and two step) in A-LD and A-LD loading addition on reducing sugar yield (RSY) of SSB kraft pulp. The pulp was hydrolyzed at 50°C and 150 rpm for 72 h with 10 FPU cellulase loading in the shaking incubator. A-LD from one (L1S) and two step (L2S) lignin was added with A-LD loading of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10% (b/v). The RSY of hydrolyzate has been observed after EH. A-LDs addition in EH of SSB kraft pulp enhanced RSY. L1S worked better in reaction performance with PEDGE compared to L2S and LS. A better performance was showed by PEDGE 500 than that of PEDGE 6000. Generally, the higher A-LDs loading resulted higher RSY. The highest RSY (81.33%) was resulted in addition of 10% A-LD L1S using PEDGE 500. A 5% A-LD loading was more considered to be added in EH because the RSY was comparable with 10% A-LD loading.

  14. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R; Chiao, Mu; Bennington, Chad P J

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm 2 ) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa) −1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  15. Experimental evaluation of the performances of cellulosic pads made out of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers as evaporative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, Mahsa; Layeghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Ghanbar; Hamzeh, Yahya; Khorasani, Manouchehr

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We experimentally evaluated the performances of cellulosic pads. ► A number of experiments have been done in a wind tunnel. ► The results showed that cooling efficiency improves with decrease of air velocity and flute size. ► Water consumption increases with the increase of air velocity. ► Cooling efficiency of various pads was also compared. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performances of cellulosic pads made out of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers in three flute sizes, experimentally. A number of experiments have been done in a wind tunnel in order to evaluate the cooling efficiency and water consumption as a function of air velocity. The tests were carried out at three levels of air velocity (1.8, 2.25, and 2.67 ms −1 ) for three flute sizes of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 mm). Analysis of the results indicated that cooling efficiency improves with decrease of air velocity and flute size of corrugated papers; however, water consumption increases with the increase of air velocity. The results were compared with each other and it was shown that the cellulosic pad made out of Kraft paper with 2.5 mm flute size has the highest performance (92%) at 1.8 ms −1 air velocity in comparison with the other cellulosic pads.

  16. Experimental Studies on the Hydrotreatment of Kraft Lignin to Aromatics and Alkylphenolics Using Economically Viable Fe-Based Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 °C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin oil) on lignin intake. The composition of the lignin oil was determined in detail (elemental composition, GC-MS, GC×GC-FID, and GPC). The total GC-detectable monomeric species amounts up to 31 wt % on lignin intake, indicating that 92 wt % of the products in the lignin oil are volatile and thus of low molecular weight. The lignin oil was rich in low-molecular-weight alkylphenolics (17 wt % on lignin) and aromatics (8 wt % on lignin). Performance of the limonite catalyst was compared to other Fe-based catalysts (goethite and iron disulfide) and limonite was shown to give the highest yields of alkylphenolics and aromatics. The limonite catalyst before and after reaction was characterized using XRD, TEM, and nitrogen physisorption to determine changes in structure during reaction. Catalyst recycling tests were performed and show that the catalyst is active after reuse, despite the fact that the morphology changed and that the surface area of the catalyst particles was decreased. Our results clearly reveal that cheap limonite catalysts have the potential to be used for the depolymerization/hydrodeoxygenation of kraft lignin for the production of valuable biobased phenolics and aromatics. PMID:28413733

  17. S-Allyl cysteine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats via regulation of hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Kodai, Shintaro; Shinkawa, Hiroji; Tsukioka, Takuma; Okada, Shigeru; Azuma, Hideki; Kubo, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    It is important to prevent and improve diabetes mellitus and its complications in a safe and low-cost manner. S-Allyl cysteine, an aged garlic extract with antioxidant activity, was investigated to determine whether S-allyl cysteine can improve type 2 diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used and were divided into two groups at 29 weeks of age....

  18. O fantasma de Evans-Pritchard: diálogos da antropologia com a sua história The ghost of Evans-Pritchard: anthropology’s dialogues with its own history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Delgado Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como estudo de caso a monografia de Sharon Hutchinson sobre os nuer, o presente artigo explora os quiproquós do diálogo entre a antropologia contemporânea e os clássicos, procurando detetar certas genealogias invisíveis que remontam aos funcionalistas britânicos, e nomeadamente a Evans-Pritchard. Procede a um esbatimento de certas oposições explícitas entre o presente e o passado da antropologia, revelando que as noções clássicas perpassam de forma subterrânea o discurso daqueles que dizem rejeitá-las e que muitas das preocupações atuais já tinham expressão nas etnografias modernas. É demonstrado que as abordagens estáticas - como a de Evans-Pritchard - tinham uma componente histórica e que a antropologia social britânica teve as suas respostas teóricas e metodológicas para as transformações dos contextos africanos sob domínio colonial.Through the reading of Sharon Hutchinson’s monograph on the Nuer, this article explores the misunderstandings between contemporary anthropology and the modern classics. It tries to identify invisible genealogies that go back to the British functionalists, particularly to Evans-Pritchard, and minimizes the explicit oppositions between the present and the past of anthropology. It reveals that some classical notions are detectable in non-explicit ways among those who claim to reject them and, at the same time, that contemporary concerns have their roots in modern ethnographies. The author shows that static approaches - as the one by Evans-Pritchard on the Nuer - had a historical meaning and recalls that British social anthropology had its own theoretical and methodological answers to the transformations of African contexts under colonial rule.

  19. Evans syndrome in children. Long-term outcome in a prospective French national observational cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eAladjidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.

  20. A Case Study: Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition-Commentary on Evans & Stanovich (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process theories of higher order cognition (DPTs) have been enjoying much success, particularly since Kahneman's 2002 Nobel prize address and recent book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2009). Historically, DPTs have attempted to provide a conceptual framework that helps classify and predict differences in patterns of behavior found under some circumstances and not others in a host of reasoning, judgment, and decision-making tasks. As evidence has changed and techniques for examining behavior have moved on, so too have DPTs. Killing two birds with one stone, Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) respond to five main criticisms of DPTs. Along with addressing each criticism in turn, they set out to clarify the essential defining characteristics that distinguish one form of higher order cognition from the other. The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Simulations of vertical disruptions with VDE code: Hiro and Evans currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xujing; Di Hu Team; Leonid Zakharov Team; Galkin Team

    2014-10-01

    The recently created numerical code VDE for simulations of vertical instability in tokamaks is presented. The numerical scheme uses the Tokamak MHD model, where the plasma inertia is replaced by the friction force, and an adaptive grid numerical scheme. The code reproduces well the surface currents generated at the plasma boundary by the instability. Five regimes of the vertical instability are presented: (1) Vertical instability in a given plasma shaping field without a wall; (2) The same with a wall and magnetic flux ΔΨ|plX< ΔΨ|Xwall(where X corresponds to the X-point of a separatrix); (3) The same with a wall and magnetic flux ΔΨ|plX> ΔΨ|Xwall; (4) Vertical instability without a wall with a tile surface at the plasma path; (5) The same in the presence of a wall and a tile surface. The generation of negative Hiro currents along the tile surface, predicted earlier by the theory and measured on EAST in 2012, is well-reproduced by simulations. In addition, the instability generates the force-free Evans currents at the free plasma surface. The new pattern of reconnection of the plasma with the vacuum magnetic field is discovered. This work is supported by US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  2. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Yan, Qiangu; Leng, Weiqi; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Jilei; Cai, Zhiyong; Hassan, El Barbary

    2017-08-21

    Kraft lignin (KL) was thermally treated at 500 to 1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. Carbon nanostructure parameters of thermally treated KL in terms of amorphous carbon fraction, aromaticity, and carbon nanocrystallites lateral size ( L a ), thickness ( L c ), and interlayer space ( d 002 ) were analyzed quantitatively using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that increasing temperature reduced amorphous carbon but increased aromaticity in thermally treated KL materials. The L c value of thermally treated KL materials averaged 0.85 nm and did not change with temperature. The d 002 value decreased from 3.56 Å at 500 °C to 3.49 Å at 1000 °C. The L a value increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm as temperature increased from 500 to 1000 °C. A nanostructure model was proposed to describe thermally treated KL under 1000 °C. The thermal stability of heat treated KL increased with temperature rising from 500 to 800 °C.

  4. Structural, morphological, and thermal characterization of kraft lignin and its charcoals obtained at different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Brazil, Tayra; Nunes Costa, Rogeria; Massi, Marcos; Cerqueira Rezende, Mirabel

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource that is becoming more import due to environmental concerns and possible oil crisis. Thus, optimizing its use is a current challenge for many researchers. Lignin, which is a macromolecule with complex chemical structure, valuable physicochemical properties, and varied chemical composition, is available in large quantities in pulp and paper companies. The objective of this work is the physicochemical characterization of two Kraft lignin samples with different purities, and the study of its thermal conversion into charcoal. The lignin characterization was based on chemical, TGA, DSC, FT-IR, particle sizes, and FEG-SEM analyses. These analyses show that the lignins are mainly composed of guaiacyl and syringyl units, with residues of 30–36 wt.%, in inert atmosphere, depending on the lignin purity. From these results, the more purified lignin with higher carbon yield (%C) was selected for charcoal production. The heat treatment (HT) for carbonization of lignin, at different times (90, 180, and 420 min), resulted in different %C (41–44 wt.%). Longer HT resulted in higher %C and in charcoals with smaller pore sizes. Nanopores (∼50 nm) are observed for the charcoal obtained with the longest HT.

  5. Acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural in the presence of kraft lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, Kaisa; Ahola, Juha; Tanskanen, Juha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effects of kraft lignin (Indulin AT) on acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural were studied in formic and sulphuric acids. The study was done using D-optimal design. Three variables in both acids were included in the design: time (20-80 min), temperature (160-180°C) and initial lignin concentration (0-20 g/l). The dependent variables were xylose conversion, furfural yield, furfural selectivity and pH change. The results showed that the xylose conversion and furfural yield decreased in sulphuric acid, while in formic acid the changes were minor. Additionally, it was showed that lignin has an acid-neutralising capacity, and the added lignin increased the pH of reactant solutions in both acids. The pH rise was considerably lower in formic acid than in sulphuric acid. However, the higher pH did not explain all the changes in conversion and yield, and thus lignin evidently inhibits the formation of furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A practical approach towards energy conversion through bio-refining of mixed kraft pulps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J.S.; Tyagi, C.H.; Ahamad, S. (Dept. of Paper Technology, Indian Inst. of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive process industry where energy contributes about 16-20% of the manufacturing cost. Due to shortage in energy availability and increase in energy cost, energy conservation has become a necessity in the paper industry. A laboratory study on bleached and unbleached kraft pulps having 15% bamboo, eucalyptus 15%, poplar waste 20% and veneer waste 50% was conducted using two distinct commercial enzymes i.e. cellulases and xylanase and its effect on slowness, drainage time, beating time, mechanical strength properties and power consumption were studied. Enzymatic pretreatment of chemical pulp in laboratory improves degSR by 5 and 4 points in case of bleached and unbleached pulps respectively at the same beating time. Breaking length improves up to 4.0% at the constant beating level. The application of cellulase during refining saves energy 18.5% at constant refining level i.e. 28 degSR. The enzymatic treatment shows a power saving per 100 metric tone of paper by 1390 kWh which costs power saving in euro 160.70/ 100 metric tone of paper. In this way, net cost saving by deducting the cost of enzyme per 100 metric tone of paper is euro 157.90. (orig.)

  8. Effects of the bleaching sequence on the optical brighteners action in eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the bleaching process the pulp is treated with chemical reagents that can be retained in the pulp and interfere in the action of the optical brighteners. Different bleaching sequences can produce pulps at the same brightness but with different potential to whiteness increase when treated with optical brighteners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bleaching sequence on the efficiency of disulphonated and tetrasulphonated optical brighteners. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was bleached using four different bleaching sequences. For each pulp three brightness targets were aimeds. For each bleaching sequence mathematical model was generated for predicting the final pulp whiteness according to the initial brightness and the optical brightener charge applied. The presence of organochlorine residues in the pulp reduced the effectiveness of the optical brighteners. Therefore, bleaching sequences that use low chlorine dioxide charge favors for greater gains in whiteness with the application of optical brighteners. The replacement of the final chlorine dioxide bleaching stage with a hydrogen peroxide one in the sequence increased the efficiency of the optical brightening agents.

  9. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari

    2006-01-15

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  11. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Kraft Lignin over Hierarchical HZSM-5 and Hβ Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Bi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchical HZSM-5 and Hβ zeolites were prepared by alkaline post-treatment methods adopting Na2CO3, TMAOH/NaOH mixture, and NaOH as desilication sources, respectively. More mesopores are produced over two kinds of zeolites, while the micropores portion is well preserved. The mesopores formed in hierarchical Hβ zeolites were directly related to the basicity of the alkaline solution, indicating that Hβ zeolite is more sensitive to the alkaline post-treatment. The hierarchical HZSM-5 and Hβ zeolites are more active than the parent one for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP of Kraft lignin. Hierarchical zeolites retained the function of acid catalysis, while additionally creating larger mesopores to ensure the entry of bulkier reactant molecules. The increase of the condensable volatiles yield can be attributed to the improvement of the mass transfer performance, which correlates well with the change of mesoporous surface area. In particular, the condensable volatiles yield for the optimized hierarchical Hβ reached approximately two times that of the parent Hβ zeolites. In contrast to the parent HZSM-5, the optimized hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite significantly reduced the selectivity of oxygenates from 27.2% to 3.3%.

  12. Henri Cartier-Bresson / Walker Evans : Photographier l’Amérique (1929-1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans un mot adressé en 2001 à Peter Galassi, conservateur de la photographie au MOMA, Henri Cartier-Bresson, alors âgé de quatre-vingt-treize ans, écrivait plaisamment — mais non pas complaisamment : « If it had not been for the challenge of the work of Walker Evans, I don’t think I would have remained a fotographer » (« sans le défi constitué par le travail de Walker Evans, je ne crois pas que je serais resté fotographe ». Pour fêter le centenaire de Cartier-Bresson, c’est ce défi — plutôt ...

  13. Neonatal familial Evans syndrome associated with joint hypermobility and mitral valve regurgitation in three siblings in a Saudi Arab family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Fathelrahman E.; AlBakrah, Mohameed S.

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia in the absence of a known underlying cause led to the diagnosis of Evans syndrome in a 9 month old male. Subsequently, a similar diagnosis was made in two siblings (a 3 year old boy and a 1 day old girl). The 9 month old had a chronic course with exacerbations. He was treated with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and colchiccine with a variable response. He died of congestive heart failure at the age of 8 years. The brother's disease course was one of remission and exacerbation. With time, remissions were prolonged and paralleled an improvement in joint hypermobility. The sister died of sepsis after a chronic course with severe exacerbattions. Only two families with Evans syndrome have been reported in the English medical literature. In one report (in a Saudi Arab family), the disease was associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia. (author)

  14. We favor formal models of heuristics rather than lists of loose dichotomies : A reply to Evans and Over

    OpenAIRE

    Marewski, J.; Gaissmaier, W.; Gigerenzer, G.

    2010-01-01

    In their comment on Marewski et al. (good judgments do not require complex cognition, 2009) Evans and Over (heuristic thinking and human intelligence: a commentary on Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer, 2009) conjectured that heuristics can often lead to biases and are not error free. This is a most surprising critique. The computational models of heuristics we have tested allow for quantitative predictions of how many errors a given heuristic will make, and we and others have measured the a...

  15. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  16. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  17. Perturbations to the lower ionosphere by tropical cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; NaitAmor, Samir; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic signals from navigational transmitters propagate worldwide in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide formed by the Earth and the electrically conducting lower ionosphere. Changes in the signal properties are signatures of variations in the conductivity of the reflecting boundary of the lower ionosphere which is located in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and their analysis is, therefore, a way to study processes in these remote regions. Here we present a study on amplitude perturbations of local origin on the VLF transmitter signals (NPM, NLK, NAA, and JJI) observed during tropical cyclone (TC) Evan, 9-16 December 2012 when TC was in the proximity of the transmitter-receiver links. We observed a maximum amplitude perturbation of 5.7 dB on JJI transmitter during 16 December event. From Long Wave Propagation Capability model applied to three selected events we estimate a maximum decrease in the nighttime D region reference height (H') by 5.2 km (13 December, NPM) and maximum increase in the daytime D region H' by 6.1 km and 7.5 km (14 and 16 December, JJI). The results suggest that the TC caused the neutral densities of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lift and sink (bringing the lower ionosphere with it), an effect that may be mediated by gravity waves generated by the TC. The perturbations were observed before the storm was classified as a TC, at a time when it was a tropical depression, suggesting the broader conclusion that severe convective storms, in general, perturb the mesosphere and the stratosphere through which the perturbations propagate.

  18. Opioidergic and dopaminergic modulation of cost/benefit decision-making in Long Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ileana; Currie, Paul J; Hackenberg, Timothy D; Pastor, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available. In a second (effort-free) task, rats chose between the same two reinforcers when they were both available freely. Rats were trained in these tasks before receiving haloperidol (0.00, 0.05, 0.10mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or naloxone (0.0, 1.5, 3.0mg/kg, i.p.). In the first task, haloperidol decreased breakpoint, lever presses, number of reinforcers earned, and increased chow intake, whereas naloxone decreased breakpoint and number of reinforcers earned but had no effect on chow consumption. In the effort-free task, haloperidol reduced intakes of both foods without affecting preference, whereas naloxone selectively reduced the consumption of banana-pellets. The present findings support converging evidence suggesting that DA signaling affects processes more closely related to appetitive motivation, leaving other components of motivation unchanged. By contrast, opioid signaling appears to mediate aspects of hedonic feeding by selectively altering intakes of highly palatable foods. For preferred foods, both appetitive and consummatory aspects of food intake were altered by opioid receptor antagonism. Our findings argue against a general suppression of appetite by either compound, as appetite manipulations have been shown to unselectively alter intakes of both types of food regardless of the task employed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol seeking by Long Evans rats is not always a goal-directed behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A Mangieri

    Full Text Available Two parallel and interacting processes are said to underlie animal behavior, whereby learning and performance of a behavior is at first via conscious and deliberate (goal-directed processes, but after initial acquisition, the behavior can become automatic and stimulus-elicited (habitual. With respect to instrumental behaviors, animal learning studies suggest that the duration of training and the action-outcome contingency are two factors involved in the emergence of habitual seeking of "natural" reinforcers (e.g., sweet solutions, food or sucrose pellets. To rigorously test whether behaviors reinforced by abused substances such as ethanol, in particular, similarly become habitual was the primary aim of this study.Male Long Evans rats underwent extended or limited operant lever press training with 10% sucrose/10% ethanol (10S10E reinforcement (variable interval (VI or (VR ratio schedule of reinforcement, or with 10% sucrose (10S reinforcement (VI schedule only. Once training and pretesting were complete, the impact of outcome devaluation on operant behavior was evaluated after lithium chloride injections were paired with the reinforcer, or unpaired 24 hours later. After limited, but not extended instrumental training, lever pressing by groups trained under VR with 10S10E and under VI with 10S was sensitive to outcome devaluation. In contrast, responding by both the extended and limited training 10S10E VI groups was not sensitive to ethanol devaluation during the test for habitual behavior.Operant behavior by rats trained to self-administer an ethanol-sucrose solution showed variable sensitivity to a change in the value of ethanol, with relative insensitivity developing sooner in animals that received time-variable ethanol reinforcement during training sessions. One important implication, with respect to substance abuse in humans, is that initial learning about the relationship between instrumental actions and the opportunity to consume ethanol

  20. Biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and decolorization of kraft liquor by the laccase produced by Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2098

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Laccase, a copper-containing enzyme, oxidizes variety of aromatic compounds. Since laccase is essential for lignin degradation, it can be used for lignin removal in the pulp and paper industry (biopulping. Laccase is also employed as a dechlorinating agent (biobleaching, along with the removal of phenolic and other aromatic pollutants. In the present investigation it was aimed to employ the laccase produced by the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes along with the bacterium itself in biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Methodology and results: A laccase was isolated from the bacterium K. aerogenes, purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was purified by conventional techniques following salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Con A sepharose. The purified laccase was found to be monomeric glycoprotein with a Mr of 64 kDa when measured by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The Vmax and Km of laccase towards the substrate guaiacol was determined. The optimum pH of the laccase was found to be 5.0. biopulping and biobleaching activities were determined by TAPPI standard methods. Treatment of sugarcane baggase by K. aerogenes also significantly reduced lignin content of the bagasse. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The bacterium K. aerogenes and a laccase produced by it were used separately for biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Treatment with both brought significant reduction in lignin content and kappa number of the pulp. The handsheets prepared from the treated pulp showed improved brightness without affecting the strength properties of paper. The bacterium and the laccase efficiently decolorized the kraft liquor proving to have biobleaching potential.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of K2CO3-Activated Kraft Lignin Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-fa Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (ACs were prepared by K2CO3 activation from kraft lignin (KL that was recovered from papermaking black liquor. The effects of process parameters such as the activation temperature (AT, activated period, K2CO3 to KL mass ratio, and N2 flow rate on the characteristics of the final product were determined. The ACs were characterized using nitrogen adsorption, morphology, and fractal dimension analyses. The results showed that the AT was the main factor influencing the yield, surface area, and pore structure. The yield of ACs obviously decreased from 50.6% to 20.5% with increasing AT from 600 °C to 1000 °C, and decreased with increasing K2CO3/KL mass ratio. Activation time and N2 flow rate had slight effect on the yield of ACs. The surface area and total pore volume increased as the AT rose to 900 °C and then decreased with further increases in temperature. The maximum surface area and total pore volume were 1816.3 m2/g and 1.26 cm3/g, respectively, at a K2CO3 to KL mass ratio of 3:1, AT of 900 °C, activation time of 2 h, and N2 flow rate of 70 cm3/min. The pore structure of the ACs could be tailored by controlling the AT. As the AT was increased from 700 to 1000 °C, the mesoporosity increased from 11.6% to 95.9%. SEM images indicated that the morphology of ACs was modified by the AT. The K2CO3 was partially recycled.

  2. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Kamloops Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-05-09

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at five locations roughly equi-spaced from top to bottom of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of one year. Historical vessel inspection data, including inspections accomplished immediately prior to and immediately following probe deployment, and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare corrosion indications from the probes with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. The results indicate that furnish composition is a significant variable influencing digester corrosion, with increasing amounts of Douglas fir in the nominal furnish correlating directly with increased corrosion activity on the ECN probes. All five probes detected changes in furnish composition approximately simultaneously, indicating rapid chemical communication through the liquor, but the effect was strongest and persisted longest relatively high in the digester. The ECN probes also indicate significant corrosion activity occurred at each probe position during shutdown/restart transients. Little or no correlation between ECN probe corrosion activity and other operational variables was observed. Post-test evaluation of the probes confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude that closely agreed with corrosion current sums calculated for each probe over the exposure period and with historical average corrosion rates for the respective locations. Further, no pitting was observed on any of the electrodes, which is consistent with the ECN data, relevant polarization curves developed for steel in liquor removed from the digester, and the post-test inspection of the digester.

  3. Irrigation model of bleached Kraft mill wastewater through volcanic soil as a pollutants attenuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, R; Inostroza, X; Diez, M C; Lorber, K E

    2006-05-01

    An irrigation process through volcanic soil columns was evaluated for bleached Kraft mill effluent pollutants retention. The system was designed to remove color and phenolic compounds and a simple kinetic model for determining the global mass transfer coefficient and the adsorption rate constant was used. The results clearly indicate that the global mass transfer coefficient values (K(c)a) and the adsorption rate constants are higher for the irrigation processes onto acidified soil. This means that the pretreatment of washing the volcanic soil with an acid solution has a positive effect on the adsorption rate for both pollutant groups. The enhanced adsorption capacity is partially explained by the activation of the metal oxides present in the soil matrix during the acid washing process. Increasing the flow rate from 1.5 to 2.5 ml/min yielded higher (K(c)a) values and adsorption rate constants for both pollutant groups. For instance, regarding color adsorption onto acidified soil, there is an increment of 43% in the (K(c)a) value for the experiment with a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. Increasing the porosity of the column from 0.55 to 0.59, yielded a decrease in the (K(c)a) values for color and phenolic compounds adsorption processes. Onto natural soil for example, these decreases reached 21% and 24%, respectively. Therefore, the (K(c)a) value is dependent on both the liquid-phase velocity (external resistance) and the soil fraction in the column (internal resistance); making forced convection and diffusion to be the main transport mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. Analyzing the adsorption rate constants (K(c)a)/m, phenolic compounds and color adsorption rates onto acidified soil of 2.25 x 10(-6) and 2.62 x 10(-6) l/mg min were achieved for experiment 1. These adsorption rates are comparable with other adsorption systems and adsorbent materials.

  4. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  5. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  6. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-05-01

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  7. Alkaline peroxide treatment of ECF bleached softwood kraft pulps: part 2. effect of increased fiber charge on refining, wet-end application, and hornification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng Dang; Thomas Elder; Jeffery S. Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased fiber charge on refining, cationic starch adsorption, and hornification was examined. Two pulps were investigated: (1) a softwood (SW) kraft pulp (KP) which was bleached elementally chlorine-free (ECF) and sewed as control; and (2) a control pulp treated with alkaline peroxide, which had a higher fiber charge. It was shown that increased fiber...

  8. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Modeling Ethanol Decomposition on Transition Metals: A Combined Application of Scaling and Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrin, P.; Simonetti, D.; Kandoi, S.

    2009-01-01

    calculations necessary to describe trends in activity and selectivity across metal and alloy surfaces, thus extending the reach of DFT to more complex systems. In-this work, the well-known family of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations, connecting minima with maxima in the potential energy surface...... on a subset of these surfaces are calculated. Experiments on supported catalysts verify that this simple model is reasonably accurate in describing reactivity trends across metals, suggesting that the combination of BEP and scaling relations may substantially reduce the cost of DFT calculations required...

  10. Atmospheric emission of nitrogen oxide from kraft recovery boilers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Herstad Swaerd, Solvie

    2000-05-01

    Recovery boiler NO x emissions are low compared with those from power boilers. However tighter environmental requirements to decrease the acidic emissions implies that all sources have to be addressed. There are an ongoing evaluation and development of NO x control technologies in the pulp industry. Basically air staging, selective catalytic reduction, SCR, and selective noncatalytic reduction, SNCR, have been discussed. Other NO x control options may be available as a result of ongoing research and development. As a background in the work to reduce the acid rain it has been considered necessary to have a good picture of the NO x emission from recovery boilers, and the Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Sweden have therefore sponsored this study. The intention is to give a good general view and try to explain the reasons for the large differences between boilers. Data from the 30 kraft recovery boilers which were in operation in Sweden during 1999 have been collected. Both NO x levels and specific conditions which could have an influence on the level have been included. The evaluation show a clear correlation between the nitrogen content in the liquor and the NO x level. It seams also that a long retention time in the furnace give an opportunity to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide. For most boilers in Sweden the NO x levels are reported in mg/MJ and comparison could be done between different types of boilers. However for recovery boilers there could be a large uncertainty in the calculation which gives the amount (mg) of NO x , the definition of the heat input to be used (MJ) is either not clear. As a base for the study the measured concentration in ppm is used instead. The reported values are in the range of 30 - 100 ppm, however the majority of the boilers operate in a more narrow range 60-80 ppm. Air staging and other combustion methods could not reasonably reduce the NO x emission with more than 20% in the next decade. If the goal is higher other

  11. Comprehensive behavioural analysis of Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats reveals differential effects of housing conditions on tests relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M Turner

    Full Text Available Genetic (G and environmental (E manipulations are known to alter behavioural outcomes in rodents, however many animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders only use a restricted selection of strain and housing conditions. The aim of this study was to examine GxE interactions comparing two outbred rat strains, which were housed in either standard or enriched cages. The strains selected were the albino Sprague-Dawley rat, commonly used for animal models, and the other was the pigmented Long Evans rat, which is frequently used in cognitive studies. Rats were assessed using a comprehensive behavioural test battery and included well-established tests frequently employed to examine animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases, measuring aspects of anxiety, exploration, sensorimotor gating and cognition. Selective strain and housing effects were observed on a number of tests. These included increased locomotion and reduced pre-pulse inhibition in Long Evans rats compared to Sprague Dawley rats; and rats housed in enriched cages had reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to standard housed rats. Long Evans rats required fewer sessions than Sprague Dawley rats to learn operant tasks, including a signal detection task and reversal learning. Furthermore, Long Evans rats housed in enriched cages acquired simple operant tasks faster than standard housed Long Evans rats. Cognitive phenotypes in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders would benefit from using strain and housing conditions where there is greater potential for both enhancement and deficits in performance.

  12. We favor formal models of heuristics rather than lists of loose dichotomies: a reply to Evans and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    In their comment on Marewski et al. (good judgments do not require complex cognition, 2009) Evans and Over (heuristic thinking and human intelligence: a commentary on Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer, 2009) conjectured that heuristics can often lead to biases and are not error free. This is a most surprising critique. The computational models of heuristics we have tested allow for quantitative predictions of how many errors a given heuristic will make, and we and others have measured the amount of error by analysis, computer simulation, and experiment. This is clear progress over simply giving heuristics labels, such as availability, that do not allow for quantitative comparisons of errors. Evans and Over argue that the reason people rely on heuristics is the accuracy-effort trade-off. However, the comparison between heuristics and more effortful strategies, such as multiple regression, has shown that there are many situations in which a heuristic is more accurate with less effort. Finally, we do not see how the fast and frugal heuristics program could benefit from a dual-process framework unless the dual-process framework is made more precise. Instead, the dual-process framework could benefit if its two “black boxes” (Type 1 and Type 2 processes) were substituted by computational models of both heuristics and other processes. PMID:19784854

  13. Absence of diurnal variation in visceromotor response to colorectal distention in normal Long Evans rats [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Botschuijver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enhanced colorectal sensitivity (i.e. visceral hypersensitivity is thought to be a pathophysiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In healthy men a circadian variation in rectal perception to colonic distention was described. Disturbed day and night rhythms, which occur in shift work and trans meridian flights, are associated with the prevalence of IBS. This raises the question whether disruptions of circadian control are responsible for the observed pathology in IBS. Prior to investigating altered rhythmicity in relation to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model for IBS, it is relevant to establish whether normal rats display circadian variation similar to healthy men.  Methodology and findings: In rodents colorectal distension leads to reproducible contractions of abdominal musculature. We used quantification of this so called visceromotor response (VMR by electromyography (EMG to assess visceral sensitivity in rats. We assessed the VMR in normal male Long Evans rats at different time points of the light/dark cycle. Although a control experiment with male maternal separated rats confirmed that intentionally inflicted (i.e. stress induced changes in VMR can be detected, normal male Long Evans rats showed no variation in VMR along the light/dark cycle in response to colorectal distension. Conclusions: In the absence of a daily rhythm of colorectal sensitivity in normal control rats it is not possible to investigate possible aberrancies in our rat model for IBS.

  14. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  15. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  16. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fernanda Machado [Laboratorio de Quimica Mineral Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica-UFPR, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), CP 19081, CEP 81531990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Munhoz Martins, Joaniel [Laboratorio de Analise de Minerais e Rochas (LAMIR-UFPR) (Brazil); Ferracin, Luiz Carlos [Laboratorio Quimico da Votorantin Cimentos (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Laboratorio de Quimica Mineral Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica-UFPR, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), CP 19081, CEP 81531990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: cjdcunha@quimica.ufpr.br

    2007-08-17

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

  17. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; Munhoz Martins, Joaniel; Ferracin, Luiz Carlos; Cunha, Carlos Jorge da

    2007-01-01

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase

  18. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  19. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Case study: Chocolate factory `Kraft Jacobs Suchard`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Kraft Jacbobs is a manufacturer of chocolate. The company is planning investments in order to improve the quality and to increase the production. In this connection they are interested energy savings, in reduction of the sewerage, and in the possibilities of water treatment. The investigation has focused on improvement of the utility system and has therefore not been a real process integration study. The existing needs for cooling and heating in the process have been used in the optimisation. The report indicates that it is possible to save up to 50% of the cold water consumption mainly by building a closed water cooling system and by simple renovation. As much as 40% reduction on the heating cost for processes may be possible by changing parameters, insulation, renovation, and automation. The total annual saving will be about 900,000 Litas if all proposals are implemented. (au)

  20. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be

  1. Swelling and hydrolysis kinetics of Kraft pulp fibers in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jia; Abushammala, Hatem; Pereira, Laura Barcellos; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2016-11-20

    1Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Bmim]HSO4) is efficient at extracting cellulose nanocrystals from pulp fibers. To shed some light on the respective contributions of swelling and hydrolysis of pulp fibers by [Bmim]HSO4, the physical, structural and morphological characteristics of hardwood Kraft pulp fibers were monitored under various conditions of temperature, water content and time. Swelling was largely compounded by hydrolysis at the highest temperatures (120°C) as evidenced by mass loss and reduced degree of polymerization (DPn) at this temperature. At 120°C only, water content appeared to play a significant role on the extent of hydrolysis. At this temperature, a heterogeneous kinetic model involving weak links and amorphous regions best described the experimental data. Hydrolysis rates were maximum at 25% water content in the aqueous ionic liquid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polpação soda com aditivos e cinética de deslignificação Kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Diego Pierre de

    2014-01-01

    O método de polpação química Kraft é o mais utilizado mundialmente para produção de celulose, por suas características favoráveis como alta qualidade do papel produzido. Porém possui a desvantagem da poluição odorífera e um complexo sistema de recuperação do licor negro gerado. O processo soda pode ser uma alternativa para produção de polpa celulósica sem compostos a base de enxofre e com melhores qualidades se acrescida de aditivos de cozimento. Este trabalho trata de algumas alternativas pa...

  3. The petroleum industry and climate issues; KonKraft rapport 5; Petroleumsnaeringen og klimaspoersmaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Broad scientific agreement prevails that human-produced (anthropogenic) greenhouse gas emissions affect the climate. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established that such emissions must be significantly reduced to avoid serious consequences for the environment and society. Norway's petroleum industry recognises the climate challenge and has long worked to cut its emissions. These efforts avoided 40 million tonnes of carbon emissions in 1994-2007. The figure for 2006 alone was 4.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has furthermore been initiated for natural gas production on the Snoehvit field in the Barents Sea, while the Gjoea and Valhall fields in the North Sea are to be powered from shore. These moves represent an annual cut of 1.3 million tonnes in carbon emissions by 2010. Further reduction measures totalling 800 000 tonnes per annum by 2013 have also been identified, and will help confirm Norway's position as the world's cleanest oil and gas producer. Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions, measured in carbon equivalent, totalled 55 million tonnes in 2007. Carbon dioxide accounted for 44.9 million tonnes. The total for the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) was 13.8 million tonnes, including 13.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. KonKraft report 5 includes an account of action taken to reduce emissions from the NCS and measures planned for the future. The most power-intensive processes on an offshore installation are compression related to gas transport, injection of gas and water for pressure support, and pumping of oil and condensate. Power for these processes is largely generated by gas turbines, which provide the bulk of carbon emissions from the NCS. Flaring has accounted for about 10 per cent in recent years, but this share rose in 2007 because of start-up problems with the Snoehvit plant at Melkoeya Maturation of the NCS and the shift from oil to gas production will boost carbon

  4. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  5. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DOS RESÍDUOS DE UMA SERRARIA PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE CELULOSE KRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cândido Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest-based industries have low yield and generate large amounts of waste, especially the primary processing industries, such as sawmills. In Brazil, initiatives are being created to combine the use of sawmill residues to pulp production. With this in mind, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of amedium-sized sawmill in the city of Rio Grande, in Rio Grande do Sul state, and to promote physical and chemical analysis of waste wood generated in the sawing process. It was used 20 logs of Pinus elliottii , divided into two diameter classes. The residues, except the sawdust, collected for analysis were disposed in the courtyard of the company in the form of chips. The following physical and chemical properties of the chips were examined: density, extractives content soluble in acetone, acetyl groups, soluble and insoluble lignin on acid (Klason lignin, uronic groups and carbohydrates. Comparing the results of the wood properties to the ones found in literature, it was evaluated the quantity and quality of waste that can be used as feedstock for the production of kraft pulp. As the main results there was a slight increase of sawing yields in the larger diameters logs compared to the smaller diameters. From the physical and chemical analyses, it was obtained the following results: density of 0.402 g / cm ³, cellulose content of 43.67% and 24.37% for hemicellulose, klason lignin of 26.75% and 3,80% for extractives content. As conclusion, the low sawing yield can be associated to the lack of a classification diametric and appropriate diagrams sections, resulting in a greater loss in the form of waste. Regarding the chemical and physical composition of the sawmill residues, the results were within the standards of quality wood used for kraft pulp of softwood material, presenting some advantages over younger woods commonly used in industry.

  7. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway; KonKraft rapport 6; Olje- og gassvirksomhet i nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  8. Mozart K.448 attenuates spontaneous absence seizure and related high-voltage rhythmic spike discharges in Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Juan, Chun-Ting; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has revealed more evidence supporting the positive effects of music on humans and animals. However, evidence of music's effects on improving epilepsy in animals is sparse. This study aimed to clarify the influence of Mozart's music in Long Evans rats, which are characterized by spontaneous absence epilepsy (SAE) and high-voltage rhythmic spike (HVRS) discharges. Continuous electroencephalograms comprised of HVRS discharges, and behavioral performance were recorded in Long Evans rats (n=5) before, during, and after exposure to the Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K.448 (Mozart K.448). The same evaluation was repeated after they had been subjected to daily exposure of the music for 20 days. Seizure frequencies and spontaneous HVRS discharges were reduced in all of the SAE rats during and after music exposure compared with the pre-music stage. The average seizure frequencies were 79.8±24.6, 48±15.2, and 33±12.1/h before, during, and after music exposure, respectively. The average run of spike episodes were 84.6±18.4, 52±17.8, and 36.8±16.9/h before, during, and after music exposure, respectively. The seizure frequencies and related run of spike episodes decreased by 39.8% and 38.5% during, and 58.6% and 56.6% post music exposure, respectively. The average run of spike durations and spike numbers also showed significant decreases (reduction by 47.1%, 47.8% during music and 60.8%, 61.3% post music). After daily music exposure for 20 days, the number of HVRS discharges and seizure frequencies during and after music exposure, however, showed no further accumulative reduction or adaptation effect. These results suggest that Mozart K.448 had a positive short-term effect in attenuating the spontaneous HVRS discharges in Long Evans rats. However, the mechanism needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrology, microbiology and carbon cycling at a high Arctic polythermal glacier, (John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Mark Leslie

    Analysis of the hydrology, hydrochemistry and microbiology at polythermal John Evans Glacier and geochemical and isotopic data from Haut Glacier d'Arolla demonstrates that certain subglacial chemical weathering processes are microbially mediated. Subglacial drainage is likely an annual occurrence beneath John Evans Glacier and solute rich subglacial waters indicate over winter storage at the glacier bed. Subglacial microbial populations are also present, and are viable under simulated near in situ conditions at 0.3°C. This suggests that temperate subglacial environments at a polythermal glacier, which are isolated by cold ice above and around them, provide a viable habitat for life where basal water and organic carbon are present throughout the year. Thus, a subglacial microbial ecosystem based upon legacy carbon, (from old soils or surface inputs) rather than primary production may exist, where redox processes are a key component, and seasonal anoxia may occur. The existence of anoxic environments is supported by the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria (sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogens) in the basal sediments---which are viable in culture at 4°C---and also argues that these bacteria are not washed in with oxygenated surface meltwaters, but are present in the subglacial environment. During the summer meltseason there is a large input of surficial waters to the subglacial system and water residence times are drastically reduced. Hence, kinetic weathering processes dominate, resulting in light delta 13C-DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in glacial runoff, as verified by experimental work on CaCO3 and John Evans Glacier sediments. The experiments demonstrate kinetic bedrock fractionation (KBF) during carbonate hydrolysis and that kinetic fractionation of CO2 (KFC) is proportional to the rate of CO2 draw down during the carbonation of carbonates. This results in significantly depleted delta13C-DIC values (≤-16 ‰) relative to the bedrock carbonate

  10. Dermatomiositis y síndrome de evans asociado a infección por HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Loja-Oropeza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente mujer de 55 años de edad, natural de Ayacucho, con antecedente de dermatomiositis desde hace 3 años, recibió tratamiento irregular con prednisona. Dos meses antes del ingreso presenta anemia hemolítica autoinmune y púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática, recibió pulsos de metilprednisolona y transfusión de paquetes globulares. Al ingreso, soporosa, mal estado general, marcada pérdida ponderal, deshidratada, livedo reticularis en miembros inferiores, onicodistrofia y onicolisis múltiple en los dedos de ambos pies. Western Blot positivo para HTLV-1. Evoluciona con hipoglicemia recurrente. Reportamos un caso de dermatomiositis y síndrome de Evans presentados en el contexto de una infección por virus linfotrópico humano tipo 1.

  11. Association in Long-Evans hooded rats of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels with hemoglobin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G; Gilman, J; Noble, N; Crews, V

    1978-08-01

    Two sublines of commercially available Long-Evans hooded rats have been developed by genetic selection. These sublines have widely differing levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) due to different alleles at a single genetic locus. In the present work, it is shown that rats from the commercial population are also polymorphic at a hemoglobin locus, probably involving two alleles of the IIIbeta-globin chain locus. Particular hemoglobin types have been found to be strongly associated with certain DPG types, not only in the high-DPG and low-DPG lines but also in the commercial population. Two explanations for this association are considered. One is a single-locus hypothesis, with hemoglobin allelic variation causing DPG variation, and the other is a two-locus hypothesis, with marked linkage disequilibrium.

  12. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Lee

    Full Text Available We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature.

  13. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva; Edvins Ratnieks; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinon...

  14. Partial splenic embolization combined with vincristine infusion for the treatment of refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Evans syndrome: observation of its long-term efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shibing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term efficacy of partial spleen embolization combined with vincristine infusion in treating refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Evans syndrome. Methods: During the period of 2000-2007, partial spleen embolization together with vincristine infusion was carried out in 30 patients with refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n=24) or Evans syndrome (n=6). Vincristine infusion (2 mg) via splenic artery was performed before partial spleen embolization procedure. The long-term effectiveness was observed and analyzed. Results: One week after the treatment, the platelet count was increased from preoperative (10.23±8.28) × 10 9 /L to (140.28±85.45) × 10 9 /L in patients with ITP, while the platelet count was increased from preoperative (12±8) × 10 9 /L to (210±60) × 10 9 /L in patients with Evans syndrome. Meanwhile, the hemoglobin level showed an increase in different degrees, from preoperative (63.00±13.62) g/L to postoperative (123.00±13.14) g/L. The therapeutic effectiveness was 100%. During the follow-up time lasting for 3-5 years, recurrence was seen in 11 patients (36.7%) and the overall efficacy rate was 63.3%. Conclusion: For the treatment of refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Evans syndrome, partial spleen embolization combined with vincristine infusion carries reliable long-term efficacy. (author)

  15. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – part B: Techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore; Åsblad, Anders

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors, energy efficiency measures in a conceptual kraft pulp mill converted to a lignocellulosic ethanol plant were investigated. The results suggested a number of different process designs which would give a substantial improvement in steam economy in the ethanol plant, compared to the original design. In the present study the different process designs are evaluated from an economic point-of-view, in order to determine if energy efficiency measures and increasing by-product sales decrease the production cost of ethanol from this specific process, or if the increased costs related to the implementation of these measures overshadow the benefits from increased by-product sales. The different energy efficiency measures are compared with less capital demanding alternatives (i.e. including low or no energy efficiency improvements) in order to assess the economic benefits of different strategies when converting a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. The study indicates the economic importance of considering energy efficiency measures when repurposing a kraft pulp mill to an ethanol plant. It is also shown that, within the context of this study, a larger investment in measures will give better economic results than less capital demanding alternatives (with less improvement in energy efficiency). From an economic and energy efficiency viewpoint many of the suggested process designs will give approximately similar results, therefore the process design should be made based on other criteria (e.g. low complexity, low maintenance). - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Energy efficiency measures lead to lower ethanol production cost. ► If capital costs and raw material prices are low the production cost could be as low as 365 €/m 3 EtOH.

  16. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ► 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

  17. The reactivity of phenolic and non-phenolic residual kraft lignin model compounds with Mn(II)-peroxidase from Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestini, C; D'Annibale, A; Sermanni, G G; Saladino, R

    2000-02-01

    Three phenolic model compounds representing bonding patterns of residual kraft lignin were incubated with manganese peroxidase from Lentinula edodes. Extensive degradation of all the phenolic models, mainly occurring via side-chain benzylic oxidation, was observed. Among the tested model compounds the diphenylmethane alpha-5 phenolic model was found to be the most reactive, yielding several products showing oxidation and fragmentation at the bridging position. The non-phenolic 5-5' biphenyl and 5-5' diphenylmethane models were found unreactive.

  18. Study of lignin biotransformation by Aspergillus fumigatus and white-rot fungi using 14C-labeled and unlabeled kraft lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, K.K.; Drew, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of lignin by fungi was studied in shake flasks using 14 C-labeled kraft lignin and in a deep-tank fermentor using unlabeled kraft lignin. Among the fungi screened, A. fumigatus - isolated in our laboratories - was most potent in lignin biotransformation. Dialysis-type fermentation, designed to study possible accumulation of low MW lignin-derived products, showed no such accumulation. Recalcitrant carbohydrates like microcrystalline cellulose supported higher lignolytic activity than easily metabolized carbohydrates like cellobiose. An assay developed to distinguish between CO 2 evolved from lignin and carbohydrate substrates demonstrated no stoichiometric correlation between the metabolism of the two cosubstrates. The submerged fermentations with unlabeled liqnin are difficult to monitor since chemical assays do not give accurate and true results. Lignolytic efficiencies that allowed monitoring of such fermentations were defined. Degraded lignins were clearly superior to C. versicolor in all aspects of lignin degradation; A fumigatus brought about substantial demethoxylation and dehydroxylation, whereas C. versicolor degraded lignins closely resembled undegraded kraft lignin. There was a good agreement among the different indices of lignin degradation, namely, 14 CO evolution, OCH 3 loss, OH loss, and monomer and dimer yield after permanganate oxidation

  19. Structure of Thermobifida fusca DyP-type peroxidase and activity towards Kraft lignin and lignin model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Rahman; Rea, Dean; Jamshidi, Shirin; Fülöp, Vilmos; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2016-03-15

    A Dyp-type peroxidase enzyme from thermophilic cellulose degrader Thermobifida fusca (TfuDyP) was investigated for catalytic ability towards lignin oxidation. TfuDyP was characterised kinetically against a range of phenolic substrates, and a compound I reaction intermediate was observed via pre-steady state kinetic analysis at λmax 404 nm. TfuDyP showed reactivity towards Kraft lignin, and was found to oxidise a β-aryl ether lignin model compound, forming an oxidised dimer. A crystal structure of TfuDyP was determined, to 1.8 Å resolution, which was found to contain a diatomic oxygen ligand bound to the heme centre, positioned close to active site residues Asp-203 and Arg-315. The structure contains two channels providing access to the heme cofactor for organic substrates and hydrogen peroxide. Site-directed mutant D203A showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, but reduced activity towards ABTS, while mutant R315Q showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, nor ABTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-09-01

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  1. Corporate Image and Public Health: An Analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, ELIZABETH

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit’s typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change. PMID:22420639

  2. Fatal pulmonary embolism following splenectomy in a patient with Evan's syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Varun; Maliske, Seth M; Perepu, Usha

    2017-01-01

    Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare disease characterized by simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) with or without immune neutropenia. Splenectomy is one of the treatment options for disease refractory to medical therapy. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) following splenectomy for hematological diseases has an incidence of 10%. Here we describe a case report of a young patient hospitalized with severe hemolytic anemia with Hgb 4.8 g/dl. He developed thrombocytopenia with platelet nadir of 52,000/mm 3 , thus formally diagnosed with ES. He failed standard medical therapy. He underwent splenectomy and had a fatal outcome. Autopsy confirmed the cause of death as pulmonary embolism (PE). This case report and review of the literature highlight important aspects of the association between VTE, splenectomy, and hemolytic syndromes including the presence of thrombocytopenia. The burden of the disease is reviewed as well as various pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to thromboembolic events in these patients and current perioperative prophylactic anticoagulation strategies. Despite an advancing body of literature increasing awareness of VTE following splenectomy, morbidity and mortality remains high. Identifying high risk individuals for thromboembolic complications from splenectomy remains a challenge. There are no consensus guidelines for proper perioperative and post-operative anti-coagulation. We encourage future research to determine which factors might be playing a role in increasing the risk for VTE in real time with hope of forming a consensus to guide management.

  3. Evans hole and non linear optical activity in Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate: A vibrational spectral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, V R; Binoy, J; Dawn Dharma Roy, S; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2015-01-01

    Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate (BMSD), an interesting melaminium derivative for nonlinear optical activity, has been subjected to vibrational spectral analysis using FT IR and FT Raman spectra. The analysis has been aided by the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of vibrational spectral bands, derived using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometry is found to correlate well with the XRD structure and the band profiles for certain vibrations in the finger print region have been theoretically explained using Evans hole. The detailed Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of the hydrogen bonding in BMSD has also been carried out to understand the correlation between the stabilization energy of hyperconjugation of the lone pair of donor with the σ(∗) orbital of hydrogen-acceptor bond and the strength of hydrogen bond. The theoretical calculation shows that BMSD has NLO efficiency, 2.66 times that of urea. The frontier molecular orbital analysis points to a charge transfer, which contributes to NLO activity, through N-H…O intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the melaminium ring and the sulphate. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping has also been performed for the detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between melaminium ring and sulphate ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Outcomes Between Step-Cut Lengthening Calcaneal Osteotomy vs Traditional Evans Osteotomy for Stage IIB Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Stuart M; Ellis, Scott J; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Marinescu, Anca; Burkett, Jayme; Deland, Jonathan T

    2018-01-01

    The forefoot abduction component of the flexible adult-acquired flatfoot can be addressed with lengthening of the anterior process of the calcaneus. We hypothesized that the step-cut lengthening calcaneal osteotomy (SLCO) would decrease the incidence of nonunion, lead to improvement in clinical outcome scores, and have a faster time to healing compared with the traditional Evans osteotomy. We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients (143 total feet: 65 Evans, 78 SLCO) undergoing stage IIB reconstruction followed clinically for at least 2 years. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were analyzed for the amount of deformity correction. Computed tomography (CT) was used to analyze osteotomy healing. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Scores (FAOS) and lateral pain surveys were used to assess clinical outcomes. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess nonnormally distributed data while χ 2 and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze categorical variables (α = 0.05 significant). The Evans group used a larger graft size ( P lengthening. Level III, retrospective cohort study.

  5. Efeito da adição da antraquinona na pré-deslignificação com oxigênio no branqueamento e na qualidade da polpa kraft de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mariléa Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    A produção de polpa kraft vem se destacando mundialmente devido às grandes vantagens do processo. Alguns estudos têm mostrado que a adição da antraquinona em licores de cozimento kraft traz efeitos positivos ao processo como aumento do rendimento, redução do número kappa e ganhos nas propriedades físicas da polpa. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito das diferentes dosagens de antraquinona da pré-deslignificação com oxigênio no branqueamento pela seqüência ODualD(EP)D, na qu...

  6. A survey of present levels of radiocesium in Swedish pulp mill liquors and the implications for wood radiocesium transfer factors. Using Kraft mill liquors as an indicator of wood radiocesium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    2000-01-01

    A survey was initiated to depict and compare the present activity levels in pulp mill liquors from various mill locations. The 137 Cs levels in pulp mill liquors were compared with the mill location and the deposition pattern of the Chernobyl fallout and nuclear weapons fallout. The large input of wood (about 2500 m 3 per day) to an average Nordic Kraft mill and the relatively long-term retention time for radiocesium in the Kraft mill recovery cycle enables representative sampling of substances directly related to the activity concentration in wood. (author)

  7. Reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin for chemicals and fuels using formic acid as an in-situ hydrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanhua; Mahmood, Nubla; Tymchyshyn, Matthew; Yuan, Zhongshun; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2014-11-01

    In this study, formic acid (FA) was employed as an in-situ hydrogen donor for the reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin (KL). Under the optimum operating conditions, i.e., 300 °C, 1 h, 18.6 wt.% substrate concentration, 50/50 (v/v) water-ethanol medium with FA at a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 0.7, KL (Mw∼10,000 g/mol) was effectively de-polymerized, producing de-polymerized lignin (DL, Mw 1270 g/mol) at a yield of ∼90 wt.% and polymerization of KL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  9. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  10. Behavioral Phenotyping of Juvenile Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley Rats: Implications for Preclinical Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Ku

    Full Text Available The laboratory rat is emerging as an attractive preclinical animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, allowing investigators to explore genetic, environmental and pharmacological manipulations in a species exhibiting complex, reciprocal social behavior. The present study was carried out to compare two commonly used strains of laboratory rats, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Long-Evans (LE, between the ages of postnatal day (PND 26-56 using high-throughput behavioral phenotyping tools commonly used in mouse models of ASD that we have adapted for use in rats. We detected few differences between young SD and LE strains on standard assays of exploration, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, repetitive behaviors, and learning. Both SD and LE strains also demonstrated sociability in the 3-chamber social approach test as indexed by spending more time in the social chamber with a constrained age/strain/sex matched novel partner than in an identical chamber without a partner. Pronounced differences between the two strains were, however, detected when the rats were allowed to freely interact with a novel partner in the social dyad paradigm. The SD rats in this particular testing paradigm engaged in play more frequently and for longer durations than the LE rats at both juvenile and young adult developmental time points. Results from this study that are particularly relevant for developing preclinical ASD models in rats are threefold: (i commonly utilized strains exhibit unique patterns of social interactions, including strain-specific play behaviors, (ii the testing environment may profoundly influence the expression of strain-specific social behavior and (iii simple, automated measures of sociability may not capture the complexities of rat social interactions.

  11. Identification of a Major Locus Contributing to Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Variability in Hooded (Long-Evans) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N. A.; Brewer, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The erythrocyte glycolytic intermediate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in oxygen transport and delivery by binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and reducing its affinity for oxygen. Considerable quantitative variability in the levels of DPG and ATP exists in human populations and in a population of hooded (Long-Evans) rats we have studied. This paper presents the results of studies on the genetic component of DPG-level variation in an outbred population of hooded rats. Beginning with about 100 rats, a two-way selection experiment was initiated. Pairs of rats with the highest DPG levels were mated to produce a High-DPG rat strain and animals with the lowest DPG levels were mated to produce a Low-DPG strain. Mean DPG levels responded rapidly to selection and, from generation 3 on, the differences between strain means were highly significant. Ten High-DPG strain rats were intercrossed with 10 Low-DPG strain rats of generation 10 to produce an F1 generation in which the DPG levels were almost as high as those of High-DPG animals. This indicates partial dominance of High-DPG alleles. The F2 DPG-level distribution showed two distinct subpopulations. The high DPG subpopulation contained three times as many animals as the low DPG subpopulation. From these results and the statistical analyses performed, it was concluded that the DPG differences between strains were due to an allelic difference at one major locus, the allele carried by the High-DPG strain showing partial dominance over the allele carried by the Low-DPG strain. It appears that this locus may also effect ATP levels to a large extent and is polymorphic in hooded rat populations. Identification of this locus gives us a useful tool for studies of the physiological effects of DPG variability, as well as providing an example of a major gene effect in a quantitatively varying trait. PMID:863239

  12. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time

  13. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  15. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Inger-Lise; Joensson, Johanna; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    Excess heat from a kraft pulp mill can be used either internally to increase the level of efficiency in the mill, or externally for example as district heating. This paper presents an approach to investigate the competition between external and internal use through modelling the pulp mill and an energy company (ECO) within the same system boundary. Three different sizes of ECOs with different district heating demands are studied. To investigate the competitiveness of using industrial excess heat as district heating compared with other heat production techniques, the option of investing in excess heat use is introduced, along with the possibility for the ECO to invest in biomass combined heat and power (CHP), waste CHP and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). To evaluate the robustness of the model, alternative solutions are identified and will be used as a comparison to the optimal solutions. The model has been verified by comparing the results with previous studies concerning kraft pulp mills and with related studies regarding district heating and real ECOs. Finally, the approach presented in this part of the study will be used in the second part in order to investigate the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat under different future energy market scenarios

  16. A combined acidification/PEO flocculation process to improve the lignin removal from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiqiang; Fatehi, Pedram; Xiao, Huining; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-04-01

    The presence of lignin impairs the utilization of the hemicelluloses dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. In this paper, a novel process was developed by combining the acidification and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) flocculation concepts to improve the lignin removal. The results showed that the lignin removal was improved by the addition of PEO to the acidified PHL, particularly at a low pH of 1.5. The main mechanisms involved are the lignin/PEO complex formation and the bridging of the formed complexes. This hypothesis was supported by the turbidity, FTIR and particle size measurements. Interestingly, the hemicelluloses removal from the acidification/PEO flocculation was marginal, which would be beneficial for the down-stream ethanol production from the PHL. Additionally, a process flow diagram was proposed that incorporates this new concept into the existing configuration of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  18. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  19. Ten Good Reasons for the Use of the Tellurium-Centered Anderson-Evans Polyoxotungstate in Protein Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Rompel, Annette

    2017-06-20

    Protein crystallography represents at present the most productive and most widely used method to obtain structural information on target proteins and protein-ligand complexes within the atomic resolution range. The knowledge obtained in this way is essential for understanding the biology, chemistry, and biochemistry of proteins and their functions but also for the development of compounds of high pharmacological and medicinal interest. Here, we address the very central problem in protein crystallography: the unpredictability of the crystallization process. Obtaining protein crystals that diffract to high resolutions represents the essential step to perform any structural study by X-ray crystallography; however, this method still depends basically on trial and error making it a very time- and resource-consuming process. The use of additives is an established process to enable or improve the crystallization of proteins in order to obtain high quality crystals. Therefore, a more universal additive addressing a wider range of proteins is desirable as it would represent a huge advance in protein crystallography and at the same time drastically impact multiple research fields. This in turn could add an overall benefit for the entire society as it profits from the faster development of novel or improved drugs and from a deeper understanding of biological, biochemical, and pharmacological phenomena. With this aim in view, we have tested several compounds belonging to the emerging class of polyoxometalates (POMs) for their suitability as crystallization additives and revealed that the tellurium-centered Anderson-Evans polyoxotungstate [TeW 6 O 24 ] 6- (TEW) was the most suitable POM-archetype. After its first successful application as a crystallization additive, we repeatedly reported on TEW's positive effects on the crystallization behavior of proteins with a particular focus on the protein-TEW interactions. As electrostatic interactions are the main force for TEW binding

  20. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and genomic analysis of kraft lignin biodegradation by the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin materials are abundant and among the most important potential sources for biofuel production. Development of an efficient lignin degradation process has considerable potential for the production of a variety of chemicals, including bioethanol. However, lignin degradation using current methods is inefficient. Given their immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility, bacterial could be used as a valuable tool for the rapid degradation of lignin. Kraft lignin (KL is a polymer by-product of the pulp and paper industry resulting from alkaline sulfide treatment of lignocellulose, and it has been widely used for lignin-related studies. Results Beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 isolated from erosive bamboo slips displayed substantial KL degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.5–6 g L-1, at least 31.3% KL could be degraded in 7 days. The maximum degradation rate was 44.4% at the initial concentration of 2 g L-1. The optimum pH and temperature for KL degradation were 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. Manganese peroxidase (MnP and laccase (Lac demonstrated their greatest level of activity, 1685.3 U L-1 and 815.6 U L-1, at the third and fourth days, respectively. Many small molecule intermediates were formed during the process of KL degradation, as determined using GC-MS analysis. In order to perform metabolic reconstruction of lignin degradation in this bacterium, a draft genome sequence for C. basilensis B-8 was generated. Genomic analysis focused on the catabolic potential of this bacterium against several lignin-derived compounds. These analyses together with sequence comparisons predicted the existence of three major metabolic pathways: β-ketoadipate, phenol degradation, and gentisate pathways. Conclusion These results confirmed the capability of C. basilensis B-8 to promote KL degradation. Whole genomic sequencing and systematic analysis of the C. basilensis B-8 genome

  2. Kinetic analysis of the rate of corneal wound healing in Otsuka long-evans Tokushima Fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Murao, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Norio; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we performed a kinetic analysis of corneal wound healing in Long-Evans rats (normal rat) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Corneal wound healing in 7-week-old normal rats was mostly complete 24 h after corneal epithelial abrasion, and the process of corneal wound healing took place according to an equation with a first-order rate constant. The rate of corneal wound healing in normal rats decreased with aging. The process of corneal wound healing in 38- and 60-week-old normal and OLETF rats occurred in two phases with rate constants for the first and second phases represented as alpha and beta, respectively. The alpha and beta values in 38- and 60-week-old OLETF rats were lower than those in normal rats of the corresponding age. Furthermore, a close relationship was observed between the corneal wound healing rate constant and plasma glucose levels in OLETF rats. The present studies suggest the sequence of events that occur following damage to the corneal surface in OLETF rats as a model animal for a human type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Proceso de internacionalización de las empresas Compañía Licorera de Nicaragua, S.A. y Kraft Foods Nicaragua, S.A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Margarita Saravia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AUNQUE NICARAGUA ES UN PAÍS SUBDESARROLLADO Y POBRE, fundamenta sus expectativas de crecimiento y desarrollo en la exportación, especialmente desde la firma de diferentes Tratados de Libre Comercio. Sin embargo, son pocas las empresas nacionales que han logrado competir con éxito en los mercados internacionales. Entre ellas, se encuentran la Compañía Licorera de Nicaragua, S.A. y Kraft Foods de Nicaragua, S.A. El éxito del proceso de internacionalización depende de muchos factores, incluyendo la decisión de aventurarse en el extranjero. El punto clave está en aprovechar las ventajas competitivas de cada empresa y enfocarlas para obtener productos y servicios de calidad que son los pilares del éxito. El éxito internacional de estas tres empresas se analiza en este trabajo para dar a conocer su experiencia

  4. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados

  5. Removal of inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process using adsorption and flocculation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fatehi, Pedram; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-07-01

    A process for removing inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by adsorption and flocculation, and the characteristics of this process were studied. In this process, industrially produced PHL was treated with unmodified and oxidized activated carbon as an absorbent and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) as a flocculant. The overall removal of lignin and furfural in the developed process was 83.3% and 100%, respectively, while that of hemicelluloses was 32.7%. These results confirmed that the developed process can remove inhibitors from PHL prior to producing value-added products, e.g. ethanol and xylitol via fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fuld kraft frem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Traktaten har fået et nyt navn, symbolerne er pillet ud, men i substansen er der sket meget få ændringer. Hele forhandlingsforløbet har haft ét formål: at få vedtaget traktaten uden at spørge de europæiske befolkninger....

  7. Bazı çam türlerinden kraft kağıt hamuru elde etme sürecinde sodyum borhidrür ilavesinin etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın SARAÇBAŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten. ve Monteri çamı (Pinus radiata D. Don. türlerinden toplam verim ve delignifikasyonu geliştirmek amacı ile alternatif bir Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru elde etme yöntemi üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Delignifikasyon derecesi ve hamur verimi üzerinde reaksiyon koşullarının etkileri değerlendirilmiştir.Sonuçlar, sodyum borhidrür ilavesinin bilinen Kraft yöntemine göre her iki çam türünün hem verim hem de delignifikasyonunu geliştirmek için daha etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft yönteminin, geleneksel Kraft yönteminin tek başına verdiği kappa numarası ve yüksek verim açısından, daha hızlı ve daha seçici olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ancak, kızılçam için en iyi Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru üretim koşulu Aktif Alkali: %16, Sülfidite: %28, NaBH4 oranı: %0.5 iken, Monteri çamı için en iyi Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru üretim koşulunun ise Aktif Alkali: %20, Sülfidite: %26, NaBH4 Oranı: %0.7 olduğu bulunmuştur.

  8. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete

    2000-01-01

    Long-lasting central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity of 4-tert-butyltoluene (TBT) has been investigated using electrophysiology, behaviour, and neurochemistry in Long Evans rats exposed by inhalation to 0, 20, or 40 p.p.m. TBT 6 hr/day, 7 days/week for 4 weeks. Flash evoked potentials...... and somatosensory evoked potentials were not affected by TBT In Auditory Brain Stem Response there was no shift in hearing threshold, but the amplitude of the first wave was increased in both exposed groups at high stimulus levels. Three to four months after the end of exposure, behavioural studies in Morris water...... maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum...

  9. Multiple [3H]imipramine binding sites in brains of male and female Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.; Praag, H.M. van; Tobach, E.; Barr, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of high- and low-affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding to whole brain homogenates from adult male and female rats of the Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans strains were performed. Most strikingly, no significant differences were observed between the two strains in any of the binding parameters, indicating that brain [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites, which may be related to the serotonergic uptake process, appear normal in a strain of rats with serotonin platelet storage pool disease. However, a significant sex difference in high- but not low-affinity whole brain [ 3 H]imipramine Bsub(max) values was observed, with females of both strains having higher densities than males. (Auth.)

  10. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Edvins Ratnieks; Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraqu...

  11. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  12. Structural Alterations of Lignins in Transgenic Poplars with Depressed Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase or Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase Activity Have an Opposite Impact on the Efficiency of Industrial Kraft Pulping1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Petit-Conil, Michel; Toval, Gabriel; Romero, Javier; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Boerjan, Wout; Ferret, Valérie; De Nadai, Véronique; Jouanin, Lise

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated lignin profiles and pulping performances of 2-year-old transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) lines severely altered in the expression of caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Transgenic poplars with CAD or COMT antisense constructs showed growth similar to control trees. CAD down-regulated poplars displayed a red coloration mainly in the outer xylem. A 90% lower COMT activity did not change lignin content but dramatically increased the frequency of guaiacyl units and resistant biphenyl linkages in lignin. This alteration severely lowered the efficiency of kraft pulping. The Klason lignin level of CAD-transformed poplars was slightly lower than that of the control. Whereas CAD down-regulation did not change the frequency of labile ether bonds or guaiacyl units in lignin, it increased the proportion of syringaldehyde and diarylpropane structures and, more importantly with regard to kraft pulping, of free phenolic groups in lignin. In the most depressed line, ASCAD21, a substantially higher content in free phenolic units facilitated lignin solubilization and fragmentation during kraft pulping. These results point the way to genetic modification of lignin structure to improve wood quality for the pulp industry. PMID:9880356

  13. Utilização de surfactantes, na polpação kraft de madeira de eucalipto, como auxiliar na remoção de extrativos lipofílicos Surfactant utilization in kraft pulping of eucalyptus wood to improve lipophilic extractives removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusanilde de Jesus Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas de deposição de "pitch" em fábricas de celulose e de papel são atribuídos aos extrativos lipofílicos existentes na madeira. Uma das maneiras mais eficientes de controlar essa deposição é através da remoção de seus precursores do sistema, logo que possível, nas etapas de cozimento, lavagem da polpa marrom e pré-deslignificação com oxigênio. O uso de surfactantes como aditivos da polpação tem sido investigado, mas há grande deficiência de informações técnicas, e a aplicação industrial é, ainda, incipiente. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar a viabilidade de minimizar a deposição de "pitch", intensificando a remoção de suas substâncias precursoras na etapa de polpação pelo uso de tensoativos sintéticos com propriedades umectantes e solubilizantes. Foram testados 20 princípios ativos de surfactantes em cozimento kraft convencional de madeira de eucalipto. Os resultados, alguns estatisticamente significativos, apontaram redução do teor de substâncias lipofílicas na polpa marrom. Foi observado que a remoção dos extrativos lipofílicos da madeira é afetada, inversamente, pelo teor de óxido de eteno na molécula do surfactante. Outros parâmetros de cozimento, como deslignificação, rendimento, teor de rejeitos e viscosidade da polpa, foram também avaliados.Extractives are pitch precursors and may decrease pulping efficiency and affect pulp quality. Probably, the most efficient way to minimize pitch problems is to remove their precursors from the system during cooking, pulp washing and oxygen delignification. Use of surfactants as pulping additives has been investigated but technical information is deficient and industrial application is very incipient. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of different surfactants as additives for kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood. Twenty surfactants with different basic chemical structures were used. The results demonstrated that

  14. Genetic recombination at the human RH locus: A family study of the red-cell Evans phenotype reveals a transfer of exons 2-6 from the RHD to the RHCE gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Reid, M. [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Inst., New York, NY (United States); Ghosh, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human RH locus appears to consist of two structural genes, D and CE, which map on the short arm p34-36 of chromosome 1 and specify a most complex system of blood-group genetic polymorphisms. Here we describe a family study of the Evans (also known as {open_quotes}D..{open_quotes}) phenotype, a codominant trait associated with both qualitative and quantitative changes in D-antigen expression. A cataract-causing mutation was also inherited in this family and was apparently cotransmitted with Evans, suggesting a chromosomal linkage of these two otherwise unrelated traits. Southern blot analysis and allele-specific PCR showed the linkage of Evans with a SphI RFLP marker and the presence of a hybrid gene in the RH locus. To delineate the pattern of gene expression, the composition and structure of Rh-polypeptide transcripts were characterized by reverse transcriptase-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. This resulted in the identification of a novel Rh transcript expressed only in the Evans-positive erythroid cells. Sequence analysis showed that the transcript maintained a normal open reading frame but occurred as a CE-D-CE composite in which exons 2-6 of the CE gene were replaced by the homologous counterpart of the D gene. This hybrid gene was predicted to encode a CE-D-CE fusion protein whose surface expression correlates with the Evans phenotype. The mode and consequence of such a recombination event suggest the occurrence, in the RH locus, of a segmental DNA transfer via the mechanism of gene conversion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Efeito dos sólidos dissolvidos da madeira na branqueabilidade e nas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas de polpa kraft branqueada de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Longue Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985089Muitos estudos demonstram que o rendimento da polpação kraft pode ser melhorado pela readsorção de xilanas à polpa durante o cozimento, e o licor negro kraft contém fração significativa das xilanas da madeira, sendo uma importante fonte dessas macromoléculas. Porém, o efeito dessa técnica nas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas de polpa branqueada de eucalipto, ainda não está bem esclarecido. Neste estudo foram produzidas polpas de eucalipto provenientes de cozimento kraft convencional, com diferentes adições de licor negro (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 % v/v. Os cozimentos foram conduzidos até número kappa 17-18 e as polpas resultantes foram deslignificadas com oxigênio em condições fixas. O branqueamento foi realizado utilizando uma sequência DHT(EPDP até alvura final 92 % ISO. Em seguida as polpas foram refinadas num moinho PFI a diferentes níveis de revoluções (0, 500, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 e realizados testes de resistência ao rasgo, ao arrebentamento e à passagem de ar, alongamento, opacidade, densidade, volume específico aparente, capilaridade Klemm e índice de retenção de água (WRV. A eficiência e o ganho de alvura da pré-deslignificação com oxigênio foram ligeiramente prejudicados pela adição de licor negro ao cozimento kraft. A adição de 50 % de licor negro aos cozimentos resultou em polpas de pior branqueabilidade, sendo a demanda de cloro ativo aumentada em 5,3 kg/t celulose seca para obtenção de alvura 92 % ISO. As propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas das polpas kraft branqueadas não foram influenciadas, significativamente, pelo uso de licor negro no cozimento.

  16. Rare sugar D-psicose prevents progression and development of diabetes in T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirose, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Toru; Sui, Li; Hirata, Yuko; Noguchi, Chisato; Katagi, Ayako; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is consumption of calorie-dense foods. We have introduced a zero-calorie sweet sugar, d-psicose (d-allulose), a rare sugar that has been proven to have strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and could be used as a replacement of natural sugar for the obese and diabetic subjects. Above mentioned efficacy of d-psicose (d-allulose) has been confirmed in our previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with short-term treatment. In this study we investigated the long-term effect of d-psicose in preventing the commencement and progression of T2DM with the mechanism of preservation of pancreatic β-cells in OLETF rats. Treated OLETF rats were fed 5% d-psicose dissolved in water and control rats only water. Nondiabetic control rats, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), were taken as healthy control and fed water. To follow the progression of diabetes, periodic measurements of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and body weight changes were continued till sacrifice at 60 weeks. Periodic in vivo body fat mass was measured. On sacrifice, pancreas, liver, and abdominal adipose tissues were collected for various staining tests. d-Psicose prevented the commencement and progression of T2DM till 60 weeks through the maintenance of blood glucose levels, decrease in body weight gain, and the control of postprandial hyperglycemia, with decreased levels of HbA1c in comparison to nontreated control rats. This improvement in glycemic control was accompanied by the maintenance of plasma insulin levels and the preservation of pancreatic β-cells with the significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Body fat accumulation was significantly lower in the treatment group, with decreased infiltration of macrophages in the abdominal adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that the rare sugar d-psicose could be beneficial for the prevention and control of obesity and

  17. Obesity and type 2 diabetes, not a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol, negatively impacts bone outcomes in the hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups. At 32weeks, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, followed by euthanasia and collection of blood and tibiae. Bone turnover markers and sclerostin were measured using ELISA. Trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and geometry of the tibia mid-diaphysis were measured using microcomputed tomography; whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties were evaluated using torsional loading of the tibia. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine main and interactive effects of diet (CON vs. HFSC) and obesity/T2D (OLETF vs. LETO) on bone outcomes. Hyperphagic OLEFT rats had greater final body mass, body fat, and fasting glucose than normophagic LETO, with no effect of diet. Total body BMC and serum markers of bone formation were decreased, and bone resorption and sclerostin were increased in obese/T2D OLETF rats. Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture were adversely affected by obesity/T2D, but not diet. Whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties of the tibia were not affected by obesity/T2D; the HFSC diet improved biomechanical properties only in LETO rats. Obesity/T2D, regardless of diet, negatively impacted the balance between bone formation and resorption and trabecular bone volume and

  18. Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long-evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Carter, Eugenia; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Clinically, early life stress and anxiety disorders are associated with increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. In male rats, early life stress, imparted by adolescent social isolation, results in long-lasting increases in a number of behavioral risk factors for alcoholism, including greater anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) intake. Several recent studies have begun to use this model to gain insight into the relationships among anxiety measures, stress, EtOH intake, and neurobiological correlates driving these behaviors. As prior research has noted significant sex differences in the impact of adolescent stress on anxiety measures and EtOH drinking, the current study was conducted to determine if this same model produces an "addiction vulnerable" phenotype in female rodents. Female Long Evans rats were socially isolated (SI; 1/cage) or group housed (GH; 4/cage) for 6 weeks during adolescence. After this housing manipulation, behavioral assessment was conducted using the elevated plus maze, response to novelty in an open field environment, and the light/dark box. After behavioral testing, home cage EtOH drinking was assessed across an 8-week period. No group differences were detected in any of the behavioral measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Greater EtOH intake and preference were observed in SI females but these differences did not persist. The SI/GH model, which results in robust and enduring increases in anxiety measures and EtOH self-administration in male Long Evans rats, did not result in similar behavioral changes in female rats. These data, and that of others, suggest that adolescent social isolation is not a useful model with which to study neurobiological substrates linking antecedent anxiety and addiction vulnerability in female rats. Given the compelling epidemiological evidence that the relationship between chronic adolescent stress and alcohol addiction is particularly strong in women, there is clearly an urgent need

  19. Catalytic efficiency of natural and synthetic compounds used as laccase-mediators in oxidising veratryl alcohol and a kraft lignin, estimated by electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Arzola, K. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Arevalo, M.C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: carevalo@ull.es; Falcon, M.A. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: mafalcon@ull.es

    2009-03-30

    The electrochemical properties of eighteen natural and synthetic compounds commonly used to expand the oxidative capacity of laccases were evaluated in an aqueous buffered medium using cyclic voltammetry. This clarifies which compounds fulfil the requisites to be considered as redox mediators or enhancers. Cyclic voltammetry was also applied as a rapid way to assess the catalytic efficiency (CE) of those compounds which oxidise a non-phenolic lignin model (veratryl alcohol, VA) and a kraft lignin (KL). With the exception of gallic acid and catechol, all assayed compounds were capable of oxidising VA with varying CE. However, only some of them were able to oxidise KL. Although the oxidised forms of HBT and acetovanillone were not electrochemically stable, their reduced forms were quickly regenerated in the presence of VA. They thus act as chemical catalysts. Importantly, HBT and HPI did not attack the KL via the same mechanism as in VA oxidation. Electrochemical evidence suggests that violuric acid oxidises both substrates by an electron transfer mechanism, unlike the other N-OH compounds HBT and HPI. Acetovanillone was found to be efficient in oxidising VA and KL, even better than the synthetic mediators TEMPO, violuric acid or ABTS. Most of the compounds produced a generalised increase in the oxidative charge of KL, probably attributed to chain reactions arising between the phenolic and non-phenolic components of this complex molecule.

  20. Catalytic efficiency of natural and synthetic compounds used as laccase-mediators in oxidising veratryl alcohol and a kraft lignin, estimated by electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Arzola, K.; Arevalo, M.C.; Falcon, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of eighteen natural and synthetic compounds commonly used to expand the oxidative capacity of laccases were evaluated in an aqueous buffered medium using cyclic voltammetry. This clarifies which compounds fulfil the requisites to be considered as redox mediators or enhancers. Cyclic voltammetry was also applied as a rapid way to assess the catalytic efficiency (CE) of those compounds which oxidise a non-phenolic lignin model (veratryl alcohol, VA) and a kraft lignin (KL). With the exception of gallic acid and catechol, all assayed compounds were capable of oxidising VA with varying CE. However, only some of them were able to oxidise KL. Although the oxidised forms of HBT and acetovanillone were not electrochemically stable, their reduced forms were quickly regenerated in the presence of VA. They thus act as chemical catalysts. Importantly, HBT and HPI did not attack the KL via the same mechanism as in VA oxidation. Electrochemical evidence suggests that violuric acid oxidises both substrates by an electron transfer mechanism, unlike the other N-OH compounds HBT and HPI. Acetovanillone was found to be efficient in oxidising VA and KL, even better than the synthetic mediators TEMPO, violuric acid or ABTS. Most of the compounds produced a generalised increase in the oxidative charge of KL, probably attributed to chain reactions arising between the phenolic and non-phenolic components of this complex molecule

  1. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquefaction of kraft lignin by hydrocracking with simultaneous use of a novel dual acid-base catalyst and a hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Li, Wenzhi; Wang, Huizhen; Ma, Qiaozhi; Li, Song; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel catalyst, S 2 O 8 2- -KNO 3 /TiO 2 , which has active acidic and basic sites, was prepared and used in lignin hydrocracking with a co-catalyst, Ru/C. Ru/C is an efficient hydrogenation catalyst and S 2 O 8 2- -KNO 3 /TiO 2 is a dual catalyst, which could efficiently degrade lignin. This catalytic hydrogenation system can reduce solid products to less than 1%, while giving a high liquid product yield of 93%. Catalytic hydrocracking of kraft lignin at 320°C for 6h gave 93% liquid product with 0.5% solid product. Most of this liquid product was soluble in petroleum ether (60% of 93%), which is a clear liquid and comprises mainly of monomeric and dimeric degradation products. These results demonstrated that the combination of the two catalysts is an efficient catalyst for liquefaction of lignin, with little char formation (∼1%). This concept has the potential to produce valuable chemicals and fuels from lignin under moderate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple Stirling engine as cogeneration unit in residential areas; Einfacher Stirling-Motor fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK) in kleinen Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budliger, J.P.

    2000-07-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines have been recognized for long as an ideally suited unit for combined heat and power (CHP) production in homes. The considerably improved use of fossil fuel as compared to their separate production, the clean, external combustion process and low noise are major assets, favouring the use of this technology in residential areas. However, up to present, the complexity and correspondingly high cost of these units hampered their practical application. A new, simple concept has recently been devised, which can easily be controlled and operated according to demand. Cost may be reduced substantially as compared to presently known concepts, giving promise for their widespread use in residential homes, as well as in a variety of other applications. (orig.) [German] Freikolben-Stirling-Motoren sind ideale Aggregate fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK oder KWK) in kleineren Wohnhaeusern. Der Brennstoff kann wesentlich besser genutzt werden als bei getrennter Bereitung der benoetigten Heizwaerme und der elektrischen Energie. Die saubere, kontinuierliche aeussere Verbrennung und der geringe abgegebene Laerm stellen wichtige Bedingungen fuer einen erfolgreichen Einsatz solcher Systeme im Wohnbereich dar. Bisher verhinderten aber die Komplexitaet der verfuegbaren Systeme den praktischen Einsatz dieser Einheiten. Im Folgenden wird ein neues, einfaches Konzept vorgestellt, welches zuverlaessig funktioniert und auch unter Teillast, dem benoetigten Waermebedarf genau angepasst, betrieben werden kann. Die Herstellungskosten sind wesentlich geringer als bei den bisher bekannten Systemen, was ideale Voraussetzungen fuer deren verbreitete Anwendung im Haushalt, wie in vielfaeltigen anderen Einsatzgebieten darstellt. (orig.)

  5. KRAFT PULPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MOROCCAN EUCALYPTI. PART 2. COMPARISON OF THE GUAIACYL FRACTION OF THE NATIVE LIGNINS BY A NOVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka F. Alves,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this series it was observed that one of the eucalypti (EGC 39 was more reactive than the other two in kraft and soda-AQ (SAQ cooking. However, the lignin in EGC 39 contained equal or less syringyl (S units than the other two eucalypti. In the present research an attempt was made to compare the guaiacyl (G fraction of the three lignins. The approach was to use SAQ treatment to cleave β-O-4 bonds in dimeric units containing uncondensed guaiacyl A-rings (those rearranging to quinone methides. The coniferyl alcohol, vinylguaiacol and isoeugenol generated from β-O-4 cleavage are then trapped as dimers by ethylguaiacol that is included in the SAQ liquor. Research with sugar maple (Acer saccharum showed that the estimate of these structures (uncondensed G-β-O-4 by this approach was in close agreement with traditional but more tedious methods such as permanganate oxidation and 31P NMR. It was also shown that the lignin in the EGC 39 hybrid contained a higher concentration of uncondensed G-β-O-4 structures than the other two eucalypti lignins.

  6. IMPACT OF FURFURAL ON THE SUGAR ANALYSIS OF PRE-HYDROLYSIS LIQUOR OF KRAFT-BASED DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION PROCESS USING THE HPAEC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Saeed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse ampero-metric detector (HPAEC-PAD is a reliable method to systematically determine the sugar contents in pulp and paper waste streams, including bleaching and extraction liquors. We used the same method to determine the sugar content of industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL from a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The analysis showed that the traditional method cannot be applied for sugar analysis, and an improvement on the method was required. In fact, the presence of furfural in the PHL sample was the reason for the required modification. It was noted that the removal of furfural via evaporation could improve the reliability of the HPAEC technique for sugar assessments. If the concentration of furfural was higher than 0.045% (wt. in the PHL, the error introduced in the sugar analysis was profound. Also, the industrially produced PHL contained more furfural than the laboratory produced PHL under the same hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, the concentration of furfural in the PHL should be taken into account for sugar analysis using the HPAEC technique.

  7. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  8. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

  9. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in male and female Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Wetzell, Bradley B; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Clasen, Matthew M; Taylor, William W; Hempel, Briana J; Riley, Anthony L

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents. Accordingly, male and female Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer THC over a 3-week period and then were assessed for the effects of CBD on responding for THC at 1:1 and 1:10 dose ratios or for the establishment of cocaine self-administration (as a positive control for drug self-administration). Consistent with previous research, THC self-administration was modest and only evident in a subset of animals (and unaffected by sex). Cocaine self-administration was high and evident in the majority of animals tested, indicating that the design was sensitive to drug reinforcement. There was no effect of CBD pretreatment on THC intravenous self-administration at any CBD:THC dose ratio. Future developments of animal models of THC self-administration and the examination of factors that affect its display remain important to establish procedures designed to assess the basis for and treatment of cannabis use and abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  11. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the 21st century and what are the alternatives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ruthven Saunders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late 19th-Century. Their use continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid 20th-Century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level. Advantages and disadvantages these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualisable dextrans and radiolabelled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity.

  12. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  14. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Smith

    Full Text Available Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  15. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF Rats with a Combination of Chinese Herbs (Tangshen Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most significant microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetics. The concise mechanism of diabetic nephropathy is unknown and there is no successful treatment. The objective of study was to investigate effects of Chinese herbs (Tangshen Formula on diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. OLETF rats and LETO rats were divided into four groups: LETO control, OLETF diabetics, OLETF diabetics treated with Tangshen Formula, and OLETF diabetics treated with Monopril. Body weight, blood glucose, and 24 h urinary proteins were measured once every four weeks. Blood samples and kidney tissues were obtained for analyses of total cholesterol, triglyceride, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and pathohistological examination at 36 and 56 weeksrespectively. Untreated OLETF rats displayed diabetic nephropathy over the study period. Treatment of OLETF rats with Tangshen Formula attenuated the increases in blood glucose, body weight, 24 h urinary protein content, serum total cholesterol, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity at certain time. Treatment with Tangshen Formula also reduced glomerulosclerotic index and interstitial fibrotic index seen in OLETF rats. In conclusion, Tangshen Formula could attenuate the development of diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rat diabetic model.

  16. New Perspectives for Old Clusters: Anderson-Evans Anions as Building Blocks of Large Polyoxometalate Frameworks in a Series of Heterometallic 3 d-4 f Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Lezama, Luis; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Vicent, Cristian; Haso, Fadi; Liu, Tianbo

    2016-03-18

    A series of nine [Sb7W36O133Ln3M2(OAc)(H2O)8](17-) heterometallic anions (Ln3M2; Ln=La-Gd, M=Co; Ln=Ce, M=Ni and Zn) have been obtained by reacting 3 d metal disubstituted Krebs-type tungstoantimonates(III) with early lanthanides. Their unique tetrameric structure contains a novel {MW9O33} capping unit formed by a planar {MW6O24} fragment to which three {WO2} groups are condensed to form a tungstate skeleton identical to that of a hypothetical trilacunary derivative of the ɛ-Keggin cluster. It is shown, for the first time, that classical Anderson-Evans {MW6O24} anions can act as building blocks to construct purely inorganic large frameworks. Unprecedented reactivity in the outer ring of these disk-shaped species is also revealed. The Ln3M2 anions possess chirality owing to a {Sb4O4} cluster being encapsulated in left- or right-handed orientations. Their ability to self-associate in blackberry-type vesicles in solution has been assessed for the Ce3Co2 derivative. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic lesions with a newly developed Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium contrast medium in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Ikuta, Kenjiro; Uwatoku, Toyokazu; Oi, Keiji; Abe, Kohtaro; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Sugimura, Kohtaro; Utsumi, Hideo; Katayama, Yoshiki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that specifically detect atherosclerotic plaque may be useful for the noninvasive detection of the plaque. We have recently developed a new contrast agent, Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium (EB-DTPA-Gd), which selectively accumulates vascular lesions with endothelial removal. In this study, we examined whether EB-DTPA-Gd is also useful for in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. We used male apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice of different ages (3, 6 and 12 months old) and age-matched male wild-type mice. After a single intravenous administration of EB-DTPA-Gd (160 microM/kg body weight), MRI T(1) signal was obtained in vivo. Increased signal intensity in the aortic wall was noted within 10-20 min after intravenous injection of EB-DTPA-Gd and was maintained for 30 min. The MRI enhancement in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice was increased in accordance with age, whereas no such enhancement was noted in wild-type mice. Histological examination demonstrated that there was a topological correlation between the site of MRI enhancement and that of atherosclerotic plaque. These results indicate that EB-DTPA-Gd is a useful MRI contrast medium for the in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Ocorrência simultânea de síndrome de Evans e anemia falciforme em uma criança de 2 anos Simultaneous occurrence of Evans syndrome and sickle cell anemia in a 2 year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Alexandre Brito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre anemia falciforme (AF e síndrome de Evans (SE parece ser rara. Esse estudo objetivou relatar o caso de uma criança com AF e SE. A paciente R. M. S. S., 2 anos de idade, foi admitida em um centro hematológico apresentando hemorragia de mucosa, leucometria 20,3 × 10(9/l, hemoglobina 4,6 g/dl e plaquetas 28 × 10(9/l. Posteriormente, realizou-se mielograma, que evidenciou hipercelularidade eritroide, sugerindo hemólise. Teste positivo da antiglobulina direcionou o diagnóstico para SE. Iniciou-se pulsoterapia com corticoide até regularização da plaquetometria. Hemácias em foice foram visualizadas no esfregaço sanguíneo; eletroforese de hemoglobina revelou fenótipo SS. A associação parece ter sido fortuita e gerou quadro grave, que deve ser reconhecido prontamente.The association of sickle cell anemia (SCA and Evans syndrome (ES seems to be uncommon. This study aimed to report a case of a child with SCA and SE. 2 year-old R. M. S. S. was admitted into a hematologic center with mucosal bleedings. Exam results revealed leucocyte 20.3 × 10(9/l, hemoglobin 4.6 g/dl, and platelets 28 × 10(9/l. Subsequently, myelogram was performed and showed erythroid-hypercellularity, which suggested hemolysis. Positive antiglobulin test corroborated the diagnosis of ES. Corticosteroid pulse therapies were conducted until normalization of platelet count. Sickle cells were detected in blood smears and hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed SS phenotype. Despite the fact the association appears to occur randomly, it causes severe clinical symptoms, which must be promptly recognized.

  19. A Dose–Response Analysis of the Reproductive Effects of a Single Gestational Dose of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Male Long Evans Hooded Rat Offspring,

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, L. E.; Ostby, J. S.; Kelce, W. R.

    1997-01-01

    Male rats exposedin uteroto 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) display reduced fertility as a consequence of the direct action of TCDD on the epididymides, as well as delayed puberty and altered reproductive organ weights. The current study provides dose–response data for the reproductive effects of TCDD, administered during pregnancy, with an emphasis on the effects of TCDD on testicular, epididymal, and ejaculated sperm numbers. Long Evans Hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 0....

  20. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  1. UP-report. The power system. Basis of the Development platform. Power to Swedish Energy Agency's strategy work FOKUS; UP-rapport. Kraftsystemet. Underlag fraan Utvecklingsplattformen. Kraft till Energimyndighetens strategiarbete FOKUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report serves as input to to Swedish Energy Agency's strategies and priorities for research and innovation in the power system for the period 2011 - 2016. The report has been compiled by members of the development platform Kraft. This report provides background and circumstances for the power system theme, and proposed priorities and activities for future efforts in this area. The development platform has contributed with valuable experience and skills that enabled the Swedish Energy Agency to then develop a strategy that meets the needs of society and business.

  2. PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI OPTIMUM BUBURAN KERTAS KRAFT LINER 150 GSM MENGGUNAKAN METODE MIXTURE EXPERIMENT (Studi kasus: Pabrik Pulp & Paper PT.Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Saragih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah bagaimana caranya memilih komposisi dari campuran buburan kertas sehingga posisi optimum dapat tercapai, dengan tercapainya komposisi optimum tersebut diharapkan dapat  meningkatkan kualitas kertas yang diproduksi.Adapun komposisi buburan kertas yang ingin dicapai adalah  konsistensi sebesar untuk campuran ,pada campuran satu, tingkat freeness sebesar pada campuran dua dan tingkat internal bonding sebesar   pada campuran tiga. Percobaan dilakukan dengan metoda mixture experiment untuk sampel percobaan buburan kertas sebanyak 500 gr. Titik percobaan dibangkitkan dengan software minitab sebanyak 14 titik percobaan.Adapun komposisi campuran yang optimal diperoleh untuk total campuran diperoleh sebesar 71.23 % ( 356.15 gr Waste Paper, 8.72% (43.55gr Pulp (NUKP, 3.54% (17.7 gr Air, 5.7%(28.5 gr Rosin, 3.29 % (16.4 gr Aluminium Sulfat ( Al2(SO43, dan 7.55 %(37.75gr Starch. Dengan komposisi tersebut akan dihasilkan produk yang memenuhi spesifikasi yang telah ditetapkan perusahaan. Berdasarkan pengukuran kapabilitas proses  campuran satu, pada kertas kraft liner 150 gsm di perusahaan  untuk tingkat konsistensi, adalah sebesar 0.47 dan setelah dilakukan percobaan yang optimal, berubah menjadi 1.11 berarti  terdapat peningkatan sebesar 136.7 %.Pada campuran dua untuk tingkat freeness adalah 0.45 berubah menjadi 1.14 berarti meningkat sebesar 153.3 %, sedangkan pada campuran tiga untuk tingkat internal bonding dari 0.55 berubah menjadi 1.15 berarti meningkat sebesar 109 %. Kata kunci: mixture experiment; konsistensi; freeness; internal bonding Abstract The aim of the research are how to choose composition from pulp paper mix, so that optimum position can be achieved, with the achievement of optimum composition, it can be expected to increase quality of paper production.While the pulp paper composition to achieve are consistency as big as for mixing on first mix, freeness level as big as on second mix and internal

  3. Preparation of silica-supported carbon by Kraft lignin pyrolysis, and its use in solid-phase extraction of fluoroquinolones from environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Mandelli, Elettra; Dondi, Daniele; Profumo, Antonella; Vadivel, Dhanalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a carbon-based material for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of fluoroquinolones from waters. It was obtained by pyrolytic deposition of Kraft lignin (LG) on silica particles. Marbofloxacin (MAR) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were chosen as model contaminants. The material was prepared by first adsorbing LG onto silica microparticles, this followed by pyrolytic treatment at 1200 °C for 2 h. Silica-supported carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurement (by BET), thermogravimetric analysis, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The carbon-coated silica particles were then tested as a column packing for SPE of MAR and ENR from spiked tap and river waters. Quantitative adsorption was observed at pH values of ∼7.5 for both drugs. They were eluted with a 70:30 mixture of aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile and then quantified by HPLC coupled to fluorescence detection. Samples spiked with MAR and ENR in the range from 10 to 1000 ng·L"−"1 gave recoveries ranging from 70 to 116% (for n = 3). Good inter-day precision (with RSDs between 7 and 16%) was observed for 20–1000 ng·L"−"1 spikes, also in natural river water. Sample volumes up to 500 mL provided enrichment factors up to 125, and this makes this material useful for determination of the two drugs at environmentally significant levels which are as low as a few ng·L"−"1. The batch-to-batch reproducibility was verified for 3 preparations. The sorbent was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in environmental waters. (author)

  4. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2018-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO 2 or nano-Fe 2 O 3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /H 2 O 2 /UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L -1 of nano-TiO 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L -1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO 2 , enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  5. Evaluation of opportunities for heat integration of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch crude production at Scandinavian kraft pulp and paper mill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungstedt, Hanna; Pettersson, Karin; Harvey, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates heat integrated production of FT (Fischer–Tropsch) crude, where excess heat from the FT crude plant is delivered to a typical Scandinavian pulp and paper mill that produces fine paper. The sizes of FT crude plants are quantified, when the amount of excess heat from the FT plant exactly matches the heating demand otherwise satisfied by the bark boiler at the mill, considering a number of development pathways at the mill, including various degrees of steam savings and biorefinery options, such as lignin extraction. Performance of integrated production is compared with that of an FT stand-alone plant on the basis of wood fuel-to-FT crude efficiency, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions balances and FT crude production cost. The results show that there exists a heat integration opportunity for an FT crude plant ranging from 0 up to 350 MW (LHV) of wood fuel depending on the development pathway for the mill. The results indicate higher overall efficiency and a generally lower production cost for the heat integrated, co-located production. Heat integrated production has a larger potential to contribute to GHG emission mitigation, assuming a future generation of grid electricity emitting equal to or less than an NGCC (natural gas combined cycle) power plant. - Highlights: • We investigate opportunities for heat integrated FT crude production at a mill. • Typical kraft pulp and paper mills have a potential for heat integrated production. • We compare the heat integrated production with stand-alone FT crude production. • Higher efficiency and lower production cost for heat integrated production. • Reduction of GHG emissions is strongly dependent on grid electricity emissions

  6. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  7. Inactivating the infralimbic but not prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex facilitates the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J; Sanio, C; Chaudhri, N

    2015-02-01

    The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) has been posited as a common node in distinct neural circuits that mediate the extinction of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, appetitive extinction is typically assessed using instrumental conditioning procedures, whereas the extinction of aversive conditioning is customarily studied using Pavlovian assays. The role of the IL in the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning remains underexplored. We investigated the involvement of the IL and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PrL) in appetitive extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning assays in male, Long-Evans rats. Following acquisition, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist solution (0.03 nmol muscimol; 0.3 nmol baclofen; 0.3 μl/side) was bilaterally microinfused into the IL or PrL to pharmacologically inactivate each region before the first extinction session. Compared to saline, PrL inactivation did not affect the acquisition of extinction or the recall of extinction memory 24-h later. IL inactivation caused a more rapid extinction of Pavlovian conditioning, but had no effect on the extinction of instrumental conditioning or extinction recall. IL inactivation during a Pavlovian conditioning session in which conditioned stimulus (CS) trials were paired with sucrose did not affect CS-elicited behaviour, but increased responding during intervals that did not contain the CS. The same manipulation did not impact lever pressing for sucrose. These findings suggest that the IL may normally maintain Pavlovian conditioned responding when an anticipated appetitive CS is unexpectedly withheld, and that this region has distinct roles in the expression of Pavlovian conditioning when an appetitive unconditioned stimulus is either presented or omitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  9. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  10. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  11. Estratégia de análise da qualidade de madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de celulose A laboratory technique to establish Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma nova técnica laboratorial de análise de qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de polpa celulósica kraft. A técnica consiste em realizar, simultaneamente, quatro cozimentos de cavacos utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo para estabelecer a característica de deslignificação da madeira. Pelo uso de equações de regressão, calcula-se o álcali ativo necessário para obter o número kappa desejado, o rendimento, a viscosidade e álcali consumido para o kappa objetivo. Os estudos estatísticos evidenciaram que uma única batelada de quatro cozimentos é suficiente, não sendo necessário realizar repetições.A new laboratory technique was tested to determine Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production. This technique consists in performing four cooks simultaneously using different active alkali charges to establish the wood delignification characteristics. Based on regression equation it is possible to determine the alkali charge necessary to obtain a desired kappa number and the yield, viscosity and the alkali consumed for the target kappa. Statistical analysis demonstrated that a set of four cooks without replication is sufficient to determine the wood quality characteristics.

  12. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the features used in estimating luminosities of ordinary giant stars are just those whose abundance ... This difference between the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of CH stars and the. J stars, which belong to .... that the first group was binaries, as for the CH stars of the solar vicinity, while those of the second group ...

  13. Relationship between acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and disturbance of intermediary metabolism in the Long-Evans rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, F. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)); Rozman, K.K. (Section of Environmental Toxicology, GSF-Inst. fuer Toxikologie, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of TCDD in a rat strain other than the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat. Doses for the biochemical study were selected based on an acute range-finding study, which indicated that Long-Evans (L-E) rats are somewhat less susceptible to TCDD toxicity than are S-D rats. Male L-E rats were dosed orally with 10, 20, 45, 67, 100 and 150 [mu]g/kg TCDD. Body weight and feed intake were dose-dependently decreased prior to killing of the animals. Eight days after dosing, animals were killed and tryptophan, total T[sub 4] (TT[sub 4]) and total T[sub 3] (TT[sub 3]) levels were determined in serum, whereas the activities of ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), [gamma]-glutamyl transpeptidase ([gamma]-GT) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TdO) were measured in liver. EROD activity was fully induced at all doses studied, indicating that as in S-D rats, Ah-receptor-mediated effects do not seem to play any major role in the acute toxicity of TCDD in this rat strain either. Hepatic PEPCK activity was dose-dependently decreased in a similar dose range as in S-D rats, indicating inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Feed intake was dose-dependently decreased as a result of a dose-dependent elevation in serum tryptophan levels, which in turn were related to reduced liver TdO activity. Hepatic [gamma]-GT activity was also dose-dependently reduced. However, unlike in S-D rats, these dose-responses occurred in a higher dose range than the reduction of PEPCK activity which appears to be the explanation for the decreased susceptibility of L-E rats to TCDD. Serum TT[sub 4] levels were significantly decreased at all doses, whereas the serum concentration of TT[sub 3] appeared unaffected. The results of this study suggest that subtle differences in the regulation of intermediary metabolism between these two strains of rats are responsible for strain differences in the susceptibility to TCDD. (orig.)

  14. Nicotine and ethanol co-use in Long-Evans rats: Stimulatory effects of perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes

  15. The effects of herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seolah; Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Hyunghee; Lee, Haerim; Lim, Jonghoon; Yang, Heejeong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-01-04

    Hepatic steatosis has risen rapidly in parallel with a dramatic increase in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)), composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata, regulates hepatic steatosis and inflammation. The effects of GGH(4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and HepG2 cells were examined using Oil red O, hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. Administration of GGH(4) to OLETF rats improved hepatic steatosis and lowered serum levels of alanine transaminase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids. GGH(4) increased mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes (ACOX, HD, CPT-1, and MCAD) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenesis genes (FAS, ACC1, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c) in the liver of OLETF rats. In addition, infiltration of inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (CD68, TNFα, and MCP-1) in liver tissue were reduced by GGH(4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with a mixture of oleic acid and palmitoleic acid induced significant lipid accumulation, but GGH(4) inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also increased PPARα reporter gene expression. These effects of GGH(4) were similar to those of the PPARα activator fenofibrate, whereas the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GGH(4) inhibits obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and that this process may be mediated by regulation of the expression of PPARα target genes and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also suppressed obesity

  16. In vitro autoradiography of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampus and striatum of aged Long-Evans rats: relationship to spatial learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, M.; Bizon, J.L.; Nicolle, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Using in vitro autoradiography, we investigated [ 3 H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate, [ 3 H]kainate and [ 3 H]N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in two forebrain regions, the hippocampus and striatum, of young (four months of age) and aged (24-25 months of age) Long-Evans rats that had previously been tested for spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze. Although there was substantial preservation of binding in the aged rats, reductions in binding were present in the aged rats that were specific to ligand and anatomical region. In the hippocampus of aged rats, [ 3 H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate binding in CA1 and [ 3 H]kainate binding in CA3 were reduced. In contrast, N-methyl-d-aspartate binding was not significantly different between age groups. There was evidence of sprouting in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of aged rats, indicated by changes in the topography of [ 3 H]kainate binding. Binding density was analysed with respect to patch/matrix compartmentalization in the striatum. The most striking result was a large decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in aged rats that was not limited to any dorsal/ventral or patch/matrix area of the striatum. Additionally, [ 3 H]kainate binding in striatal matrix was modestly reduced in aged rats. Of these age effects, only N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in the striatum and [ 3 H]kainate binding in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were correlated with spatial learning, with lower binding in the aged rats associated with better spatial learning ability.Age-related alterations in ionotropic glutamate receptors differ with respect to the receptor subtype and anatomical region examined. The age effects were not neccessarily indicative of cognitive decline, as only two age-related binding changes were correlated with spatial learning. Interestingly, in these instances, lower binding in the aged rats was associated with preserved spatial learning, suggesting a compensatory reduction

  17. Analysis of sensitivity to MK-801 treatment in a novel active allothetic place avoidance task and in the working memory version of the Morris water maze reveals differences between Long-Evans and Wistar rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Klement, Daniel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2006), s. 383-388 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NL7684; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GP309/03/P126; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Wistar/Long-Evans rats * MK-801 * cognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2006

  18. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Libor; Petrasek, Tomas; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovska, Marketa; Lobellova, Veronika; Vales, Karel; Radostova, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubova, Hana; Mikulecka, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales

    2018-01-01

    The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily) starting at postnatal days (PD) 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel) requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM) was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor subunits. These

  19. Steam slaking of lime - kinetics and technology. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Aangslaeckning av kalk - kinetik och teknik. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2008-06-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional lime burning and slaking methods are that heat recovery is bad and heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant, and to recover heat at higher temperatures. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with water vapour, for example combined with an indirect heated lime mud drier and a lime kiln. This project is a follow-up to pilot tests performed in a specific machine equipment at year 2006. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The owner of this new project is Carnot AB and the project is performed inside the Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2006-2008. Partners and advisers in project group have been KTH Energy Processes, CTH Energy and Environment, LTH Chemical Technology, SMA Mineral AB, and reference group from STORA Enso Skoghall, Sodra Cell, M-Real Husum and SCA Packaging Piteaa. The task in this stage has included market investigations and laboratory tests. Contacts have been made with suppliers, preliminary dimensioning of process equipment and budget offers are received. Economic calculations have been made out of the offers. The laboratory tests are done as an examination paper at KTH Energiprocesser on the reactivity of burned lime from kraft lime kiln when it is slaked with water vapour instead of green liquor. The vapour intended to be used is at atmospheric pressure or even down to 0,2 atm. Complementary addition to these laboratory

  20. Combined heat and power generation - a problem of reimbursement? CHP systems still on the march; BHKW - nur eine Frage der angemessenen Verguetung? Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung weiter im Aufwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, H.

    1996-04-15

    Systems for combined heat and power generation were a widely discussed issue in 1995. On the one hand, an ecological assessment was made by a study of the Eduard-Pestel-Institut fuer Systemforschung, Hanover. On the other hand, the problem of reimbursement for electricity supplied to the public grid is still unsolved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anlagen zur gekoppelten Erzeugung von Strom (Kraft) und Waerme (KWK) waren im Jahr 1995 Gegenstand einer intensiven Diskussion. Zum einen hat eine Diskussion zur oekologischen Bewertung von KWK-Anlagen stattgefunden, die im wesentlichen von einer Studie des Eduard-Pestel-Instituts fuer Systemforschung in Hannover angestossen wurde. Zum anderen sind die Verguetungen fuer KWK-Strom in das oeffentliche Netz nach wie vor umstritten. (orig.)

  1. Avaliação dos resíduos de uma serraria para a produção de celulose kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cândido Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814589As indústrias de base florestal apresentam baixo rendimento e geram grande quantidade de resíduos, especialmente as indústrias de transformação primária como, por exemplo, as serrarias. No Brasil, estão sendo criadas iniciativas para aliar a utilização desses resíduos à produção de celulose. Dentro deste propósito, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o rendimento de uma serraria de médio porte localizada no município de Rio Grande, RS, e promover análises físico-químicas dos resíduos gerados na etapa de desdobro. Foram utilizadas 20 toras de Pinus elliottii, divididas em duas classes diamétricas. Os resíduos, com exceção da serragem, coletados para análises, encontravam-se dispostos no pátio da empresa, na forma de cavacos. As seguintes propriedades físico-químicas dos cavacos foram analisadas: densidade básica, teor de extrativos solúvel em acetona, grupos acetilas, lignina solúvel e insolúvel em ácido (lignina Klason, grupos urônicos e carboidratos. Como principais resultados verificou-se um ligeiro aumento do rendimento em madeira serrada das madeiras de maiores diâmetros em relação às de menores diâmetros. Das análises físico-químicas foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: densidade básica de 0,402 g/cm³, teor de celulose de 37,42% e de 24,37% para hemiceluloses, lignina Klason de 26,75% e teor de extrativos de 3,80%. Concluiu-se, nesse estudo, que o baixo rendimento da serraria foi devido à falta de uma classificação diamétrica e diagramas de cortes apropriados para as toras, o que resulta em maior perda de madeira na forma de resíduos. Em relação às características química e física dos resíduos madeireiros, os resultados mostraram-se dentro dos padrões de qualidade da madeira utilizada para a produção de celulose kraft de fibra longa e, em algumas situações, apresentando vantagens em relação às madeiras mais jovens usualmente

  2. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  3. Caracterização tecnológica, para produção de celulose, da nova geração de clones de Eucalyptus do Brasil Technological characterization of the new generation of Eucalyptus clones in Brazil for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados clones de Eucalyptus de última geração, pertencentes às principais empresas brasileiras de celulose. Os estudos consistiram numa caracterização tecnológica detalhada da qualidade das madeiras utilizadas no processamento fabril das empresas. Foram realizadas análise químicas detalhadas das madeiras e cozimentos kraft, simulando-se uma das modernas técnica de digestor contínuo. Os resultados indicaram a alta qualidade dos clones de Eucalyptus atualmente plantados no Brasil para produção de celulose.Last generation of Eucalyptus clones pulped by the main Brazilian kraft pulp mills were used for this study. Detailed chemical analysis of the woods were carried out to establish the wood quality. Laboratory simulation of a modern continuous digester technique was used for pulp production. Results demonstrated the high quality of Eucalyptus clones wood that are being planted in Brazil for kraft pulp production.

  4. Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines; Integrierte Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung durch umschaltbare Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Hans-Detlev [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2017-07-01

    . Dieser so entstandene ''Hybrid''-Prozess zeichnet sich nach wie vor durch eine - gegenueber dem Stirling-Modus lediglich leicht verringerte - mechanische Leistungsabgabe aus, zusaetzlich jedoch auch durch eine theoretisch zu dieser betragsmaessig gleichen, ueber den Arbeitszylinder bei ''kalter'' Temperatur aufgenommene Kaelteleistung. Er stellt somit ein integriertes System zur Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung dar, das durch einen einzigen thermodynamischen Prozess realisierbar ist. Schaltet man diesem Prozess im warmen Temperaturbereich zusaetzlich einen weiteren, auf der Rueckseite des Arbeitskolbens liegenden Zylinderraum zu, so dass ersterer zu einem zweiten, doppelseitig wirkenden Verdraengerkolben wird, so erhaelt man schliesslich den als thermisch angetriebene Waermepumpe bzw. Kaeltemaschine bekannten Vuilleumier-Prozess, der im Idealfall keine mechanische Leistung abgibt oder aufnimmt. Am Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik der TU Dortmund wurde in einem mittlerweile abgeschlossenen, von der DFG gefoerderten Forschungsprojekt eine Versuchsmaschine entwickelt und vermessen, die sich zwischen den drei beschriebenen Prozessen umschalten und so wechselnden Strom-, Waerme- und Kaeltebedarfssituationen anpassen laesst. Dabei wurde zur Reduktion des experimentellen Aufwandes eine aehnlichkeitstheoretische Skalierung unter Konstanthaltung aller fuer den internen Gaskreisprozess relevanten dimensionslosen Kennzahlen durchgefuehrt. Die in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten experimentellen Ergebnisse beduerfen deshalb zwar einer Korrektur wegen einiger externer, nicht korrekt skalierbarer Reibungs- und Isolationsverluste, belegen aber dennoch, dass die Realisierung derart umschaltbarer Systeme zur dezentralen, bedarfsorientierten Energieversorgung von Gebaeuden in einer praxisgerechten Baugroesse und Leistungsklasse moeglich ist. Bei koordiniertem Betrieb einer groesseren Zahl solcher Systeme - z. B. ueber Rundsteuerungen oder netzlastabhaengige

  5. University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

  6. UTILIZAÇÃO DE MISTURAS DE CAVACOS INDUSTRIAIS COM RESÍDUOS DE SERRARIA PROVENIENTES DE MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis DE DIFERENTES IDADES PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PASTA KRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Maron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade técnica do uso conjunto de resíduos de serraria (costaneiras dentre outros e topos de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis com 15 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de madeira sólida, com madeira de árvores de plantio industrial, com 7 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de pasta kraft. São apresentados modelos úteis à realização de estimativas de alturas total e comercial e de volumes de madeira comercial e adequadas para serraria, todos baseados no DAP. São fornecidos dados anatômicos, de densidade básica e de composição química de misturas desses tipos de materiais. Mostra-se que é tecnicamente viável realizar deslignificações kraft com misturas contendo madeira comercial de Eucalyptus grandis 7 anos com resíduo de serraria ou topos de árvores. A deslignificação kraft de resíduos de serraria resulta em perda rápida de rendimento, mas a pasta produzida sob as mesmas condições apresenta número Kappa menor que a de Eucalyptus grandis com 7 anos. A deslignificação de topos de árvores resulta em perda de rendimento bruto, mas o consumo específico de madeira é menor. Conforme aumenta a madeira de topo nas misturas, ocorre um aumento na densidade básica, o comprimento médio das fibras fica praticamente o mesmo e um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina; há diminuição nos extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1%. Diminui um pouco o rendimento bruto em pasta, mas praticamente não afeta o número Kappa, caindo sensivelmente o consumo específico de madeira. Com o aumento de madeira de resíduo de serraria das árvores nas misturas, praticamente não há efeito sobre a densidade básica, mas o comprimento médio das fibras aumenta, ocorrendo também um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina. Os extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1% diminuem. O rendimento bruto em pasta cai um pouco, mas com uma queda sensível no número Kappa

  7. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result

  8. The bilingual Loch Ness Monster raises its non-asymmetric head again-or, why bother with such cumbersome notions as validity and reliability? Comments on Evans et al. (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Michel

    2003-12-01

    All of the experimental studies of the past 25 years combined and the meta-analyses of their findings have not advanced our knowledge of the lateralization of language in bilingual speakers one bit. We are left with a clutter of inherently uninterpretable contradictory results. Successive studies do not contribute a single brick to the edifice or a single piece to the puzzle-only more confusion. study is no exception. So far, there has been no demonstration of the validity of any experimental paradigm claiming to measure degree of language laterality in bilingual speakers. Experimentation is pointless unless the nature of what is alleged to be lateralized is clearly defined and the validity of the measures employed has been established. Because of the lack of validity of the paradigms used in bilingual laterality studies, experiments and meta-analyses of their findings cannot have any scientific significance. Like their predecessors, Evans et al. pay lip service to a number of methodological problems, but ignore their implications and simply carry on anyway. The authors ought to demonstrate, rather than assume, that degree of visual half-field advantage for single words corresponds to degree of lateralization of any component of language (even if only of words).

  9. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular Ultrasound of Neonatal Long Evans Rats ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes the use of a relatively new technology, cardiovascular ultrasound (echocardiography) for evaluating developmental toxicity affecting heart development. The abstract describes the effects of two known cardiac teratogens, trichloroacetic acid and dimethadione, and their effects as determined by echocardiography. This abstract describes the use and development of a relatively new technology, cardiovascular ultrasound (echocardiography) for evaluating developmental toxicity affecting heart development.

  11. Kwashiorkor and Intellectual Development | Evans | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty Cape Coloured children who had been hospitalized for kwashiorkor in infancy were compared with their siblings on an intelligence test battery at the 10th ... groups found by previous investigators may be accounted for by the independent operation of non-nutritive variables in the social and emotional environment.

  12. Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Mori,1,2 Shizuka Aritomi,3 Kazumi Niinuma,3 Tarou Nakamura,3 Kenichi Matsuura,1 Junichi Yokoyama,1 Kazunori Utsunomiya1 1Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization, Utsunomiya National Hospital, Utsunomiya, Japan; 3Research Center, Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co, Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Cilnidipine (Cil, which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB, has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the renin–angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml, which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val, Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin–Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1–7 to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1–7 levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II

  13. Craniofacial form is altered by chronic adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD in Han/Wistar and Long–Evans rats with different aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina B. Sholts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian bone has shown a variety of responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD exposure in experimental and wildlife studies. Although many responses have been well characterized in the postcranial skeleton, dioxin-induced effects on the cranium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic adult exposure to TCDD on cranial size and shape in dioxin-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W and dioxin-sensitive Long–Evans (L–E rat strains. Three-dimensional landmark configurations for the face, vault, and base of the cranium were recorded and analyzed using geometric morphometrics (GM and dose–response modeling. The strongest effects were shown by L–E and H/W rats with daily exposures of 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw/day, respectively, resulting in significant reductions in centroid size (CS in all three cranial modules for both strains except for the vault in H/W rats. Consistent with previous evidence of intraspecific variation in TCDD resistance, the benchmark doses (CEDs for cranial size reduction in L–E rats were roughly 10-fold lower than those for H/W rats. For both strains, the face showed the greatest size reduction from the highest doses of TCDD (i.e., 3.6 and 6.3% decreases in H/W and L–E rats, respectively, most likely related to dose-dependent reductions in limb bone size and body weight gain. However, intrinsic morphological differences between strains were also observed: although the control groups of H/W and L–E rats had vaults and bases of comparable size, the face was 6.4% larger in L–E rats. Thus, although H/W rats possess an altered aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR that appears to mediate and provides some resistance to TCDD exposure, their smaller reductions in facial size may also relate to strain-specific patterns of cranial development and growth. Future research will be aimed at understanding how ontogenetic factors may modulate toxic effects of prenatal and lactational exposure on

  14. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  15. Wind power; Die Kraft der Winde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-10-30

    Wind power plants are probably only one pillar of the bridge that is taking us into an energy future still unimaginable to us. They are extremely cost-intensive and bulky and they spoil our landscapes. Their patronage by political leaders is understandable considering our excessive dependence on oil and gas. True energy autonomy is currently still a utopian dream for a country as poor in resources as Germany. On the other hand, to reach Utopia you have to build bridges there. Seen this way all currently available types of renewable energy represent bridge technologies whose realisation is imperative.

  16. A new species of Dermopristis Kearn, Whittington & Evans-Gowing, 2010 (Monogenea: Microbothriidae), with observations on associations between the gut diverticula and reproductive system and on the presence of denticles in the nasal fossae of the host Glaucostegus typus (Bennett) (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ian D; Kearn, Graham C

    2011-09-01

    Dermopristis cairae n. sp. (Monogenea: Microbothriidae) is described from the skin and possibly from the nasal fossae of the giant shovel-nosed ray Glaucostegus typus (Bennett). The new species is distinguished from D. paradoxus Kearn, Whittington & Evans-Gowing, 2010 by its larger size, body shape, lack of transverse ridges on the ventral surface and absence of a seminal receptacle. Extensive short gut branches lie dorsal to the testes and adjacent to the coiled region of the vas deferens and the oötype, possibly reflecting high metabolic demand in these areas. Denticles are present in the lining of the nasal fossae of G. typus, providing a firm substrate for the cement-based attachment of a microbothriid. However, confirmation that D. cairae inhabits the nasal fossae of G. typus is required.

  17. Características físicas dos minérios de caulim das minas floresta, Cavalheiro, Turvo e Kowalski, em Campo Alegre (SC, e de Trigolândia (PR Physical characteristics of kaolin ores from Floresta, Cavalheiro, Turvo and Kowalski Mines (SC and from Trigolândia Mine (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Biondiv

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A OXFORD fez, em seus minérios, 244 determinações de resistência a flexão, 1601 determinações da retração do minério a 110 ºC, 1508 determinações da retração após queima a 1220 ºC, 877 determinações de perda ao fogo, 1544 de absorção de água, 2288 determinações da dilatação linear a após secagem a 110 ºC e 1128 da dilatação linear após queima a 1220 ºC. Os valores médios, máximos, mínimos e as distribuições dos resultados dessas análises estão mostrados em tabelas e gráficos. Essas determinações e as observações de campo mostram que os depósitos estudados são de dois tipos, denominados Modelo Trigolândia, derivado de pegmatitos, e Modelo Floresta, derivado de rochas vulcânicas ácidas. Com exceção do minério da Mina do Turvo, as médias dos valores das propriedades físicas analisadas estão sempre dentro do intervalo de valores suportado pelo processo industrial da OXFORD. O minério verde, quase todo da Mina Turvo, e o minério marron são os que têm propriedades mais discordantes dos padrões desejados. Nas correlações entre os valores médios das propriedades físicas analisadas foi constatado que as correlações ruins são sempre devidas ao minério de Trigolândia. Considerando todos os valores analisados e não mais as suas médias, nota-se que, com exceção da correlação entre a % de retração após secagem a 110 ºC e a % de retração total, com r = 0,78, todos os outros coeficientes de correlação são muito baixos, menores que 0,60.OXFORD has made 244 determinations of modulus of rupture, 1601 determinations of dry contraction 110 ºC, 1508 determinations of fired contraction 1220 ºC, 877 determinations of ignition loss, 1544 determinations of apparent porosity, 2288 determinations of dry linear dilation (dried at 110 ºC and 1128 determinations of fired linear dilation (fired at 1220 ºC on their kaolin ores. The averages, maximum, minimum and the statistical distribution of these values are shown on tables and graphics. Those determinations and field observations allow to the conclusion that kaolin deposits are of two different types, named Trigolândia model, originated from pegmatites, and Floresta model, derived from acid volcanic rocks. With the exception of the ore from Turvo Mine, the average values of the analyzed physical properties are always into the intervals accepted by Oxford industrial processes, that runs to produce tableware. From Turvo Mine, the green and the brown ores have the more discordant characteristics. For the other ores, from Turvo and the other mines, the average values of their physical characteristics almost always equal the central values of intervals that characterize good ores. If correlations between average values of different physical properties of ores are made, only Trigolândia shows some bad correlations. Taking into account all the analyzed values, and no more the averages, all the correlations are bad. The exception is the correlation between dry retraction and fired retraction, with r = 0,78. All other correlation coefficients are lower than 0,60.

  18. Electric power in the competitive market - Investing capital for cleaner energy generation still a rewarding business? New perspectives for electrical energy efficiency improvement, the cogeneration technology, and renewable energy generation; Strom im Wettbewerb - Lohnen sich Investitionen in saubere Energien noch? Neue Perspektiven fuer effiziente Stromnutzung, Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Erneuerbare Energien. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwanhold, E. [comp.

    2000-07-01

    ;'Neue Perspektiven fuer dezentrale Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung''. Vom Forum C, ''Neue Perspektiven fuer erneuerbare Energien'', wurde ein Vortrag fuer die Datenbank bearbeitet. (orig./CB)

  19. Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation media used were 1.5 per cent water agar, 1.5 per cent water agar + nystatin, and 1.5 per cent water agar + benomyl. ... When the isolates were tested for pathogenicity, only D. natalensis induced the disease symptoms in the inoculated 18-month-old rough lemon seedlings which were incubated after ...

  20. Dualistlikud juhid : edukas toimetulek paradoksidega / Paul A. L Evans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evans, Paul A. L

    2001-01-01

    INSEAD'i juhtimisprofessor väidab, et juhtidele esitatud väljakutse seisneb vastandite vahel manööverdamises. Juhtimise 11 paradoksi. Artikkel tõlgitud raamatust "Management 21C: Someday we'll all manage this way", 2000

  1. Reversible uranyl fluoride nephrotoxicity in the Long Evans rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, G.L.; Morrow, P.E.; Panner, B.J.; Gelein, R.M.; Baggs, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Severity and duration of renal injury produced by low levels of uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) were examined in the rat. Rats received multiple ip injections of UO2F2 (cumulative dose: 0.66 or 1.32 mg U/kg body wt). Renal injury was characterized histologically by cellular and tubular necrosis of pars recta of proximal tubule (S2 and S3), with less severe cellular injury to thick ascending limb of loop of Henle and collecting tubule. Injury was evident when renal uranium levels were between 0.7 and 1.4 micrograms U/g wet kidney and was most severe when renal uranium burden was between 3.4 and 5.6 micrograms U/g. Repair of injury was rapid, with complete restoration within 35 days after exposure. Associated with injury were abnormalities in renal function, including impaired tubular reabsorption, proteinuria, and enzymuria, which appeared temporally related, to variable degrees, to progression of renal injury. Thus, reversible renal injury occurs in the rat at levels of uranium in kidney below the present Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard of 3 micrograms U/g kidney for renal injury in humans

  2. Optimizing the Internal Medicine Clinic at Evans Army Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonilla, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Although the Department of Defense (DoD) has established access to care standards for military health care organizations and their treatment facilities, many facilities may face challenges in meeting these standards. In fiscal year (FY...

  3. OrthoImagery Submission for Evans County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in...

  4. Meie igapäevane paanika / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Kahest Vanemuise teatri lavastusest Tartus - Saksa Kultuuri Instituudis etendunud Ingvar Ambjornseni-Axel Hellsteniuse "Elling" Ain Mäeotsa lavastuses ja Laura Cunninghami "Beautiful Bodies" Vanemuises, lavastaja Jüri Lumiste

  5. The Pentagon Reporters,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    input of editor Meg Greenfield. On the Op-Ed (opposite the editorial) page, syndicated columnists Joseph Kraft or Evans and Novak, carried regularly by...Journal, eighteen years as a columnist with the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA) syndicate , and who-having been retired under automatic company...newspapers may choose from a large menu of wire or news service materials or materials written for other newspapers and then syndicated . What follows

  6. SINK OR SWIM? DEBT REVIEW'S AMBIVALENT "LIFELINE" ---- A SECOND SEQUEL TO "… A TALE OF TWO JUDGMENTS" NEDBANK V ANDREWS (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011; FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V EVANS 2011 4 SA 597 (KZD AND FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V JANSE VAN RENSBURG 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Steyn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The interface between the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 and the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 has been the object of our courts' attention in a number of recent cases including Ex parte Ford and Two Similar Cases 2009 3 SA 376 (WCC, Investec Bank Ltd v Mutemeri 2010 1 SA 265 (GSJ, Naidoo v ABSA Bank Ltd 2010 4 SA 597 (SCA and, more recently, Nedbank v Andrews (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011, FirstRand Bank Ltd v Evans 2011 4 597 (KZD and FirstRand Bank Ltd v Janse van Rensburg 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP. The question raised in all of the three most recent cases was whether or not a debtor's application for debt review in terms of the National Credit Act constitutes an "act of insolvency" in terms of section 8 of the Insolvency Act, upon which a creditor may rely in an application for the compulsory sequestration of the debtor's estate. If it does, it would mean that by resorting to the debt relief measures provided by the National Credit Act a debtor commits the very act on which a creditor may base an application for a sequestration order which, if granted, will render the debtor's estate insolvent and bring about the liquidation of his assets. From the debtor's perspective, this is probably precisely the situation that he seeks to avert by applying for debt review. Further, sequestration would frustrate the stated purpose of the National Credit Act, which is that debtors should take responsibility for their debts by satisfying them in full. Concurrent creditors might also ultimately receive a dividend which falls far short of what is due to them. The question of whether a debtor's resorting to debt review may or should be the very act that triggers his estate's sequestration and its attendant consequences is an important issue, the treatment of which impacts significantly on the efficacy of the South African consumer debt relief system. This article analyses the most recent judgments and considers whether or not statutory regulation of the

  7. Comparison of critical circumferential through-wall-crack-lengths in welds between pieces of straight pipes to welds between straigth pipes and bends with and without internal pressure at force- and displacement-controlled bending load; Vergleich kritischer Umfangsdurchrisslaengen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken mit Schweissnaehten an Rohrbogen-Geradrohrverbindungen mit und ohne Innendruck bei kraft- und wegkontrollierter Biegebelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbuch, R [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Reutlingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    1998-11-01

    zahlreichen Forschungsprojekten entwickelt und verifiziert. In den letzten Jahren hat sich insbesondere die Unterscheidung der Beanspruchung in kraft- und wegkontrollierte Lasten als wesentliches Merkmal herausgestellt und entsprechende Beachtung in den neueren Berechnungsverfahren gefunden. Die bisher entwickelten Verfahren gehen von Schaedigungen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken aus. Damit wird die tatsaechliche Position der Naehte in Rohrleitungssystemen nur unvollstaendig beschrieben, da beim heutigen Stand der Technik Umfangsnaehte in Rohrleitungen nur selten zwischen Geraderohrstuecken auftreten. Die meisten Naehte verbinden Rohrstuecke mit Boegen bzw. Boegen mit verlaengerten Enden, Stutzen oder T-Stuecken. Eine nichtlineare Finite-Elemente-Parameterstudie von Innendruck- und ebener Biegebelastung, die einen grossen Teil der relevanten Rohrleitungen des Primaer- und Sekundaerleitungssystems abdeckt, vergleicht die Beanspruchung von Umfangsdurchrissen in Bogenanschlussnaehten mit denen zwischen Geradrohrstuecken. Bei der fuer die Umfangsnaehte relevanten wegkontrollierten Biegebeanspruchung infolge behinderter Waermedehnung des Systems treten an den Bogen-Rohr-Naehten bei den heute ueblichen Innendruckniveaus kleinere bzw. vergleichbare Beanspruchungen und damit groessere oder nahezu gleich grosse kritische Durchrisslaengen wie in Rohr-Rohr-Verbindungen auf. Bei kraftkontrollierten Lasten sehen die Regelwerke staerkere Einschraenkungen der Beanspruchungen vor. Im Bereich zulaessiger Lasten sind die kritischen Durchrisslaengen in Bogenanschlussnaehten aehnlich gross wie die in Verbindungen von Geradrohren. Es ist in den interessierenden Faellen konservativ bis realistisch die fuer Geradrohrstuecke gefundenen kritischen Durchrisslaengen zu uebernehmen. (orig.)

  8. Earnings management environment : with the case of Troms Kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Nødset, Ingrid Foss

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I examine the topic of earnings management and use a case example. In the first part of the paper I review theory on two closely related topics - earnings management and fraud - and present and discuss incentives, methods, typical indications and frequency of earnings management in the financial statements. I continue to describe the frameworks and laws that apply to revenue recognition and how income is recognized in the power industry, as this is especially relevant for the ca...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FLRecent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  10. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  11. Kraft-Wärmekopplung und Blockheiz-Kraftwerke BHKW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Kraftwerken zur Stromerzeugung sind relativ gering. Beispielsweise erreichen moderne Kohlekraftwerke heute bis etwa 45 %, Gasturbinen maximal 40 % und Diesel-Motoren nicht über 50 %. Kombinations-Kraftwerke, Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Prozesse können an die 60 % thermischer Wirkungsgrad bei der Umwandlung der zugeführten Wärme in mechanische bzw. elektrische Energie erzielen. Ein ähnlich hoher Wert wird in Zukunft von den Brennstoffzellen erwartet. Der nicht in Arbeit umgewandelte Anteil der zugeführten Wärme fällt als Abwärme an und geht ungenutzt in die Umgebung. Ein Teil dieser Abwärme lässt sich durch entsprechende Installationen bei allen Kraftwerksprozessen zur Wassererwärmung oder zur Dampferzeugung für industrielle Zwecke nutzen. Für Heizzwecke genügt eine Temperatur der Abwärme von 60 %C bis 80 %C, während die Erzeugung von Industriedampf deutlich höhere Temperaturen voraussetzt.

  12. Sulfate reduction and carbon removal during kraft char burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J.; Sricharoenchaikul, V [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grace, T.M. [T.M. Grace Company, Appleton, WI (United States); Kymalainen, M. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    An improved mathematical model of char burning during black liquor combustion was described. Enhancements include a proper treatment of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Gasification of char carbon by reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} proved to be the most important means of carbon release under typical recovery furnace conditions. Sulfate reduction was shown to be responsible for only a minor part of the carbon release. Simulations showed that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning behavior is independent of oxygen concentration up to the point of carbon depletion. After carbon depletion, sulfide reoxidation occurs at a rate determined by oxygen mass transfer. Process variables that had the biggest effect on char burning behavior were initial black liquor drop diameter and temperature; also there was a direct link between char burnout times and the amount of sulfate reduction. At a given temperature, any variable that shortened the char burnout time resulted in proportionately less reduction. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Ich glaube nicht an übersinnliche Kraft hinter Naturgesetzen

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva is the leader in research sector of the elementary particles. And a sud-tyrolean has an essential interest in it. Südtirol Online speaks with this physicist about Universe, the smallest components in nature, and about the question: "What is behind?"

  14. Keskpanga ja rahaliitude roll stabiilses majanduses / Vahur Kraft

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraft, Vahur, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Keskpankade rollist ajaloos ja tänapäeval, Ladina ja Skandinaavia rahaliitudest, Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliidust, rahapoliitika koordineerimise vajaduses, Eesti Pangast valuutakomitee funktsioonidest, euroala rahapoliitikast, Euroopa Keskpankade Süsteemist ning Eesti Panga rollist tulevikus. Tabel: Maastrichti kriteeriumid

  15. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  16. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  17. Revising the NOx BACT Limit at Simpson Tacoma Kraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  19. Bambu como matéria-prima para papel: IV - Estudos sôbre o emprêgo de cinco espécies de Bambusa,na produção de celulose sulfato Bamboo as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry: IV - Study of Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis and B. dissimulator in the production of kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, os autores dão continuidade aos estudos com que se procura determinar as características papeleiras das principais espécies de bambu com bom desenvolvimento nas condições ecológicas do Estado de São Paulo. Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis e B. dissimulator foram estudadas levando-se em consideração as seguintes variáveis: dimensões dos colmos, densidade básica, análise micrométrica das fibras, rendimento em celulose sulfato (Kraft e características físico-mecânicas das pastas produzidas. As densidades básicas médias calculadas para as espécies em estudo não apresentaram muita variação, com valores extremos de 0,62 e 0,78. Relativamente ao comprimento médio das fibras, as espécies de bambu estudadas mostraram ocupar uma posição intermediária entre as resinosas e as principais espécies arbóreas folhosas utilizadas pela indústria de papel. Os rendimentos médios em celulose sulfato, considerando cinco repetições, foram de 43,75% para B. textilis, 42,53% para B. tuldoides, 41,74% para B. ventricosa, 36,57% para B. dissimulator e 35,82% para B. malingensis, com número de permanganato variando de 18,37 a 17,03. Análise estatística dos dados de resistência do papel demonstrou que B. dissimulator, com exceção do índice de rasgo, apresentou maiores valores que as demais espécies em estudo.Five bamboo species, very similar in the agronomic features, were studied in the production of kraft pulp. All of them have culms with about 9 m in height, 4-5 cm in diameter and weight of 4-5 kg, growing very well in the soil and climate conditions of São Paulo State. Determinations of the basic density of culms and dimension of fibres were made. Chips were obtained mechanically and the cookings were made by the sulfate process at 160°C for l hour, using 14% Na(20 and 25% sul-phidity. Bambusa textilis and B. tuldoides which yielded, respectively 43.75% and 42.53% of

  20. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails: mariana.portella@lactec.org.br, portella@laclec.org.br; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mandreoli@cteep.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  1. Antidiabetic Effects of Momordica charantia (Karela in Male long Evans Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Momordica charantia (Karela has been reported from many laboratories. To our knowledge the underlying biochemical mechanism of action of this important clinical effect has not been reported. During the course of investigation of this aspect of the herbal fruit, it was reported from our laboratory that ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia suppressed gluconeogenesis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats by depressing the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The herbal extract had also enhanced the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate limiting enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt (a pathway for the oxidation of glucose.

  2. Tissue time course and bioavailability of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin in the Long-Evans rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and human exposure to it can occur by oral, pulmonary and dermal routes. Pyrethroids are neurotoxic agents and it is generally believed that the parent pyrethroid is the toxic entity. This study evaluated the oral disposition and bioavaila...

  3. Vaginal thread formation in the healthy offspring of untreated Long-Evans rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal threads are characterized as cords of mesenchymal tissue that cross the vaginal opening. They are sometimes apparent in rats after weaning, and typically disappear within 1-2 days as the female reaches puberty. If persistent, they can increase uncertainty in assessing rep...

  4. Evans functions and bifurcations of nonlinear waves of some nonlinear reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linghai

    2017-10-01

    The main purposes of this paper are to accomplish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] - w, wt = ε (u - γw) and to establish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ], under different conditions on the model constants. To establish the bifurcation for the system, we will study the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 1; the existence and instability of two standing wave fronts if 2 (1 + αγ) θ = αβγ and 0 traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of an upside down standing pulse solution if 0 traveling wave back of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] -w0, where w0 = α (β - 2 θ) > 0 is a positive constant, if 0 motivation to study the existence, stability, instability and bifurcations of the nonlinear waves is to study the existence and stability/instability of infinitely many fast/slow multiple traveling pulse solutions of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations. The existence and stability of infinitely many fast multiple traveling pulse solutions are of great interests in mathematical neuroscience.

  5. Inpatient Behavioral Health Recapture A Busiess Case Analysis at Evans Army Community Hospital Fort Carson, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-20

    and Obstetrics /Gynecology. Inpatient care includes Obstetrics , Intensive Care, and Post Anesthesia Care/Same Day Surgery. EACH Mission: Delivering...charged with murder in Iraq shooting deaths, 2009). EACH Inpt Psych 13 Fort Carson has not been immune to the increase in suicides and violence among...to identify Soldiers with PTSD symptoms. In 2008, however, attention returned to Fort Carson as a number of local homicides and other violence tied

  6. A redetermination of the Barnes-Evans relation for surface flux in the V band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, J.A.; Poe, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Paying especial attention to the errors, we have redetermined the relation between visual flux at the star and color for stars with measured angular diameters. For stars cooler than the sun this is given both as a group of four polynomials in (V-R) for various parts of the range (V-R) >or approx.0.2, which start to recognize the fine structure in the flux-color relation, and as a straight line fitted to the data for 0,7 ≤ (V-R) ≤ 2.5. For stars hotter than the sun we give a table of surface flux vs. spectral type and (B-I) color. For stars later than the sun this flux-color relation is still defined almost entirely by giants. The conclusion that visual surface flux is a single function of (V-R) for all luminosity classes remains weak because of the small number of dwarfs and supergiants with angular diameters, likely systematic errors in the angular diameters of supergiants and the relatively large errors of individual angular diameters. The flux-color relation is combined with independent scales of bolometric corrections to give effective temperatures. We find that our results agree moderately well with those of Code et al. (1976), on which they are primarily based, for the hotter stars. However, they imply significant revisions of both the temperature and bolometric-correction scales for cool stars. 94 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  7. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult long evans rat offspring exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (Tc) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid...

  8. Ajaleheturul on 70% allahindlus igapäevane / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Selle asemel, et ametlikult reklaamihinda langetada pakuvad ajalehed reklaamiandjatele ülisuuri soodustusi. Kommenteerivad Enn Parel, Aavo Kokk, Andrus Vaher, Priit Leito, Erik Roose, Ruta Kallaspoolik, Toomas Tiivel, Lauri-Hillar Talve

  9. Perturbations to the Lower Ionosphere by Tropical Cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sushil; Amor, Samir Nait; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    of the reflecting boundary of the lower ionosphere which is located in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and their analysis is, therefore, a way to study processes in these remote regions. Here we present a study on amplitude perturbations of local origin on the VLF transmitter signals (NPM, NLK, NAA and JJI...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Evans County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  12. IMIDACLOPRID PRODUCES MINIMAL CHANGES IN THE EEG OF LONG-EVANS RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is differentially altered by deltamethrin or permethrin (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 114(S-1) :265, 2010) as well as fipronil (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 120(S-2) :290, 2011). In the current study, we examined the ability to de...

  13. Association between erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and reproduction capacity in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Brewer, G J

    1982-03-01

    During genetic selection of rats for high and low levels of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) the decreased fertility in Low-DPG animals was due to significantly (P less than 0.01) fewer offspring born per litter. The rat lines were intercrossed and animals at the tails of the F2 2,3-diphosphoglycerate distribution were mated. Subsequent matings of F3 offspring were monitored. Low-DPG F3 pregnant females killed at 20 days of gestation showed significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer corpora lutea than High-DPG F3 females. There were also significantly (P less than 0.01) fewer corpora lutea in Low-DPG line rats compared to High-DPG rats. It is concluded that the relationship between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fertility is not due to inbreeding but to a possible genetic linkage, a shared biochemical determinant or a relationship through the effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels on oxygen delivery to tissue.

  14. Age-related changes in the acoustic startle reflex in Fischer 344 and Long Evans rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Bureš, Zbyněk; Burianová, Jana; Popelář, Jiří; Poon, P. W. F.; Syka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2012), s. 966-973 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/11/J005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : aging * acoustic startle response * prepulse inhibition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.911, year: 2012

  15. Kaali saladus - pühapäevane maiuspala / Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pitsner, Inge

    2003-01-01

    ETV näitab populaarteaduslikku filmi Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsent Riho Västrik : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)

  16. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Más de un siglo, el cacao (Theobroma cacaoL. en el Ecuador ha sido fuente importante de ingresos para losagricultoresy de divisas para el país, llegando a ser uno de los exportadores más grandes a nivel mundial.Posteriormente, perdió paulatinamente ese estatus debido al ataque de enfermedades, entre ellas la moniliasiscausada por [Moniliophthoraroreri(Cif y ParEvanset al.]. Esta enfermedad puede causar daños hasta del80% en la producción. Actualmente no existe mucha información actualizada y científica, sobre su ocurrencia,sintomatología, etiología, epidemiología, ciclo de vida y manejo o estrategias de controlde la mencionadaenfermedad, por la tanto se realiza esta revisión con estos tópicos importantes, aportando con esto a esta áreadel conocimiento.

  17. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Chandra Source Catalog, Release 1.1 (Evans+ 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, I. N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, C. S.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This version of the catalog is release 1.1. It includes the information contained in release 1.0.1, plus point and compact source data extracted from HRC imaging observations, and catch-up ACIS observations released publicly prior to the end of 2009. (1 data file).

  19. A word from Lyn Evans:
    A sprint to the finish

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Most people consider that the starting point for the LHC was a meeting organised by the European Committee for Future Accelerators in Lausanne in March 1984, even though quite a few of us at CERN had already begun work on the design in 1981. Since that time this truly unique machine has moved from a dream to a reality. With its ‘two in one’ magnet structure cooled by superfluid helium for operation at 1.9 K, the LHC is like no other particle collider. In a very real sense, the LHC is its own prototype. Other colliders have either consisted of two rings to accelerate and store two beams of particles, as in the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) here at CERN, or they have stored particles and their antiparticles travelling in opposite directions with a single ring, as we did with the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In addition, the LHC is the first accelerator in which the superconducting magnets have been cooled as low as 1...

  20. PLA Philosophy, Policy, and Practice Implications: Revisiting the 2009 Hoffman, Travers, Evans, and Treadwell Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Nan L.

    2013-01-01

    The heart of prior learning assessment (PLA) is the quality and validity of the academic evaluation process itself. Institutions providing PLA opportunities are faced with issues of accountability from all constituents: students, faculty, state systems, and accrediting agencies. Increasingly, institutions are more and more accepting of different…

  1. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  2. Kraft kaebas maksuameti nõude andmeid esitada kohtusse / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna halduskohtu istungil 10. juunil 2004 vaidlustas Sangar AS-i juhatuse esimeest Gunnar Krafti esindanud advokaat maksu- ja tolliameti nõude, millega endist Eesti Investeerimispanga ja Optiva Panga nõukogu esimeest kohustati esitama andmeid oma vara ja pangakontode kohta seoses uurimise all olnud maksuvaba firma Vermar Finances tehingutega aastail 1997-1999

  3. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  4. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin in South African kraft mill black liquor - first stages: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the pulp and paper industry is in decline due to a number of factors such as high production costs, the growing utilization of electronic media that compete with print media and books, as well as pressure for the industry to be more...

  5. Break-through technologies. Power and/or heat generation; Genombrottstekniker. Kraft- vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report gives a compilation of technologies for the future in producing electric power and heat. The focus is on the areas Cogeneration, Fuel cells, Wind power, Solar cells, Artificial photosynthesis, and Hydrogen. Refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  7. Ozone bleaching of South African Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulps containing high levels of hexenuronic acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone use in conjunction with chlorine dioxide during pulp bleaching offers several advantages over conventional bleaching sequences that make use of chlorine dioxide only. Despite this, in South Africa, only one mill uses ozone. The current study...

  8. Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Toffolo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A process integration model that establishes material stream connections among typical Nordic forest industries is developed. • Potential benefit of the operating the different industries in one site is studied using pinch analysis. • Different scenarios considered to assess impact of prioritization on how to utilize excess biomass. • Results indicate large potential for improved biomass resource utilization. - Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  9. Consequent downsizing. Combined heat, cold and power generation; Konsequentes Downsizing. Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2010-11-15

    The combined heat, cold and power generation particularly is worthwhile if electricity, warmth and cold are used during the year. During the reconstruction of a furniture store in a financial centre of the Volksbank and Raiffeisenbank Schweinfurt country (Federal Republic of Germany) the planner succeeded in an optimal coordination of the highly thermal insulated building envelope, the cogeneration plant for the own power generation, the absorption refrigerator as well as a free cooling equipment by means of a thermal building simulation and variational calculus.

  10. Economics evaluation for on-site pyrolysis of kraft lignin to value-added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sherif; Chaouki, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a series of investigations on pyrolysis of lignin. After obtaining the necessary information regarding the quantity and quality of the obtained products, a first step economics evaluation for converting lignin into chemicals was essential. To accomplish this aim, a pyrolysis plant with a 50t/d capacity was designed, and the total capital investment and operating costs were estimated. Next, the minimal selling price of the obtained dry oil was calculated and the effect of crucial variables on the estimated price was examined. The key result indicates the estimated selling price would not compete with the price of the chemicals that are fossil fuel based, which is primarily due to the high cost of the feedstock. To overcome this challenge, different scenarios for reducing the selling price of the obtained oil, which consequently is helping by taking a place among the fossil fuel based chemicals, were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High consistency cellulase treatment of hardwood prehydrolysis kraft based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    For enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp, there is a need to improve the process to facilitate its commercialization. For this purpose, the high consistency cellulase treatment was conducted based on the hypothesis that a high cellulose concentration would favor the interactions of cellulase and cellulose, thus improves the cellulase efficiency while decreasing the water usage. The results showed that compared with a low consistency of 3%, the high consistency of 20% led to 24% increases of cellulase adsorption ratio. As a result, the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase at consistency of 20% were enhanced from 510 mL/g and 70.3% to 471 mL/g and 77.6%, respectively, compared with low consistency of 3% at 24h. The results on other properties such as alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and molecular weight distribution also supported the conclusion that a high consistency of cellulase treatment was more effective than a low pulp consistency process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Die Kraft einer phänomenologischen Haltung. Reflexionen aus der Praxis des Religionsunterrichtes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Hawel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Initially the terms ‚phenomenological‘ and ‚phenomenological attitude‘ respectively will be explicated. The phenomenological attitude is an attitude of mental and spiritual looking, which distinguishes between ‚feeling first‘ and ‚thinking later‘, it seeks to avoid, that, when problems in religious education class present themselves, by a rash assessment ‚That’s how it is‘ the personhood of the student and the personhood of the teacher are neglected. This attitude has several prerequisites, above all has to be the conscious decision for this attitude, which must be practiced and reflected a whole professional life. In the main part of the article six elements of a phenomenological attitude will be explained, the last of which relates to the ‚phenomenology of life‘ by Michel Henry, which points out, that the most essential part, namely life itself, is beyond visibility, which has drastic consequences for religious education – or any education for that matter. The ‚lifelong practicing‘ of this attitude also requires an extra occupational continuous development of the personality, which can also serve as burnout prophylaxis. DEUTSCH: Zunächst werden die Begriffe ‚phänomenologisch‘ bzw. ‚phänomenologische Haltung‘ expliziert. Die phänomenologische Haltung ist eine Haltung geistigen Schauens, die zwischen ‚Vor-Fühlen‘ und ‚Nach-Denken‘ unterscheidet, sie versucht zu vermeiden, dass man bei Problemen im Religionsunterricht durch die vorschnelle Feststellung ‚So ist es‘ das Person-Sein der SchülerInnen und das Person-Sein der Lehrenden außer Acht lässt. Diese Haltung hat mehrere Voraussetzungen, zuallererst bedarf es der bewussten Entscheidung für diese Haltung, die ein Berufsleben lang eingeübt bzw. reflektiert werden muss. Sechs Elemente einer phänomenologischen Haltung werden im Hauptteil des Artikels ausgeführt, das letzte Element bezieht sich auf die ‚Lebensphänomenologie‘ von Michel Henry, die aufweist, dass sich das Wesentliche, nämlich das Leben, der Sichtbarkeit entzieht, was für den Religionsunterricht - und für jeden andern Unterricht ebenso - einschneidende Konsequenzen hat. Das ‚lebenslange Einüben‘ dieser Haltung verlangt auch nach einer berufsbegleitenden kontinuierlichen Persönlichkeitsbildung, die unter anderem auch eine Burnout-Prophylaxe sein kann.

  15. Cogeneration and the regulatory framework of energy law; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der energiewirtschaftliche Ordnungsrahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornehl, Angelika Bettina

    2009-06-15

    The present publication shows that the existing regulatory framework poses numerous impediments to cogeneration plants. This holds especially for industrial operators, but also for municipalities. It has prevented cogeneration from developing its full potential both as an element of competition and as a relief for the environment. Unlike industrial cogeneration plants, those serving the public energy supply at least enjoy the privilege of regional monopoly rights. In today's liberalised electricity market, however, this can be a burden for existing municipal plants which were installed under territorial protection and in many cases have incurred high cost levels and become inflexible and lacking in entrepreneurial spirit as a result. On account of its tendency to promote optimal resource input and efficiency, competition promises positive impulses for the use of cogeneration in small-scale heat grids, where high fuel efficiency matters more. A reform of the competition regime in the power economy would eliminate numerous impediments, particularly for industrial cogeneration operators. Good hopes for the future of cogeneration in a liberalised electricity and gas market are also nurtured by cooperative supply concepts and, within the large domain of services, opportunities held out by special contracting offers.

  16. Madera de compresión en Pinus radiata III: propiedades de pulpas kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-vaz,J.E; Ananias,R. A; Valenzuela,L; Torres,M; Rodriguez,S

    2012-01-01

    Estudios anteriores en estos mismos árboles de Pinus radiata con fustes levemente inclinados, demostraron que la madera de compresión leve que ellos exhibían presentaba: traqueidas más cortas, mayor densidad, mayor proporción de lignina, mayor proporción de extraíbles en etanol tolueno y menor proporción de alfa celulosa que la madera opuesta y que la madera de árboles sin madera de compresión. En el presente estudio se analiza las propiedades pulpables de la madera de compresión y la de sus ...

  17. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potentials for heat accumulators in thermal power plants; Potenziale fuer Waermespeicher in Heiz(kraft)werken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengel, Andreas [STEAG New Energies GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    STEAG New Energies GmbH (Saarbruecken, Federal Republic of Germany) is contractor and operator of a variety of decentralized plants for heat production and power generation. The customers consist of communities, cooperation associations, business enterprises as well as industrial enterprises. Beside merely heat generators, so-called heat and power cogeneration plants often are used. The power generation is of minor importance due to the heat-controlled energy supply of the customers. Biomass power plants being operated in line with the Renewable Energy Law are an exemption. The demand for regulating energy increased clearly due to the enhanced volatile feeding of regenerative produced electric power. If the operation of heat and power cogeneration plants becomes more independent from the actual energy demand by using energy storages, then the energy transducer can be implemented in the lucrative market of regulation energy supply. Thus, the potential of such storages at the sites within a company shall be determined. Additionally, the development and testing of a latent heat accumulator for a thermal power plant of the company supplying process vapour with a temperature of 300 Celsius to a foil manufacturing facility is envisaged.

  19. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  20. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry § 63.446...; (3) Each evaporator system condensate from: (i) The vapors from each stage where weak liquor is introduced (feed stages); and (ii) Each evaporator vacuum system for each stage where weak liquor is...

  1. Carbon distribution in char residue from gasification of kraft black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon; Frederick, W.J.; Agrawal, Pradeep

    2003-01-01

    The char residue yields and the total carbon and carbonate content were measured for dry black liquor solids after pyrolysis or gasification in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. The experimental conditions were 700-1000 deg. C in N 2 ,CO 2 /N 2 or water vapor/N 2 at 1 bar total pressure, for residence times from 0.3 to 1.7 s. Fixed carbon yields, when measured at the same particle residence time, decreased with increasing reactor temperature. CO 2 and water vapor diminished the char carbon significantly at temperatures above 800 deg. C, compared with pyrolysis in N 2 . Water vapor oxidized the char carbon more rapidly than did CO 2 . At 1000 deg. C, the reactions of carbon with sulfate and carbonate became faster, resulting in a smaller difference between carbon conversion rates in the different gas environments. By the end of devolatilization, the amount of carbonate in the char had changed very little at 700-800 deg. C. After devolatilization, carbonate was formed more rapidly at higher temperatures. The presence of CO 2 or water vapor increased the formation of carbonate. In the presence of these gases, more carbonate was measured at all temperatures and residence times. The maximum carbonate measured in the char was 16% of the carbon in the black liquor solids, as compared to 4.4% in the original dry liquor solids. Under most conditions, the carbonate, as a fraction of carbon input, first increased to a constant, temperature-independent value and then decreased

  2. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing condition. The useful energy production as defined in the system for charge on nitrogen oxides is more intricate to define. Today Recovery boilers are not included in the system but it has been proposed from EPA to widen the system and also include them. For this system a definition is suggested where energy required for sulfur reduction as well as energy in produced high pressure steam are included. Heat reclaimed in flue gas scrubber, vent gas condenser or similar type of equipment should also be included.

  3. Equal treatment for new renewable heating and power; Likebehandling av ny fornybar varme og kraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    If a system of electric certificates is established in Norway, adjustments in the conditions of competition will need to be made for green heating production, assuring that green heating does not lose in the competition with green electricity (el). To ensure that the terms of competition are as equal as possible the most efficient policy instrument is to include heating in a common certificate system for el and heating. If it is not possible to establish a common system of certificates, the best policy instrument will be to ensure equal conditions of competition.

  4. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin obtained from South African Kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, Mpho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). SEC data revealed a narrow molecular weight distribution with a small polydispersity index in the lignin sample – all desirable features...

  5. Kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment using fixed bed anaerobic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damianovic, M. H. R. Z; Ruas, D.; Pires, E. C.; Foresti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The effluents of pulp mills contain a myriad of toxic compounds, biodegradable organic matter and sulfur compounds. to decrease the amount of fresh water required for pulp and paper production closed circuits are in use, however, higher concentrations of slat, as oxidized sulfur compounds, are encountered in the wastewaters. energy costs and new environmental concerns are motivating the use of anaerobic pretreatment as a way to decrease energy expenditure in the treatment plant together with lower sludge production. In anaerobic environment, the organic matter removal can follow methanogenic or sulfidogenic paths and with the latter simultaneous reduction of the oxidized sulfur compounds also occurs. (Author)

  6. Biofilms from micro/nanocellulose of NaBH4-modified kraft pulp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... 2Polymer Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, Duzce University, 81620 Duzce, .... performed in a plastic bag, which was placed in a water bath .... double air-bearing probe and a zirconium oxide rotor (4 mm).

  7. Chemical pulping of waste pineapple leaves fiber for kraft paper production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waham Ashaier Laftah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of acetone as a pulping agent for pineapple leaves. Mixtures of water and acetone with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% were used. The effects of soaking and delignification time on the paper properties were investigated. Thermal and physical properties of paper sheet were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and tearing resistance test respectively. The morphological properties were observed using microscope at 200× magnification. The paper sheet produced from pulping with 3% acetone concentration shows the highest mechanical properties. Papers strength was improved by increasing the delignification time. The delignification time was reduced by cooking the pineapple leaves at a temperature of 118 °C under applied pressure of 80 kPa which has remarkable effect on paper strength.

  8. Chemical pulping of waste pineapple leaves fiber for kraft paper production

    OpenAIRE

    Laftah, Waham Ashaier; Abdul Rahaman, Wan Aizan Wan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of acetone as a pulping agent for pineapple leaves. Mixtures of water and acetone with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% were used. The effects of soaking and delignification time on the paper properties were investigated. Thermal and physical properties of paper sheet were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tearing resistance test respectively. The morphological properties were observed using microscope...

  9. Enzymatic Transesterification of Kraft Lignin with Long Acyl Chains in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Hulin, Lise; Husson, Eric; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Stevanovic, Tatjana; Sarazin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of lignin is essential for the economic viability of the biorefinery concept. For example, the enhancement of lignin hydrophobicity by chemical esterification is known to improve its miscibility in apolar polyolefin matrices, thereby helping the production of bio-based composites. To this end and due to its many reactive hydroxyl groups, lignin is a challenging macromolecular substrate for biocatalyzed esterification in non-conventional media. The present work describes for the f...

  10. Spectroscopic determination of anthraquinone in kraft pulping liquors using a membrane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.S. Chai; X.T. Yang; Q.X. Hou; J.Y. Zhu; L.-G. Danielsson

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic technique for determining AQ in pulping liquor was developed to effectively separate AQ from dissolved lignin. This technique is based on a flow analysis system with a Nafion membrane interface. The AQ passed through the membrane is converted into its reduced form, AHQ, using sodium hydrosulfite. AHQ has distinguished absorption characteristics in the...

  11. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  12. Controlling Barium Sulphate Scale Deposition Problems in an unbleached Kraft Paper Mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Troubleshooting of scale deposits and defects in paper samples showed that the problem was caused by barium sulphate and calcium sulphate scales. However, it was ascertained that barium sulphate was more of a concern than calcium sulphate...

  13. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  14. Cyberbullying among children and adolescents – an overview on epidemiological studies and effective preventive programs

    OpenAIRE

    Capurso, Silva; Paradžik, Ljubica; Čale Mratović, Matija

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is defined as repeated aggressive behavior (Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Olweus, 1993, and as such has been recognized as a significant social issue. Furthermore, we know that the incidence of bullying behaviors increases with the students’ age (Cassidy, Jackson & Brown, 2009; Green-Forde, 2014; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). Cyber bullying, electronic/ online bullying, or online social cruelty is, according to Kowalski & Limber (2007), a relatively new kind of bullying through email, insta...

  15. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  16. Assisted reproductive technologies before de European Court of Human Rights: From Evans v. The United Kingdom to Parrillo v. Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Although most of the European legal systems regulate assisted reproductive technologies, diversity among member states regarding highly sensitive questions remains (e.g., conditions for access to certain treatments; use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in order to avoid a children’s genetic disease; resource to heterologous technologies with donated gametes; effects of international surrogacy arrangements; or the final destiny of cryopreserved embryos resulting from an “in vitro” fertiliz...

  17. Dorsal lateral geniculate substructure in the Long-Evans rat: A cholera toxin B-subunit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire B. Discenza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented rat is an increasingly important model in visual neuroscience research, yet the lamination of retinal projections in the dLGN has not been examined in sufficient detail. From previous studies it was known that most of the rat dLGN receives monocular input from the contralateral eye, with a small island receiving predominantly ipsilateral projections. Here we revisit the question using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, a tracer that efficiently fills retinal terminals after intra-ocular injection. We imaged retinal termini throughout the dLGN at 0.5 um resolution and traced areas of ipsilateral and contralateral terminals to obtain a high resolution 3D reconstruction of the projection pattern. Retinal termini in the dLGN are well segregated by eye of origin, as expected. We find, however, that the ipsilateral projections form multiple discrete projection zones in three dimensions, not the single island previously described. It remains to be determined whether these subdomains represent distinct functional sublaminae, as is the case in other mammals.

  18. Long-term effects of duodenojejunal bypass on diabetes in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kuon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: We have shown that DJB alone does not improve glucose tolerance in obese, diabetic OLETF rats. Therefore, it may be that DJB alone is insufficient for diabetic control in obese diabetic rats. The addition of a restrictive component such as sleeve gastrectomy, or a new drug may be necessary for achieving diabetes reversal.

  19. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  20. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCs. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kodavanti , P., J. Royland ,...

  2. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The democratic experience in divided societies : the Baltic states in comparative perspective / Geoffrey Evans, Christine S Lipsmeyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evans, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Artiklis võrreldakse vähemusrahvuste rahulolu demokratiseerimisprotsessiga ning osalemist demokraatlikes protsessides kolmes Balti riigis ning kümnes Ida-Euroopa riigis 1990. aastail. Tabelid. Lisa: The surveys

  4. Adolescent social instability stress increases aggression in a food competition task in adult male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Mark J; Thompson, Madison A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + new cage partners postnatal days 30-45; thereafter with original cage partner, also in the SS condition) and control (CTL) rats competed for access to a preferred food in five sessions against their cage partner. In the first session, SS pairs displayed more aggression (face whacks, p = .02; rear attacks, p = .03), were less likely to relinquish access to the food voluntarily (p = .03), spent more time at the feeder than CTL pairs (p = .06), but did not differ in latency to access the feeder (p = .41). Pairs were considered in dominant-submissive relationships (DSR) if one rat spent significantly more time at the feeder than the other; 8 of 12 SS and 8 of 12 CTL pairs displayed DSRs (remaining: no-DSR). Aggression increased from the 1st to 5th session (p food reward. These results add to evidence that SS in adolescence modifies the adult social repertoire of rats and highlight the importance of adolescent social experiences for adult behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Exercise Training and Social Environment on Stress Resilience in Male and Female Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Dalla et al., 2005; Marin, Cruz, & Planeta , 2007; Mineur, Belzung, & Crusio, 2006; Padilla et al., 2009; Pohl et al., 2007; Slawecki, 2005...48. 156 Marin, M.T., Cruz, F.C., & Planeta , C.S. (2007). Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone

  6. Green liquor impregnation and Kraft pulping of South African Pinus Patula – “A practical approach to provide cost savings in a Kraft mill’s pulping operation”

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available . Singh J., Ragauskas A.R., Lucia L.A., (2002). ?Green Liquor Chip Pre- treatment as a Feasible Method for the Enhancement of Softwood Pulp Chemical Properties. Journal of wood Chemistry and Technology. 2: 173-181. 5. Gordon Broderick...

  7. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  8. Kundutredning av deltagande företag i IndustriForums Lean krAft utbildning 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    This essay is an enquiry about how companies as participated in a Lean pro¬duction education use this education. The essay describes also how one works with the implementation of Lean production and how they believe that they will work. The enquiry tries to create an advisory material for other companies that are in the beginning of implementing their own Lean production systems. There these companies’ gets a picture of how other companies have done during their try to create a functioning Le...

  9. Efficient use of green taxes in the CHP sector; Effektiv brug af groenne afgifter i kraft- og varmesektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.; Mognesen, Martin Frank; Pade, L.L.

    2007-06-15

    Since 1977 green taxes have been used in the Danish power and heat sector. Green taxes principally assure an efficient, market-based reduction of pollution by reducing the energy consumption or increasing the share of renewable energy in power and heat production. This report takes its point of departure in four potential barriers which prevent a marketbased, cost-effective increase of the proportion of renewable energy in power and heat production. We primarily concentrate on three policy measures. 5. green and lessgreen taxes; 6. mandatory combined heat and power production; 7. fuel restrictions. Furthermore, we analyse a fourth characteristic in the law: 8. high transactions costs connected to the enlargement of renewable energy. The purpose of the report is to describe how the four potential barriers contradict the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector. We do this: 1) by clarifying how legislation in the power and heat sector affects the extension of renewable energy; and 2) by evaluating the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector in relation to legislation. (au)

  10. Furfural formation from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitang; Hu, Huiren; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to produce furfural from the PHL. Results showed best furfural yield of 32.8% and the furfural selectivity of 37.7% in the monophase system (170 °C, 100 min), while they were 60.1% and 69.8%, respectively in the biphase system. The lower furfural selectivity in the monophase system was explained by more side reactions, such as fragmentation, condensation reactions, resinification and others. Model compounds such as: xylose, furfural, syringaldehyde, were used to confirm/identify these side reactions. The addition of dilute sulfuric acid/acetic acid in the system under the same conditions decreased the recovery of furfural. The addition of syringaldehyde into the PHL also led to a decrease in the furfural yield, supporting the conclusion that lignin structures in the PHL may also be involved in the side reactions, thus decreasing the furfural yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Driving force behind all. The history of energy uses in the world. Die alles treibende Kraft. Weltgeschichte der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zischka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviews the history of energy uses in the world, arranging the material into three main sections corresponding to the three historical revolutions in the development of man's capacity to use the energy available in the world for his own purposes. These three mile posts are the mastering and utilization of fire, the Neolithic revolution, and the industrial revolution. The author tells the story excitingly and in a fascinating way explaining the very first steps and the long way mankind took, to achieve the technological systems we have now. Concentrating on the developments and interactions of significance to today's situation, the author presents data and information that brings life into history and fosters independent thinking. Right answers need the right questions, so the author tries to find out what has become indispensable for us, since when we have it, and who found it, and why, and what the consequences are for the present generation. The author mentions the persons, their biographies, and their achievements, showing that all knowledge and success was achieved by hard work.

  12. Testing of a Stirling engine for heat + power cogeneration; Test eines Stirlingmotors zur Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, M.; Heinen, J. [RWE Energy AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    As part of a technology evaluation of distributed energy generators, RWE Energy AG extensively tested a micro combined heat and power appliance, powered by a Stirling engine developed by the British firm Microgen Energy Limited. Microgen Energy Limited is a specialist in micro combined heat and power (microCHP) based on unique Free-Piston Stirling generator technology Microgen is working with leading appliance manufacturers to integrate its core technology into a range of innovative microCHP products. The investigations concentrated on the determination of capacity, efficiency and emissions, the grid connection and behaviour at start-up and under varying loads. This article summarises the results of the tests and gives an overview of micro-CHP technologies (CHP=combined heat and power) and their possible significance to the market in the future. (orig.)

  13. Kenneth Kraft, Budismo solidario. Un nuevo mapa del sendero, Editorial Maitri, Santiago de Chile, 2001, 106 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    El budismo actual presenta dos grandes ramas. La más antigua es la hinayana, el “pequeño vehículo”, representado actualmente por la escuela Theravada, arraigada fundamentalmente en Birmania, Laos, Tailandia, Camboya, Sri Lanka y Malasia. La otra, es el budismo mahayánico, el “gran vehículo”, surgido en el siglo segundo antes de nuestra era, y característico de China, Mongolia, Corea,  Tíbet y Japón, y de la cual el budismo zen es una de su principales expresiones. La escuela Theravada tiene c...

  14. Combined heat and power and thermally insulating measures in residential housing stock; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Daemmmassnahmen im Wohngebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, Michael [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the economic, ecologic and primary energetic potential of micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) in the residential housing stock under consideration of possible correlations between CHP and thermally insulating measures.

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The

  16. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including methods, locations, and times; (3) A description of what conditions (DO, temperature, etc.) are... conditions. The purpose of this procedure is to estimate the concentration of HAP within the open biological... locations of the unit. This procedure may be used only under unsafe sampling conditions to estimate fbio...

  17. East German power plants: New concepts for the power and energy supply; Ostdeutscher Kraftwerkspark: Neugestaltung der Kraft- und Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bald, A [Fossil Befeuerte Kraftwerke Inland, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Siemens AG (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    The enhancement of the energy economy plays the key role for the economic and ecological sanitation of the New Laender. Due to the bad condition sanitation mostly means new construction. The energy economy, the manufacturing industry and the public administration have successfully met this challenge. The programme has been launched, nearly all key projects have been given to contractors, the majority has already been realised and the first plants have already been connected to the network. Due to the performance that has been achieved so far, the following statement can already be made today. At the end of the decade the New Laender will have the most modern power and thermal energy supply in the world. Hence the industrial site eastern Germany gains an attractiveness that does not have to fear the international competition. Apart from strong impetus for economic growth and employment the environmentally friendly energy supply will lead to a considerable improvement of the life quality of approx. 16 million people. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der oekonomischen und oekologischen Gesundung der neuen Bundeslaender faellt der Sanierung der Energiewirtschaft eine Schluesselrolle zu. Wegen der schlechten Substanz kann Sanierung zumeist nur Neubau heissen. Dieser Herausforderung haben sich Energiewirtschaft, Herstellerindustrie und oeffentliche Verwaltung erfolgreich gestellt. Das Ausbauprogramm ist auf den Weg gebracht, fast alle Schluesselprojekte sind vergeben, die meisten mittlerweile in der Realisierung, und die ersten Anlagen sind sogar schon am Netz. Angesichts des bisher Geleisteten laesst sich bereits heute feststellen: Ende des Jahrzehnts werden die neuen Bundeslaender ueber die modernste Strom- und Waermeversorgung der Welt verfuegen. Der Wirtschaftsstandort Ostdeutschland gewinnt damit eine Attraktivitaet, die international keinen Vergleich zu scheuen braucht. Neben kraeftigen Wachstums- und Beschaeftigungsimpulsen wird der umweltfreundliche Neuaufbau der Energieversorgung eine spuerbare Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet fuer die hier lebenden rund 16 Mio Mitbuerger bringen. (orig.)

  18. Qualidade da madeira de eucalipto e Acacia mangium consorciadas para produção de polpa kraft branqueada

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Lucas Recla

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com esse estudo a avaliação da qualidade da madeira de Acacia mangium cultivada no Brasil em consórcio com o híbrido Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de celulose branqueada e papel. Para tanto, avaliou-se efeitos de diferentes proporções de plantio misto, sendo totalizados quatro tratamentos caracterizados pela relação árvores de Acácia e árvores de Eucalipto plantadas no talhão. A qualidade da madeira foi analisada por meio da análise da composição quími...

  19. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -ability. Savings in chlorine dioxide for PHK pulps ranged between 2-18% for sequences that used chlorine dioxide as the primary oxidative bleaching chemical. When ozone was used in combination with chlorine dioxide, mixed results were obtained – PHK pulps showed...

  20. Process design and economics of a flexible ethanol-butanol plant annexed to a eucalyptus kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guilherme C Q; Braz, Danilo S; Hamaguchi, Marcelo; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Mariano, Adriano P

    2018-02-01

    This work proposes a strategy, from a process design standpoint, for pulp companies to enter the Brazilian ethanol market. The flexible plant converts eucalyptus-derived glucose to either ethanol or butanol (according to market conditions) and xylose only to butanol production. Depending on the biomass pretreatment technology, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the Net Present Value (NPV) of the flexible plant increases by 20-28% in relation to an ethanol-dedicated plant. Whereas the lower costs of the steam explosion technology turns the investment more attractive (NPV = 184 MMUSD; IRR = 29%), the organosolv technology provides better flexibility to the plant. This work also shows that excessive power consumption is a hurdle in the development of flash fermentation technology chosen for the flexible plant. These results indicate that conventional batch fermentation is preferable if the enzymatic hydrolysis step operates with solids loading up to 20 wt%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The optimal scheduling of decentralised co-generation plants in microgrids; Optimale Einsatzplanung von Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen in Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunkel, David [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hess, Tobias; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik

    2011-07-01

    The daily operational scheduling of decentralised unit is an important optimization task of power systems. This proceeding deals with planning of small scaled co-generation power units for district heating in a microgrid. This power system can be mathematically formulated and solved by an optimization algorithm. The solution process consists of a unit commitment and dispatch. The starting unit commitment is characterised by a mixed integer nonlinear problem defining the on-off-state of all units. Subsequently, the dispatch distributes the generation requirements to every committed unit considering thermal demand. The dispatching is based on a mixed integer linear problem. Additionally, it presents a way for flexible reducing the outage reserve related to the operational condition. The given microgrid operates in an islanding mode. The method can also be applied in a grid connected model considering the possible requirements of a grid operator. (orig.)

  2. Two-stage absorber systems - Economically viable combined heat and cold generation; Wirtschaftlicher Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biniossek, H. [Giesecke und Devrient, Muenchen (Germany); Schmid, W. [Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the possibilities of optimising power, heat and cold generation for the German Giesecke and Devrient company were examined and implemented. The company, which produces banknotes and chip-cards, chose the combination of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Unit and a two-stage absorber refrigeration system. The company's old system is briefly described and the reasons for replacing it are discussed. The careful dimensioning of the new system and the search for appropriate equipment are described. Intelligent power flows and a cooling system with two different temperature levels are described. Costs saved and emergency power generation are also looked at, as are the complex demands placed on the control of the system. The system's functioning is briefly described.

  3. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic retention times.

  4. Maailma maksunduse trendid / Sulev Nõmmann, Olavi Kärsna, Paul Tammert, Lemmi Oro ... [jt.] ; eess.: Vahur Kraft

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maksukoormuse trendid, füüsilise isiku tulu- ja sotsiaalmaksu trendid, äriühingu kasumi maksustamine, omandi- ja isikumaksu trendid, tarbimismaksud, keskkonnaga seotud maksud, kontroll maksurahade kasutamise üle

  5. Temperature and Copper Concentration Effects on the Formation of Graphene-Encapsulated Copper Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Leng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature and copper catalyst concentration on the formation of graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (GECNs were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that higher amounts of copper atoms facilitated the growth of more graphene islands and formed smaller size GECNs. A copper catalyst facilitated the decomposition of lignin at the lowest temperature studied (600 °C. Increasing the temperature up to 1000 °C retarded the degradation process, while assisting the reconfiguration of the defective sites of the graphene layers, thus producing higher-quality GECNs.

  6. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  7. Trigeneration in waste to energy plants for expanding the efficiency; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen zur erweiterten Energieeffizienzsteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reil, Eberhard [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    An impressive metamorphosis changed Waste to Energy plants from originally environmental risky plants to high sophisticated end of pipe technology sites to finally high efficient Energy production plants. Such described plants are situated in urban places to aware the connections into efficient power grids and district heating networks to provide the base load the whole year round. Nowadays the request for cooling is steady rising and again Waste to energy plants, connected to a district cooling network, takes over an important role for the supply. Such concepts are only marketable, if the required criteria's for efficiency are fulfilled. Such criteria's within Europe are the greenhouse gas emission factor and the primary energy factor. Both proof the efficiency of a system according to sustainability and environmental acceptance. Such criteria's are the result of the EU target to enhance the renewable within the energy supply while a more efficient use of site energy should take place. The Vienna Model was chosen as best practice sample. The district heating network is connected to all Waste to energy plants as well to the gas fired CHP plants in Vienna. The peak demand for the supply is realized by gas fired hot water boilers. In 2006 Fernwaerme Wien started to set up a district cooling network. The base load for the cooling derives from absorption chillers driven by heat from the waste to energy plants. According the EN standard 15316 part 4 and 5, method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies, the primary energy factor and CO2 factor has been defined for the Vienna model and as a consequence of that also for the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau. The average primary energy factor of the Vienna model calculated for the years 2006 to 2008 is 0,21 for the renewable part. According to the result the savings on primary energy have been 42 % and equates to 6,9 TWh/a. The reduc tion of the greenhouse gas emissions has been even higher. 52 % within the period 2006 to 2008 which is equal to 1,9 Mio t of greenhouse gas equivalents. The focus only on the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau, start up in 2006, shows an impressive results as well. The primary energy factor is theoretically below zero (-0,11) and the greenhouse gas emission factor reaches -15 t/GWh due to the renewable contingent in the waste of roughly 50 %. Out of plausibility the results are set to zero. (orig.)

  8. Logic Programming in LISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the

  9. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Oppong; A.B. Marful; E.S. Asare

    2017-01-01

    Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the...

  10. La reproducción asistida ante el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos: de Evans c. Reino Unido a Parrillo c. Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pese a que la mayoría de ordenamientos europeos regulan las técnicas de reproducción asistida, ello no reduce la diversidad existente entre los estados miembros por lo que respecta a cuestiones especialmente sensibles, tales como las condiciones de acceso estas técnicas; el uso del diagnóstico genético preimplantacional para evitar que un hijo sea portador de una determinada enfermedad genética; el recurso a técnicas heterólogas o con gametos donados; los efectos que deben otorgarse a los acu...

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14 C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P  0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  13. EXPOSURE TO DIETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP) DELAYS PUBERTY AND REDUCES ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT TISSUE WEIGHTS IN LONG EVANS HOODED AND SPRAGUE DAWLEY MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEHP is a plasticizer that alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by reducing fetal Leydig cell testosterone synthesis and insl3 mRNA levels. When exposure includes the pubertal stage of life, DEHP and other phthalates delay puberty and reduce androgen-dependent tissue wei...

  14. Pubertal administration of DEHP delays puberty, suppresses testosterone production and inhibits reproductive tract development in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    While is clear that exposure to high dosage levels of some phthalates delays the onset of puberty in the male rat it has been hypothesized that low levels of DEHP accelerate puberty by enhancing testicular androgen synthesis. The current study was designed to determine if the do...

  15. SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC LORDOSIS BEHAVIOR IS MORE SENSITIVE TO DISRUPTION BY DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL THAN IS REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY IN THE LONG EVANS FEMALE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic estrogens are pervasive in the environment. Although the effects of these xenoestrogens are controversial in humans, some fish species are adversely affected in contaminated ecosystems. While studies investigating endocrine disruptors typically focus on reproducti...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR THE INHALATION OF 2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE (TMP) IN LONG EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMP (2,2,4-trimethylpentane,“isooctane”) is a colorless liquid used primarily in the alkylation of isobutene and butylene reactions to derive high-octane fuels. TMP is released in the environment through the manufacture, use, and disposal of products associated with the gasoline ...

  17. Development of an inhalation physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for 2,2, 4-trimethylpentane (TMP) in male Long-Evans rats using gas uptake experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (TMP) is a volatile colorless liquid used primarily to increase the octane rating of combustible fuels. TMP is released in the environment through the manufacture, use, and disposal of products associated with the gasoline and petroleum industry. Short-term...

  18. Effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin on behavioral alterations induced by MK-801 in a spatial memory task in Long-Evans rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 733-740 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : prazosin * MK-801 * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  19. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptors do not modify the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, corticoliberine, and neuropeptide Y producing hypothalamic magnocellular neurons ion the Long Evans and Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z; Zelena, D

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei are activated by body salt-fluid variations. Stimulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors by an agonist-xylazine (XYL) activates oxytocinergic but not vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In this study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), cort...

  20. Morris water maze learning in Long-Evans rats is differentially affected by blockade of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Řeháková, Lenka; Telenský, Petr; Valeš, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 422, č. 3 (2007), s. 169-174 ISSN 0304-3940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MZd NR9178; GA ČR GA309/07/0341; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/05/H012; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : memory * dopamine * cognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.085, year: 2007

  1. Cardiovascular Ultrasound of Neonatal Long Evans Rats Exposed Prenatally to Trichloroacetic Acid: Effects on Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction, and Cardiac Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes the use of a relatively new technology, cardiovascular ultrasound (echocardiography) for evaluating developmental toxicity affecting heart development. The abstract describes the effects of two known cardiac teratogens, trichloroacetic acid and dimethadio...

  2. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  3. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for heat generation by fuel cells of 60% of the heat demand of residential buildings in Germany can be expected in 2030. In the reference scenario, this value remains stable up to 2050, while in the ecological commitment scenario fuel cells are crowded out of the market by 2050 due to the intensified application of renewable energy technologies. With the market dynamics of fuel cells assumed here, they can cover approx. 10-11% of the heat demand of all residential buildings by 2030. In the reference scenario, this value increases to 25% by 2050. At the same time, the fuel cell stock can supply approx. 10% of total power demand in Germany in 2030, while in the reference scenario the proportion increases to approx. 18% by 2050, which means about 100 TWh per year. Fuel cell application will increase natural gas demand in Germany by 81 TWh by 2030 (reference scenario). The replacement of other fuels will thus reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by approx. 36 million tons. (orig.)

  4. ``Turbo-KWK `99``. Combined-cycle power stations with gas turbines. Technical meeting; Turbo-KWK `99. Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Gasturbinen. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This conference report comprises 18 contributions on the technological success of gas turbines in power generation, e.g.: Maximum power generation efficiency of combined cycle systems, flexibility of power generation, reduction of air pollution, hot gas production for drying processes and environment-friendly cold generation in the pharmaceutical and printing industries. The final contribution presents an outlook to the future.

  5. Development of an integrated system for a SOFC for combined heat and power generation; Entwicklung eines integrierten Systems fuer eine SOFC mit Kraft-Waerme-Stoffkopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichtenoth, J.; Meyer-Pittroff, R.

    2002-06-01

    The feasibility of CO2 removal from the exhaust of a 250 kW{sub e} SOFC module, with recirculation of the liquefied CO2 is discussed for the example of a German brewery (Bayerische Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan). An electric efficiency of 50% can be achieved provided that the liquefied CO2 is utilized to substitute CO2 liquefaction in another point of the process. The high-temperature waste heat of the 250 kW SOFC is fed into the brewer's copper via feedwater preheating. [German] In dieser Studie werden die Moeglichkeiten einer technischen Rueckgewinnung von CO{sub 2} aus dem Abgasstrom eines SOFC-Moduls mit 250 kW elektrischer Leistung und Rueckfuehrung des verfluessigten CO{sub 2} in den Wertschoepfungsprozess am Beispiel der Bayerischen Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan untersucht. Unter der Voraussetzung, dass dieses verfluessigte CO{sub 2} als Produkt Verwendung findet und die CO{sub 2}-Verfluessigung an anderer Stelle substituiert, kann der von der SOFC gelieferte Energiebeitrag zur CO{sub 2}-Verfluessigung dem Gesamtsystem gutgeschrieben werden, so dass der elektrische Wirkungsgrad bei 50% bleibt. Die Hochtemperaturabwaerme der 250 kW-SOFC wird ueber eine Speisewasservorwaermung in den Dampfkessel der Brauerei eingekoppelt.

  6. Using Apparent Density of Paper from Hardwood Kraft Pulps to Predict Sheet Properties, based on Unsupervised Classification and Multivariable Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofélia Anjos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paper properties determine the product application potential and depend on the raw material, pulping conditions, and pulp refining. The aim of this study was to construct mathematical models that predict quantitative relations between the paper density and various mechanical and optical properties of the paper. A dataset of properties of paper handsheets produced with pulps of Acacia dealbata, Acacia melanoxylon, and Eucalyptus globulus beaten at 500, 2500, and 4500 revolutions was used. Unsupervised classification techniques were combined to assess the need to perform separated prediction models for each species, and multivariable regression techniques were used to establish such prediction models. It was possible to develop models with a high goodness of fit using paper density as the independent variable (or predictor for all variables except tear index and zero-span tensile strength, both dry and wet.

  7. Uso de antraquinona na deslignificação Kraft como forma de minimizar o impacto ambiental causado pelos compostos de enxofre

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Sandra Mara

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A produção de polpa celulósica é de grande importância nas indústrias de celulose e papel e na economia brasileira, uma vez que o Brasil se destaca mundialmente por sua elevada produção e exportação de papel. Dentre as várias operações unitárias que constituem o processo de obtenção de celulose, a mais crítica é com certeza a que envolve as reações químicas no reator, pois é principalmente nessa etapa que se define a qualidade da polpa produzida, assim como pode tornar mais fácil as e...

  8. Combined use of solar heat and cogeneration - a perspective for district heating?; Kombinierter Einsatz von solarer Waerme und Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung - eine Perspektive fuer die Nahwaerme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entress, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung; Steinborn, F. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Systemanalyse

    1998-02-01

    With Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP), climate-endangering CO{sub 2}-emissions can be reduced singificantly. The heat produced can be delivered at prices comparable to those of conventionally produced heat. With solar district heating, yet higher CO{sub 2}-savings are possible but at higher cost. Promising is a combination of CHP and solar district heating: The heat storage of the solar system can be used to level out heat demand, leading to smooth CHP operation, while heat generated by CHP can be used to substitute for low irradiation during the winter period. However, calculations together with simulation and optimization indicate that combining CHP and solar district heating is not the optimal solution in all cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) kann zu einer deutlichen Reduzierung der klimagefaehrdenden CO{sub 2}-Emissionen beitragen. Dabei kann die ausgekoppelte Waerme etwa zum gleichen Preis wie konventionell erzeugte Waerme abgegeben werden. Hoehere CO{sub 2}-Einsparungen lassen sich hingegen mit solarer Nahwaerme erzielen, allerdings zu hoeheren Kosten. Eine Kombination dieser beiden Waermetechniken verspricht Vorteile: Einerseits kann der Waermespeicher des Solarsystems auch zum Ausgleich von Lastspitzen beim Betrieb des BHKW`s genutzt werden. Andererseits kann die waehrend der einstrahlungsarmen Wintermonate fehlende solare Waerme durch das BHKW erzeugt werden. Detaillierte Simulations- und Optimierungsrechnungen zeigen jedoch, dass eine Kombination dieser Waermetechniken nicht immer empfehlenswert ist. (orig.)

  9. How efficient work biomass cogeneration plants? A survey of plant operators; Wie effizient arbeiten Biomasseheiz(kraft)werke? Befragung von Anlagenbetreibern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiller, Martin; Jakuttis, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Binder, Samir [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Bayerischer Forschungsverbund Foreta, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The use of biomass has increased very much in recent years. Due to the intensive use, the price of biomass fuels such as wood chips has increased substantially. This development bothers mainly biomass cogeneration plants. Many operators suffered considerable financial losses or even had to file for bankruptcy. The topic of efficiency is one of the central and critical success factors for the long-term viability of biomass-fired plants. (orig.)

  10. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Fractionation of high Kappa number kraft pulps of the South African softwoods and sulfonating of coarse fibre enriched fraction for production of sack paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available properties except tear strength: Tensile index (54%), TEA index (104%), Burst index (65%) and sheet density (23%). A tear index decrease (30%) could be attrib- uted to a high proportion of short and fine fibres in the accept stream. The reject stream... gave pulp samples with inferior strength properties with exception of tear strength. This may be due to high proportion of coarse fibres which have limited fibre collapsibility. Poor fibre collapsibility leads to a limited fibre bond- ing ability...

  12. Promising energy converters for the next century. Fuel cells for cogeneration systems; Aussichtsreicher Energiewandler fuers naechste Jahrhundert. Brennstoffzelle fuer Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilscher, G

    1996-02-16

    First there is a report on experience with phosphoric acid fuel cell plants (PAFC), which the operators used in a 200 kW plant of Onsi (HEAG, Ruhrgas AG, Thyssengas AG) and a 79 kW plant of Kinetics Technology (Solar-Wasserstoff Bayern GmbH). After this, the present state of development of oxide ceramic high temperature fuel cells (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte diaphragm fuel cells (PEMFC) is briefly described. (MM) [Deutsch] Zuerst wird ueber Erfahrungen mit Phosphorsaeure-Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen (PAFC) berichtet, die die Betreiber einer 200 kW-Anlage von Onsi (HEAG, Ruhrgas AG, Thyssengas AG) und einer 79 kW-Anlage von Kinetics Technology (Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern GmbH) hatten. Danach wird kurz der derzeitige Stand der Entwicklung bei den oxidkeramischen Hochtemperaturbrennstoffzellen (SOFC) und Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen (PEMFC) wiedergegeben. (MM)

  13. Extraction of hemicellulose from South African eucalyptus grandis using weak white liquor activation technology and its impact on kraft pulping efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work summarises the findings of our research on the activation of woodchips using weak white liquor as an alternative mill self-generated alkaline solvent. The ultimate goal was to gain a better understanding on: the effectiveness of the weak...

  14. Combined heat and power generation. A guide for towns and communities, trade and industry; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Ein Leitfaden fuer Staedte und Gemeinden, Gewerbe und Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The brochure describes the cogeneration technology and explains its advantages. Fields of application and potential users are characterized. The technical and economic prospects are outlined, as well as the cost-profit ratios and the chances and problems of this technology. [German] Die vorliegende Broschuere will dem Leser einen Ueberblick ueber die Thematik der KWK geben und einen Beitrag zu ihrer Foerderung leisten. Die Broschuere will: - Ueber KWK informieren, - die Vorteile der KWK erlaeutern, - die Anwendungsfelder und die moeglichen Anwender charakterisieren, - die technisch-wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten fuer die Nutzung der kW aufzeigen, - die Kosten-Nutzen-Relationen und die wirtschaftlichen Chancen und Probleme der KWK verdeutlichen. (orig.)

  15. Ultrafiltration and valorisation of lignin in black liquor from South African Kraft mills: A focus on dead-end stirred cell filtration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, PT

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Kekana_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1098 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Kekana_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 2014... International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban International Convention Centre in Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 01 August 2014 Ultrafiltration and valorisation of lignin...

  16. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemie für den Maschinenbau. Bd. 2: Organische Chemie für Kraft- und Schmierstoffe, Polymerchemie für Polymerwerkstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Gerthsen, Tarsilla

    2008-01-01

    Dieses Buch beinhaltet zunächst eine kurze Einführung in die Organische Chemie. Organische Grundkenntnisse sind die Voraussetzung, um nicht nur Kraftstoffe und Schmierstoffe zu verstehen, sondern im Besonderen die Polymerchemie für Polymerwerkstoffe. Die Vorlesung "Polymerwerkstoffe" wird im Maschinenbaustudium in einem höheren Semester angeboten. Allgemeine chemische Grundkenntnisse für Chemie im Nebenfach findet man im Buch 1 "Chemie für Maschinenbau - Anorganische Chemie f...

  18. The current suggestions on amending the new Act on Combined Heat and Power Generation; Die aktuellen Vorschlaege zur Novellierung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamfried, D. [Lueneburg Univ. (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    In the contribution under consideration the author reports on current suggestions on amending the new Act on Combined Heat and Power Generation (KWKG). In particular, the design by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) is interesting. The vote on the direct financial voting according to KWKG with the indirect instrument of emission trade underlines the denotation of the emission trade. Nevertheless, the design of the BMWi cannot be considered as a conclusive concept of the financial support. The emission trade does not offer sufficient financial terms of reference with respect to the extension of the KWKG. It has no control effects. The current version of the BMWi does not go beyond the valid rights decisively. The application of the 10 MW threshold results into an enormous retrogressive step in the financial support of the modernization of stock plants. There exists some reasons according to a continuing legal procedure. The expansion of the utilization of the combined heat and power generation in the production of electricity in the Federal Republic of Germany has a great potential in the reduction of emission of CO{sub 2}.

  19. FAWA - Field-analysis of Heat-pump Installations - Proceedings; Tagungsband zur 11. Tagung des Forschungsprogramms Umgebungswaerme, Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung, Kaelte des Bundesamts fuer Energie (BFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognon, F.

    2004-07-01

    These proceedings of the 11th conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Research Programme on Ambient Heat, Combined Heat and Power and Refrigeration present 6 papers on heat-pump topics. These include two papers concerning the results obtained from the FAWA project - a unique study of over 230 heat pump installations in operation in the field that was started in 1996 to assess the success of Swiss heat-pump promotion activities. The activities of the Swiss Heat-pump Testing Centre are dealt with and the potential for cost reductions through the optimal choice of system - done according to the motto 'small and simple is beautiful' - is reviewed. A further contribution deals with the question of the heat-pump customer being the 'king'. The role of installers and fitters acting as the instances who choose which system is to be used is looked at in a further contribution. A list of useful addresses completes the proceedings.

  20. Deslignificación de pasta kraft de Pinus radiata con una levadura genéticamente modificada para producir lacasa

    OpenAIRE

    Arana-Cuenca, A.; Yagüe, Susana; Fermiñán, Encarnación

    2010-01-01

    Una posible aplicación biotecnológica de las lacasas fúngicas es el blanqueo de pasta de papel mediante la degradación de la lignina en la pasta cruda. Para ello es necesaria su producción a bajo coste y a concentraciones superiores a las secretadas por los hongos de forma natural. La expresión heteróloga en levaduras es una alternativa para su producción a mayor escala. En el presente trabajo se ha realizado la expresión heteróloga del gen cglcc1, responsable de la producción de lacasa en el...

  1. Integración del proceso Kraft de obtención de pasta de celulosa en el esquema de una biorrefinería

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Sampedro, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    El concepto de biorrefinería se basa en el uso eficiente de la biomasa lignocelulósica como materia prima en la producción integrada de combustibles, energía y productos químicos. Basándonos en este concepto, una fábrica de pastas celulósicas podría convertirse en una biorrefinería en la que, además de pasta, se obtendrían otros productos como etanol, bio-polímeros y otros compuestos químicos. Para conseguir dicho objetivo, se llevó a cabo un tratamiento de explosión por vapor previo al past...

  2. An approach to industrial application: influence of black liquor and pH on xylanase efficiency in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Latorre, Úrsula; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca; Bassa, Alexandre; Sacón, Vera Maria

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a more realistic appraisal of the potential efficiency of xylanases in the industrial bleaching, the influence of pH and the presence of black liquor (measured as COD) on the bleaching efficiency of two commercial xylanases was studied at high temperature. These pH’s, CODs, and temperatures are close to those used in the storage tower of the B fiber line in Jacareı´ unit of Fibria (Brazil). The pulp samples obtained after each bleaching stage were analyzed for kappa number, brigh...

  3. Vergleichende Kraft-Dehnungs- und Dauerlastversuche mit kieferorthopädischen Gummizügen und pseudoelastischen Ni-Ti-Federn

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Bei einer Behandlung mit festsitzenden Apparaturen stehen für Zahnverschiebungen in mesio-distaler Richtung und zur Okklusionseinstellung seit 1993 als Alternative zu Gummiringen aus Latex Zugfedern aus der Nickel-Titan-Legierung Sentalloy zur Verfügung. Die vorliegende Untersuchung zeigt die materialtechnischen Besonderheiten der beiden Werkstoffe auf und beschreibt die Vor- und Nachteile in der klinischen Anwendung der Gummizüge und der Federn. Es wurden Gummizüge aus Latex von Ormco Dental...

  4. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century; Groenn kraft og varme. Miljoeeffektive energiloesninger i det 21. aarhundre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    1999-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50 TWh of renewable energy, and export large amounts of ''clean '' fossil fuels such as hydrogen and electricity. We have only proposed measures up until 2010, partly because the world will have changed by that time, and because the best means of predicting the future is to be part of creating it.

  5. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited 100% germination and micelial growth when they were used at concentrations from 800 to 1000 µg/ml. Concentrations of 200 µg/ml also showed an effect on fungal isolates, being the EOs obtained from L. origanoides (EO2 and EO3 the most active. These were mainly composed of thymol, p-cymene, g-terpinene, timilo acetate, carvacrol, b-myrcene, trans- b-caryophyllene. Significant differences (P < 0.05 on susceptibility were observed between the two fungal strains studied, being generally more susceptible the isolated M2 that the ATCC strain. The EOs of L. origanoides are candidates for use as biofungicides possible to control the moniliasis. Future studies oriented to determinate the in vivo antifungal activity of these EOs and its major components are required.

  6. Determination of the potential for utilising combined heat and power and of the target reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, inclusive of cost analysis (increased use of combined heat and power); Ermittlung der Potenziale fuer die Anwendung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der erzielbaren Minderung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen einschliesslich Bewertung der Kosten (Verstaerkte Nutzung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Harthan, Ralph [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Menzler, Gerald [VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides a statistical overview of CHP utilisation up to now in Germany, analyses the general economic and political conditions with a view to evaluating the competitiveness of CHP, discusses the effectiveness of the German CHP Act with respect to its contribution to meeting emissions-related goals, analyses the cost-effectiveness of investments in different types of new CHP installations, addresses mid- and longer term potential as well as impediments to the utilisation of CHP installations, presents model simulations of how CHP is expected to develop in the context of economic conditions subject to various general political conditions and makes recommendations with an eye to additional requirements and opportunities to support CHP, against the background of the findings of the analysis. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring of the cogeneration agreement from 19th December 2003 for the partition combined heat and power. Reporting period 2010 (Fourth and last report); Monitoring der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungs-Vereinbarung vom 19. Dezember 2003 fuer den Teilbereich Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Berichtszeitraum 2010 (Vierter und letzter Bericht)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, Sabine; Harthan, Ralph O.

    2012-06-04

    Beside the obligation to implement the agreed measures, also the attendance of the 'Agreement between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German economy on the climate precaution, on the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emissions and on the promotion of the cogeneration in supplement to the climate agreement from 9th November, 2000' by a continuous was initiated. The Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (Essen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland) was commissioned with the monitoring of the cogeneration agreement. The monitoring report under consideration is based on the monitoring reports and the relevant official statistics as well as data for the power generation from renewable energy sources.

  8. 75 FR 35792 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... production process units include operations such as pulping, bleaching, chemical recovery and papermaking. Different pulping processes are used, including chemical processes (kraft, soda, sulfite and semi-chemical... chemical pulp mills (kraft, sulfite, semi-chemical and soda wood pulping processes). For existing kraft and...

  9. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et ál.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de frutos enfermos y se cultivó en laboratorio, las plantas fueron recolectadas y sometidas a cuatro formas de extracción: hidrolato por destilación, presurizado, fermentación aeróbica y anaeróbica. Dichos extractos se incorporaron al medio de cultivo al 50% (V/V, se sembró el hongo y se incubó durante 12 días, cuantificando el crecimiento diario y la formación de conidias; a los extractos que inhibieron totalmente al hongo se les determinó la concentración mínima.

  10. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  11. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uttl, Libor; Petrásek, Tomáš; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovská, Markéta; Lobellová, Veronika; Valeš, Karel; Radostová, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubová, Hana; Mikulecká, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Feb 12 (2018), č. článku 42. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA ČR NV17-30833A Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) PAN-17-07 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal model * dizocilpine * rats * chronic treatment * western blot * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  12. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  13. Philippe Lebrun, Head of the AT Department, Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader, and Lucio Rossi, Head of the AT-MAS Group, in front of the last batch of steel for the LHC at Cockerill Sambre.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Casting the last batch of steel sheets for the LHC superconducting magnet yokes. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, if placed side by side, would stretch over 20 km !

  14. Volvo ja Ikea endine tegevjuht Göran Carstedt : Tänapäevane (personali)juhtimine peab sisaldama eeskätt looduslähedast mõtteviisi / Göran Carstedt ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carstedt, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Juhtimiskonsultant ning Organisatsioonilise Õppimise Ühingu eestvedaja ja arendaja Göran Carsedt vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte tegevust personali tööle pühendumise parendamiseks, ettevõtte jätkusuutlikku juhtimist ja tootlikkust, majanduslanguse mõju ettevõtete personalipoliitikale, talendijuhtimist, väikeste ettevõttete ellujäämist majanduslanguse ajal, IKEA kui hea tööandja mainet ning jätkusuutlikku personaliarendajat. Lisa: Jätkusuutlik juhtimine Rootsi moodi

  15. BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND DEPRESSION OF THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE (PHAD) OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS (FEPS) IN LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE OR REPEATED EXPOSURES TO A MIXTURE OF CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaryl and propoxur are N-methyl carbamate pesticides (NMCs) which are part of the EPA’s cumulative risk assessments for NMCs. These NMCs inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) activity and may lead to cholinergic disruption of CNS function. We used decreases in the PhAD of FEPs to indic...

  16. Comparison of Long-Evans and Wistar rats in sensitivity to central cholinergic blockade with scopolamine in two spatial tasks: An active place avoidance and the Morris water maze

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entlerová, Marie; Lobellová, Veronika; Hatalová, Hana; Zemanová, Anna; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 120, AUG 15 (2013), s. 11-18 ISSN 0031-9384 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * behavior * memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2013

  17. Terri WEISSMAN, The Realisms of Berenice Abbott : Documentary Photography and Political Action/Sharon CORWIN, Jessica MAY et Terri WEISSMAN, American Modern : Documentary Photography by Abbott, Evans, and Bourke-White

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Didier

    2011-01-01

    La tradition documentaire américaine des années 1930 garderait-elle quelque vertu – malgré les assauts parfois dévastateurs menés il y a une génération de cela par la critique d’inspiration poststructuraliste ? Est-on encore fondé à postuler l’éventualité d’une contribution sociale et politique digne d’intérêt à propos d’une photographie de type journalistique ou documentaire sans se voir immédiatement opposer quelques conclusions définitives sur la nature prédatrice de l’outil photographique...

  18. Universal Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for C–C, C–O, C–N, N–O, N–N, and O–O Dissociation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shengguang; Temel, Burcin; Shen, Juan

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that for all the essential bond forming and bond breaking reactions on metal surfaces, the reactivity of the metal surface correlates linearly with the reaction energy in a single universal relation. Such correlations provide an easy way of establishing trends in reactivity among the ...

  19. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007)…

  20. Cyber Victimization in High School: Measurement, Overlap with Face-to-Face Victimization, and Associations with Social-Emotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina Flynn; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber victimization is a contemporary problem facing youth and adolescents (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). It is imperative for researchers and school personnel to understand the associations between cyber victimization and student social-emotional outcomes. This article explores (a) gender differences in…