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Sample records for kosong kelapa sawit

  1. Delignifikasi Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dilanjutkan dengan Hidrolisis Bertahap untuk Menghasilkan Glukosa

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    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses delignifikasi lignin dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit untuk masing-masing perlakuan dengan berat 500 g dengan larutan NaOH pada konsentrasi 2%; 4%; 6%; dan 8%. Proses delignifikasi berlangsung pada temperatur uap panas dari proses sterilisasi dengan autoclave selama 50 menit; 75 menit; 100 menit; dan 125 menit. Hasil delignifikasi tandan kosong kelapa sawit dicuci dengan air pH 6 – 6,5. Setelah dicuci ditiriskan di atas kawat kasa selama 60 men...

  2. Rekayasa Glukosa Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Melalui Proses Fermentasi Dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae Menjadi Bioetanol

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    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose engineering into bioethanol. Glucose comes from palm oil empty fruit bunches that had been pretreated by delignification and fermentation. Glucose solution result from hydrolysis for each treatment of 500 ml was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2, 4, 6 and 8 g, fermentation time (4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Result of fermentation was distilled at 75°C ± 5°C for 60 minutes. Bioethanol produced were tested including: specific gravity by using picnometer and acidity was tested by volumetric methods. The analysis showed that the best bioethanol produced in this experiment, followed by laboratory tests obtained from the interaction between treatments for time of hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger for 6 days, with 4 grams of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation for 6 days. Based on the test results of bioethanol obtained density 0.9873 g/cm3, percentage of bioethanol 9.2889% (v/v and acid number value 1.820 mg/L.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajarai kinerja Saccharomyces cerevisiae  merekayasa glukosa menjadi bioetanol. Glukosa berasal dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit yang telah dilakukan pretreatment dengan cara delignifikasi dan fermentasi. Larutan glukosa hasil hidrolisis untuk masing-masing perlakuan sebanyak 500 mL difermentasi dengan S. cerevisiae (2; 4; 6 dan 8 g, waktu fermentasi (4; 6; 8 dan 10 hari. Hasil fermentasi didestilasi pada suhu 75oC ± 5oC selama 60 menit. Bioetanol yang dihasilkan diuji yang meliputi : berat jenis dengan mengunakan piknometer dan keasaman diuji dengan metode volumetri. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bioetanol yang terbaik berdasarkan hasil percobaan yang dilanjutkan dengan uji laboratorium didapatkan dari interaksi antar perlakuan untuk waktu hidrolisis dengan Aspergilus niger selama 6 hari, fermentasi dengan 4 gram Saccharomyces cerevisiae selama 6 hari. Berdasarkan hasil uji bioetanol untuk berat jenis 0,9873 g/cm3

  3. Sintesis Asam Etoksi Lignosulfonat sebagai Surfaktan dari Limbah Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

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    A Ardinal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of ethoxy lignosulfonic acid as a surfactant from a waste of palm oil empty fruit bunch was aimed to isolate lignin, studying the ethylation of the lignin and sulfonation of the alkyl lignin to produce ethoxy lignosulfonic acid moreover to investigate its activity as the surfactant. At first, lignin was isolated from the waste of palm oil empty fruit bunch by sulfate method, then lignin was alkylated with diethylsulfate (DES, and the resulted ethoxy lignin was sulfonated using sodium bisulfite. Each product was characterized by FT-IR and the success of the sulfonation was proven by SEM-EDX. Surfactant test properties included: determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC with turbidimetry method, foam stability, emulsions index and emulsion stability. Lignin isolation gave lignin as light brown solid in 27.8% yield. Alkylation reaction of lignin with diethyl sulfate produced ethoxy lignin in 83.0% yield. Sulfonation of ethoxy lignin using sodium bisulfite afforded ethoxy lignosulfonic acid in 88.5% yield. It was known that there was a significant increase in oxygen percentage at the sulfonation process. Ethoxy lignosulfonic acid as the surfactant has CMC of 1.6 g/L, the surfactant concentration of 1.5 g/L gave stable foam for 100 minutes, the surfactant has an emulsion index of 35% in a gasoline-water system and 56% in the cooking oil-water system. The emulsion on both systems was stable for four days of measurement.ABSTRAKSintesis asam etoksi lignosulfonat sebagai surfaktan dari limbah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS dilakukan dengan tujuan mengisolasi lignin dari TKKS, mempelajari etilasi terhadap lignin dan sulfonasi terhadap etoksi lignin untuk menghasilkan asam etoksi lignosulfonat serta uji aktifitasnya sebagai surfaktan. Lignin diisolasi dari TKKS dengan metode sulfat, lalu dialkilasi dengan dietil sulfat (DES dan disulfonasi dengan natrium bisulfit. Tiap produk dikarakterisasi dengan FT-IR dan untuk mengetahui

  4. Pengembangan Mesin Pengurai Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS untuk Menghasilkan Serat Mekanis

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    Junaidi Junaidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to design shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber extractor machine, to conduct technical evaluation on the machine performance, and to conduct fiber chemical analysis. This prototype is expected to increase added value on EFB waste as it is not maximally utilized. The machine must be both technically and economically feasible to be applied in particle board industry to produce oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. Based on its design, the machine has ± 200 kg/hours capacity and 5 HP motor. The evaluation of machine performance on 600 RPM and 900 RPM rotations resulted on similar numbers of fiber and mixed fiber percentage. From 10 shredded EFB extracted, 7.6 kg (76% clean fiber, 2.05 kg (20% mixed fiber, and 1.35 kg ash were obtained. Three times extracting process on 600 RPM rotation resulted on fiber percentage based on its length as follows: 4.6% long fiber (>10 cm, 32.3% medium fiber (5-10 cm, and 61.4% short fiber (2-4 cm. Meanwhile, the percentages on 900 RPM rotation were 0% of long fiber, 22.37% of medium fiber, and short fiber of 77.3%. There were five types of composition of extracted fiber level; 1 clean fiber on 600 RPM, 2 clean fiber on 900 RPM, 3 mixed fiber (medium fiber 2-3 cm + petal, 4 mixed fiber (short fiber <2 cm + petal, 5 mixed fiber (soft fiber + pollens. The result of chemical analysis showed that those five types of fibers contained 9.3% water, 5.6% extractive, 1.4% fat, 33.1% lignin, 58.33% holocellulose, and 39.2% cellulose contents. Finally the analysis showed that it had a similar chemical composition compared to the fibers of softwood and Red Meranti wood.ABSTRAKPengembangan mesin pengurai serat tandan kosong kelapa sawit dilakukan untuk menghasilkan serat mekanis sebagai penguat papan partikel. Didalam penelitian ini dilakukan perancangan mesin, pembuatan mesin dan evaluasi teknis kinerja mesin. Evaluasi teknis dilakukan pada putaran 600 rpm dan 900 rpm dengan masing

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Cendawan Endofit Asal Tanaman Kelapa Sawit Terhadap Pertumbuhan Kelapa Sawit Pada Tanah Terinfeksi Ganoderma Spp.

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    Kurniawan, Rendi; pinem, Mukhtar iskandar; lisnawita, lisnawita

    2017-01-01

    Penggunaan mikroorganisme antagonis merupakan salah satu alternatif pencegahan penyakit busuk pangkal batang yang disebabkan oleh Ganodermaspp. pada perkebunan kelapa sawit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan cendawan endofit asal tanaman kelapa sawit yang berpotensi sebagai agens biokontroluntuk mengendalikan Ganodermapadapembibitan kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca Fakultas Pertanian USU pada Juni 2015 sampai Januari 2016 menggunakanRancanganAcakKelompoknon faktori...

  6. Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elais guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursery

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    Juanda, Chriso

    2017-01-01

    100301129 Chriso Juanda, ?Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursey? , dibawah bimbingan Charloq dan Revandy I.M. Damanik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon penambahan sabut kelapa pada media tanam dan frekuensi penyiraman terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit di main nursery. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari 2017 hingga Maret 2017 di PPKS Aek Pancur, Kecamat...

  7. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

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    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  8. Ekstraksi Kalium dari Abu Tandan Kosong Sawit Sebagai Katalis Pada Reaksi Transesterifikasi Minyak Sawit

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    Mohammad Imaduddin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of the transesterification reaction of palm oil with methanol by using ash of palm empty fruit bunches (EFB as base catalyst has been conducted. The studied variables were effect of weight ash of EFB (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 g and the molar ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1; and 12:1 of methanol to palm oil. Sample of ash was prepared through heating, screening, and reashing. A certain amount of ash was extracted in methanol with mixing for about 1 h at room temperature and the product was used as catlayst for transesterification process. The composition of the methyl esters (biodiesel was analyzed using GC-MS and 1H NMR, whereas characters of biodiesel were analyzed using ASTM methods. The results of AAS analysis showed that potassium carbonate content in ash of EFB was 25.92% w/w. The main components of biodiesel were mixture of methyl palmitate and methyl oleat as the major compounds. The increasing of EFB ash weight (catalyst concentration in reaction of transesterification enhanced the biodiesel conversion of 53.0; 76.9; 88.2; 90.5 and 97.8% (w/w respectively. The increasing of the molar ratio of methanol to palm oil, the biodiesel conversion enhanced too, that were 74.0; 90.5; 92.3 and 98.8% (w/w respectively. The properties of biodiesel were relatively conformed with specification of biodiesel (ASTM D 6751. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 25th September 2008, Accepted: 5th October 2008[How to Cite: M. Imaduddin, Y. Yoeswono, I. Tahir. (2008. Ekstraksi Kalium dari Abu Tandan Kosong Sawit Sebagai Katalis Pada Reaksi Transesterifikasi Minyak Sawit. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 14-20.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7119.14-20][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7119.14-20 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7119][Cited by: Scopus 1 | ] 

  9. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

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    - Sudradjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Pendidikan dan Penelitian Kelapa Sawit IPB-Cargill, Jonggol, Bogor dari bulan Maret 2013 sampai Maret 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Faktorial Tunggal,  dosis pupuk dolomit,  yang disusun dalam lingkungan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis pupuk dolomit yang diuji  terdiri atas 0, 200, 400, dan 600 g tanaman-1 tahun-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk dolomit meningkatkan secara nyata terhadap peubah tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah daun, dan kandungan khlorofil daun, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kandungan Mg dalam jaringan daun. Berdasarkan tanggap peubah tinggi tanaman, dosis optimum pupuk dolomit untuk tanaman kelapa sawit pada umur satu tahun adalah 306.4 g dolomit tanaman-1tahun -1. Kata kunci: dolomit, dosis optimum, kelapa sawit, respons fisiologi, respons morfologi.

  10. SIFAT HIPOKOLESTEREMIK MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT, MINYAK KEDELAI DAN TEMPE

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    Mien KMS Mahmud

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida darah merupakan salah satu indikator yang dapat digunakan untuk mendiagnosa kemungkinan adanya gangguan jantung atherosklerosis. Kadar lipida darah mempunyai korelasi yang tinggi dengan jenis lemak atau minyak yang dikonsumsi setiap hari, karena komposisi asam lemak pada setiap jenis minyak berbeda. Tempe telah lama digemari masyarakat Indonesia dan telah diketahui bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penelitian yang dilaporkan melalui makalah ini bertujuan mempelajari peluang kejadian penyakit atherosklerosis pada pada kelinci dengan pola konsumsi minyak makan asal kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak asal lemak babi atau minyak babi dicampur tempe. Kelinci percobaan dewasa yang sehat dikelompokkan berdasarkan kadar hemoglobin darah antara 8.2-13.6 g/dl menjadi lima kelompok percobaan. Satu kelompok sebagai kontrol diberi ronsum standar terdiri dari pelet, kangkung dan ubi merah secara adlibitum. Empat kelompok lainnya, disamping ransum standar juga diberi 2 ml minyak babi atau minyak kedelai atau minyak kelapa sawit atau minyak babi yang ditambahkan 5 gram tempe bubuk, sehari. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kadar kolesterol total,  LDL, HDL dan trigliserido darah. Dilakukan pula pemeriksaan histopatologi pada jaringan pembuluh darah jantung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak babi menyebabkan kenaikan kadar kolesterol total, LDL, HDL dan trigliserida didalam darah sebanyak masing-masing berturut-tuut 60%, 89%, 52% dan 42%. Minyak kelapa sawit menaikan kadar kolesterol total 15%, menurunkan kadar LDL 21%, menaikan kadar HDL 24% dan menurunkan kadar trigliserida 14%. Minyak kedelai menurunkan kolesterol total sebanyak 10%, LDL 30%, trigliserida 24% seraya menaikan kadar HDL sebanyak 3%. Penambahan tempe ke dalam minyak babi dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol total 10%, LDL 44%, trigliserida 28% dan memelihara kadar HDL lebih tinggi dari sebelum perlakuan. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi menunjukkan bahwa pemberian

  11. Efektivitas Penambahan Karbon Aktif Cangkang Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis dalam Proses Filtrasi Air Sumur

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    Muhammad Fadhillah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dampak dari pencemaran air dapat menyebabkan terjadinya ketidakseimbangan ekosistem dan dapat sebagai pembawa penyakit menular. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penjernihan terhadap air sebelum digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas air.  Salah satu  yang dapat digunakan untuk penjernihan air adalah arang aktif cangkang kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: Untuk mengetahui efektifitas penambahan arang aktif cangkang kelapa sawit  dalam proses  filtrasi terhadap karakter fisik (kekeruhan, Ph, bau dan rasa air sumur. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Filtrasi air sumur dilakukan dengan 4 perlakuan  dan 3 kali ulangan yaitu: 1. tanpa melewati saringan pasir (kontrol, 2. melewati saringan pasir tanpa arang aktif cangkang kelapa sawit, 3. melewati saringan pasir dengan penambahan arang aktif cangkang kelapa sawit  dengan ketebalan 10 cm, dan 4. ketebalan 15 cm. One way ANOVA digunakan dalam analisis data. Analisa kekeruhan adalah 100,0; 50,5; 40,4; dan 47,5 berturut-turut untuk kontrol, tanpa arang aktif, dengan arang aktif 10 cm dan dengan arang aktif 15 cm. Hasil uji menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna antara kekeruhan air kontrol dengan kekeruhan dari perlakuan lainnya. pH air < 7 menjadi 8,99. Analisa bau dan rasa didapatkan  air yang melewati proses filtrasi dengan penambahan arang aktif menghilangkan bau dan rasa pada air tersebut. Penambahan arang aktif cangkang kelapa sawit dengan ketebalan 10 cm cukup efektif dalam proses filtrasi air sumur dan dapat memperbaiki kualitas fisik air.

  12. Pemanfaatan Limbah Daun Kelapa Sawit sebagai Bahan Baku Pupuk Kompos

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    Ramayanty Bulan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Limbah padat pada perkebunan kelapa sawit telah diketahui potensial sebagai bahan baku pupuk organik padat melalui proses pengomposan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan teknik dan mengkarakterisasi proses pengomposan limbah daun kelapa sawit sebagai bahan dasar pupuk organik potensial. Proses pengomposan dilakukan dengan dua faktor perlakuan, meliputi komposisi bahan katalisator kompos (Bokashi, Vermikompos dan Natural dan ukuran cacahan daun sawit (2 cm, 4 cm 6 cm. Parameter yang diamati meliputi persentase penyusutan massa dan fluktuasi perubahan suhu selama proses pengomposan, serta pengukuran zat hara Nitrogen, Phospor, Kalium (NPK dan rasio C/N yang terkandung pada hasil pengomposan yang diukur setelah 10 dan 14 minggu proses pengomposan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode pengomposan dengan bokashi memberikan penyusutan massa terbesar jika dibandingkan dua metode lainnya pada semua ukuran cacahan yaitu sebesar 32%. Cacahan daun sawit yang berukuran kecil cenderung memberikan proses pengomposan yang lebih cepat dan memberikan produk kompos yang lebih baik. Hasil pengukuran setelah proses pengomposan menunjukkan bahwa interaksi dua faktor perlakuan yang diberikan hanya berpengaruh signifikan pada rasio C/N dan tidak signifikan pada zat hara NPK.   Utilization of Waste Palm Leaves as Raw Material Palm Compost Abstract. The use of oil palm plantation solid waste, particularly oil palm leaf as organic compost raw material are now receiving greater attention by researchers, but have not been fully utilized on large scale, either agriculturally or industrially. The aim of present study was to characterize composting process with oil palm leaf as raw material. The research of composting conducted with two combination of composting factor, namely: composting starter composition (i.e. Bokashi, vermi-compost and natural composting and piece of frond dimension (2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm. The percentage of mass reduction and temperature

  13. PENGARUH PERSENTASE PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack DAN KULIT DURIAN (Durio Zibethinus Murr TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN SEMEN

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    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian sifat fisika meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal dan sifat mekanika meliputi keteguhan lentur (MoE keteguhan patah (MoR serta  pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan. Rancangan Percobaan Yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu 100% pelepah kelapa sawit; 100% kulit durian dan  50% pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit durian dengan 3 kali ulangan. Standar yang digunakan untuk perbandingan  yaitu SNI–03– 2104-1991-A. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut : Sifat Fisika yaitu kerapatan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 0,90 gr/ cm3, 0,91 gr/ cm3, 0,81 gr/ cm3, Kadar air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7,37%, 6,59%, 7,08%, Penyerapan air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 49,51%, 44,99%, 50,11%, Pengembangan tebal rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 1,67%, 2,04%, 3,44%, Kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal tidak berpengaruh nyata. Sifat Mekanika yaitu Keteguhan lentur (MoE rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7.350,68 kg/cm2, 3.590,43 kg/cm2, Keteguhan patah (MoR rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 11,82kg/cm2, 8,66kg/cm2, 4,53 kg/cm2Pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 8,92 %, 10,01 %, 9,92 %, Keteguhan patah (MoR berpengaruh nyata sedangkan keteguhan

  14. PENGARUH JENIS PENGEMAS TERHADAP RETENSI KAROTEN, SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA GULA KELAPA YANG DIPERKAYA MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

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    Vicencius Prihananto

    2015-10-01

    hingga penyimpanan selama 2 bulan, kadar air produk pada semua perlakuan masih dalam kisaran standar SNI-013743-1995 (< 10 %, yaitu antara 8,55 % - 9,94 %. Kata kunci: Minyak sawit merah, retensi karoten, gula kelapa, penyimpanan, pengemas

  15. Sasaran Strategis Perusahaan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Teladan Prima Group

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    Sali Subakti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Teladan Prima Group (TPG as one of the palm oil plantations company have a strategic objectives in perspective of financial, customer, internal business processes, and learning and growth with the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The efforts to improve of high productivity of all resources that owned, are effectiveness managed with cost efficiency is the ultimate goal of company performance measurement. The problems occurred, management is confronted on the issues of the achievement of company performance targets that are not optimal and the strategic objectives of the company have not been cascaded down in a balanced way. The purpose of this research is to analyze of the strategic objectives and the implementation of BSC by using the technique of analysis of fourteen strategic objectives of the company in the four BSC perspectives with the integration of analytic network process (ANP. Results from the processing of primary data obtained through in-depth interviews and pairwise comparison of 7 respondents on the company executive level shows the results: financial perspective has the biggest weighting 42.21%, internal business process perspective 27.45%, customer perspective 16.29% growth and learning perspective 14.04% with consistency ratio (CR 2.14% which means the respondent opinion is acceptable and consistent.Keywords: strategic objectives, balanced scorecard, ANP, oil palmAbstrak: Teladan Prima Group (TPG sebagai salah satu perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit memiliki sasaran strategi dalam perspektif kinerja keuangan, pelanggan, proses bisnis internal dan pembelajaran dan pertumbuhan dengan penerapan Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Upaya peningkatan produktivitas sumberdaya yang dimiliki, dengan efektivitas pengelolaan dan efisiensi biaya merupakan tujuan akhir dari pengukuran kinerja perusahaan. Permasalahan yang terjadi, manajemen dihadapkan pada isu pencapaian target kinerja perusahaan yang belum optimum dan sasaran strategis

  16. PEMANFAATAN ZAT WARNA ALAM DARI LIMBAH PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT DAN KAKAO SEBAGAI BAHAN PEWARNA KAIN BATIK

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    Titiek Pujilestari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian pemanfaatan limbah perkebunan kelapa sawit dan kakao sebagai bahan pewarna pada batik bertujuan untuk menggali sumber daya alam limbah perkebunan yang belum dimanfaatkan dan mencoba bahan baku baru untuk pewarna batik. Limbah perkebunan cangkang kelapa sawit dan kulit buah kakao merupakan sisa hasil proses pengolahan yang tidak termasuk dalam produk utama yang dianggap berpotensi menjadi beban pencemaran lingkungan jika tidak dikelola dengan baik. Kegiatan ini dibatasi pada pengambilan zat warna dari cangkang kelapa sawit dan kulit buah kakao dengan memakai pelarut air dan pelarut organik. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh digunakan sebagai pewarna pembatikan pada kain katun dan sutera. Fiksasi dilakukan dengan tiga jenis fiksator yaitu tawas, kapur dan tunjung. Pewarnaan dilakukan pada kain katun dan sutera dengan sistem celupan dingin sebanyak enam kali. Pengujian dilakukan terhadap ketahanan luntur warna akibat pencucian dan gosokan, arah dan beda warna. Hasil pengujian ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dan gosokan rata-rata menunjukan hasil cukup sampai baik sekali (3-5. Nilai kelunturan warna terhadap pencucian pada kain katun dengan pewarna cangkang kelapa sawit lebih baik daripada kulit buah kakao. Arah warna cangkang kelapa sawit menunjukkan warna coklat muda sampai coklat tua, sedang kulit buah kakao memberikan arah warna abu-abu sampai coklat tua. Pembacaan uji beda warna diperoleh rata-rata warna berada pada daerah antara kuning ke merah. Kata Kunci: cangkang kelapa sawit, kulit buah kakao, warna alam, batik  ABSTRACTUtilization of plantation waste as batik dyes research aims to explore the plantation waste potential asraw materials for batik dyeing. Plantation waste of palmkernel shell and cocoa fruit peel are side products of the main process thatbecome environmental pollution if not managed properly. This activity is restricted to making dyes from palmkernel shells and cocoa fruit peel by using water

  17. Model Kurva dan Pendugaan Lama Waktu Pengeringan Tandan Kosong, Pelepah dan Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

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    Y Yuwana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomassa originated from palm oil plant is potential to be processed into various industrial products. In the production line this material needs to dry into certain level of moisture content, mostly about 10% (wet basis and commonly called as dry material. It is advantageous if the dryng time to produce a dry material can be predicted. Prediction is usually approached by setting up drying model of the material. The most common drying model in formulated in the form of moisture ratio in function of drying time in which the moisture content is calculated in dry basis. On the other, in practice, the moisture content of material is expressed in wet basis. The objectives of this research were to determine the drying curves and to predict the drying times of palm oil empty fruit bunches, stem and fiber dried from solar dying and oven drying. Three series of experiments were carried out according to the types of materials. The results of the experiments revealed as follows. The curves produced by the solar energy dryer operating at drying temperatures ranged from 42oC to 54,5oC for both empty fruit bunches and stem were quadratic whereas the curves produced by the oven having temperature of 105 oC for stem and fiber were linear and quadratic respectively. The form of curves obtained from the relationships between materials moisture contents determined in wet basis and drying times were similar to the curves of materials moisture ratios in function of drying times. The drying times of the solar energy drying for the empty fruit bunches were 20 hours dan 19.3 hours for Dura variety and Tenera variety respectively while those of stems were 16.3 hours and 17.9 hours respectively for Dura variety and Tenera variety. The drying times of the oven drying for the stems were 7.1 hours, 6.9 hours and 5.0 hours respectively for the lower, middle and upper parts of the stems. The drying times of oven drying for the fibers were 6.4 hours and  6.2 hours respectively for the outer and inner field stacks empty fruit bunches origins

  18. SIFAT FISIKA DAN KETEGUHAN PATAH PAPAN SEMEN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack

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    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan pemanfaatan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan semen partikel dan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen partikel pada berbagai perbandingan semen dan partikel dari dua merek semen (Tonasa dan Tiga Roda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan pola faktorial 2 x 3 sebanyak 5 kali ulangan, dimana faktor A adalah merek semen yaitu semen tonasa dan semen Tiga Roda kemudian faktor B adalah perbandingan antara partikel dan semen. Hasil pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika masing-masing menunjukan pengaruh yang sangat berbeda nyata, hal ini disebabkan karena semakin banyak penambahan jumlah perekat semen maka semakin baik pula sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen yang dibuat, sedangkan untuk faktor merek semen tidak menunjukan perbedaan yang nyata. Kata kunci : Pelapah kelapa sawit, sifat fisika dan mekanika, papan semen partikel

  19. SISTEM IMPLEMENTASI RENCANA AKSI KEBIJAKAN PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI HILIR KELAPA SAWIT DI INDONESIA

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    Syekh Farhan Robbani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the important industries in Indonesia, but the development only focuses on upstream industry. The government establishes downstream palm oil industry is once of the priorities development industry and will be mainstay industry in future by issues Regulation of Minister Industry No 13/2010 to support it. The aims of this study are to analyze the action plan’s implementation of downstream palm oil industry’s policy and the priority of action plan’s policy implementation based on Regulation of Minister Industry No. 13/2010. This study uses literature review, in-depth interview and questionnaire method to gather opinions from the experts and practitioners, and then analyzed using Analytical Network Process (ANP. The results of this study show that the implementing of action plan the policy of downstream palm oil industry should use priority in improving infrastructure and investment process. Especially availability public facilities such as highway, electricity generator, treatment water installation and support in pro-investment policy. The most important stakeholder is a role of central government be at the facilitators for developing downstream palm oil industry, especially on policy and support system The main recommendation of action plan implementation is improving support system on building public infrastructure process and investment like land clearance policy, investment tax policy, funding scheme and cooperation on development between state-owned corporation and private corporation.Keywords: Analytical Network Process (ANP, downstream palm oil, implementation policy  analysisABSTRAKIndustri kelapa sawit merupakan industri penting di Indonesia, namun pengembangannya masih berfokus kepada industri hulu. Pemerintah menetapkan industri hilir kelapa sawit sebagai salah satu industri prioritas yang akan dikembangkan dan menjadi industri andalan masa depan dengan menerbitkan Peraturan Menteri Perindustrian No 13

  20. KLASTER INDUSTRI SEBAGAI STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING AGROINDUSTRI BIOENERGI BERBASIS KELAPA SAWIT

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    Petir Papilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang dampak dari pelaksanaan program klaster industri terhadap peningkatan daya saing industri bioenergi berbasis kelapa sawit nasional. Melalui pendekatan analisis perbandingan yang merujuk pada berbagai kajian terdahulu, dapat diketahui bahwa penerapan strategi klaster industri memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap tiga klaster agroindustri kelapa sawit nasional yang berada di Provinsi Riau, Sumatra Utara dan Kalimantan Timur. Berdasarkan penilaian terhadap empat elemen daya saing, seperti aglomerasi perusahaan, nilai tambah dan rantai nilai, jejaring kerjasama serta infrastruktur ekonomi, menunjukkan bahwa telah  terjadi peningkatan nilai daya saing dari ketiga klaster industri sebesar masing-masingnya 0,503, 0294 dan 0,232.       Abstract This study aims to provide an overview of the implementation impact of industrial cluster program to increase the competitiveness of the national agro-industry bioenergy based on palm oil. Through a comparative analysis approach that refers to previous studies, it is known that the implementation of the industrial cluster strategy has a positive influence on the three national oil palm agro-industrial clusters that located in the Riau Province, North Sumatra and East Kalimantan. Based on the assessment of the four elements of competitiveness, such as agglomeration company, value-added and value chains, networks and infrastructure, indicate that there has been an increase in the competitiveness value of the three clusters agro-industries by each 0.503, 0294 and 0.232.

  1. PENGARUH DIET TINGGI MINYAK KELAPA DAN MINYAK SAWIT TERHADAP PROFIL LEMAK DARAH TIKUS

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    Susila Sastri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProfil lemak darah ikut ditentukan oleh jenis dan proporsi asam lemak dalam minyaksawit dan minyak kelapa yang dikonsumsi. Kandungan asam lemak tak jenuh (ALTJ danasam lemak jenuh (ALJ dalam minyak sawit hampir sama banyak, sedangkan minyakkelapa kaya akan asam lemak jenuh rantai sedang (ALJRS yang mudah dirubah menjadienergi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh diet tinggi minyak sawitdan minyak kelapa terhadap profil lemak darah tikus putih jantan galur Wistar. Penelitiandilakukan melalui pemberian diet tinggi minyak sawit (DMS dan diet tinggi minyak kelapa(DMK terhadap tikus jantan Wistar putih selama 8 minggu adlibitum. Profil lemak darah diukurdengan spektrofotometer. Data diolah secara non-parametrik dengan p<0,05. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan DMS dan DMK meningkatkan profil lemak darah bermakna dibandingkan kontrol.Kelompok DMK meningkatkan dengan bermakna kolesterol total (p=0,047, HDL-kolesterol(p=0,009 dan rasio HDL-kolesterol/kolesterol total (p=0,009. Kelompok DMS meningkatkantrigliserida (p=0,076 tetapi tidak bermakna, sedangkan fraksi non-HDL-kolesterol meningkatbermakna (p=0,009. Diet tinggi minyak kelapa pada tikus meningkatkan kadar kolesteroltotal dan HDL-kolesterol, sedangkan diet tinggi minyak sawit meningkatkan fraksi non-HDLkolesterol.AbstractBlood lipid profiles were determined by the types and proportion of fatty acids contained bycoconut and palm oil which is consumed. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA andsaturated fatty acids of palm oil is almost balanced, while coconut oil is rich with medium chainsaturated fatty acids (MCSFA, which is easily converted into energy. This study determinedthe effect of consumption of palm oil and coconut oil on blood lipid profiles of male white Wistarrats. This was an experimental study. High palm oil and coconut oil diet were given to male whiteWistar rats ad libitum for eight weeks. Blood lipid profiles were measured by spectrofotometer.The data

  2. INTERAKSI KEBIJAKAN RENEWABLE ENERGY DIRECTIVE DAN KEBIJAKAN INDONESIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL TERHADAP EKSPOR KELAPA SAWIT INDONESIA KE UNI EROPA

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    -, INTAN TIARA KARTIKA

    2016-01-01

    2016 INTAN TIARA KARTIKA, E13112274, Interaksi Kebijakan Renewable Energy Directive dan Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil Terhadap Ekspor Kelapa Sawit Indonesia ke Uni Eropa. Dibimbing oleh Prof. Dr. H. Mappa Nasrun, MA selaku pembimbing I dan H. Darwis MA, Ph.D selaku pembimbing II, departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Soisal dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Hassanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menjelaskan Interaksi Kebijakan Renewa...

  3. PENAMBAHAN MIKROBA, Aspergillus niger DALAM BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PAKAN UNTUK PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN

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    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh dosis Aspergillus niger dalam bungkil kelapa sawit sebagai bahan pakan pada pembesaran ikan kerapu macan. Ikan uji yang digunakan berukuran bobot rata-rata 23,15±0,23 g; ditebar dalam keramba jaring apung ukuran 1 m x 1 m x 2 m, dengan kepadatan 16 ekor/keramba. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah penambahan Aspergillus niger sebanyak 2, 4, 8, 16 g/kg bungkil kelapa sawit dan kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali dan disain adalah rancangan acak lengkap. Selama pemeliharaan, ikan diberi pakan uji dua kali sehari (pagi dan sore secara satiasi selama 20 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan 8 g Aspergillus niger/kg bungkil kelapa sawit memberikan pertambahan bobot dan laju spesifik lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (P0,05, namun nilainya nyata lebih tinggi (P0.05 among those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2, 4, 16 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake. Although the feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention of juveniles fed on the diet with 8 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake were not significantly different (P>0.05 from those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2 and 4 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake, those of juveniles the fed diet with 8 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of the juveniles fed the diet with 16 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake. The best of growth rate of tiger grouper juveniles occurred at the dosage of 7.8—8.2 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake.

  4. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS DAN PROSES PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI BLENDING MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT (PALM OIL DAN MINYAK KELAPA (COCONUT OIL DAN BANTUAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

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    Hantoro Satriadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keterbatasan solar sebagai sumber energi bahan bakunya tidak dapat diperbaharui menuntut adanya bahan baku alternatif yang dapat diperbaharui dan ramah lingkungan untuk pembuatan biodiesel. Reaksi utama produksi biodiesel adalah esterifikasi dan transestirifikasi yang berlangsung lambat dan membutuhkan banyak katalis dan alkohol. Reaksi yang terjadi belum sempurna dan belum memenuhi standar SNI dan ASTM. Untuk memperbaiki mutu biodiesel serta menghasilkan yield maksimal, maka dilakukan blending bahan baku antara minyak kelapa sawit dan minyak kelapa dan dengan bantuan gelombang ultrasonic. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh variabel perbandingan volume minyak kelapa sawit dan minyak kelapa, perbandingan volume methanolminyak, dan persentase berat katalis terhadap minyak terhadap hasil atau yield biodiesel. Alat utama yang digunakan adalah reaktor yang dilengkapi pembangkit gelombang ultrasonic dengan temperature 60 oC, tekanan 1 atm, volume 3 liter, dan frekuensi 28 kHz. Variabel proses pada penelitian ini adalah perbandingan volume minyak sawit dan kelapa 2:1, 3:1, dan 4:1, pebandingan volume metanol-minyak 0,2:1, 0,25:1, dan 0,3:1, dan persentase berat katalis KOH terhadap minyak 0,3%, 0,5%, dan 0,7%. Hasil penelitian didapat konversi tertinggi dicapai pada variabel perbandingan volume minyak sawit dan kelapa 3:1, perbandingan volume metanol/minyak 0,25:1, dan persentase berat katalis terhadap minyak dengan yield 97,26%.[A Improvement of Quality and Process for Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil and Coconut Oil Blends with Ultrasound Assisted] Limitations of solar energy as a source of raw material cannot be renewed demands for alternative raw materials that are renewable and environmentally friendly for the manufacture of biodiesel. The main production of biodiesel reaction is esterification and transestirifikasi which runs slow and requires a lot of alcohol and a catalyst. Reactions that happen yet perfect, and has not met

  5. Studi Pemanfaatan Limbah Padat dari Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit pada PLTU 6 MW di Bangka Belitung

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    Harris Harris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Limbah padat dari perkebunan kelapa sawit berupa cangkang dan fibre dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber energi alternatif pada PLTU. Cangkang memiliki kandungan energi sebesar 4115 kkal/kg dan fibre sebesar 3500 kkal/kg. Cangkang dan fibre dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bakar pada PLTU 6 MW, yang digunakan untuk memanaskan air didalam boiler sehingga menghasilkan temperatur uap dan tekanan uap yang mampu memutar turbin uap. Turbin uap berfungsi sebagai prime mover untuk memutar generator sehingga menghasilkan output berupa daya listrik. Pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar cangkang PLTU 6 MW menghasilkan ouput rata – rata sebesar 4.8 MW/hr dan dalam 1 MW output membutuhkan 1.02 ton cangkang dan pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar fibre PLTU 6 MW menghasilkan output rata – rata 2.3 MW/hr dan dalam 1 MW output membutuhkan 1.83 ton fibre. Karena lebih optimal dalam pengoperasian serta maksimalnya output yang dihasilkan dari bahan bakar cangkang, maka efisiensinya pun lebih baik. Efisiensi PLTU 6 MW pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar cangkang sebesar 20.5 % dan efisiensi PLTU 6 MW dari bahan bakar fibre 13 %. Oleh karena itu bahan bakar cangkang merupakan bahan bakar utama yang digunakan pada PLTU 6 MW.

  6. IMPLEMENTASI FUZZY TSUKAMOTO DALAM PENENTUAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK TANAMAN KARET DAN KELAPA SAWIT

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    Maya Yusida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability is the suitability of a plot of land for a particular use. In the determination of appropriate plant recommendations on land, the Banjarbaru Swampland Food Crops Research Institute sets out 8 criteria in its assessment. These criteria include Soil Depth (cm, CEC Soil (cmol, Saturation Bases (%, pH (H2O, C-Organic (%, N Total (%, P2O5 (mg / 100g, K2O (mg / 100g. Making this expert system using Fuzzy Tsukamoto method. The results obtained from this expert system in the form of data on land suitability for rubber and palm oil plantations that are prioritized to be planted in a field based on the growing requirements of a plant. Keywords: Expert System, Land Suitability, Fuzzy Tsukamoto Kesesuaian lahan adalah kecocokan sebidang lahan untuk penggunaan tertentu. Dalam penentuan rekomendasi tanaman yang sesuai terhadap lahan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Lahan Rawa Banjarbaru menetapkan 8 kriteria dalam penilaiannya. Kriteria tersebut meliputi Kedalaman Tanah (cm, KTK Tanah (cmol, Kejenuhan Basa (%, pH (H2O, C-Organik (%, N Total (%, P2O5 (mg/100g, K2O (mg/100g. Pembuatan sistem pakar ini menggunakan metode Fuzzy Tsukamoto. Hasil yang didapat dari sistem pakar ini berupa data tingkat kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman karet dan kelapa sawit yang lebih diprioritaskan untuk ditanam disuatu lahan berdasarkan syarat tumbuh suatu tanaman. Kata Kunci : Sistem Pakar, Kesesuaian Lahan, Fuzzy Tsukamoto

  7. EFIKASI ASAP CAIR DARI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT (TKKS DALAM PENEKANAN PERKEMBANGAN JAMUR ASPERGILLUS NIGER

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    Hasan Ashari Oramahi, Farah Diba, & Wahdina .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of liquid smoke from oilpalm empty fruit bunch in suppressing the development of fungus. Fungi that have been grown on maize seed were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp. From those species, A. niger is important species because of its toxigenic characteristic on agricultural product. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of oilpalm empty fruit bunch liquid smoke in suppressing the development of the fungus. This research was conducted in several steps i.e. pyrolisis of liquid smoke, analysis of liquid smoke content, and efficacy test of liquid smoke as antifungal. Agar media used was PDA (potato dextrose agar and concentration of liquid smoke was 0, 1, 2, and 3% (v/v. The results indicated that the liquid smoke inhibited the fungal growth. The highest result was on liquid smoke with temperature pyrolisis of 400 and 450oC and concentration 3% with average value of 100%. The contents of organic fraction of liquid smoke, such as acid and phenol might be responsible for the difference in antifungal activities among this liquid smoke.

  8. OPTIMASI WAKTU HIDROLISIS TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT MENJADI FURFURAL BERBANTUKAN GELOMBANG MIKRO

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    Marinda Rahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a regional center for the development of oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO industry, East Kalimantan has the potential to produce oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB in large enough quantities. EFB is the solid waste from the palm oil industry which uses palm fruit bunches (FFB as a raw material. EFB part is 23% of FFB. Whereas EFB has a high economic value if processed further. One of the method that is used to hydrolyze the content of pentosan in EFB into furfural. The purpose of this research is to develop one step hydrolysis technique of EFB into furfural with microwaves assistance to obtain the optimum time which can produce maximum furfural. In this research 10 grams of EFB was added with 250 mL of H2SO4 15% as the catalyst. The mixture was then hydrolyzed using microwave-assisted with a time variety of for 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and105 minutes. The results of analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC showed that the highest results of furfural was at 75 minutes with a concentration of 1.34 mg / mL.

  9. Pengaruh Frekuensi Pengadukan Pada Pembuatan Kompos Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Organik Aktif

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    Lubis, Jeni

    2015-01-01

    The composting of an Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated organic fertilizer (AOF) was an alternative in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill. This research was to study the composting technique for EFB and to collect the degration data during composting of EFB with turning frequency in order to get a high quality compost. The composting process was started with cutting the TKKS into 1-3 cm in size before it was put into "Takakura" ba...

  10. PENGARUH CAMPURAN ASAM SEMUT DENGAN ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT TERHADAP BAU DAN WAKTU KECEPATAN BEKU LATEKS KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg

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    Diana Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effect of formic acid mixture with palm oil shell smoke to rubber agglomeration in terms of odor and latex freezing rate, to know the optimum concentration of formic acid mixing with palm oil shell liquid, to optimize the use of liquid smoke of palm shell in order to minimize the use of formic acid and to compare the quick-frozen time of mixed coagulant ingredients using coconut shell liquid cocoa coagulant in latex clotting process. The research procedure is that the latex is inserted into some baking sheet and each of the pans is mixed with coagulant formic acid and palm oil shell liquid with the concentration of ants acid 2.5%, 5%, 7,5%, 10%, 12,5% 15%, 100% and liquid smoke concentration 70%, 755, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% 10 ml. The research parameters are the odor and level of latex freezing in rubber clotting process. The results show that mixing of formic acid coagulant material with liquid smoke of palm shell can accelerate the process of clotting latex (equivalent to acid ant, deodorizer that disturbs the society and time; and cost makes efficient and minimizes the use of formic acid. The optimum concentration of mixed coagulant material is 15% formic acid concentration + 70% palm oil shell liquid with average fast freeze time 5-6 minutes latex perliter or equivalent with coagulant material from formic acid. Keywords: formic acid; liquid smoke; palm shell; latex Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh campuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit terhadap penggumpalan karet dari segi bau dan kecepatan beku lateks, mengetahui konsentrasi optimum pencampuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit, mengoptimalkan penggunaan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit sehingga meminimalkan penggunaan asam semut dan membandingkan waktu cepat beku penggunaan bahan koagulan campuran dengan bahan koagulan asap cair tempurung kelapa dalam proses penggumpalan lateks. Prosedur

  11. Pemanfaatan Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak/Lemak BOD Dan COD Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

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    Sari, Riris Duma

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash to reduce the content of oil/grease, BOD and COD from oil mill effluent. Samples of palm oil mill effluent from wastewater treatment plant of PT Nusantara IV (Persero) oil processing unit sopsa of Padang Lawas district. Samples taken from the last pond will be discharged into the environment. Empty Fruit of Oil Palm Ash taken from the kitchen burning empty fruit bunches PT Nusantara IVB (Persero) units Sosa of Padang Law...

  12. KOEFISIEN KECERNAAN FRAKSI SERAT BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT YANG DIHIDROLISIS DENGAN ENZIM ASAL CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA SEBAGAI PAKAN BENIH IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus

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    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai kecernaan fraksi serat bungkil kelapa sawit yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba. Koefisien kecernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan dalam pakan uji. Bahan pakan yang digunakan adalah bungkil kelapa sawit (BKS yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim asal cairan rumen domba dengan volume 100 mL/kg BKS dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam (BKSe dan yang tidak dihidrolisis (BKS. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pakan acuan (pakan komersil, pakan uji A (30% BKSe dan B (30% BKS dengan 3 ulangan. Ikan yang digunakan 10 ekor benih ikan patin siam Pangasius hypophthalmus dengan bobot rata-rata 20 g/ekor yang dipelihara dalam fiber dengan volume air 80 liter. Pemberian pakan secara at satiation dengan frekuensi pemberian 3 kali per hari. Feses dikumpulkan selama 15 hari pemeliharaan untuk dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya. Hasil analisis kecernaan menunjukkan bahwa nilai kecernaan fraksi serat menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan di mana pakan A (30% BKSe mempunyai nilai kecernaan fraksi serat lebih tinggi dibandingkan pakan B (30% BKS.

  13. Konversi Lahan Komoditi Karet Menjadi Komoditi Kelapa Sawit (Studi Kasus di Desa Batu Tunggal...

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    Paruhuman Daulay

    2007-01-01

    Kesuksesan pembangunan pertanian ditentukan oleh keberhasilan perilaku petani dalam mengelola, merencanakan, melaksanakan usahatani yang ditekuninya. Harapan yang tertumpu pada sub sektor pertanian diarahkan untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah ekonomi petani, peningkatan pendapatan petani sekaligus peningkatan devisa negara. Export komoditi subsektor perkebunan menyumbang 85 % total export komoditi pertanian, dimana export dari sub sektor perkebunan didominasi oleh komoditi karet dan kelapa sawi...

  14. Pengembangan Potensi Energi Alternatif Dengan Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Sumber Energi Baru Terbarukan Di Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur

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    Yulian Mara Alkusma

    2016-10-01

      ABSTRACT Energy has an important role in the development process and ultimately to achieve the objectives of social, economic and environment for as well as an environmental support for national economic activity. Renewable energy source derived from wastewater biogas utilization of oil palm can produce electrical energy which is currently heavily dependent on diesel generators at a cost that mahal.Limbah liquid palm oil (Palm Oil Mill Effluent, or POME is the wastewater that is greasy and non-toxic, derived from the processing of palm oil, but the liquid waste could cause environmental disaster if not used and disposed of in open ponds because it will release large amounts of methane and other harmful gases into the air that cause greenhouse gas emissions. The high content of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of 50000-70000 mg / l in the liquid waste palm oil provides the potential to be converted into electricity by capturing the biogas (methane gas produced through a series of stages of the purification process. In East Kotawaringin there are 36 palm oil processing factory that total factory capacity is of 2,115 TBS / hour, producing 1,269 tons of liquid waste wastewater / h and is capable of producing 42,300 m3 of biogas. Keywords:  Renewable Energy, Plam Oil Mill Effluent, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biogass, Methane Cara sitasi: Alkusma, Y.M., Hermawan, dan Hadiyanto. (2016. Pengembangan Potensi Energi Alternatif dengan Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit sebagai Sumber Energi Baru Terbarukan di Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan,14(2,96-102, doi:10.14710/jil.14.2.96-102

  15. Pengaruh Perlakuan Alkali Terhadap Kekuatan Tarik Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Digunakan Pada Komposit Serat Tkks

    OpenAIRE

    Gultom, Firman; Supriadi, Harnowo; Savetlana, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Empty Palm bunches (TKKS) is one of the solid waste generated by industrial palm oil plantations which contain lots of fiber and is one of the natural fiber source that the availability of abundant in Indonesia, especially in the province of Lampung. TKKS fiber can be used as an alternative amplifier to composite materials. This research was conducted to determine the influence of the chemical composition of TKKS fiber and know the tensile strength from TKKS fiber by doing a tensile test. Alk...

  16. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI PEREKAT TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK BRIKET BIOARANG BERBAHAN BAKU TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN PROSES PIROLISIS

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    Yuli Ristianingsih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunches are solid waste from Crude Palm Oil (CPO industry. For 1 ton of fresh fruit bunches produced 23% of solid waste. This solid waste can be converted into alternative energy that called briquettes. Briquettes are solid fuel that can be used as an alternative fuel replacement for fossil fuels such as oil and gas. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the yield generated briquettes and the effect of stach adhesive concentration (5, 10 and 15% wt to briquettes characteristics (moisture content, volatile matter, ash content, fixed carbon, calorific value and the rate of combustion. In this reseacrh, two kilograms of palm oil empty fruit bunches was burned using pyrolisis reactor at different temperatur (350, 400, 450 and 5000C for 2.5 hour. Charcoal produced was mixed with an adhesive in accordance variations and molded into briquettes. Briquettes then analyzed the water content, ash content, carbon content, volatile matter content, heating value and rate of combustion. The maximum yield of briquettes which was obtained in this research is 51.53% at temperature 3500C and the lowest yield at temperature of 500 ° C by 26.03%. Briquettes results of this study have met the quality standards of fuel briquettes as seen from the heating value. Optimal adhesive composition between starch and charcoal TKKS is 5%: 95% that generates highest calorific value about 6748.15kal/ g.

  17. Produksi Biofuel dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit dengan Katalis Au/HZSM-5 dan Kompositnya

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    Tillotama Anindita Sari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkatnya kebutuhan dan konsumsi bahan bakar minyak menyebabkan cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis sehingga perlu adanya pengembangan bahan lain sebagai sumber bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat menggantikannya. Salah satu produk energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan dan dapat diperbaharui adalah biofuel. Perubahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel salah satunya adalah dengan proses perengkahan katalitik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut dimana dalam penelitian ini akan dipelajari kondisi operasi dan  unjuk kerja katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada reaksi perengkahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel. Penelitian ini diharapakan mampu menghasilkan teknologi pembuatan katalis baru dan teknologi proses baru dalam proses produksi biofuel pada proses perengkahan katalitik asam palmitat dari minyak sawit. Pada penelitian ini biofuel telah berhasil diperoleh pada proses perengkahan minyak sawit menggunakan katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada berbagai temperatur dan laju alir gas N2. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tiga tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis, karakterisasi katalis dan proses perengkahan katalitik. Au/HZSM-5 disintesa dengan metode Plank dan katalis komposit disentesa berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh Qjang Tang et all. Hasil yang telah berhasil disintesa dikarakterisasi dengan Energy Difraction X-Ray (EDX, X-Ray Difraction (XRD dan Brunaur Emmet Teller (BET. Dari hasil karakterisasi dapat disimpulkan bahwa katalis yang telah disintetis telah memenuhi syarat untuk digunakan sebagai katalis pada proses perengkahan. Proses perengkahan katalitik dilakukan dalam suatu mikroreaktor fixed bed dengan berat katalis yang digunakan sebanyak 2 gram dan proses perengkahan dimulai saat gas N2 dialirkan selama 60 menit. Proses perengkahan dilakukan pada variasi temperatur 350-550 °C dan laju alir gas N2 90-400 ml/min. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan metode gas kromatografi. Hasil yang

  18. PIROLISIS LIGNIN DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN SURFAKTAN DALAM PROSES ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY (EOR (Pyrolysis of Lignin From Waste of Palm Oil Industries for The Development of Surfactants for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR

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    Suryo Purwono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pirolisis dari lignin yang berasal dari limbah industri kelapa sawit dapat menghasilkan alkohol dan derivatif lainnyd yang dapat digunakan sehagai surfaktan. Prosedur penelitian proses pirolisis ini odalah sebagai berikut: I serabut atau tandan sisa pengolahon kelapa sawit yang sudah dikeringkan dimasukkan kedalam reaktor dengan berat tertentu dan dipanaskan sampai suhu yang diinginkan, 2 produk pirolisis yang keluar dari reoktor kemudian didinginkan sampoi mencapai suhu kamor, 3 hasil cair ditampung didalam gelas ukur dan hasil gasnya ditampung di suatu botol tertentu. Suhu paling baik yang dicapai adalah 4A0 "C untuk lignin yong berasal dari serabut dan 350'C untuk lignin yang berasal dari tandan kelapa sawit. Surfaktan yang dihasilkan sekitar j4 sampai 38% dari produk pirolisis. Pada penelitian ini kecepatan reaksi dianggap order satu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa surfakton yang dihasilkan dapat membentuk emulsi dengan minyak menta.h. Hal ini menunjukkon bahwa surfaktan yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk proses EOR.   ABSTRACT Pyrolysis of lignin from waste of palm oil industries produces alcohol and its derivatives which can be sulfonated to become surfactant. The experimental procedures for the pyrolysis process were as follows: 1 dried palm oil husks at a certain weight were put into the pyrolysis reactor and heated up to a certain temperafure; 2 the product leaving the reactor was cooled down to room temperature; and 3 the liquid product was collected in a flask while the gas product was put into a big bottle. The best temperature obtained for producing liquid product was 400 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit fibers and 350 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit stems. The surfactant developed was in the range between 34 and 38% from the pyrolysis product. In this experiment, the reaction rate was assumed to be in first order. The result showed that the surfactant obtained from the experiment could form emulsion

  19. Studi Sebaran Akar Tanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Lahan Gambut Di Perkebunan PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuraya, Zulkasta

    2011-01-01

    ZULKASTA SINURAYA, Study Of Extended Spread of Root System of Oil Palm at Peat Soil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) at Peat Soil in PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Plantation, Kabupaten Labuhan Batu (Advisor EDISON PURBA and ABDUL RAUF). Extended spread of root system of oil palm at peat soil has unknown clearly and no study previously. Amount of roots and extended spread of root system has estimated to influenced by the thickness of peat level, physical and chemical charasteristic of peat. There is estim...

  20. Pengaruh Curah Hujan Dan Hari Hujan Terhadap Produksi Kelapa Sawit Berumur 12,15,18 Tahun Di PTPN II Unit Sawit Seberang – Babalan Kecamatan Sawit Seberang Kabupaten Langkat

    OpenAIRE

    Depari, Cecilia Natalenta; Irsal, Irsal; Ginting, Jonis

    2015-01-01

    The climate factor is very influential to the growth and productivity of palm oil. Rainfall is animportant climatic element observed. Where the palm oil is a plant that requires large amounts ofwater than other crops. Purpose of this research was to determine the effect of rainfall and rain dayas well as the correlation of both on palm oil production in plants aged 12, 15 and 18 years. Thisresearch was held at PTPN II Unit Sawit Seberang–Babalan Sub-district Sawit Seberang DistrictLangkat Pro...

  1. Pengayaan Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Tkks) dengan Spent Earth terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine Max (L.)Merril) di Lahan Gambut

    OpenAIRE

    Adwa, Tengku Yulia Ispi; ', Nelvia

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the effect composting of oil palm empty fruit bunches enriched spent earth to the growth and yield of soybean. This research conducted on peat soil at Kualu Nenas village, Tambang sub-district, Kampar Regency starts from March to June 2013. The material used was soybean variety Grobogan, empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFBOP) compost and spent earth (spent earth is a byproduct of vegetable oil processing). Research carried out experimentally using complete randomi...

  2. Kaji Eksperimental dan Simulasi Ansys 14.5 Perlakuan Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Serta Pembuatan Komposit Busa Polimer pada Proses Hot Press Menggunakan Alat Uji Tarik

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Enda Prananta

    2016-01-01

    Along the innovations of the field of materials, natural fibers are used as reinforcement materials composite which are the fibers greatly affect and determine the strength of the composite. This experimental study reported the empty fruit bunches of oil palm fiber’s treatment process and manufacture of polymeric foam composite spesimens in the process of hot press machine followed by a tensile test. The issues, that characteristic of composites reinforced fibers has a light weight and relati...

  3. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Sp-36

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni; Fauzi, Fauzi; Purba, Marpaung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of empty palm oil bunch compost (EPOBC) andthe application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils,rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L.). This study used a randomized block design factorial,with 2 factors: factor 1: compost EPOBC treatment (B) which consist of: B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0g EPOBC/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g EPOBC/pot); B2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g EPOBC/pot);B3 = 30 ton ha-1 (120 g EPOB...

  4. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryiza sativa L.) Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit dan Pupuk SP-36

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to compost give effect empty palm bunch studies and fertilizer SP-36 to improve chemistry characteristic, growing and rice production (Oryza sativa L.) in acidic sulfate soil. This research was conducted in greenhouse agricultural departments, universities northern Sumatra, Medan. This study used a randomized block design (RAK) factorial, with 2 factors: factor 1: compost TKS treatment factor (B) are : B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g TKS/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g TKS/pot); B2 = 20...

  5. RANTAI NILAI PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT BERKELANJUTAN

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    Faisal Wahyu Indriantoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purposes of this study were (1 define problems and solutions of the palm oil production value chain, (2 identify the beneficial sustainable programs of the oil palm production, and (3  formulate sustainable programs in order to increase green quality and green productivity of the oil palm production. The sample was purposely selected by conducting interviews with estate managers, mill managers, and extension workers of PT Hindoli, chairs of the farmers group and chairs of the cooperative board. The collected data were analyzed using analytical hierarchy process. Research results indicated that PT Hindoli’s oil palm production value chain was started from seed suppliers or seed producers, fertilizer suppliers, agriculture tool and machine suppliers, company plantation (nucleus, plasma farmers, mills, exporters, distributors, to retailers. The criteria recommended strategies recommended to implement a sustainable green palm oil production were (1 the production of green ‘nucleus’ FFB, (2 the production of green ‘plasma’ FFB, and (3 the production of green CPO. Keywords: oil palm, value chain, PT Hindoli, sustainable oil palm, plasma farmersABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 mendefinisikan masalah dan solusi dari rantai nilai produksi kelapa sawit, (2 mengidentifikasi program-program yang berkelanjutan menguntungkan dari produksi minyak kelapa sawit, dan (3 merumuskan program-program yang berkelanjutan dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas dan produktivitas produksi minyak sawit ramah lingkungan. Sampel dipilih secara sengaja yaitu dengan melakukan wawancara dengan manager estate dan manager pabrik, serta penyuluh di PT Hindoli, ketua kelompok tani, dan ketua pengurus koperasi. Data dianalisis menggunakan analytical hierarchy process. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi kelapa sawit rantai nilai dari PT Hindoli dimulai dari pemasok benih atau produsen benih, pemasok pupuk, alat pertanian dan mesin, perusahaan

  6. Rasio Utang Memediasi Pengaruh Kemampulabaan Dan Ukuran Aktiva Terhadap Kebijakan Dividen: Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia [Debt Ratio to Mediate Effect of Profitability and Asset Size on Dividend Policy: An Empirical Study on Oil Palm Plantation Companies Listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange

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    Rudolf Lumbantobing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the influence of the debt policy, profitability, and size of asset toward company's dividend policy on oil palm plantation companies listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2011-2015. The secondary data used in this research were obtained directly from the company website and the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. The data collection was conducted by direct observation upon the research object. The data were analyzed using path analysis and logistical regression model. The result showed that profitability has a significant and negative effect on the debt ratio. Size of asset does not have a significant and positive effect on the debt ratio. Profitability and size of assets have significant and positive effects on dividend policy, which proves that the larger profitability and the size of assets, the greater the probabilty of paying dividends. Debt ratio does not have a significant and positive effect on dividend policy. Debt ratio has a significant positively partial mediating effect toward the influence of profitability on dividend policy. Otherwise, debt ratio does not have a significant negatively mediating effect toward the positive effect of size of asset on dividend policy.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi engaruh kebijakan utang, kemampulabaan dan ukuran aktiva terhadap kebijakan dividen perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia periode tahun 2011-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang diperoleh secara langsung dari website perusahaan dan Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi tidak langsung terhadap objek penelitian yaitu perusahaan kelapa sawit. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan path analysis dan model regresi logistik. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bukti bahwa kemampulabaan signifikan berpengaruh negatif terhadap rasio utang. Ukuran aktiva tidak signifikan berpengaruh positif terhadap rasio

  7. Perilaku Spiritual Dan Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan Perusahaan Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Arrafiqur; -, Makmur

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of spiritual behavior on employee job satisfaction through the intervening variable of spiritual intelligence. By using quantitative research-survey design, sample was selected by purposive sampling technique as much as 108 people at one of the company employees of palm oil mill in Rokan Hulu. Primary data were obtained with the technique using a Likert scale questionnaire and the data were analyzed with descriptive and path analysis approach. The study ...

  8. PERCEPATAN EKONOMI PEDESAAN MELALUI PEMBANGUNAN PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT *

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    Almasdi Syahza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed the impact of oil palm plantation development to the acceleration of economic development of community in effort to alleviate poverty in rural areas. The research was conducted through survei with descriptive method. Information obtained through the approach of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA. The results obtained by oil palm plantation activities in the rural areas created a figure amounting to 3.03 of multiplier effect, especially in employment and business opportunity. In year 2003, the farmer’s welfare index of rural areas amounting to 1.72. It means the growth of the farmer’s welfare increased by 172 percent. In the period of 2003-2006, farmers' welfare index was 0.18 and the period of 2006- 2009 also experienced positive at 0.12. It means the welfare of farmers during this period increased by 12 percent.

  9. Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang Kelapa Sawit secara Kultur Teknis

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    Hari Priwiratama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effort to manage basal stem rot disease (BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense could be conducted through several cultural practice approaches. Four series of field experiments was conducted to observe the effectiveness of cultural practice methods for controlling the epidemic of basal stem rot due to G. boninense. Sanitation trial consisted of three treatments i.e root sanitation with big hole planting system, big hole without root sanitation, and standard replanting system as comparison. Hole in hole and standard planting system were compared in the hole in hole trial. Digging and mounding trial was conducted in four treatments, i.e. digging and mounding with teer and Trichoderma, digging and mounding with Trichoderma, mounding with Trichoderma, and infected palm without any treatment as comparison. Meanwhile, a 4 m × 4 m trench was used in the isolation trench trial. Annual observation was conducted to determine the disease incidence of BSR in each trial. Results showed that all methods could prevent palms from G. boninense infection in the early stage of oil palm development. Proper root sanitation delayed G. boninense infection until 2 years after treatment (YAT, hole in hole planting system was able to suppress disease incidence up to 7 YAT, digging and mounding was useful to prolong the life of the infected palms up to 3 YAT, meanwhile the use of isolation trench was demonstrated to prevent G. boninense infection to neighboring palms up to 2 YAT.

  10. Ganoderma boninense Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Batang Atas Kelapa Sawit

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    Agus Susanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot disease (BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense is the major pathogen of oil palm in Indonesia and Malaysia. Sometimes in the same location, especially in the peatland, upper stem rot (USR disease is also found. This research was carried out to identify the pathogen of upper stem rot by molecular approach. Fruiting bodies of fungus were collected from 3 plants with upper stem rot symptoms and 2 plants with basal stem rot symptoms from Labuhan Batu North Sumatra and Kampar Riau. Results showed that all of the fruiting body samples taken from plants with upper stem rot and basal stem rot symptoms were G. boninense.

  11. Pengelolaan Rantai Pasok dan Daya Saing Kelapa Sawit di Aceh

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    Fajri Jakfar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, supply chain management is vital for palm oil plantations, along with the increases of competitive efforts and equal partnership position between suppliers and processors. The research aimed at mapping supply chain patterns of palm oil plantation, at analyzing performances of palm oil stakeholders, and at analyzing factors influencing performances of stakeholders in the province. The research was conducted using survey method by interviewing and focus group discussion. The results showed that (1 there were 3 supply chains flows from bunches of palm fruit to plants of palm fruit processing; (2 roles of stakeholders in supply chain management determining supply volumes, profits, and value added; and (3 factors influencing performances of stakeholders and competitive advantages were plantation productivity, cost allocation for invesment and operation, capacity  of processing plants, and CPO rendemen rate.

  12. Komponen Kimia Asap Cair Hasil Pirolisis Limbah Padat Kelapa Sawit

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    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical components of liquid smoke which is produced via pyrolisis of palm oil solid waste have been analyzed by using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Solid waste consists of shell, empty fruit bunch, and palm fiber. Solid waste was obtained from palm oil manufactory in Tanjung Semantok,  Aceh province. The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical components in liquid smoke obtained from various palm oil solid waste. Sample was pyrolyzed at 500°C for 5 hours by using tube furnace reactor type 21100 which is equipped by thermolyne as temperature adjustment. The yield of pyrolysis from shell, empty fruit bunch and palm fiber are 52,02; 29,59; and 34,88%, respectively. The results showed that 27; 13 and 11 compounds of chemical were observed in liquid smoke obtained by pyrolysis of shell, empty fruit bunch, and palm fiber, respectively. Overall, acetic acid and phenol are the highest concentration of chemical obtained in this research. Keywords: palm oil solid waste, pyrolysis, liquid smoke, chemical compound

  13. PENGADAAN TANAH UNTUK PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT DALAM PERSPEKTIF LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

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    H Joni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land procurement is every activity to get land by movement right of land or by transfer of right of land bycompensation to the deserved one. In land procurement process for palm oil garden, first thing to do is to observethe available land, whether is State land, Land of Right or Land Right Management. Oil Palms Corporation is theone who get land is has to observe the land claim rules in which provided by National Land Law, which is thelocation and available land status. In term land procurement, sometimes it will be facing problem. Indigenouspeople is still to release their right of land because they are already emotionally binding with the land. Becausethey are certain that the land has power so it can not be released. Besides of that, all of people activities is centeredon the land, such as farming, gardening, indigenous or religious activity. The point is, land is unseparatable partfrom all daily activities, not only land has emotional bind (religious-magic with the people, but also with waterand forest. Because of that land procurement for oil palm has to observe land rights that already attached to theland that possessed by indigenous people. After land possession is appropriate by the Location Permit, Corporationcan propose Right of Business to National Land Institution with terms applied.

  14. Pembuatan Papan Partikel (Particle Board dari Tandan Kosong Sawit dengan Perekat Kulit Akasia dan Gambir

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    Umi Fathanah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The need of wood as one of raw materials in furniture industry keeps increasing. One of efforts to reduce wood consumption is to develop research by creating composite design from material that contains sellulose to be particle board. Particle board is one of material alternatives that can be wood substitute. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of natural-adhesive-mixture composition (acacia bark and gambier with oil-palm-empty bunch toward mechanical property of particle board. Characterization of particle board was carried out by undertaking mechanical property testing (tensile strength and compressive strength under wet and dry conditions. Composition variations of adhesive and oil-palm-empty bunch were 30:70; 40:60; 50:50; 60:40; 70:30. Making process of particle board is carried out by mixing oil-palm-empty bunch and adhesive with addition of 2% para-formaldehyde and water as much of 10%. Furthermore, the mixture is compressed by using Hot Press at temperature of 150oC and pressure of 10 kg/cm2 for 15 minutes. The research result indicates that the higher the adhesive composition (either adhesives of acacia bark or gambier, particle board resulted is better. In dry condition,  values of the tensile strength of particle boards  that have acacia bark adhesive and gambier adhesive have range of 84.2 - 104 Kgf/cm2 and 83.4 - 81.5 kg/cm2, respectively. Whereas, values of compressive strength of particle boards that have adhesives of acacia bark and gambier are in the range of 6.8 - 10.5 kg/cm2  and 6.3 - 9.3 kg/cm2, respectively. The values of tensile strength and compressive strength are obtained on compositions  of adhesive: oil-palm-empty bunch ≥ 40:60, and they have fulfilled satandard of SNI 03-2105-1996. The values of tensile strength and compressive strength of particle board in wet condition, either adhesives of acacia bark or gambier, have not fulfilled standard of SNI 03-2105-1996. Keywords: empty-bunch-oil palm, acacia bark, gambier, particle board, tensile strength

  15. Pemotong Tempurung Kelapa Gergaji Ganda

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    Aan Eddy Antana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKeanekaragaman produk kerajinan tempurung kelapa menuntut diciptakannya peralatan-peralatan khusus untuk proses produksinya. Penggunaan pemotong gergaji tunggal untuk membuat bahan baku tas tempurung kelapa berbentuk bujur sangkar dirasakan masih kurang optimal. Satu kali proses potong hanya mampu menghasilkan satu sisi pemotongan.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menciptakan pemotong tempurung kelapa gergaji ganda untuk pembuatan bahan baku berbentuk persegi. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Alih Teknologi dan Inkubasi, Balai Besar Kerajinan dan Batik, Yogyakarta. Metode yang dilakukan yaitu survei lapangan dan literatur, perancangan desain, pemilihan dan pengadaan bahan, pembuatan, ujicoba, finishing, evaluasi dan pembahasan. Penelitian ini menghasilkan mesin pemotong tempurung kelapa gergaji ganda dengan spesifikasi: penggerak motor listrik 1 phase, 220 V, 1/2 HP, 2800 rpm, panjang 60 cm, lebar 40 cm, tinggi 77 cm, berat 36 kg, kapasitas 150 potongan/jam. Kata kunci : pemotong, tempurung kelapa, gergaji ganda ABSTRACKDiversity of coconut shell craft product  requires the creation of special equipment for the production process. The use of a single saws cutters to make the raw material coconut shell is still less than optimal. One time cuts only able to produce one side of the deductions for coconut shell. The purpose of this research is to create a double saws cutting coconut shell to make raw material square. The study was conducted at Technology Transfer and Incubation Laboratory, Center for Craft and Batik, Yogyakarta. The method are literature and field surveys, designing , selection and procurement of materials, manufacture, testing, finishing, evaluation and discussion. The research produced double saws coconut shell cutting with the following specifications: engine electric motor 1 phase, 220 V, 1/2 HP, 2800 rpm, length: 60 cm, width: 40 cm, height: 77 cm, weight: 36 kg, capacity: 150 pieces / hour. Keywords: cutter, coconut

  16. PENGENDALIAN PALATABILITAS ULAT API PADA TANAMAN SAWIT DENGAN APLIKASI BEBERAPA PESTISIDA NABATI DI LABORATORIUM

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    Sri Ngapiyatun

    2018-01-01

    bulan meliputi persiapan alat dan bahan, pembuatan dan aplikasi pestisida nabati serta pengambilan data. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri 6 perlakuan yaitu kontrol, biji sirsak, daun sirsak, serai, biji lada, dan tembakau yang diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Daun dicelupkan ke dalam pestisida sesuai dengan perlakuan kemudian daun diaplikasikan ke ulat selama 7 hari dengan cara daun dan ulat di masukkan ke dalam toples yang ditutup dengan kain kasa. Parameter yang diamati yaitu, aktifitas ulat, hari keberapa ulat mati, dan palatabilitas ulat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pestisida nabati terbaik yang dapat menurunkan palatabilitas ulat api adalah perlakuan ekstrak tembakau yaitu mencapai 100%, dimana ulat tidak mau memakan daun aplikasi dan ulat mati pada hari ke-1 setelah aplikasi. Kata Kunci : Pestisida Nabati; Palatabilitas; Ulat Api; Kelapa Sawit

  17. Analisis sifat fisika pemanfaatan pati tandan kosong sawit dan limbah plastik LDPE sebagai bahan pembuatan plastik biodegradabel

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    Tengku Rachmi Hidayani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to overcome the issue of plastic packaging waste that accumulates in nature because synthetic polymers cannot be easily unraveled by bacteria. Biodegradable plastics were produced by mixing waste of plastics of the low density polyethylene (LDPE with starch of empty palm fruit bunches, modified with the addition of maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent. To produce biodegradable plastics, different compositions of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm fruit bunch, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide were used, namely (90: 10: 1: 1, (80: 20: 1: 1, (70: 30: 1: 1, and (60: 40: 1: 1. Research stages consisted of extraction of starch from palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB; preparation of biodegradable plastic powder with the reflux method and xylene solvents; and making of biodegradable plastics using the press molding method. Based on the results of characterization, it was revealed that the optimum condition was generated by biodegradable plastics with the composition of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm bunches, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide was equal to 60: 40: 1: 1, which generated the tensile strength value of 6.9410 N/m2, the elongation at break of 3.1875%, the the melting point temperature of 103oC, and the decomposition temperature of 384oC. Besides, the thermal gravimetric test generated a residue of 12.6% and results of the analysis on morphological properties suggested that the starch distributed evenly.

  18. Analisis Finansial Dan Strategi Pengembangan Usaha Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi usaha serat kelapa, untuk menganalisis usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis sudah layak atau tidak, untuk menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis. Penentuan daerah penelitian dilakukan secara secara purposive (sengaja) dan metode pengambilan sampel adalah purposive sampling dengan pertimbangan bahwa responden/sampel penelitian adalah ...

  19. Efek Tegangan Searah pada Aliran Ionik dan Geometri Pelepah dan Daun Kelapa Sawit

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    Toto Saktioto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of palm tree grown are generally measured in months periods, but in a shorter time scale is particularly less measured by the plant maintenance of palm tree. Consideration of the general productivity in time is how to produce good fruit fertilizer (chemical aspect, healthy plants, fast growing and evolving (agricultural aspect and genetic type of palm that grows (biological aspect. However, the growth and production on the physical aspect is still less attention. Through physical treatment, the growth of palm tree can be optimized, as it has been proven in advanced countries on the plant Aloe Vera, Avocado and Pine trees. This paper proposes a treatment of direct current voltage to palm tree that can accelerate the flow of ions to grow and develop nutrients with the increment of geometry and sturcture of leaf and midrib. The palm tree samples are aged 1 to 5 years corresponding to the provision of various current voltage. Identification of samples before and after treatment by electricity determined is based on the geometry of leaves and midrib and ions effect. This identification can support the productivity of palm trees.

  20. Sistem Informasi Pengukuran Kinerja Pada Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Dengan Menggunakan Metode Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati Rosmiati; Mustafid Mustafid; Ibnu Widiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil plantations is one of the sub-sectors of agriculture crops in Indonesia, which is the main source of food and economic growth. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) into a model of performance measurement system that can provide a solution within the framework of an integrated performance measurement using financial and non financial aspects. This study aims to develop information systems to measure the performance of oil palm plantations using the Balanced Scorecard method. Measurement of pe...

  1. PENGARUH VARIASI MEDIA QUENCHING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS RANTAI ELEVATOR FRUIT KELAPA SAWIT

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    Saufik Luthfianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin air+garam terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator,  mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin oli 20w – 50w terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator, mengetahui pengaruh proses heat treatment dengan media pendingin air laut terhadap sifat mekanis rantai elevator. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen murni. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui Hasil uji one way ANOVA yang telah dilakukan mengindikasikan bawa Fhitung uji kuat tarik sebesar 2,046, yang lebih kecil daripada Ftabel (2,6 sebesar 5,14 (Fhitung Ftabel, artinya uji kekerasan (Quenching pada ketiga jenis media signifikan berbeda atau terdapat perbedaan kekerasan yang signifikan diantara ketiga jenis penggunaan media

  2. Model Penilaian Risiko Berbasis Kinerja untuk Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia

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    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the country's largest palm oil producer in the world, Indonesian palm oil production is still encounter political barriers or non-tariff economy of several countries. Sustainable development policies have a role to overcome these obstacles. The research problem is how to build policies through the performance based risk assessment for sustainable palm oil supply chain in Indonesia. The research objective is to recommend policies that supported by performance-based risk assessment models for sustainable palm oil supply chain in Indonesia. Performance-based risk assessment algorithms have been developed and verified in a comprehensive manner. Model verification is conducted by analyzing the performance of crude palm oil supply chain based on expert’s analysis. This study has obtained the necessary indicators to assess the risk based on performance of sustainable crude palm oil supply chain. Model application has shown that risk level of sustainable crude palm oil in Indonesia relating to economics, environmental, and social aspects are moderate, respectively. However, there are some indicators that need to be considered with the level of risk is quite high, namely demand rate, quality of palm oil, timelines of product delivery, availability of crude palm oil and bullwhip effect. This paper has recommended some policies to address those risks.

  3. UNJUK KERJA REAKTOR PLASMA DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE UNTUK PRODUKSI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT

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    Ardian Dwi Yudhistira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of alternative renewable energy source to substitute diesel fuel. Various biodiesel productionprocesses through transesterification reaction with a variety of catalysts have been developed by previousresearcher. This process still has the disadvantage of a long reaction time, and high energy need. DielectricBarrier Discharge (DBD plasma electro-catalysis may become a solution to overcome the drawbacks in theconventional transesterification process. This process only needs a short time reaction and low energy process.The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of DBD plasma rector in making biodiesel such as: theeffect of high voltage electric value, electrodes gap, mole ratio of methanol / oil, and reaction time. TheResearch method was using GC-MS (Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrofotometry and FTIR (FourierTransform Infrared Spectrofotometry and then it will be analysed the change of chemical bond betweenreactant and product. So, the reaction mechanism can be predicted. Biodiesel is produced using methanol andpalm oil as reactants and DBD plasma used as reactor in batch system. Then, reactants contacted by highvoltage electric. From the results of this research can be concluded that the reaction mechanism occurs in theprocess is the reaction mechanism of cracking, the higher of electric voltage and the longer of reaction time leadto increasing of product yield. The more of mole ratio of methanol / oil and widening the gap between theelectrodes lead to decreased product yield. From this research, product yield maksimum is 89,8% in the variableof rasio mol metanol/palm oil 3:1, voltage 10 kV, electrode gap 1,5 cm, and reaction time 30 seconds.

  4. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  5. Sistem Informasi Pengukuran Kinerja Pada Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Dengan Menggunakan Metode Balanced Scorecard

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    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil plantations is one of the sub-sectors of agriculture crops in Indonesia, which is the main source of food and economic growth. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC into a model of performance measurement system that can provide a solution within the framework of an integrated performance measurement using financial and non financial aspects. This study aims to develop information systems to measure the performance of oil palm plantations using the Balanced Scorecard method. Measurement of performance using four perspectives, that is: financial, customer, internal business processes and learning and growth. Nine indicators were used, that is: value of employee satisfaction, employee loyalty value, Return on Assets (ROA, solvency, crop maintenance, harvesting TBS, increasing the foreman and administrative competence in the garden, orchard manager guidance to employees and provide a special budget for training. This study resulted in an information system that can determine the weights of indicators and performance assessment scores will then be known to the achievement of performance measurement in oil palm plantations. This study was carried out on the Bina Karya plantation, obtained performance tends to be stable from 2009 to 2013. In 2011 the highest performance values ​​obtained at 68.34% and the lowest was in 2009 at 60.84%.   Keywords: Performance Measurement; Balanced scorecard; Key Performance Indicator; Information System; Palm oil

  6. EFISIENSI ENERGI PRODUKSI BIOGAS AIR LIMBAH PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT PADA SUHU TERMOFILIK

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    Fiqih Pertiwi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent treatment using anaerobic pond system was not effective because it needs large area and causes greenhouse gas emission. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion system can make hydraulic retention time of palm oil mill effluent becomes shorter. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimum temperature, net energy balance of the utilization from palm oil mill effluent at thermophilic temperature, and study the possibility of its application on palm oil mill.  Palm oil mill effluent and sludge characterization were determined by analyzing pH and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, then 40 L palm oil mill effluent and 10 L sludge were fermented in the bioreactor stirred at temperature 45oC and 55oC.  The data were presented in tables and graphs then analyzed descriptively. The Results showed that for 50 L palm oil mill effluent at 45oC needed 113,906 J/57 days and produced net energy value 22,078 MJ/57 days, while at 55oC needed 113,934 J/43 days and produced net energy value 23,622 MJ/43 days.  Based on the calculation palm oil mill with capacity of 60 tonnes FFB/hour, will produce electrical energy equivalent to 1,654 MW and produce extra energy value 13.699,32 MJ/hour in the processing of FFB into CPO. Keywords : Energy efficiency, thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

  7. KEANEKARAGAMAN SPESIES TUMBUHAN DI AREALNILAI KONSERVASI TINGGI (NKT PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PROVINSI RIAU

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    Hafizah Nahlunnisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil plantation is important role of increased economic in Indonesia. Beside of that, the exsistence of palm oil plantation has negative effect in ecology, that is decreasead of plant diversity. The area of high conservation value (HCV is an effort to reducing the negative impact of oil palm plantation. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of diversity of plant species and forms of community interaction in the area of HCV. It is can used to basic of management of HCV areas that can be exploited in a sustainable manner. Data collected in the three palm oil companies in Riau Province that PTPN V, PT Mitra Unggul Pusaka (MUP, and PT Ivomas Tunggal on March till April 2016. The data collection was using a single plot and interviews. Data were analyzed using Margalef diversity index, Shannon wiener index, Evenness index, and descriptive analysis. The result showed that the level of diversity of plant species in HCV in each company is different. The highest value of plant based species richness Margalef index is PTPN V (16,836, while the value of the highest plant species diversity by Shannon wiener index is PT MUP (3,773. The highest value by evenness index is PT MUP (0,901.Community interaction that occurs in the region of HCV is utilization such as animal feed, food plants, firewood, and the honey-producing trees.Keywords: diversity of species,interaction, oil palm plantations, plants

  8. Perkembangan dan Kandungan Nutrisi Larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae pada Bungkil Kelapa Sawit

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    RACHMAWATI RACHMAWATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens, is used as a reducing agent of palm kernel meal (PKM, as well as one of alternative protein sources for aquaculture purposes. Information about biology of H. illucens is absolutely required in mass production. The objectives of these researches were to study the development of H. illucens including the effect of supplementary food to the adult, and nutrient content of the immature stage. The sample of 20 larvae from each 3 replicates were measured and weighed on 0-19th day (larva and 24th day (pupa from egg hatching. H. illucens adults were fed by water and honey 5% (v/v. Eggs were collected and counted. Nutrient content of immature stage: 5, 10, 15, 20 days old (larvae, and 25 days old (prepupae reared on PKM were analyzed proximately. Dry matter was determined by weight loss on drying at 105 oC during overnight. Crude protein was determined by Kjeldahl procedure (N x 6.25, crude fat by soxhlet (ether extract, crude ash by determining the residue after heating at 550 oC for 4–5 h. Data were analyzed descriptively by average from triplicate. The development of H. illucens was shorter than those in previous studies as the differences of abiotical factor. PKM was a suitable medium for development. It was better, however, to fed the adult with honey since it could enhance the fecundity. The young larva certainly contained the best quality of nutrition. To meet the quantity of mass production, however, the use of the elder larva (bigger was suggested.

  9. Analisis Kinerja Usahatani Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Rakyat Melalui Pola Kemitraan di Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah

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    Suharno Suharno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are three models of partnership in the development of smallholders plantation of palm oil in Center of Kalimantan Province, those are: (1 inti-plasma model that is managed by cooperative; (2 inti-plasma model that is managed by company; (3 inti-plasma model that is managed by individual farmers.  This research aims to find the best partnership model amongst them. This research has been done in Kotawaringin Barat District for the first and the third type of  models and in Katingan District for the second type. Collecting data and informations was done by Focus Group Discussion (FGD and interviewed to the farmer respondents. A random sampling of 30 farmers was chosen for the first and the second models. For the second model, all of the farmers who follow the program as many as 20 farmers was chosen as this research respondent. The research found that the first type of those models is the best amongst of the partnership models because of following reasons: (1 highest productivity, about 20 tonnes FFB/ha/year; (2 highest farmer income about Rp 15,682,711/ha/year; (3 business risks are shared by all of the cooperative members; (4 there is guarantee of the input supply and marketing of farming yied from company as a business partner; (5 farmers have some opportunities to increase their household income as company workers or through the other activities. This research recommends to the Government of  Kalimantan Tengah Province  to oblige the plantation companies to implement an inti-palsma partnership model that is managed by cooperative for whom obligation to develop about 20% of their plantation area for smallholders.

  10. Meneroka Refleksi Simpati Rasional Orang Tengah dalam Rantaian Pengeluaran Kelapa Sawit Pekebun Kecil

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    Suraiya Ishak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The middlemen remain as an essential element in the value chain of agricultural produce. This study aims to examine the middlemen roles in agriculture produce market based on the Theory of Moral Sentiment. The explanation reflects the implementation of rational sympathy and benevolence of middlemen actions according to Moral Sentiment Theory argument. This study emphasizes the context of palm fruit middlemen (FD in Malaysia. This study employs in-depth interview with four palm fruit dealers in Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia. The finding indicates that the middlemens’ roles have reflected the rational sympathize and benevolence as in the Moral Sentiment Theory. Execution of moral sentiment is found in two aspects, namely the commercial and social aspects. The rational sympathy is translated in the form of pure commercial services such as purchase of raw produces, farm management, selling of farm necessities and transportation. Although they are paid services, the small holders gain advantages from such services. On the other hand, the middlemen also obtain cash advance and farm items credit which reflects FD benevolence to willingly forgo potential of extra profit. Although repayment of credits is deductable from the selling proceeds, small 46 Akademika 87(2 palm holders still gain benefits from the service as it was provided without the need of collateral, compliance of rigid loan application procedures, finance charges and with flexible payback arrangement. Therefore, middlemen activities are in line with the moral sentiment and has explicitly underlies the particular FD context. Policy implications have been proposed such as increasing the numbers of FD in the market and colloboration of information and actions between FD-MPOB.

  11. Dinamika populasi Collembola pada tanaman kelapa sawit di perkebunan Cikasungka Kabupaten Bogor

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    Erwinda Erwinda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Collembola is one of the dominant microarthopods in almost all soils types. They have important function in food webs soil ecosystem. This research was done at Cikasungka oil palm plantation for six months (April until September 2014. The aim of the research was to collect the information of diversity abundance and population fluctuations of Collembola, and their linkages between environmental factors. Collembolans were collected based on four points of soil sample from five trees of oil palm which has similar criteria. Distance of 0, 120, 240 cm from the trees, and compost lane were used to collect the samples. Results showed 37 species from 10.438 individuals with a density of 544 individu/m2. The species belongs to  4 orders and 13 families. Result also showed that are fluctuations in the abundance at the sample sites. The highest abundance of Collembolans was found in base tree zone (920 individu/m2 and compost lane (763 individu/m2. During six months, total populations of Isotomid sp. 5 (Isotomidae was higher than the others species of Collembolans. Based on the correlation analysis, various species of Collembolans are positively correlated with rainfall and soil pH.

  12. Dampak Penerapan Pungutan Ekspor Crude Palm Oil terhadap Kinerja Agribisnis Kelapa Sawit dan Pendapatan Petani Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ., Maswadi

    2012-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is a strategic commodity in the economy ofIndonesia. CPO industry also plays an important role in the internationalmarket. The rate of growth of production of CPO is the highest among thecategories of oil consumed. Even a CPO has predicted will pass trade oilfor soybeans at most in the world market be trading.The current Government had new instruments in international tradeactivities, i.e. the export levy of dilegalisasi on September 10, 2005 withthe publication of legisl...

  13. PERILAKU KONSUMSI PANGAN SUMBER KARBOHIDRAT RUMAHTANGGA PETANI KELAPA SAWIT DI KECAMATAN KANDIS KABUPATEN SIAK

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    Heriyanto Heriyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research generally aims to analyze the behavior of food consumption source of carbohydrate, specifically, this study aims to analyze the dominant factor and analyze the response of food consumption expenditure dominant source of carbohydrate for factors that influence it. To answer this research purpose built models Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS were analyzed by methods Seemingly Unreleated Regression (SUR. Food commodities sources of carbohydrates are included in the model to include five commodities (commodity groups, include: rice, yam, noodles, cassava and potatoes. The results showed that the higher the income level, the proportion of food expenditure of commodities as rice, yam, noodles, cassava, and potatoes tend to increase. Meanwhile, the higher the mother's education the more domestic rice consumption, while consumption of yam noodles, cassava and potatoes tend to decline. The analysis showed that the price elasticity of its own for the entire commodity observed negative sign except cassava and yams and potatoes only the value of elasticity is greater than one. This indicates that the commodity consumption expenditures yams and potatoes are responsive to changes in its price. Similarly, the cross-price elasticities show the value of elasticity (in absolute value with cassava yams and potatoes is greater than one, means commodity consumption expenditures yams are responsive to changes in prices of other commodities. Meanwhile, the income elasticity shows two commodities that have an income elasticity greater than one, which is the income elasticity for commodities noodles, and cassava. From these findings it can be stated that the policies related to revenue-raising efforts should be made to boost household consumption, especially consumption of palm oil farmers noodles and cassava, while the price control policy needs to be done to increase the consumption of yams.

  14. Respons Curvularia lunata Penyebab Penyakit Bercak Daun Kelapa Sawit terhadap Berbagai Fungisida

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    Agus Susanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot disease of oil palm caused by Curvularia sp. is the major disease in nursery. Implementation of best nursery practices is the key to prevent it. Generally, fungicides are used only if epidemic of leaf spot diseases occur in the field. The objectives of this research were to determine causal agent of leaf spot disease of oil palm and the potential alternative weed host around the nursery, to select suitable fungicides, and to study the effect of fungicides rotation to disease incidence. The results showed that the causal agent of leaf spot disease of oil palm was Curvularia lunata. The fungus was also found on grasses, Cyperus rotundus and Imperata cylindrica. Difeconazol, copper oxide, and propineb suppressed leaf spot disease in nursery. Application of fungicide by rotation between difeconazol and copper oxide with frequency every 10 days suppressed the development of leaf spot disease of oil palm in the nursery.

  15. OPTIMASI PADA PENAMBAHAN ZAT ADITIF TERHADAP NILAI KALOR BRIKET CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrin, Bahrin; Ardilla, Desi; Taufik, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract                The porpuse of research was to knew influence and the heat of combustion  palm oil  briquette with added additive substance. The work principle of research included foreword working was preparations raw material (Oil palm eggshell) and additive substance (rice husk, bagasse, shell of coconut).Raw materials of  palm oil was  burning in the vurnace at temperature 400 0C for four o’clock and refined at the measure of 1 mm and so also above additive substance was refined a...

  16. Inkorporasi Kromium oleh Fungi Ganoderma lucidum dengan Limbah Industri Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Substrat

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    F. Agustin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effective Cr (chromium level for Ganoderma lucidum growth in solid state fermentation of oil palm by-product. Treatments were combination of Cr level (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 25000, and 3000 ppm and fermentation time (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The treatments were allocated in a factorial 7x5 of complete randomized design with four replications. Inoculant of G. lucidum was grown in potato dextrosa agar (PDA medium for 10 days and then innoculated to substrate which have been autoclaved and mixed with CrCl3.6H2O. The moisture of substrate was maintained at 65%. Growth media of G. lucidum was diluted with aquades and the supernatant was analysed for its Cr content. The result showed that the addition of Cr up to 3000 ppm into the medium stimulated the G. lucidum growth in all experimental condition. The Cr ions were incorporated into the media and G. lucidum cells during fermentation. Incorporation of chromium by G. lucidum was higher in oil palm by-product substrate with 3000 ppm Cr than the others. It is concluded that Cr can be incorporated into the G. lucidum cells during fermentation. The effective level of Cr for G. lucidum growth was 3000 ppm with efficiency of Cr incorporation 68.23% in 8 weeks fermentation and chromium in protein of fermentation product was 12.01%.

  17. Karakterisasi Arang dan Gas-gas Hasil Pirolisis Limbah Kelapa Sawit

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    Muhammad Raju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunch (EFB and shell of oil palm are potential sources of bioenergy because they contain lignocellulose (cellulose, hemycellulose and lignin which can be converted to bio-oil (liquid, char, or combustible gases by pyrolysis process. Operating temperature of the pyrolysis process will influence the composition of the liquid, char and gases, as well as its characteristics. The objective of this study is to characterize the pyrolysis product of both empty fruit bunch and shell as affected by the pyrolysis temperature. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale pyrolysis reactor, specially designed with controlable temperature. The temperature of the pyrolysis process was controled at 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C level, and the product was measured and analysed. The result showed that pyrolysis of shell produced char, liquid and gases at the range of 34.99 - 63.78%, 22.76 - 43.28% and 13.47 - 21.73%, in mass fraction respectively. While pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch produced char, liquid and gases at the range of 30.66 - 64.7%, 16.25 - 29.16% and 18.98 - 44.49%, in mass fraction respectively. Increasing temperature resulted in increasing calorific value of the pyrolysis char from shell and empty fruit bunch in range of 25.64 – 29.60 kJ/g and 24.50 – 27.86 kJ/g, respectively. However, the calorific value of pyrolysis gases was decreasing with the increasing temperature in range of 12.18 kJ/g – 20.05 kJ/g and 11.98 kJ/g – 15.94 kJ/g, respectively. The gas calorific value did not account H2 gas, which might be the cause of the phenomenon. Shell pyrolysis temperature increasing caused the increasing of CO concentration in range 2.86% - 18.42% while the CH4 concentration increased at 400°C level afterwards decreased at higher temperature level in range of 0.89% - 2.84%. The increasing of EFB pyrolysis temperature increased CO dan CH4 concentration in range 3.8% - 15.74% and 0.29% - 0.76%, respectively.

  18. Model Identifikasi Risiko dan Strategi Peningkatan Nilai Tambah pada Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The actors in the palm oil supply chain industry are the farmers, traders, crude palm oil (CPO factories, frying-oil factories (refineries, distributors and the consumers. The farmers sell fresh fruit bunches (FFB to the CPO factories through traders. FFB is converted into CPO which is later sold to the refineries. Refineries convert CPO into frying oil which is sold to the consumers through the distributors. There are risks due to product quality consistency, price fluctuation and supply chain continuity. This study has two objectives: (1 to develop a model to identify, evaluate and rank the risks, (2 to develop a model to identify and rank the strategies in improving their added value. Data for this study was obtained through direct interviews and questionnaires. The respondents were selected experts and industry players. The data were processed using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP models. The first FAHP model showed that the two most important risks were the supply chain continuity and product quality. The second FAHP model showed that the recommended strategies to improve the added values of the actors were the improvement of the infrastructure/cluster development, followed by the usage of superior seeds and cultivation techniques.

  19. Kajian Penyebaran Kumbang Tanduk (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Areal Pertanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elais guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Robbin Gafur

    2011-01-01

    Robbin gafur siregar, Study of Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros beetle on Palm Oil Plantations, with the conseling prof. Dr. Ir. Darma Bakti and Ir. Marheni, MP. Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros is influenced by environment factor. Research aimed to know the spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros on palm oil.This research was held in Afdeling VII, Kebun Rambutan PTPN III Tebing Tinggi, since Juli to September 2010. The research by using Linier regration to find spreading influence with environment fa...

  20. Biologi Hama Kumbang Penggerek Pucuk Kelapa Sawit (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Di Rumah Kassa

    OpenAIRE

    Sejahtra, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ahmad Sejahtra, "BIOLOGY SHOOT BORERS BEETLE PEST OF COCONUT PALM (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) AT KASSA HOUSE", Under supervised by Ms Marheni and Ms Fatima Zahara. This study aims to determine biological pest of oil palm bud weevil (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at home kassa. The experiment was conducted on people's plantations in PERUMNAS Simalingkar starting from September 2010 until April 2011. Research using observational methods for this resear...

  1. Minat Dan Motivasi Peternak Untuk Mengembangkan Ternak Sapi Pada Kawasan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit di Propinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    H, Afriani; Idris, Nahri; F, Fatati

    2014-01-01

     The survey method was used to conduct this study through 180 cow farmers in three Regencies (merangin, Muaro Jambi and West tanjung Jabung) in Jambi Province. Samples of farmer were choised as the Simple Random sampling. Results of this study showed that farmer interest to rare cows within palm oil plantatition area in Jambi Province looked high with the interest value of 82.24% and the motivation of farmer to grow cow was medium with the value of 77.56%.  The analysis of multiple linear reg...

  2. Minat dan Motivasi Peternak untuk Mengembangkan Ternak Sapi pada Kawasan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit di Propinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    H, Afriani; Idris, Nahri; F, Fatati

    2014-01-01

    The survey method was used to conduct this study through 180 cow farmers in three Regencies (merangin, Muaro Jambi and West tanjung Jabung) in Jambi Province. Samples of farmer were choised as the Simple Random sampling. Results of this study showed that farmer interest to rare cows within palm oil plantatition area in Jambi Province looked high with the interest value of 82.24% and the motivation of farmer to grow cow was medium with the value of 77.56%. The analysis of multiple linear regr...

  3. DESAIN TAS KANTOR WANITA BERBAHAN LEMBARAN SABUT KELAPA (LESKAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Purnomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia sebagai Negara yang beriklim tropis memiliki areal perkebunan kelapa luas yang menghasilkan buah, daun dan kayu serta limbah. Limbah sabut kelapa seringkali diabaikan dan tidak dimanfaatkan dengan baik oleh masyarakat. Daging buah adalah komponen utama buah kelapa, sedangkan sabut, tempurung, dan air buah merupakan hasil samping. Sebagian besar petani hanya membuang sabut kelapa atau memanfaatkan untuk kerajinan seperti sapu, keset dan tali tambang. Sabut kelapa jarang dimanfaatkan menjadi produk dengan sentuhan teknologi yang bernilai jual tinggi. Penelitian ini merupakan pemanfaatan limbah serat sabut kelapa dijadikan produk tas kantor wanita dengan teknologi komposit. Lembaran sabut kelapa (leskap dengan teknologi komposit dilakukan dengan penggabungan serat sabut kelapa dengan karet alam yang di pres selama 30 menit dengan suhu 100oc. Desain tas dibuat beberapa alternatif yang selanjutnya dilakukan seleksi konsep dan dilakukan penilaian konsep dengan scoring. Hasil seleksi konsep didapat : (a Konsep desain 5 dijadikan sebagai desain A; (b Konsep desain 8 dijadikan sebagai desain B; (c Konsep desain 10 dijadikan sebagai desain C; (d Konsep desain 3, 6, 7 digabung yang dijadikan desain D. Sedangkan konsep desain 1,2,4 dan 9 tidak diikutkan dalam penilaian konsep. Berdasarkan scoring terpilih konsep desain D dengan nilai 3,0. Spesifikasi tas wanita yang terpilih adalah : (a Model tas jinjing dan selempang; (b Warna tas hitam dan coklat; (c lebar atas 40 cm; (d lebar bawah 35 cm; (d Tali tas jinjing dan selempang warna hitam; (f Tinggi 30 cm; (g Panjang tali selempang 120 cm; dan (h Panjang tali jinjing 23 cm.

  4. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Kosong Di Jemur Gayungan II Surabaya

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    Finda Virgitta Faradiany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan bisnis properti di Surabaya yang semakin pesat, mengakibatkan permintaan terhadap lahan semakin tinggi. Namun fakta di lapangan menampakkan hal yang sebaliknya karena ternyata masih terdapat lahan-lahan yang dibiarkan kosong tidak dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya. Kondisi yang demikian memerlukan efisiensi dan optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan mendirikan sebuah properti komersial yang memberikan keuntungan bagi pemilik serta lingkungan sekitarnya.Lahan “X” seluas 1786 m2 berlokasi di Jl. Jemur Gayungan II merupakan lahan kosong yang terletak di dekat daerah perkantoran dan berpotensi dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial. Penentuan nilai lahan “X” bergantung pada penggunaan lahan. Metode penilaian yang digunakan adalah analisa penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik atau Highest and Best Use (HBU yang secara legal diijinkan, secara fisik memungkinkan, layak secara finansial dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah hotel. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 9.722.718/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 486%.

  5. Optimasi Penggunaan Lahan Kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti Untuk Properti Komersial Dengan Prinsip Highest and Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Darmawan Saputra Mahardika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Baturiti merupakan satu-satunya kecamatan di Kabupaten Tabanan yang berkembang dalam sektor ekonomi agrowisata karena lokasinya yang strategis dekat dengan berbagai obyek wisata terkenal. Dengan lokasi yang strategis, pembangunan untuk properti komersial tentu akan memberikan potensi keuntungan tinggi bagi investor yang memiliki lahan kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti. Kondisi seperti ini menyebabkan permintaan yang tinggi akan lahan, padahal ketersediaan lahan selalu berkurang. Pembangunan properti komersial di Kecamatan Baturiti perlu dioptimalisasi agar dicapai keuntungan maksimum bagi investor. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, investor yang ingin membangun di Kecamatan Baturiti memerlukan analisa untuk mendapatkan alternatif pemanfaatan lahan kosong. Lahan yang dianalisa merupakan lahan kosong belum terbangun seluas 22.175 m2 di Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui alternatif pendirian bangunan komersial yang memiliki nilai pasar tertinggi adalah Highest and Best Use (HBU. Dengan metode tersebut, pemilik lahan dapat mengetahui alternatif terbaik yang memenuhi syarat-syarat diijinkan secara legal, memungkinkan secara fisik, layak secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Hasil yang diperoleh dari analisa Highest and Best Use ini adalah alternatif mixed-use berupa hotel dan toko souvenir dengan nilai lahan tertinggi dibandingkan alternatif lainnya sebesar Rp 7,950,714.60 per m2.

  6. Analisis Finansial dan Strategi Pengembangan USAha Pengolahan Sabut Kelapa Menjadi Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber) (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris; Ayu, Salmiah, Sri Fajar

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber), menganalisis USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) sudah layak atau tidak, dan menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di daerah penelitian. Daerah penelitian ditentukan secara sengaja (purposive) berdasarkan pertimbangan tertentu, yaitu di Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode teknik purposive sampli...

  7. Evaluation of Urban Polder Drainage System performance in Jakarta. Case Study Kelapa gading Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmah, L.; Suryadi, F.X.; Schultz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Kelapa Gading area is located in the plains of North Jakarta about 6 km from the coastline of Jakarta Bay. Kelapa Gading area covers 1288 ha it consists of three large compartments and next to that the Kodamar Unit separated system from Kelapa Gading excess water of the area is discharged to Sunter

  8. PROTEKSI MINYAK IKAN LEMURU, MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT, DAN BUNGKIL SAWIT TERHADAP pH DAN NH3DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Suci Purwati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this research is to know the influence of protection lemuru oil, palm oil, and palm oil cake to pH and NH3in the rumen of the Ongole. The material were used in this study werecomulated rumenfemale cows with average body weight of 289.33 ± 28.34 kg as many as 3 heads. Latin square experiment design was applied on 3 treatments. Fermented rice straw (FRS, basal concentrate (BC, and protected materials of Indian sardine oil (ISO, palm oil (PO, and palmkernel cake (PKC were used as a feed ingredient.  Treatments were: P1 = FRS 40% + BC 60% (BC 95% + PO 5%; P2 = FRS 40% + BC 60% (BC 95% + ISO 5% ; P3 = FRS 40% + BC 60% (BC 90% + PKC 10%. Parameters measured were pH and NH3. Latin square experiment design was applied on 3 treatments.Conclusions of this study are pH and NH3remain stable, meaning lemuru addition of fish oil, palm oil, and palm oil cake is protected not disturb the digestive process in the cow rumen fistulated onggole breedparticular. (Key word: Indian sardine oil, NH3, Palm kernel cake, Palm oil, pH, Protection

  9. Unsur-unsur Yang Diperhitungkan Dalam Menentukan Harga Pokok Produksi Crude Palm Oil (Studi Kasus Pada Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PT. Sawit Asahan Indah Surau Gading)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Afriyanto

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what elements should be taken into account in the cost of production of Crude Palm Oil. In analyzing the data obtained, the researcher uses descriptive method that the data obtained is then arranged such that it can be analyzed properly and accurately based on the theory that are relevant to the issues to be concluded later. To determine the exact cost of production, the company must take into account precisely the elements of the production cost of direc...

  10. Model Biaya Produksi Biodiesel Berbasis Minyak Sawit

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    Meilita Tryana Sembiring

    2015-06-01

    kebijakan mandatori pencampuran biodiesel dengan solar (biosolar. Produksi biodiesel di Indonesia tidak berkembang (kebutuhan 3.4 juta kiloliter namun total produksi nasional hanya 1.703 kiloliter. Hal tersebut disebabkan harga jual (mengacu Mean of Platts Singapore yang selalu lebih rendah dibandingkan biaya pokok produksi. Produksi biodiesel dipengaruhi oleh bahan baku dan teknologi proses, sehingga perlu dilakukan pemodelan produksi biodiesel sebagai landasan dalam menentukan kebijakan pendukung harga jual biodiesel. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi bahan baku, teknologi proses, dan memodelkan struktur biaya produksi biodiesel berbasis minyak sawit. Identifikasi bahan baku dilakukan dengan studi literatur dan survei lapangan ke produsen biodiesel. Identifikasi teknologi proses dilakukan dengan survei lapangan dan perhitungan neraca massa dengan teknologi Grand Inizio untuk mendapatkan jumlah rendemen dari masing-masing bahan baku. Selanjutnya kajian biaya produksi dilakukan berdasarkan spesifikasi bahan baku dan teknologi proses dengan pendekatan heuristik. Jenis dan spesifikasi minyak sawit yang banyak digunakan produsen di Indonesia adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO ALB<5%, Refined Palm Oil (RPO ALB<5%, Refined Oil ALB<1%, Palm Fatty Acid Distillated (PFAD ALB 90%. Teknologi proses yang digunakan adalah transesterifikasi untuk kadar ALB<1% dan esterifikasi-transesterifikasi untuk kadar ALB<5%. Rendemen yang dihasilkan untuk 1000 kg bahan baku adalah CPO 1051.75 kg, RPO dan PFAD 975.94 kg, Refined Oil 973.81 kg dengan pendekatan teknologi Grand Inizio. Model biaya produksi merepresentasikan total biaya produksi yang dipengaruhi oleh biaya Inside Battery Limit, Outside Battery Limit, biaya umum dan nilai tambah gliserol.

  11. Potensi Arang Hasil Pirolisis Tempurung Kelapa sebagai Material Karbon

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    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian pengembangan material karbon dari arang hasil pirolisis tempurung kelapa. Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari penggunaan polivinil alkohol (PVA sebagai stimulan dalam pengembangan arang terhadap sifat-sifat fisikokimia material karbon. Kalsinasi, pencampuran, dan sintering temperatur tinggi dilakukan pada proses penerapan teknologi karbon. Metode analisis X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS untuk pengujian struktur kristal, topografi permukaan berupa struktur mikro dan analisis unsur material karbon. Karakteristik produk material karbon menunjukkan perubahan karakter di mana terjadi perubahan sifat fisikokimia dari arang amorf menjadi karbon dengan struktur semi-kristalin.Kata kunci: Arang, Tempurung Kelapa, Pirolisis, Karbon

  12. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

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    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  13. Pengaruh Perbandingan Media Tanam Gambut dan Pupuk P Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Eiaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtana, Andang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research knowing peat land exploiting as media grow and phosphate palm oil seed in Main Nursery. This research executed at green house Faculty of Agriculture North Sumatra of University, Medan started in February 2004 up to May 2004 The research uses the Factorials Group Random Sampling, with two treatment factors. Factor I, treatment media composition peat land, which 4 level, that is Go = top soil ( 100 %), Gx = peat land: top soil ( 25%:75%), G2 = peat land: top s...

  14. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elais guineensis pada Beberapa Waktu dan Arah Aplikasi Boron (B dan Silikon (Si Melalui Daun

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    Ageng Kaloko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Study entitled 'Growth and Drought Resistance Seed Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis in Multiple Time and Direction Applications Boron (B and Silicon (Si through Leaves' aims to study the effect of B and Si on physiological processes and growth of oil palm seedlings experiencing drought stress and get a way and timing of B and Si is effective to reduce the effect of drought on the decline of physiological processes and growth of oil palm seedlings, Has been implemented in the hamlet Bendosari Madurejo village, Prambanan subdistrict, Sleman; Laboratory of Plant Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Anatomy Laboratory of the Faculty of Biology and Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta in March to December of 2012. Research using a complete randomized block design (RAKL factorial 3 x 3 1 to 3 blocks as replications. The first factor is the way fertilization, the second factor is the time of fertilization and added a comparison (control without any fertilization treatment. The data analyzed were obtained using Varian Analysis (ANOVA at the level of 5%, and followed by a test of least significant difference LSD. The results showed that the uptake and increased significantly with the application and the leaves by spraying in the morning, afternoon and evening through the direction of the bottom surface, the top and bottom of leaves. However, absorption of Si is only able to increase if the source of Si fertilizer applied by spraying the leaves through a downward direction on the surface of leaves in the evening. Oil palm seedlings can be improved resistance to drought stress with an indication of the form of increasing scores lignin and suberin in roots network as well as the size of the diameter of the rod when compared with control through the application of fertilizer source of B and Si on the leaves by spraying in the morning, afternoon and evening through direction of the bottom surface, the top and bottom of leaves.

  15. Kajian Sedimen Melayang pada Sub DAS Sei Kalembah (DAS Padang, Studi Kasus : Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit PTPN 4 Kebun Pabatu

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    Edi Susanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was determined the amount of suspended sediment concentration and sediment rating curve. Sediment rating curve are use to show the relationship between the discharge of the river and sediment discharge, a value sediment discharge can be used to predict the magnitude of the sedimentation process. Assesment of the suspended sediment have been made to overcome the problems associated with the movement of contaminants, changes in water quality, to predict the lifetime of a dam on the river, and also to determine the rate of erosion due to changes in land use. Replanting at oil palm plantations, especially during land clearing that part of the land to be bare land. This condition causes the surface flow of replanted areas become rapidly concentrated into a ditch and into the river carrying sediment. The research results were obtained that the value of sediment discharge at the study site including the criteria for very high (greater than 20 tons/ha/yr and already exceeds the limit sediment load criteria issued by the Ministry of Forestry.

  16. Pengaruh Ameliorasi Terak Baja Dan Pengaturan Tinggi Muka Air Tanah Terhadap Sifat Biologi Gambut Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Muharis, Satria

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in peat Oil Palm Plantation PTPN IV Kebun Panai Jaya province of North Sumatra and in cooperation with the Oil Palm Research Center (PPKS). The purpose of this study do sustainable peatland management by utilizing steel waste as fertilizer (ameliorant) and setting the ground water level. Giving ameliorant aims to increase levels of nutrients in the soil, while the management of groundwater levels to prevent subsidence in the peat. With the addition of ameliorant and s...

  17. SIMPANAN KARBON DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI BEBERAPA SPESIES RUMPUT TROPIS ASAL PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT RAKYAT DI KABUPATEN SAROLANGUN PROPINSI JAMBI

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    I. Martaguri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are known as part of palm plantation ecology and has benefits as source of ruminant feed. Besides, it is believed to have ability as Carbon Storage. However, to what extent the grass can be capable as Carbon Storage and what are the species that can be best fitted as Carbon Storage are still questionable especially for those that are grown on plantation. Thus, investigation was carried out to identify tropical grasses grown under palm plantation coverage that can be functioned as Carbon Storage as well as to determine its nutrition contents. Due to having many traditional plantations, Pauh District of Sarolangon Jambi was opted as observation area. From there, samples were taken randomly from plots and sub-plots that were pre-created. Grass samples are grouped into three groups; leave, stem and root, and taken to laboratory for analysis. Among those that were observed, Panicum brevifolium, Axonopus compressus, Centotheca longilamina, Centotheca longilamina ohwi and Schleria sumatrensis were shown their capability as carbon storage. However, those are carbon storage capable have slightly different in carbon and nitrogen contents, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF analysis and almost the same in fiber fractions.

  18. Hubungan Metilasi DNA dengan Ekspresi Gen MADS-box pada Buah Mantel Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Maharani Anischan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of mantled fruit on large-scale clonal production of oil palm had trully decreased the oil productivity. Mantled phenotype is likely to be that of an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation and the MADS-box transcription factor gene which encoded floral organ homeotic transformation. The objectives of this research were to quantify the degree of methylation which determined fruit abnormality through Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC and to study its correlation with the MADS-box EgAGL6, EgAG2, and EgAGA genes expressed on mantled fruit derived from oil palm clonal plants which have been quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR. This research was arranged in two replications for each gene and cDNA. The expression of the target genes were compared to EF1-α1 as the reference gene. Through the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 95% confidence level of qPCR result, EgAGL6 expression was significantly lower in mantled fruit which decreased from 1.88 fold in Abn m to 0.46 fold in Abn. EgAG2 expression was increased non-significantly from 0.91 fold in Abn m to 1.13 fold in Abn, while EgAGA expression was higher in mantled which increased significantly from 1.48 fold in Abn m to 1.71 fold  in Abn. Nuclease S1 digestion and UPLC revealed the genome-wide increase in DNA methylation on mantled fruit (18.33-19.55% compared to its normal counterparts (5.67%. This increased in global DNA methylation was showed by the significant decreased in EgAGL6 transcript level of mantled fruit. This gene assumed to be involved in the development of mantled fruit. Keywords: DNA-methylation, MADS-box genes, Mantled fruit, Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  19. UJI ZPT HANTU DAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jacq DI MAIN NURSERY

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    Enny Mutryarny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of Indonesia's mainstay plantation commodities and plays an important role for the national economy. Oil palm and plantations managed by state-owned enterprises, this is due to the increasing demand for palm oil in the industrial market. With the continuous development of oil palm plantations so that the provision of seeds should be considered because the success of planting in the field and the production of production is highly dependent on the quality of the seeds of oil palm plants used. Efforts that can be done to accelerate the growth of seeds Main Nursery is to provide NPK fertilizer and growth regulatory substances (ZPT Hantu that can help the absorption of nutrients and accelerate the growth of vegetative plants. The aim of this research is to get the interaction of ZPT Hantu concentration and NPK fertilizer dosage which give the best influence to the growth of oil palm seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Main-nursery. The experiment was conducted experimentally with factorial Randomized Design (RAL, consisting of 2 factors ie H factor is ZPT Hantu and N factor is NPK fertilizer (16:16:16 which each consist of 3 levels. Thus obtained 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The observed data were analyzed by Duncan's multipoint test and Duncan's multiplexed test of 5%. Test of ZPT Hantu and NPK fertilizer significantly affect the growth of oil palm seedlings in Main Nursery that is on the parameters of seed height, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf area, whereas the combination of both only on bar diameter parameters that gives a real effect, with best treatment is combination giving ZPT Hantu 2 cc / l water and NPK 20 grams / plant.

  20. Studi Pemanfaatan Limbah Padat Industri Pengolahan Minyak Kelapa Sawit Spent Bleaching Earth sebagai Pengganti Agregat pada Campuran Beton

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    Denny Dermawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil refinery factory has solid waste by product  called Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE. SBE consists of some chemical compounds and one of them  is SiO2 up to 83,05%. SiO2 or silica fume can cause silicosis if it is exposed to the atmosphere and frequently inhaled by the workers.  On the other hand,  SiO2  is one of the material  composition of Portland cement. Thus, it is necessary to conduct a research about the utilization of SBE. as a concrete mixture. SBE is utilized as fine aggregate substitution by the composition of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the total amount of fine aggregate. The conducted tests are fineness modulus calculation, compressive strength, setting time, and TCLP. The method used for mix  design is SNI 03-2834-2000 with f’c 28,5 MPa and slump 12 ± 2 cm. This research  shows  that concretes with SBE substitution which achieve the planned compressive strength are 10% SBE with 34,16 MPa and 20% SBE with 29,06 MPa. Based on the TCLP test, the concentration of heavy metal substances in 10% SBE are below the standard. Thus, it is  scientifically proven to conclude that concrete with 10% SBE is technically proper and safe for the environment.

  1. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT BATU AMPAR - PT. SMART Tbk. DALAM IMPLEMENTASI INDONESIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Septiawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO is a standard system of sustainable palm oil plantations in Indonesia are economically viable, socially viable and environmentally friendly which is compulsory in accordance with the regulations. This study aims to analyze the environmental management performance in palm oil mill Batu Ampar and formulate the performance optimization based on the ISPO requirements. The evaluation shows that the company can meet the 38 indicators related to environmental management with some of the achievements include utilization of renewable energy sources that generate energy by 5.0664 million KWh, amounting to 1,677,615.89 liters of diesel fuel savings, reduction in CO2 emissions by 70.63 Kg / ton CPO, chemical fertilizers worth saving Rp.5.750.080,00 / ha / year. The optimization strategy for continuous improvement which is based on the SWOT analysis include: the selection of accredited laboratories, improve the performance of Waste Water Treatment Plant, planned to construct methane capture, optimizing the utilization of solid waste, optimizing the reduction of hazardous waste, provide input in determining government policy, and training routine related to environmental management to improve the competence of personnel.Keywords: environmental management, optimization, performance, sustainable

  2. Keanekaragaman Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula Pada Areal Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Studi Kasus Di PTPN III Kebun Batang Toru Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Nabilah

    2014-01-01

    The first thing that must be known to study the potential of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal is to know the diversity of these organisms. Data of diversity vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal used to obtain the selection of of potential and effective isolates. The aim of this research was to know the density of spore, colonization percentage, and types of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal of oil palm tree in PTPN III Batang Toru Estate at different soil fertility conditions. Methods of soil and ...

  3. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP SERANGGA HAMA (THOSEA SP.) DAN SERANGGA PENYERBUK (ELAEIDOBIUS KAMERUNICUS) DALAM AGROEKOSISTEM KELAPA SAWIT

    OpenAIRE

    Rosma Hasibuan, I Gede Swibawa, Agus M. Hariri, Sudi Pramono, F.X. Susilo1, dan Nurafiah Karmike

    2011-01-01

    Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Insect Pest (Thosea sp.) and Insect Pollinators (Elaeidobius kamerunicus) in Oil Palm Agroecosystem.  Insecticide efficacy studies are usually determined from the target insect (pest) data without regard to the effect of that treatment on the non-target insects (such as pollinators). This study examined  the effect of  permethrin  (one of widely used insecticides for agriculture)  on   defoliating insect pest (nettle caterpillar, Thosea sp.) and...

  4. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP SERANGGA HAMA (THOSEA SP. DAN SERANGGA PENYERBUK (ELAEIDOBIUS KAMERUNICUS DALAM AGROEKOSISTEM KELAPA SAWIT

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    Rosma Hasibuan, I Gede Swibawa, Agus M. Hariri, Sudi Pramono, F.X. Susilo1, dan Nurafiah Karmike

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Insect Pest (Thosea sp. and Insect Pollinators (Elaeidobius kamerunicus in Oil Palm Agroecosystem.  Insecticide efficacy studies are usually determined from the target insect (pest data without regard to the effect of that treatment on the non-target insects (such as pollinators. This study examined  the effect of  permethrin  (one of widely used insecticides for agriculture  on   defoliating insect pest (nettle caterpillar, Thosea sp. and  insect pollinator (weevil, Elaeidobius kamerunicus which lives on pollen of  male oil palm flowers.  A complete block design was used in which each of  four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50;  100; 200; and 250 ppm and control .  The results clearly demonstrated  that the application of  permethrin reduced significantly the number of  nettle caterpillar  throughout all sprayed plants (up to 100% 14 d after treatments.  A significant difference in mean population of the caterpillar were detected between plots sprayed with permethrin (0.05; 0.25; 0.53; and 2.00 larvae/leaves at  concentrations of  250; 200; 100; and 50 ppm respectively and control plant  (5.2 larvae/leaves 3 d after treatments. This  insecticide effects  persisted for at least  14 d after treatments.  On the other hand,  permethrin application in oil palm agroecosystem had adverse effects on main pollinator (E. kamerunicus.  The number of weevil pollinators on sprayed plants (12.5; 59.3; 77.5; and 209.5 weevil/male flower at  concentrations of 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm respectively were significantly fewer compared to the control plants (976.0  weevil/male flower.  The results indicate that, despite high efficacy of permethrin in reducing number of insect pests  of oil palm (Thosea sp., its application also cause a severe impact on  important insect pollinators  (E. kamerunicus.

  5. Dampak Aplikasi Insektisida Permetrin terhadap Serangga Hama (Thosea SP.) dan Serangga Penyerbuk (Elaeidobius Kamerunicus) dalam Agroekosistem Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    F.X. Susilo1, dan Nurafiah Karmike, Rosma Hasibuan, I Gede Swibawa, Agus M. Hariri, Sudi Pramono

    2002-01-01

    Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Insect Pest (Thosea sp.) and Insect Pollinators (Elaeidobius Kamerunicus) in Oil Palm Agroecosystem. Insecticide efficacy studies are usually determined from the target insect (pest) data without regard to the effect of that treatment on the non-target insects (such as pollinators). This study examined the effect of permethrin (one of widely used insecticides for agriculture) on defoliating insect pest (nettle caterpillar, Thosea sp.) and...

  6. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Secara Molekuler Ganoderma spp. yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang di Kelapa Sawit

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    Maria Indah Purnamasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of Ganoderma spp. isolates was isolated from oil palms attacked by basal stem rot (BSR disease in Padang and Pontianak plantations. Genetic polymorphism of these isolates was analyzed based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence of ribosomal DNA region. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was also performed to determine the association of the isolates with BSR disease. The isolated Ganoderma spp. showed high DNA polymorphism and there was no obvious genetic clustering of isolates that may correspond to their geographical position in Padang and Pontianak. This indicated that exchange of DNA between Ganoderma spp. infecting oil palm is not uncommon. This can be explained by the heterothallic nature of Ganoderma spp. in which DNA recombination occurs during sexual reproduction between different thalli. RFLP analysis showed that ITS fragments from all Ganoderma spp. isolates were digested with restriction enzymes MluI and SacI. This indicated that the anoderma spp. isolates were specific for oil palm and thus associated with the BSR.Key words: basal stem rot, Ganoderma spp., internal transcribed spacer, oil palm

  7. Pengaruh Tekanan Pembriketan dan Persentase Briket Campuran Gambut dan Arang Pelepah Daun Kelapa Sawit terhadap Karakteristik Pembakaran Briket

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    Andy Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Briquettes mixture of peat and charcoal leaf midrib palm oil is one of the alternative energy for replacing fossil fuel energy. It is environmentally friendly and abundant in Indonesia, mainly in South Kalimantan. In this study, the percentage of briquettes mixture of peat and charcoal leaf midrib of palm oil were 50%:50%, 60%:40%, 70%:30%, 80%:20% and 90%:10%, respectively. In addition, 1 gram of starch was added as an adhesive for every variation of briquettes mixture. In briquetting process, the pressures were 10 kg/cm2, 20 kg/cm2 and 30 kg/cm2. The combustion characteristics of  briquettes was tested, then it was compared by subbituminous coal briquettes. The results show, ignition delay of briquettes decrease by increasing additional percentage of peat, however extend the burning time of briquettes, consequently the burning rate decrease and the briquettes temperature becomes low. Briquetting pressure affects the combustion characteristics of briquettes. Ignition delay of briquettes decrease by the pressure. On the other hand, extend the burning time of briquettes and decrease the burning rate, however combustion temperatures of briquettes increases. The results also show a comparison of mixture briquettes peat and charcoal palm leaf midrib with subbituminus coal briquettes. The subbituminous coal briquettes produces higher combustion temperature, the longer combustion process and the lowest  combustion rate.

  8. Model Pengolahan Limbah Cair dengan Pendekatan Sistem Dinamik dalam Upaya Produksi Bersih pada Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Abdul Jabbar M

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability processing strategy of crude palm oil industry is a supply chain approach based on clean technology and housekeeping were the main factor to be considered are biophysical aspect(earth), economy(profit and welfare), and social (human and environment). The purpose of this research is to get an integrated production process model with clean technology by using crude palm oil liquid waste become a biomass, in other to get Environmental Sustainability of The Crude Palm Oil I...

  9. Uji Efektifitas Beberapa Bahan Aktif Insektisida Untuk Mengendalikan Ulat Api (Setothosea asigna Eecke) Pada Fase Vegetatif Kelapa Sawit di Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Amadeus J.

    2017-01-01

    This research aim to determine the most effective and efficient insecticide to control nettle caterpillar (S. asigna Eecke) on oil palm in the field. The research was held in Desa Perumnas Simalingkar since July to September 2016. The method of this research was complete block design nonfactorial, with nine treatments, Control, Deltamethrin (0.05% and 0.1)%, Chlorpyrifos (0.05% and 0.1%), Dimehipo (0.05% and 0.1%), Dimetoat (0.05% and 0.1%) with three replications. The parameters include the ...

  10. Surfaktan Sodium Ligno Sulfonat (SLS dari Debu Sabut Kelapa

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    Mukti Mulyawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara agraris yang menghasilkan beragam hasil pertanian yang melimpah. Salah satu hasil pertanian yang menonjol di Indonesia adalah kelapa. Produksi buah kelapa di Indonesia rata-rata sebanyak 15,5 miliar butir/tahun atau setara dengan 3,02 juta ton kopra, 3,75 juta ton air, 0,75 juta ton arang tempurung, 1,8 juta ton serat sabut (coir fiber dan 3,3 juta ton debu sabut (coir dust/ cocopeat. Komposisi sabut kelapa terdiri dari 25% gabus dan 75% serat . Tetapi, debu sabut kelapa masih dikembangkan sebatas sebagai media tanam. sisanya akan menjadi limbah dengan kontribusi sangat besar dari pengisi pada volume total sampah domestiK. Banyaknya komoditas kelapa dan potensi limbah sabut yang dihasilkan, membuat pemanfaatan Debu Sabut menjadi bahan yang bernilai ekonomis patut untuk dilakukan. Salah satunya adalah sebagai bahan pembuatan Surfakatan Sodium Ligno Sulfonat (SLS yang selama ini komoditasnya diperoleh seluruhnya dari impor. Adapun tahapan proses pembuatan SLS dari Debu Sabut kelapa adalah mempersiapan Bahan Baku berupa Debu Sabut Kelapa. Dilanjutkan dengan pemasakan/pulping menggunakan metode organosolv dengan alat pemasak digester (R-120. Dari lindi hitam yang dihasilkan, akan diproses dengan Isolasi Lignin dengan metode presipitasi asam. Lindi hitam yang telah didapat diendapkan dengan menambahkan secara perlahan H2SO4dengan konsentrasi 20% sampai pH 2 pada tangki isolasi pertama (M-211.Proses isolasi dengan metode pengasaman banyak digunakan untuk mendapatkan lignin dengan kemurnian tinggi. Untuk Menghasilkan SLS, Lignin Isolat perlu direaksikan dengan bahan penyulfonasi natrium bisulfit (NaHSO3, sehingga menghasilkan natrium lignosulfonat (SLS pada reaktor sulfonasi (R-310. Berlokasi di Provinsi Riau, Pabrik ini akan dibangun dengan kapasistas 20.150 ton/tahun. Dari analisa ekonomi, diperlukan Modal tetap (FCI sebesar Rp 316.323.349.677; Modal kerja (WCI sebesar Rp 74.429.023.453; Investasi total (TCI sebesar Rp 390

  11. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA YOGURT BERBASIS AIR KELAPA MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI PATOGEN SECARA IN VITRO

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    Lindawati S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt merupakan minuman susu yang difermentasi dengan menggunakan bakteri asam laktat Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Streptococcus thermophyllus sebagai starter. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan tertinggi dari yogurt berbasis air kelapa dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pathogen (Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiela pneumonia dan E.coli secara in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Keempat perlakuan tersebut: Ko: susu skim 12%+air; K1: susu skim 12%+air kelapa gading; K2: susu skim 12%+kelapa gading bulan; K3: susu skim 12%+air kelapa hijau. Peubah yang diamati adalah aktivitas antimikroba yogurt terhadap bakteri pathogen (Salmonellatyphi, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumonia dan E.coli, total plate count (TPC, total bakteri asam laktat dan E,coli. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antimikroba tertinggi diperoleh pada yogurt berbasis air kelapa bulan terhadap bakeri Salmonella typhi dan Staphylococcus masing-masing sebesar 0,21 dan 0,26 cm dengan total bakteri asam laktat1,1×107 cfu/mL sedangkan untuk Klebsiella pneumonia dan E.coli diperoleh pada yogurt berbasis air kelapa gading sebesar 0,38 dan 0,64 mm dengan total bakteri asam laktat 3,1×106 cfu/mL.Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa yogurt berbasis air kelapa gading, bulan, hijau dan tanpa air kelapa memiliki aktivitas antimikroba berspektrum luas (menghambat bakteri gram positif dan negatif.

  12. DAYA SAING DAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN MINYAK SAWIT DI INDONESIA

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    Jauhar Samudera Nayantakaningtyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian Crude palm oil CPO products in the international market and to analyze the strategy to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO. The analysis methods used this research were descriptive qualitative methods. The tools used to analyze the competitiveness of palm oil is Revealed Comparative Advantages and Porter Diamond Theory, while the development of the strategy used to determine the SWOT method. Based on the analysis of Porter's Diamond System and revealed comparative advantages, this study concluded that the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO was pretty strong, but it still needed a strategy to strengthen its competitiveness especially on derivative products. Some of the routine strategies that need to be done every year, are the development of the CPO industry human resources through training and innovation activities, paying attention to national and international issues by improving government policies, downstream industrial development and palm oil value-added increase, enhance cooperation with manufacturers from other countries through promotions.Keywords: crude palm oil, competitiveness, strategy, analysis of porter's diamondABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing produk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Indonesia di pasar internasional dan menganalisis strategi peningkatan daya saing CPO Indonesia. Metode pengolahan dan analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif. Alat  yang digunakan untuk menganalisis daya saing minyak sawit  adalah Revealed Comparative Advantages dan Teori Berlian Porter, sedangkan untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan digunakan metode SWOT. Hasil analisis Sistem Berlian Porter dan revealed comparative advantages disimpulkan bahwa daya saing CPO Indonesia cukup kuat, namun masih diperlukan adanya strategi untuk memperkuat terutama pada produk turunan CPO. Strategi rutin yang harus

  13. FORMULASI DAN PENGOLAHAN MARGARIN MENGGUNAKAN FRAKSI MINYAK SAWIT PADA SKALA INDUSTRI KECIL SERTA APLIKASINYA DALAM PEMBUATAN BOLU GULUNG

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    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-11-01

    margarin pembanding. Hasil uji organoleptik bolu gulung menggunakan margarin ini memberikan tingkat kesukaan terhadap rasa, tekstur dan kenampakan tidak berbeda nyata dengan margarin pembanding. Dengan demikian, margarin yang dibuat dari RBDPO dan RPO pada penelitian ini memiliki kualitas memadai dan setara dengan produk komersial. Kata kunci: Formulasi, minyak sawit, minyak sawit merah, texturisasi, lemak plastis

  14. Pengaruh Berkumur Air Kelapa Muda Terhadap Ph Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Mokoginta, Zuthra P

    2017-01-01

    PENGARUH BERKUMUR AIR KELAPA MUDA TERHADAP pH SALIVA Zuthra P. Mokoginta1) , Vonny N.S. Wowor1) , Juliatri1) 1)Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran UNSRAT Manado, 95115 ABSTRACT Saliva is one factor that contributes to the development of caries, particularly in the process of demineralization. The low pH in the oral cavity will facilitate the growth of acidogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus which is the main cause microorganisms in th...

  15. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  16. Kajian Kualitas Briket Biomassa dari Sekam Padi dan Tempurung Kelapa

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    Idzni Qistina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Biomassa seperti sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa dapat menjadi sumber bahan baku briket sebagai salah satu energi alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil (minyak bumi.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kualitas briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa melalui proses semi-karbonisasi pada temperatur antara 50-125 0C dengan durasi waktu proses 50-120 menit. Proses pembuatan briket meliputiproses semi-karbonisasi, pencampuran biomassa dengan perekat, pencetakan, pengeringan, dan uji kualitas briket. Pengujian kualitas briket meliputi analisis briket yaitu nilai kalor, kadar air, fixed carbon, volatile matter, abu, dan analisis ultimat. Disamping itu juga dilakukan uji kuat tekan, pengukuran emisi gas, dan uji termal briket yang dihasilkan.Hasilnya menunjukkan penurunan kadar air bahan baku briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa membutuhkan energi masing-masing 8.54% dan 4.97% dari proses karbonisasi murni yang menghasilkan semi arang. Nilai kalor briket sekam padi maupun tempurung kelapa mengalami penurunan masing-masing 9.72% dan 7.21% jika dibandingkan dengan bahan bakunya.Gas emisi dari briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa yaitu gas NOx, SOx, CO, dan hidrokarbon (HC masih di bawah baku mutu yang dipersyaratkan. Hasil uji termal briket menunjukkan efisiensi termal briket sekam lebih baik dibandingkan briket tempurung kelapa dengan nilai efisiensi masing-masing sebesar 31.13% dan 22.28%. Kata kunci: Briket sekam padi, briket tempurung kelapa, semi karbonisasi, emisi gas, efisiensi termal. Abstract   Biomass energy, among others, rice husk and coconut shell can be an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels (petroleum. This study aims to assess the quality briquettes rice husk and coconut shell with raw materials through semi-carbonization process at a temperature between 50-125 0C with a duration of 50-120 minutes of processing time. Briquetting process meliputu semi-carbonization, refining raw materials and sieving made

  17. Pembuatan Sabun Cair Menggunakan Alkali Dari Kulit Coklat (Theobroma cacao L.) dengan Minyak Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Paduana, Aulia Bismar

    2017-01-01

    120405037 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi kulit coklat sebagai alkali pada proses pembuatan sabun natural dan mengetahui sifat-sifat sabun natural yang dihasilkan dari minyak kelapa sebagai sumber asam lemak. Bahan ? bahan yang digunakan, antara lain minyak kelapa, alkali dari kulit coklat dan aquadest. Variabel ? variabel yang diamati, antara lain temperatur reaksi pembuatan sabun, waktu pengadukan dan waktu reaski penyabunan. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan alkali d...

  18. ANALISIS KEHILANGAN MINYAK PADA CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

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    Vera Devani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PKS “XYZ” merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan kelapa sawit. Produk yang dihasilkan adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO dan Palm Kernel Oil (PKO. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa kehilangan minyak (oil losses dan faktor-faktor penyebab dengan menggunakan metoda Statistical Process Control. Statistical Process Control adalah sekumpulan strategi, teknik, dan tindakan yang diambil oleh sebuah organisasi untuk memastikan bahwa strategi tersebut menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas atau menyediakan pelayanan yang berkualitas. Sampel terjadinya oil losses pada CPO yang diteliti adalah tandan kosong (tankos, biji (nut, ampas (fibre, dan sludge akhir. Berdasarkan Peta Kendali I-MR dapat disimpulkan bahwa kondisi keempat jenis oil losses CPO berada dalam batas kendali dan konsisten. Sedangkan nilai Cpk dari total oil losses berada di luar batas kendali rata-rata proses, hal ini berarti CPO yang diproduksi telah memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan, dengan total oil losses kurang dari batas maksimum yang ditetapkan oleh perusahaan yaitu 1,65%.

  19. DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT FROM ENZYMATIC FERMENTATION

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    Hermansyah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan sumber energi terbarukan bioetanol membutuhkan metode analisis produk bioetanol secara cepat dan akurat. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan pengukuran etanol produksi fermentasi hidrolisat dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS, ampas tebu, dan jerami padi. Reaksi didasarkan pada reaksi enzimatis. Etanol dioksidasi oleh nikotinamida-adenin dinukleotida (NAD+ menjadi asetaldehid dalam keberadaan enzim alkohol dehidrogenase (ADH, dan asetaldehid secara kuantitatif dioksidasi menjadi asam asetat dengan keberadaan aldehid dehidrogenase (Al-DH. NADH yang terbentuk ditentukan absorbansinya dengan spektrofotometer 334 nm, 340 nm, atau 365 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fermentasi yang dlakukan selama dua hari sudah menghasilkan etanol dengan kadar masing-masing 0,1368% (v/v; 0,1317% (v/v; dan 0,1149% (v/v dari hidrolisat TKKS, jerami padi, dan ampas tebu.

  20. Kekuatan Lentur Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

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    I Made Astika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki sifat mekanis yaitu kekuatan lentur dari kompositpolyester yang diperkuat dengan serat tapis kelapa. Di masa depan komposit ini dapatdigunakan untuk menggantikan kayu, bambu dan gipsun yang harganya mahal dan tidaktahan air. Komposit dibuat dengan memanfaatkan serat sabut kelapa dan matriks resinUnsaturated-Polyester (UPRs jenis Yucalac 157 BQTN, campuran 1% hardener jenis MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide dan perendaman serat dalam larutan alkali KMnO4 0,5%.Metode produksi yang digunakan adalah press hand lay up dengan orientasi serat acak.Desain komposit dengan variasi fraksi volume serat 20, 25 dan 30% dan variasi panjang serat5, 10 dan 15 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar fraksi volume danpanjang serat dalam komposit maka kekuatan lentur semakin tinggi. Mode patahan yangteramati adalah patah getas, debonding, pullout dan crack deflection.Kata kunci: komposit, serat tapis kelapa, kekuatan lentur, mode patahan The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. flexural strength ofcomposites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood,bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance.The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resinunsaturated polyester (UPRs type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and fiber treatment by 0.5% KMnO4. Production methods arepress hand lay-up and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiberlength are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of mechanical properties is flexural test (ASTM - D790The results of research show that the longer of fiber and the bigger of fiber volume fraction,the higher of flexural strength are obtained. The fracture mode are overload, debonding ,pullout and crack deflectionKeywords : composites, coconut filter fiber, flexural strength, fracture mode

  1. PERMAINAN TRADISIONAL BATOK KELAPA DALAM MEMBANGUN KONSEP PENGUKURAN PANJANG KELAS II SD

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    Fanni Fatoni, cakrawala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan cara siswa belajar memahami satuan pengukuran panjang standar menggunakan permainan tradisional batok kelapa untuk kelas dua sekolah dasar. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah desain riset dengan Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT. Penelitian dilakukan melalui tiga tahap, yaitu desain awal, percobaan mengajar, dan analisis retrospektif. Penelitian dilakukan di SDN 1 Palembang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui rekaman video terhadap peristiwa di kelas dan kerja kelompok, pengumpulan pekerjaan siswa, pemberian pretes dan postes, dan wawancara dengan siswa. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman siswa terhadap pengukuran panjang dapat dirangsang dengan menggunakan permainan tradisional batok kelapa sebagai konteks. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, disarankan bahwa PMRI dapat digunakan sebagai pendekatan pembelajaran pengukuran panjang di sekolah dasar. Kata Kunci: pengukuran panjang, batok kelapa, desain riset, PMRI USING TRADITIONAL GAME OF BATOK KELAPA IN LENGTH MEASUREMENT FOR THE SECOND GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL Abstract: This research aims to investigate how students learn to understand the unit standards of length measurement using a traditional game of batok kelapa for the second grade of primary school. The method is the design research with Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT was developed and a set of activities was performed to gain a better understanding of how to develop an understanding of length measurement through three phases, namely preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. This research was conducted at SDN 1 Palembang. Data collections were generated through video recordings of classroom events and group work, collecting student work, giving pre-test and post-test, and interviewing the students. The results indicate that students' understanding of length measurements can be stimulated by using traditional game of batok

  2. PENGARUH INTERVENSI PENAMBAHAN FITOSTEROL PADA MINYAK GORENG SAWIT TERHADAP PROFIL LIPID SUBJEK DENGAN SINDROMA METABOLIK

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    Naufal Muharam Nurdin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of phytosterol on palm oil among metabolic syndrome (MetS subject. This study was a clinical trial with randomized double blind controlled design. Thirty adult subject (age 40—60 with MetS are divided into 2 groups. Intervention group were given palm oil enriched with 6.5% phytosterol and used as cooking oil for habitual use for 8 week. The control group were given palm oil without phytosterol. Nutrition intake was assesed by recalls every 2 weeks. Blood lipid profile, blood glucose and anthropometry were analyzed at pre and post intevention. After 8 week intervention, estimated total palm cooking oil and phytosterol consumption on intervention group were 46±23 g/day and 2±1 g/day. There were no significant change of the LDL-choleseterol level (p>0.05 but there were a significant reductiton of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride level compared the control group (respectively p=0.007 and p=0.027. In conclusion with high level palm cooking oil intake, estimated phytosterol intake had reached the target and there are slight improvement of the lipid profile on MetS subject .Keywords: lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, palm oil, phytosterolABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis efek penambahan fitosterol pada minyak goreng sawit terhadap profil lipid subjek dengan sindroma metabolik (SM. Penelitian ini merupakan uji klinis acak tersamar ganda. Sebanyak 30 subjek dewasa dengan umur 40—60 tahun yang memenuhi kriteria SM terlibat pada penelitian ini. Subjek dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Kelompok perlakuan diberikan minyak sawit yang diperkaya 6.5% fitosterol dan digunakan sebagai minyak goreng sesuai kebiasaan sehari-hari selama delapan minggu sedangkan kelompok kontrol diberikan minyak sawit tanpa fitosterol. Konsumsi pangan dinilai melalui metode 24 jam-recall setiap dua minggu. Pengukuran antropometri dan profil

  3. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Kelapa Menggunakan Microwave : Penggunaan Katalis KOH dengan Konsentrasi Rendah

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    Gus Ali Nur Rohman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pembuatan methyl ester (biodiesel dari minyak kelapa dengan katalis KOH dengan bantuan gelombang mikro (microwave di latar belakangi oleh adanya krisis energi sehingga memerlukan metode baru untuk membuat renewable energy dalam hal ini adalah biodiesel. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan metode radiasi microwave, pengaruh konsentrasi katalis KOH, pengaruh daya, waktu pemanasan yang digunakan terhadap yield dan viskositas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Pembuatan methyl ester (biodiesel dari minyak kelapa dilakukan dengan perbandingan mol minyak : metanol = 1 : 9. Biodiesel yang dihasilkan kemudian dianalisa dengan uji viskositas, uji flash point, dan uji gas chromatography (GC. Yield optimum pada pembuatan methyl ester dari minyak kelapa dengan metode microwave-assisted transesterification untuk katalis KOH adalah konsentrasi 0,5% dengan daya 400 watt dan waktu reaksi 4 menit.

  4. Pengaruh perlakuan serat tapis kelapa terhadap kekuatan lentur skin komposit sandwich

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    I Made Astika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penggunaan serat alam sebagai penguat komposit semakin berkembang. Indonesia sebagai negara beriklim tropis menghasilkan berbagai jenis serat alami seperti rami, abaca, agave, serat sabut kelapa dan serat tapis kelapa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki pengaruh perlakuan alkali serat (NaOH 5% terhadap kekuatan lentur komposit sandwich serat tapis kelapa bermatrik polyester dengan core kayu albasia Bahan penelitian adalah serat tapis kelapa dengan panjang 15 mm, resin unsaturated polyester 157 BQTN, kayu albasia dan NaOH. Hardener yang digunakan adalah MEKPO dengan konsentrasi 1%. Serat tapis kelapa yang digunakan terdiri dari serat tanpa perlakuan dan dengan perlakuan alkali 2 jam. Komposit sandwich tersusun atas dua skin dengan core ditengahnya dan dibuat dengan metode cetak tekan hidrolis. Lamina komposit sebagai skin terbuat dari serat tapis kelapa-polyester dengan fraksi volume serat 30%. Spesimen dan prosedur pengujian lentur mengacu pada standar ASTM C 393. Penampang patahan dilakukan foto makro untuk mengidentifikasi pola kegagalannya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan serat yang mendapatkan perlakuan alkali 2 jam NaOH menghasilkan kekuatan lentur yang lebih tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan karena perlakuan alkali pada serat tapis kelapa dapat membersihkan lapisan lilin (lignin dan kotoran pada permukaan serat sehingga menghasilkan mechanical interlocking yang lebih baik antara serat dengan matrik poliester. Dengan ikatan yang lebih baik maka komposit tersebut akan mampu menahan beban lentur yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: komposit sandwich, serat tapis kelapa, perlakuan NaOH, kekuatan lentur Abstract The use of natural fibers as reinforcement composites is growing. Indonesia as a tropical country produces various types of natural fibers like coconut filter fiber. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of alkali treatment of the fiber (5% NaOH. The research material is coconut filter fiber, 157 BQTN unsaturated

  5. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBERIAN MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK LEMURU DALAM MEMPERCEPAT PUBERTAS TIKUS BETINA

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    Mirtaati Na’ima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji efektivitas pemberian minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru dalam mempercepat pubertas tikus betina, pada parameter peningkatan berat badan, berat ovarium dan perkembangan folikel ovarium. Tikus betina usia 21 hari sebanyak 20 ekor dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok variasi pemberian minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru per oral, yaitu kelompok A (0%+0%, B (3%+3%, C (4%+4%, dan D (5%+5%. Pada akhir penelitian (hari ke-20, dilakukan pengambilan data peningkatan berat badan, berat ovarium, dan perkembangan folikel ovarium. Data dianalisis secara deskripsi dan statistik dengan anava satu arah. Jika terdapat perbedaan, dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru dapat mempercepat pubertas tikus betina khususnya dari peningkatan berat badan, berat ovarium, dan perkembangan folikel ovarium. Dosis paling efektif untuk mempercepat pubertas adalah 4% minyak sawit + 4% minyak lemuru. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of palm and lemuru oil for the acceleration of female rat puberty, especially in increasing the body weight, the ovarian weight and the follicle development. Twenty female rats aged 21 days were divided into 4 based on the variation of orally feeding palm and lemuru oil, namely group A (0% +0%, B (3% +3%, C (4% +4%, and D (5% +5%. At the twentieth day, data of the increase of the body weight, the ovarian weight and the follicle development were collected and then analyzed descriptively and statistically using one-way ANOVA. For any difference, the Least Significance Difference Test would be performed. The result of this study showed that palm and lemuru oil can accelerate the puberty of female rats. The most effective dose was 4% palm oil and 4% lemuru oil.

  6. REDISTILAT ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET BAKSO SAPI [Redistilled Liquid Smoke of Oil-Palm Shells as a Preservative for Beef Meatballs

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    Suminar Setiati Achmadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid smoke has been used to extend the shelf life of food. However, its composition varies considerably depending on the type of raw materials used and preparation precedure. Liquid smoke derived from palm oil shell is potential due to the abundance of its byproduct sources in the palm oil industry. This study thus aims to prepare the best fraction of liquid smoke that can extend the shelf life of beef meatballs at room temperature. The raw liquid smoke was redistilled at 80, 90, and 100°C and was used as an ingredient in the beef meatballs production. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification showed that there were no harmful compounds such as derivatives of tar and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Liquid smoke produced from redistillation at 80°C had the best result for providing higher acid value and lower pH, i.e. 5.14% and 2.26, respectively. The LC50 value of the redistilled liquid smoke in brine shrimp lethality assay was 0.16%. Inhibition zones of 0.1 and 0.8% redistilled liquid smoke on the antibacterial test against Staphylococcus aureus were both 6.10 mm, while the zones of inhibition for Escherichia coli were 0 and 7.0 mm, respectively. These resulting inhibition zones were less effective than that of 100 ppm chloramphenicol, i.e. 14.2 mm on S. aureus and 12.6 mm on E. coli. The usage of redistilled liquid smoke at concentration of 0.8% in meatballs was found to inhibit total microbial growth greater than that of the addition at 0.1%. Moreover, the addition of redistilled liquid smoke inhibited the growth of microbial up to 18 hours at room temperature.

  7. Peran Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Bri) Unit Kota Garo Terhadap Peningkatan USAhatani Kelapa Sawit Di Desa Tanah Tinggi Kecamatan Tapung Hilir Kabupaten Kampar Tahun 2014

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    Ikhwan, Muhammad; Chalid, Nursiah; Aqualdo, Nobel

    2015-01-01

    This research is conducted in subdistrict of Tapung go downstream camphor regency. Target of this research is conducted to know role of Bank Rakyat Indonesia of unit town of garo to improvement of is effort farmer of oil palm in countryside of highlands of subdistrict of tapung go downstream regency of camphor in the year 2014in this research is methodologies used by quantitative and descriptive with program spss, where sampel used by that is farmer of oil palm borrowing fund in bri, farmer o...

  8. Pengaruh Penggunaan Sistem ERP, Ketersediaan Data dan Ketersediaan Laporan terhadap Pengambilan Keputusan pada Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit: Studi Kasus PT Ciliandra Perkasa

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    Roni Kurniawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Every decision made by top management determines the company objection. One tool that can assist a company’s management in decision making is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system. It provides any information needed by the end users. So, this system can provide supports to all staffs in operation, managers inthe middle level and top executives in the top level management. The information provided by this system can help the end users to do their functions within company properly. PT Ciliandra Perkasa as an agribusiness company needs information system support for its operational. This support will help company to get morecompetitive in oil palm agribusiness in Indonesia. This research implements quantitative method using primary data and secondary data sampling.

  9. Sifat Biologi Tanah Mineral Masam Dystrudepts Di Areal Piringan Kelapa Sawit Yang Diaplikasi Mulsa Organik Mucuna Bracteata Di Lahan Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Riau

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    Zahara, Fitri; ', wawan; ', Wardati

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research to determine the soil biological properties on the acidic mineral soil Dystrudepts in the area of disc palm oil applied of organic mulch Mucuna bracteata in the experimental garden of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University. Analysis of the soil biological was conducted in the Soil Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University, in October 2014 to February 2015. Application of mulch organic M. bracteata used purposive random sampling method which consisting of...

  10. Pengolahan Internal Air Boiler Dengan Penambahan Asam Sulfat (H2SO4) 98% dan Kaustik Soda (NaOH) Di PTPN III Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

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    Simanjuntak, Depi Fitri

    2010-01-01

    Have been do observation to treatment of water domestic boiler with additional material of chemistry that is: H2SO4 98 % in tank cation and NaOH in tank anion. From result of observation, so geted, pH value, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Phenolphtalein Alkalinity, Methyl Alkalinity, Total Alkalinity, Sulfite, Chloride, Total Hardness, Hardness, has appropriate with prerequirement water of boiler wich used in PTPN III RAMBUTAN TEBING TINGGI. 072409006

  11. Pengaruh Peningkatan Jumlah Abu Kulit Buah Kelapa Sebagai Katalis Dalam Pembuatan Metil Ester Dengan Bahan Baku Minyak Sawit Mentah (Crude Palm Oil)

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    Sihotang, Allen Rianto

    2014-01-01

    Methyl esters are generally synthesized through transesterification with mild alcohol to using conventional alkaline catalysts are NaOH, KOH, and others. So by using coconut husk ash as a catalyst can be an alternative to conventional catalysts are very expensive. In the manufacture of methyl ester in this study is using two-stage reaction such as, esterification reaction with a strong acid catalyst (H2SO4) to reduce free fatty acids and transesterification with methanol which variated the am...

  12. Redesign Handle Wheelbarrow Untuk Mengurangi Keluhan Musculoskeletal Menggunakan Metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Bagan Jaya Kab. Indragiri Hilir, Riau

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    M. Gasali M

    2015-12-01

      Design Handle Wheelbarrow to Reduce Musculoskeletal Complaints Method Using Quality Function Deployment (QFD in Oil Palm Plantation Bagan Jaya District, Indragiri Hilir, Riau Abstract. Wheelbarrow is one means of conveyance of material, namely a wheelbarrow, wheelbarrow initially a conveyance which is very useful for people who transport activity plantation crops or also goods buildings, etc., when seen from the definition wheelbarrow is a means of transport that is driven by hand , has 1 piece wheels, and driven by an operator through the handle. In line with this has been a lot of developments done on the system and methods of support to facilitate all those activities. One of these tools is the wheelbarrow transport meterial (wheelbarrow. Handcart or wheelbarrow to haul awalnyamerupakan a very useful tool for people to do activities or also the transportation of farm goods and other buildings, performed percentile calculation result obtained by rounding length of 29.02 cm to 30 cm. so long hendle ergonomic design based anthropometric oil palm plantation workers is 30 cm, calculated from the point of welding, wheelbarrow hendle diameter of 3.03 cm, and width hendle 9, 04 cm with rounding to 9 cm. Results of the study after the redesign Wheelbarrow based Quality Function Deployment (QFD is to have the aspects of quality, ergonomics complete that is effective, convenient, safe, healthy, and efficient (ENASE. Musculoskeletal complaints plantation employees decreased by 31.79%.

  13. Pelaksanaan Ekstensifikasi Wajib Pajak dan Intensifikasi Pajak: Upaya Peningkatan Penerimaan PPH Orang Pribadi pada KPP Pratama Duren Sawit

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    Maya Safira Dewi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the expansion and intensification of the taxpayer and its effects on the revenue of Personal Income of Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta. Besides, this study aims to find out the obstacles that occur in the implementation of these activities. This study used qualitative method. Results of the research show that the expansion and intensification of taxpayer in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit, Jakarta, did not run optimally although the growth of the taxpayer and the tax revenues increased from 2010 to 2012. However, there was a slight decrease in tax revenues in 2012. Various efforts were made by Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta to maximize the implementation of the extensification and intensification of tax, such as socialization. To overcome problems occur in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta, research’s suggestion is adding human resources if possible or optimization for effectiveness of the current resource to do outreach of taxpayers and expand cooperation with other parties.

  14. PERBEDAAN PENGARUH DIET TINGGI MINYAK SAWIT SEGAR DENGAN MINYAK JELANTAH TERHADAP LEMAK DAN TNF- α DARAH TIKUS

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    Susila Sastri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMasyarakat akhir-akhir ini cenderung memilih minyak sawit sebagai bahan penggoreng, hal ini mungkin karena harganya lebih murah dan mudah didapat dibandingkan minyak lain. Pemakain MS oleh masyarakat biasanya untuk bahan penggoreng bahan makanan. Minyak sawit mengandung asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh yang hampir seimbang, asam lemak jenuh meningkatkan lemak darah dan asam lemak tidak jenuh dikatakan dapat menurunkan lemak darah. Asam lemak tidak jenuh disisi lain mudah dioksidasi dengan pemanasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat perbedaan pengaruh diet tinggi minyak sawit segar dan jelantah minyak sawit terhadap lemak darah dan TNF-α.Sudah dilakukan pemberian diet tinggi minyak sawit (50% pada tikus Wistar selama 8 minggu secara adlibitum. Pengukuran kadar kolesterol total, HDL-kol dan trigliserida melalui serum darah dengan alat spectrophotometer dan pemeriksaan TNF-α darah dengan cara ELISA.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat peninggian kadar lemak (trigliserida dan kolesterol total dan TNF-α darah bermakna (p<0,05 pada tikus diet tinggi minyak sawit segar ataupun minyak jelantah bila dibandingkan dengan kontrol namun peninggian lemak dan TNF-α oleh minyak jelantah lebih tinggi bermakna bila dibandingkan dengan minyak sawit segar. Kadar kolesterol darah tikus DMS lebih rendah dari kelompok kontrol positif.Kesimpulan; diet tinggi minyak sawit segar dan minyak jelantah pada tikus dapat meningkatkan kadar kolesterol total, trigliserida dan TNF-α secara bermakna dibandingkan kontrol, sedangkan peningkatan oleh minyak jelantah lebih tinggi bermakna dari minyak sawit segar.Kata kunci : diet tinggi minyak sawit, lemak darah, TNF-αAbstractSociety these days tend to prefer palm oil as raw roaster, this is probably because the price is cheap and easily available than other oils. MS usage by the community generally to material food fryer. Palm oil contains saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are nearly balanced

  15. KAJIAN ASPEK TEKNIS DAN FINASIAL USAHA RUMAH TANGGA BRIKET BIOMASSA DARI KULIT NIPAH DENGAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA

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    Martanto Martanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah merupakan salah satu tanaman  didaerah pasang surut. Di Indonesia terdapat Sekitar tujuh juta hektar (7 Ha  tanaman Nipah. Pemanfaatan kulit nipah  sampai saat ini belum maksimal. Penelitian ini mencoba membuat briket arang dengan campuran arang kelapa. Metode pernelitian ini menggunakan eksperimen untuk pembuatan briket kulit nipah dan metode kuantitatif tehadap nilai ekonomisnya Dari hasil penelitian didapat kadar air 9,2 % ,kadar abu 3,51 % dan kadar zat menguap  2,62 %. Hasil penelitian tersebut layak dan kulaitasnya hampir sama dengan batu bara muda. Dari perhitungan analisa finansial perhitungan NPV, IRR, Payback period  B/C ratio adalah masing-masing menghasilkan nilai masing-masing adalah 8.843.001, 41 %, 3 tahun 7 bulan dan  2,04. Sehingga usaha briket arang dari kulit nipah dengan tempurung kelapa sangat layak untuk dijadikan usaha skala rumah tangga

  16. Perbanyakan Gembili (Dioscorea Esculenta) Dan Ubi Kelapa (Dioscorea Alata) Menggunakan Bibit Set Mini

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    Diantina, Surya; Hutami, Sri

    2014-01-01

    Ubi kelapa and Gembili are potential sources of fungsional food, because of their high nutrition content. But their production and utilization in Indonesia remains lack behind, due to their low economic value, requiring long cultivation period and high number of tuber-seeds. Experiment was conducted to identify an efficient seed propagation method using miniset cutting. The experiment was carried out at Cikeumeuh ExperimentalStation, Bogor from December 2011 to January 2013. Tuber-seeds of ub...

  17. Pembuatan Arang Aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan Aplikasinya untuk Penjernihan Asap Cair

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    Siti Jamilatun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arang aktif merupakan senyawa karbon amorph, yang dapat dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan yang mengandung karbon atau dari arang yang diperlakukan dengan cara khusus untuk mendapatkan permukaan yang lebih luas. Arang aktif dapat mengadsorpsi gas dan senyawa-senyawa kimia tertentu atau sifat adsorpsinya selektif, tergantung pada besar atau volume pori-pori dan luas permukaan.. Arang aktif akan dibuat dari arang hasil pirolisis tempurung kelapa.dan diimplementasikan untuk menjernihkan asap cairnya. Adapun langkah yang pertama membuat arang aktif dari tempurung kelapa adalah, membuat arang tempurung kelapa dengan membersihkan tempurung kelapa terlebih dahulu dari bahan-bahan pengotor seperti tanah, kerikil. Kemudian mengeringkannya dibawah sinar matahari, selanjutnya membakar tempurung kering pada drum/bak pembakaran dengan suhu 300-500 0C selama 3-5 jam. Langkah yang kedua adalah arang hasil pembakaran direndam dengan bahan kimia CaCl2 dan ZnCl2 (kadar 25 % selama 12 sampai 24 jam untuk menjadi arang aktif. Selanjutnya melakukan pencucian dengan air suling/air bersih hingga kotoran atau bahan ikutan dapat dipisahkan. Arang aktif basah dihamparkan pada rak dengan suhu kamar untuk ditiriskan, kemudian dikeringkan dalam oven pada suhu 110 – 8000C selama 3 jam. Suhu aktivasi mempengaruhi kualitas karbon aktif yang terbentuk. Dari uji kualitas karbon aktif yang dilakukan, kualitas karbon aktif yang terbaik diperoleh pada suhu 800oC dengan kadar air 1,3 %, kadar abu 0,60 % memenuhi standar SII 0258-79 dan memiliki daya serap terhadap kadar iod sebesar 580,0 mg/g yang memenuhi standar SNI 06-3730. Penjernihan air limbah rumah tangga, air berwarna menggunakan karbon aktif dari suhu aktivasi 800oC menghasilkan air yang jernih, tidak berbau dan memenuhi pH standar air (7,0-7,5.

  18. Peningkatan Produktivitas Lahan Gambut melalui Teknik Ameliorasi dan Inokulasi Mikroba Pelarut Fosfat

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    Ida Nur Istina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Keterbatasan lahan potensial menyebabkan perluasan areal pertanian mengarah pada lahan gambut. Kendala pengembangan lahan gambut adalah rendahnya kandungan hara tersedia bagi tanaman. Fosfat (P merupakan salah satu unsur hara makro yang penting untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman, disisi lain ketersediaan hara ini pada lahan gambut terbatas karena ikatan asam organik dan sifat yang mudah tercuci. Penelitian untuk menguji pengaruh ameliorasi dan inokulasi mikroba pelarut fosfat terhadap ketersediaan hara P di lahan gambut dilakukan di kebun pembibitan kelapa sawit petani di Riau dari Oktober 2013 - Maret 2014, menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok pola Faktorial dengan 30 kombinasi perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Variabel yang diamati meliputi : tinggi tanaman, lingkar batang, jumlah daun, lebar daun, panjang daun, kandungan hara tanaman, dan bobot biomasa bibit setelah 5 bulan di pembibitan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ameliorasi menggunakan kompos tandan kosong kelapa sawit mampu meningkatkan P tersedia, serapan P oleh batang dan akar, berat brangkasan dan berat kering batang. Sedangkan mikroba pelarut fosfat berpengaruh secara tidak nyata.The limitation of potential land leads agricultural development expansion to the peat soil area. Constrain of the peatland development is the low nutrient content that is required by plant. Phosphate is one of major growth and production limiting nutrient because of the solublelize of the organic acids and immobility The research was conducted from October 2013 – March 2014 at the farmer main nursery in Riau province to test the effect of amelioration and phosphate solubilizing microbe inoculation on P availability on palm oil seedling growth and production at peatland, used Randomized Block Design with 30 treatments and 3 replications. The parameters observed were plant height, leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, stem diameters, nutrient contents, also fresh and dry weight after 5 months at the

  19. Perbaikan Sifat Laju Transmisi Uap Air dan Antibakteri Edible Film dengan Menggunakan Minyak Sawit dan Jeruk Kunci

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    Budi Santoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to improve water vapor transmission rate and antibacterial properties of edible film by using red palm oil and Citrus mitis. The research design was factorial completely randomized design with three replications. There were three studies: the addition of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil concentration, and pH value at the concentration 0, 1.5, and 3 (% w/v; 0, 1.5, and 3 (% v/v; and 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The results showed that interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and palm oil had significant effected on thickness, percentage of elongation and solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Characteristic of edible film was produced thickness 0.15 to 0.28 mm, percentage of elongation 23.33 to 87.78%, solubility 33.9 to 49.16%, water vapor transmission rate 3.43 to 8.52 g.m-2.d-1, and inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus 0.2 to 8.2 mm. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk memperbaiki laju transmisi uap air dan sifat antibakteri edible film dengan menggunakan minyak sawit dan jeruk kunci. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas konsentrasi ekstrak gambir; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% b/v, konsentrasi minyak sawit; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% v/v, dan pH (3, 4, 5, dan 6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi ekstrak gambir, minyak sawit, dan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan minyak sawit berpengaruh nyata terhadap ketebalan, persen pemanjangan, dan kelarutan edible film. Interaksi minyak sawit dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film

  20. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Kelapa Dengan Katalis NaOH Menggunakan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Secara Kontinyu

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    Daru Satria Prayanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Proses pembuatan biodiesel dapat dilakukan dengan metode pemanasan konvensional maupun dengan metode pemanasan microwave. Dengan radiasi microwave, maka waktu yang dibutuhkan saat proses transesterifikasi lebih singkat dibandingkan dengan konvensional. Disisi lain, minyak kelapa memiliki potensi yang besar untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan biodiesel karena ketersediaannya yang melimpah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak kelapa secara kontinyu melalui proses transesterifikasi metanol dengan menggunakan radiasi microwave dengan katalis NaOH dan mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi tiap katalis, daya, dan laju umpan yang digunakan terhadap yield, densitas, dan viskositas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Dalam penelitian ini di gunakan 3 variabel, yaitu laju umpan 0,73; 1,25; 1,72 ml/s, konsentrasi katalis 0,25; 0,5; 1 (% berat variabel daya microwave 100, 264, 400, 600, dan 800 Watt. Rasio umpan ditentukan pada 1:9. Pada tahap persiapan melarutkan metanol dan katalis sesuai dengan variabel hingga tercampur homogen. Selanjutnya tahap transesterifikasi dengan mencampurkan larutan metanol (metanol dan katalis dengan minyak kelapa dengan mol ratio yang telah ditentukan dan mengatur daya microwave untuk memulai proses transesterifikasi, proses berlangsung secara kontinyu menggunakan mix flow reaktor. Selanjutnya pemisahan hasil transesterifikasi dari gliserol, dilanjutkan dengan tahap pencucian dengan aquadest untuk memisahkan impurities dan katalis yang masih tersisa dalam biodiesel kemudian memanaskan pada oven untuk menguapkan kandungan air dalam biodiesel. Selajutnya menganalisisa hasil biodiesel terhadap yield, densitas, dan viskositasnya. Hasil terbaik dari variabel yang digunakan di atas adalah pada katalis NaOH dengan konsentrasi 1

  1. Pembuatan Karbon Aktif Dari Arang Tempurung Kelapa Dengan Aktivator Zncl2 Dan Na2co3 Sebagai Adsorben Untuk Mengurangi Kadar Fenol Dalam Air Limbah

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    Gilar S. Pambayun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa sesuai dengan SII No.0258 – 79 ; untuk mengetahui karateristik kadar air, kadar abu,  iodine number dan surface area karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi dan jenis aktivator terhadap efisiensi penurunan kandungan konsentrasi fenol (persen removal menggunakan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; menentukan kapasitas optimum penyerapan fenol dengan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa karbon aktif dapat dibuat dari arang tempurung kelapa dengan aktivasi kimia ZnCl2 dan Na2CO3 disertai pirolisis pada suhu 700 oC selama 4 jam. Karakteristik karbon aktif yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SII No.0258–79, kadar air sebesar 0,382-1,619%, kadar abu 2,28-7,79%, iodine number 448,02-1599,72 mg/g, surface area 189,630-1900,69 m2/g. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi aktivator maka semakin tinggi persen removal dari fenol yang telah diadsorbsi oleh karbon aktif. Persen removal tertinggi didapat pada karbon aktif dengan zat aktivator Na2CO3 5% dengan persen removal sebesar 99,745%. Kapasitas optimum penyerapan fenol dengan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa terbaik didapat pada karbon aktif dengan zat aktivator Na2CO3 5% dengan kapasitas serapan sebesar 220,751 mg fenol/gram karbon aktif

  2. Asap Cair Sabut Kelapa sebagai Repelan Bagi Hama Padi Walang Sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius

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    Rachmat S. Santoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asap cair sabut kelapa berpotensi sebagai repelan terhadap hama padi walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius Corixa Acuta Thumb. Asap cair ini diperoleh melalui pirolisis dari bahan yang banyak mengandung biomasa yaitu hemi selulosa, selulosa dan lignin dimana dekomposisinya merupakan senyawa fenol dan asam serta turunannya. Hasil identifikasi asap cair ini ada 25 senyawa dan 3 senyawa dominan diantaranya asam palmitat, metal oleat, siklo tetraheksana, yang mampu bekerja aktif sebagai repelan terhadap walang sangit hingga dapat menekan populasi menuju arah nilai ambang ekonomi. Serta bersifat anti mikroba dan bacteria bagi hama dan penyakit tanaman.Kata kunci: Asap cair, Repelan, Walang sangit.

  3. PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN TENTANG SEJARAH BAGI SISWA SMP NEGERI 2 KELAPA DUA TANGERANG MELALUI WISATA EDUKASI

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    YUSTISIA KRISTIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Edutourism is a program combining elements of tourist activities with education. Edutourism is expected tobe a means of preserving the culture values and introduce the history and culture of Indonesia. This is becausethe phenomena among the younger generation who are no longer interested in studying history. Sekolah TinggiPariwisata Pelita Harapan, Universitas Pelita Harapan developed educational travel programs catering for studentsof junior high schools to enhance interest in learning history. Students of SMP Negeri 2 Kelapa Dua Tangerangwere selected to attend this edutourism program by visiting Monumen Nasional and Museum Sejarah Jakarta. Thisprogram was conducted on Tuesday, April 17th, 2012 with total participants were 20 students and two teachers.Edutourism program was led by lecturer and guided by students of Travel Industry Management. The studentsand the team from Travel Industry Management were very enthusiastic during the edutourism. Benefits obtainedby the students through this program are (1 improving the understanding about historical sites in Jakarta, (2widening the knowledge about historical sites in Jakarta, and (3 developing the partnership between the SMPNegeri 2 Kelapa Dua Tangerang and Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Pelita Harapan, Universitas Pelita Harapan. Theedutourism program is well accepted and effective to increase student’s interest in learning history.Keywords: edutourism, student’s interest in learning history, historical site

  4. Pengaruh Variasi Temperatur Karbonisasi dan Temperatur Aktivasi Fisika dari Elektroda Karbon Aktif Tempurung Kelapa dan Tempurung Kluwak Terhadap Nilai Kapasitansi Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC

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    Haniffudin Nurdiansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dewasa ini kebutuhan akan energi semakin meningkat. Keadaan yang diharapkan adalah tersedianya perangkat penyimpan energi yang praktis, canggih, tahan lama dan ramah lingkungan. Salah satu solusinya adalah penggunaan EDLC sebagai media penyimpanan energi, hal ini karena EDLC mempunyai kapasitansi yang lebih tinggi daripada kapasitor konvensional dan juga lebih ramah lingkungan. Sehingga dilakukan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan Tempurung Kluwak untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai elektroda EDLC. Dari pengujian Kadar Karbon Fix didapat nilai fixed carbon Tempurung Kelapa sebesar 74.62% dan untuk Tempurung Kluwak sebesar 74.59% sehingga  Tempurung Kelapa dan  Kluwak berpotensi sebagai bahan karbon aktif. Proses pembuatan karbon aktif dilakukan dengan cara karbonisasi selama 2 jam pada temperatur 700OC dan 800OC selanjutnya diaktivasi kimia dengan KOH dan diaktivasi fisika pada 110 OC dan 600OC. Hasilnya didapatkan nilai kapasitif tertinggi adalah 884 mF/gr untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan 291 mF/gr untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kluwak pada sampel yang dikarbonisasi 700OC dan di aktivasi fisika 600OC. Sedangkan luas permukaan spesifik tertinggi adalah 548.542 m2/gr untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan 333.399  m2/gr untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kluwak  serta bilangan iodine tertinggi sebesar 1122.96 mg/g untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan 968.83 mg/g untuk karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kluwak juga pada temperatur karbonisasi 700OC dan diaktivasi fisika 600OC. Sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa karbon aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan Tempurung Kluwak memiliki kualitas yang sesuai standar SNI dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai elektroda EDLC.

  5. KERAGAAN PASTURA Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick PADA SISTEM PENGGEMBALAAN DAN STOCKING RATE BERBEDA DI LAHAN PERKEBUNAN KELAPA

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    Selvie D. Anis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrasi pastura dan ternak sapi ke dalam sistem pertanian berbasis kelapa diharapkan dapat meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan lahan secara berkelanjutan. Percobaan ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh stocking ratedan sistem penggembalaan terhadap keragaan pastura. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Kelapa dan Palma Lain (BALITKA Manado sejak Juli 2009 sampai Juni 2010. Perlakuan terdiridari dua sistem penggembalaan dan tiga stocking rate diatur dalam pola petak terpisah yang didasarkan pada rancangan acak kelompok (RAK. Variabel yang diukur adalah jumlah tanaman induk, jumlah ground tiller,jumlah aerial tiller, bobot akar dan bobot crown. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semua parameter keragaan pastura yang terbaik diperoleh pada interaksi antara sistem penggembalaan rotasi (SP2 dan stockingrate 2,31 UT (SR3.

  6. Potensi Lumpur Sawit (SOLID Sebagai Pakan Ruminansia di Kabupaten Pelalawan Provinsi Riau

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    Kodri Yanto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential of palm oil’s waste (solid as ruminant feed in Pelalawan district of Riau Province ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to know potential of solid waste in Pelalawan district, Riau province. Research was carried out from December 2007 – January 2008 in Pelalawan district by using 4 factories of Elaeis guineensis (PKS. The four factories that were used for data collection were PT. Multi Palma Sejahtera (MPS, PT. Inti Indo Sawit Subur (IIS, PT. Sinar Agro Raya (SAR and PT. Musim Mas (MM. The results of study showed that solid waste in Pelalawan district of Riau province had a great potential. Production of solid waste in Pelalawan district was around 76.176 tons/year and carrying capacity was 5.132 animals unit. Farmers will use solid waste at large quantity if they raise livestock in commercially, for instance for fattening purpose. The strategies which can be applied to maximize solid waste utilization are through partnership between farmers and factories or local government pihak PKS.

  7. PEMANFAATAN SERBUK TEMPURUNG KELAPA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SERAT PENGUAT BAHAN FRIKSI NON-ASBES PADA KAMPAS REM SEPEDA MOTOR

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    D. Kiswiranti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbuk tempurung kelapa dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai serat penguat bahan friksi non-asbes. Dalam penelitian ini, komposisi 20%dan 30% serbuk tempurung kelapa ditemukan yang paling optimum untuk parameter kekerasan dan keausan. Bahan friksi dengankomposisi 20% memiliki kekerasan sebesar 77,5 kgf.mm-2 dan keausan sebesar 28,25 mm2/kg. Bahan friksi dengan komposisi30% serbuk tempurung kelapa mempunyai kekerasan sebesar 58,8 kgf.mm-2 dan keausan sebesar 34 mm2/kg. Untuk dapatdiaplikasikan pada sepeda motor, desain sampel disesuaikan dengan spesifikasi kampas rem sepeda motor. Coconut char powder can be used as reinforcement fibers of non asbestos brake frikcion materials.In this research, the contents ofcoconut char powder of 20 % and 30 % show optimum hardnes and wear resistances. The brake frikcion material with 20 % coconutchar powder is found hardnes as well as 77,5 kgf.mm-2 and the wear resistance is 28,25 kgf.mm-2/kg. The brake frikcion materialwith the coconut char powder 30% volume has hardnes of 58,8 kgf.mm-2/kg and the wear resistance of 34 mm2/kg. To be applied inthe fabrication of motorcycle spare spart, the sample design is necessary adapted with motorcycle brake.Keywords: frictim material; motorcycle brake; fiber material; coconut char powder

  8. Pengurangan Kadar Digliserida dan Asam Lemak Bebas dalam Minyak Sawit Kasar Menggunakan Adsorben

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    Khoerul Bariyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the world’s largest crude palm oil (CPO producer and consumer in 2014. Components that affect the quality of CPO are diglycerides (DAGs and free fatty acids (FFA. DAGs in palm oil are known as the precursor of 3-MCPD esters, while higher content of FFA could influence the oil stability. The contact of CPO with adsorbent could affect the present of DAG and FFA in CPO. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of adsorbent in reducing DAGs and FFA in CPO with emphasis on the characteristics of the adsorbent and adsorbate. This study was carried out by using three different types of CPO quality and six different types of adsorbent (carbon active, MgO, Magnesol R-60, and 3 types of bleaching earth. The contact process of CPO with different adsorbents were carried out at a temperature of 50-60 °C (without vacuum for adsorbents selection and 90 °C (under vacuum for 30 minutes at a dose of adsorbent 1 and 3 %. The contact process of different adsorbents with CPO have not been able to reduce both DAGs and FFA significantly at the non vacuum condition in three differents CPO sample. The combination of MgO and bleaching earth type 1 could reduce FFA up to 70 % reaching the content of 14 % at vacuum conditions, but did not reduce DAGs of CPO. Different CPO quality and adsorbent characteristics will affect the reduction process of FFA and DAGs.   ABSTRAK Indonesia merupakan negara produsen sekaligus konsumen minyak sawit kasar (Crude Palm Oil/CPO terbesar di dunia pada tahun 2014. Salah satu komponen yang mempengaruhi kualitas CPO adalah digliserida (DAG dan asam lemak bebas (ALB. DAG dalam minyak sawit adalah prekursor pembentuk senyawa karsinogen 3-MCPD ester, sedangkan ALB yang tinggi dapat mempengaruhi stabilitas minyak. Proses kontak adsorben ke dalam CPO akan mempengaruhi keberadaan kedua komponen tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jenis adsorben yang paling baik dalam mengadsorp digliserida dan

  9. Pengaruh Penempatan Kerja, Pelatihan Dan Lingkungan Kerja Non Fisik Terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan Pada PT. Sawit Asahan Indah Kabupaten Rokan Hulu

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    Munawir, Mirza Yusfa; Ningsih, Dewita Suryati; Pramadewi, Arwinence

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted at PT. Sawit Asahan Indah Rokan Hulu District. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect job placement, traning and non-physical environment on employee job satisfacition. The study population was 80 employees and is set with models census. Research variables used are the job placement, traning and non-physical work environment as independent variables and job satisfacition dependent variable. Methods of data analysis using multiple linear regression an...

  10. Perlindungan Hukum terhadap Pekerja Anak yang Bekerja Disektor Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Ditinjau dari UU 13 Tahun 2003 Tentang Ketenagakerjaan Jo UU 23 Tahun 2002 Tentang Perlindungan Anak (Studi di Kabupaten Kubu Raya)

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    TOMMY SUNJOTO, SH, A.2021131009, Jurnal Mahasiswa S2 Hukum UNTAN

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the legal protection of child laborers working in the oil palmsector in terms of Act No. 13 of 2003 on Labor jo Law No. 23 of 2002 on theProtection of Anak.Dari study authors using sociological obtained legal researchconclusions: 1) .bahwa conditions of children working in the palm oil sector if it isassociated with article 69 paragraph 2 of Law No. 13 Year 2003 jo Law No. 23 of2002 on Child Protection, everything is not met. It means that there are deviationswere made ...

  11. ASAI ISOLAT BAKTERI KITINOLITIK BACILLUS SP. BK17 PADA MEDIA PEMBAWA TANAH GAMBUT DAN KOMPOS JANJANG KELAPA SAWIT DALAM MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN JAMUR PATOGEN SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII DAN FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM PADA KECAMBAH CABAI

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    Deswidya Hutauruk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assay of chitinolytic bacterial isolate of Bacillus sp. Bk17 in peat and palm oil bunch compost as carrier media in inhibiting Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum of chilli seedlings. Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum have been known as causal agents of seedling-off of chilli. Biological control has been used as an alternative control to replace chemical control. This study was aimed to determine the viability and ability of chitinolityc bacteria Bacillus sp. BK17 in carrier media of peat and palm oil bunch compost and in growing media to control seedling-off caused by S. rolfsii dan F. oxysporum of chilli. Our previous study showed that Bacillus sp. BK17 could reduce disease severity and intensity. Bacterial viability was measured as colony number grown after 90 days of storage in minimum salt medium with colloidal chitin as sole C source. Reduction of disease infection was measured as seedling number infected by S. rolfsii dan F. oxysporum. Seedling performances were measured as seedling height, leaf number and dry-weight after 30-days of growth. The result showed that bacterial cell viability was still high in both peat and palm oil bunch compost both with and without colloidal chitin addition after 90 days of storage. It was also shown that during application bacterial cell could grow. Seedling performaces i.e. seedling height, leaf number and dry-weight showed to be normal or even increase compared to those of pathogenic fungal inoculation only and (- control.

  12. EFEKTIVITAS PEMANFAATAN PUPUK BOKASI, CASTING DAN PUPUK GENDONING (LARVA KUMBANG KELAPA/Orcyctes rhinoceros

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    lianah l

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kotoran hewan dan sampah organik dapat mencemari di lingkungan air, udara dan  tanah. Penelitian ini bertu- juan untuk membandingkn keefektifan antara pupuk gen- doning dan pupuk bokashi. Proses pengomposan dapat dipercepat dengan bantuan aktifator EM4 (Efektif Mik- roorganisme. Proses pengomposan tersebut juga dapat melibatkan hewan lain yaitu Cacing tanah dan larva kum- bang kelapa (Orcyctes rhinoceros yang disebut dengan nama gendon (bahasa Jawa yang bekerja sama dengan mikroba dalam proses dekomposer. Gendon dalam hal ini memakan bahan organik yang tidak terurai, mencampur bahan organik dan membuat lubang-lubang aerasi. Keha- diran gendon dapat mempercepat penghancuran bahan or- ganik karena mempunyai mulut yang tajam sebagai mesin pencacah sampah organik. Metode penelitian eksperimen sampah organik ditreatmen yaitu dengan menggunakan EM4, dan dengan menggunakan gendon. Peruraian oleh EM4 disebut pupuk Bokashi. Sedang keterlibatan gendon dalam proses pengomposan menghasilkan butir-butir kecil berwarna hitam dinamakan pupuk Gendoning (penemuan pribadi. Dari kedua pupuk tersebut dipraktekan untuk menanam labu air (Lagenaria leucantha. Dari experimen tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa pupuk gendoning ini ter- bukti lebih efektif dan efisien dari pupuk bokashi, karena gendon mampu melakukan dekomposisi lebih sempurna dari EM4. Dekomposisi tersebut dilakukan baik secara me- kanik maupun secara enzimatis. Pupuk gendoning adalah hasil bioteknologi sederhana yang dapat menjadi alternatif dalam mengatasi kelangkaan pupuk, sebagai pupuk organ- ik yang efektif dan efisien serta bernilai ekonomis sebagai.

  13. Retorika Visual Plesetan Media Promosi Spanduk Usaha Kuliner “Es Kelapa Muda” Di Jalan Godean, Sleman-Yogyakarta

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    Sudjadi Tjipto R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai kota pelajar keberadaan ribuan pendatang (pelajar/mahasiswa memunculkan peluang wirausaha kuliner bagi masyarakat Yogyakarta. Keberadaan usaha kuliner ditemukan dalam bentuk warung makan, angkringan, warung burjo (bubur kacang ijo, warung penyetan, sampai outlet minuman ringan. Spanduk (geber adalah media iklan sederhana yang lazim digunakan sebagai media promosi usaha kuliner. Semenjak teknologi cetak digital (digital printing masuk ke Yogyakarta (2001, mencetak spanduk menjadi kebiasaan pemilik usaha kuliner. Fenomena menarik terjadi ketika spanduk promosi usaha kuliner dikreasikan dengan konsep plesetan untuk memikat calon konsumen. Penelitian difokuskan pada kajian konsep spanduk usaha kuliner Es Kelapa Muda di jalan Godean Yogyakarta. Tiga usaha kuliner tersebut memiliki keterkaitan konsep plesetan antar usahanya. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menemukan ragam retorika visual plesetan lokal serta menggali konsep plesetan menurut konseptornya. Metode penelitian etnografi digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan konsep plesetan sebagaimana adanya dari sudut pandang atau perspektif konseptornya sendiri. Dilakukan interaksi yang intens melalui observasi lapangan, kajian kepustakaan serta wawancara mendalam (indepth interview untuk mendapatkan data penelitian. Simpulan wawancara dianalisis dengan teori pembentukan bahasa plesetan, dan teori retorika visual untuk mengungkap ragam retorika visual plesetan beserta motif kemunculannya. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan ragam/bentuk retorika visual plesetan lokal media promosi spanduk usaha kuliner Es Kelapa Muda, beserta motif kemunculan nama plesetannya. Kata Kunci: Plesetan, Retorika Visual, Kuliner

  14. Efek Konsumsi Air Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera terhadap Ketahanan Berolahraga Selama Latihan Lari pada Laki-laki Dewasa Bukan Atlet

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    - Fen Tih

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ketahanan berolahraga menunjang latihan fisik yang optimal untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan dan kebugaran jasmani. Penurunan kapasitas ketahanan olahraga disebabkan oleh dehidrasi dan penurunan karbohidrat dalam otot selama melakukan latihan. Air kelapa berpotensi sebagai minuman olahraga karena memiliki derajat keasaman yang rendah, gula seimbang, kandungan mineral, dan bersifat isotonis. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek konsumsi air kelapa terhadap ketahanan dan kebugaran berolahraga diukur dari jarak tempuh dan VO2max  selama latihan lari. Penelitian dilakukan di Lapangan FPOK UPI Bandung periode Juli 2015–Februari 2016. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah air kelapa dalam kemasan. Air mineral, air gula 5%, dan minuman olahraga isotonik yang digunakan sebagai pembanding. Subjek penelitian adalah 120 orang laki-laki, berusia 18–23 tahun yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok untuk tiap-tiap bahan uji. Setelah pemanasan, subjek berlari secepatnya selama 30 menit. Bahan uji diberikan sebelum dan setiap 10 menit selama lari. Jarak yang ditempuh dicatat dalam satuan meter. Analisis dengan one-way ANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji least significant difference (LSD dengan α<0,05. Jarak tempuh terpanjang rata-rata dan VO2max tertinggi didapatkan pada kelompok perlakuan air kelapa, diikuti kelompok air gula 5%, minuman olahraga isotonik, dan air mineral (p<0,01. Simpulan, konsumsi air kelapa sebelum dan selama latihan olahraga lari dapat meningkatkan ketahanan olahraga pada laki-laki dewasa bukan atlet. Abstract The endurance in exercising supports optimal physical training to improve physical health and fitness. Two major factors in decreasing sport endurance are dehydration and loss of carbohydrates in muscle during exercise. Coconut water is a potential sports drink because it has low acidity, sugars, minerals content and is isotonic. This research aims to know the effects of coconut water consumption towards endurance and

  15. EFEKTIVITAS Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 STRAIN LOKAL DALAM BUAH KELAPA TERHADAP LARVA Anopheles sp dan Culex sp di KAMPUNG LAUT KABUPATEN CILACAP

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    Blondine Ch. P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Bacillus thuringiensis serotipe H-14 strain lokal adalah bakteri patogen bersifat target spesifiknya larva nyamuk, aman bagi mamalia dan lingkungan. Penelitian bertujuan menentukan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal yang dikembangbiakkan dalam buah kelapa untuk pengendalian larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp. Rancangan eksperimental semu, terdiri dari kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal dikembangbiakan dalam10 buah kelapa umur 6–8 bulan, dengan berat kira-kira 1 kg, telah berisi air kelapa sekitar 400-500 ml/buah kelapa yang diperoleh dari Desa Klaces, Kampung Laut, Kabupaten Cilacap. Diinkubasi selama 14 hari pada temperatur kamar dan ditebarkan di 6 kolam yang menjadi habitat perkembangbiakan larva nyamuk dengan luas berkisar 3–100 m2.Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal terhadap larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp selama 1 hari sesudah penebaran kematian larva berturut-turut sebesar 80–100% dan 79,31–100%. Sedangkan pada hari ke-14 sebesar 69,30–76,71% dan 67,69–86,04%. Buah kelapa dapat digunakan sebagai media lokal alternatif untuk pengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal Kata kunci: B. thuringiensis H-14,  strain  lokal, buah kelapa, pengendalian larva Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 local strain is pathogenic bacteria which specific  target to mosquito larvae. It is safe for mammals and enviroment. The aims of this study was to determine the effectivity of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain which culturing in thecoconut wates against Anopheles sp and Culex sp mosquito larvae. This research is quasi experiment which consist of treated  and control groups. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain was cultured in 10 coconuts with 6–8 months age with weight around 1 kg that contained were approximately 400-500 ml/coconut were taken from Klaces village, Kampung Laut. After that the coconuts incubated for 14

  16. Meningkatkan Aktivitas Belajar Siswa dengan Menggunakan Model Make A Match Pada Mata Pelajaran Matematika di Kelas V SDN 050687 Sawit Seberang

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    Daitin Tarigan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas belajar siswa pada mata pelajaran Matematika materi mengubah pecahan ke bentuk persen, desimal dan sebaliknya dengan menggunakan model make a match di kelas V SD Negeri 050687 Sawit Seberang T.A 2013/2014. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK dengan alat pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa. Berdasarkan analisis data diperoleh hasil pada siklus I Pertemuan I skor aktivitas guru adalah 82,14 dengan kriteria baik dan aktivitas belajar dalah aktif. Tindakan dilanjutkan sampai dengan siklus ke II. Pada pertemuan II siklus II skor aktivitas guru adalah 96,42 dengan kriteria sangat baik dan aktivitas belajar klasikal adalah sangat aktif. Dari hasil tersebut dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa tindakan penelitian berhasil karena nilai indikator aktivitas belajar siswa dan jumlah siswa yang dinyatakan aktif secara klasikal telah mencapai 80%. Dengan demikian maka penggunaan model make a match dapat meningkatkan aktivitas belajar siswa di kelas V SD Negeri 050687 Sawit Seberang pada mata pelajaran Matematika materi mengubah pecahan ke bentuk persen, desimal. Kata Kunci:      Model Make a Match; Aktivitas Belajar Siswa  AbstractThis reseach aim is to know the student activity on Math at topic change the fraction into percent, desimal and vice versa, using make a match model on fifth grade of SDN 050687 Sawit Seberang 2013/2014. This is a classroom action research which is used activity observrvation sheet as its instrumen of collecting data. From the analisys of data, it is got result as follows: on cycle I meet I, teacher activity score is 82,14, which was mean good, and learning activity was active. The action and then continued until second cycle. On the meet II cylce II, it was got teacher activity score is 96,42, which was mean very good, and clasical learning activity was very active. Based on the result, it was conclude

  17. DETERMINAN PEMBERIAN MAKANAN PRELAKTAL PADA BAYI BARU LAHIR DI KELURAHAN KEBON KELAPA DAN CIWARINGIN, KOTA BOGOR (DETERMINANTS OF PRELACTEAL FEEDING AMONG NEWBORN BABIES IN KEBON KELAPA AND CIWARINGIN VILLAGES, BOGOR

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    Bunga Ch Rosha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Breast milk is the appropriate for babies for the first six months after birth. Although it has been known that exclusive breastfeeding has many benefits and encouraged by the government, but the proportion of exclusive breasfeeding is still low, including Bogor. One of the the reason for the failure in exclusive breastfeeding is the prelacteal feeding practice among newborn babies. This analysis was conducted to provide information on the determinants of prelacteal feeding practice in Kebon Kelapa and Ciwaringin Village in Bogor, in 2012. The data for this analysis was came from the child growth and development cohort study conducted in Kebon Kelapa and Ciwaringin, Bogor in 2012. Participants of the study were 91 mothers with her newborn babies. The data were analysed with descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis with chi square, and multivariate analysis using logistic regression. The results showed that mode of delivery, rooming-in care and time of breastfeeding after delivery were significantly associated with prelacteal feeding practice (p<0,05. The major determinant factor of prelacteal feeding practice was non rooming-in care (OR: 5.86; 95% CI: 1.17, 29.35 after controlling the time of breastfeeding after delivery. Postpartum mothers that not cared in the same room with the baby had risk 5.86 times for give the baby prelacteal food compared with postpartum mothers that cared in the same room with their baby. Mothers who breastfeed their baby more than 1 hour after delivery had risk of 4.87 times for give the baby prelacteal food compared with mothers who breastfeed less than 1 hour after delivery. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the implementation of Baby Friendly Hospitals program in maternal and child health services, especially the implementation of rooming-in care for mother and child, so that the mother can breastfeed immediately after birth so that the baby does not need to be given food or prelacteal liquids. The

  18. JENIS-JENIS MAMALIA YANG MENGUNJUNGI KUBANGAN BABI HUTAN DI KAWASAN HUTAN KONSERVASI PT TIDAR KERINCI AGUNG DAN PT KENCANA SAWIT INDONESIA, SOLOK SELATAN, INDONESIA

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    Nurul Insani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai jenis-jenis mamalia yang mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan di hutan konservasi PT Tidar Kerinci Agung dan PT Kencana Sawit Indonesia, Solok Selatan, Sumatera Barat telah dilaksanakan dari 15 Juni sampai dengan 8 Desember 2015. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan tujuh buah perangkap kamera di sekitar kubangan babi hutan. Selama penelitian didapatkan 18 jenis hewan mamalia dari 12 famili dan 5 ordo. Hewan mamalia yang sering mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan yaitu Sus scrofa (481 foto, Macaca nemestrina (476 foto, Sus barbatus (269 foto, Macaca fascicularis (38 foto dan Muntiacus muntjak (33 foto. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kubangan babi hutan menarik bermacam-macam jenis mamalia dengan frekuensi kunjungan yang berbeda-beda.

  19. CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES USED IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH BASED ON CURRICULUM 2013: A NATURALISTIC STUDY AT STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF SAWIT 1 BOYOLALI

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    Umi Nur Kurniliawati

    2016-08-01

    as observer, teacher as manager, teacher as model, teacher as counselor, teacher as controller, and teacher as evaluator. The students have roles as members of group, as tutor of other learners, as negotiator, as subject, and as monitor and evaluator of their own learning progress. There are some materials used by English teachers, such as: textbook, workbook, dictionary, photocopy exercises, powerpoint on LCD, audio like song, and videos from youtube. The conclusion of this research is that English teachers at State of Junior High School of Sawit 1 Boyolali used various classroom techniques which can improve the students’ ability. Various techniques can make the students interested in English teaching-learning process. It does not make the class monotonous. The students become more active and creative. Based on the results, apparently, classroom techniques used by the teachers have important role in the teaching-learning process.

  20. FRAKSINASI ENZIM LIPASE DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA DENGAN METODE SALTING OUT (Lipase fractionation of Coconut Endosperm by Salting out Method

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    Moh. Su'i

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research learns about fractionation of lipases activity from coconut endosperm by using ammonium sulphate of 0–15%; 15-30 %, 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % and 75–90 %. The results showed that the fractions of 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % and 60–75 % have lipase activity. Meanwhile, the highest activity was fractions of 60-75%. fractions of 15-30% and 75-90%  have no lipase enzym activity. Molecule weigh of lipase enzyme was 72 kDa. Keywords: Lipases, endosperm, coconut, fractionation, ammonium sulphate   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari fraksinasi enzim lipase dari endosperm kelapa menggunakan ammonium sulfat. fraksinasi dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi ammonium sulfat 0–15% ; 15-30%; 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % dan 75–90 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa enzim lipase terdapat pada fraksi 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % dan fraksi 60–75 % dengan aktivitas enzim tertinggi pada fraksi 60-75%. Sedangkan fraksi 15-30% dan 75-90% tidak ada enzim lipase. Berat molekul enzim lipase pada semua fraksi 72 kDa. Kata kunci: Lipase, endosperm, fraksinasi, ammonium sulfat

  1. PENGARUH PROGRAM PEMBERIAN MAKANAN TAMBAHAN TERHADAP KEADAAN GIZI ANAK-ANAK PRA-SEKOLAH DI LINGKUNGAN KEBON KELAPA BOGOR

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    Darwin Karyadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh program pemberian makanan tambahan terhadap ke­adaan gizi anak2 prasekolah di Lingkungan Kebon Kelapa, Bogor. (The effect of food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pre-school children. Presented at the Second National Pediatric Congress. Bandung. 1971. One of the main nutrition problems in developing countries is protein calorie malnutrition. The age group that has been most affected is the pre-school child. Serious dietary deficiency will impair his physical and mental developments. The pilot project was designed for the care of pre-school children with signs of malnutrition through a supplementary feeding program. The approach is to educate mothers on how to feed, with locally available foods, and care for their pre-school children; using techniques that are compatible with their under­standing and financial   limitation through   active participation. The duration of the supplementary feeding program was three months. In order to evaluate the program some anthro­pometric measurements, dietary intake study and clinical assess­ment were carried out before and after the program. The results of the study reveal that this program-approach can be recommended in the prevention and in combating malnu­trition in the pre-school child.

  2. PERBANDINGAN KEMAMPUAN SILIKA GEL DARI ABU SABUT KELAPA DAN ABU SEKAM PADI UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR LOGAM Cd2+

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    AF Yusrin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pembuatan silika gel dari bahan baku abu sabut kelapa (ASK dan abu sekam padi (ASP telah dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan kandungan silikanya. Bahan baku ASK dan ASP ditambah larutan NaOH dengan pemanasan dan peleburan pada suhu 500C selama 30 menit menghasilkan larutan natrium silikat, kemudian larutan natrium silikat masing-masing diasamkan dengan HCl 3 M hingga pH 7 dan dikeringkan hingga menjadi silika gel abu sabut kelapa (SG-ASK dan silika gel abu sekam padi (SG-ASP. Hasil karakterisasi XRD menyatakan bahwa SG-ASK dan SG-ASP menghasilkan silika berbentuk amorf, sedangkan hasil analisis FT-IR menyatakan bahwa silika gel memiliki gugus fungsi Si-OH, Si-O dan Si-H. Hasil penelitian mengenai uji penyerapan ion logam Cd2+ menunjukkan bahwa penyerapan optimum ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan oleh SG-ASK adalah pada pH 6, waktu kontak 60 menit dan konsentrasi optimum 7,45 ppm. Hasil uji penyerapan optimum ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan oleh SG-ASP pada pH 7, waktu kontak 90 menit dan konsentrasi optimum 11,78 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan SG-ASP lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kemampuan SG-ASK dalam menurunkan kadar ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan.Research on the manufacture of gel silica from coconut husk ash (ASK and rice husk ash (ASP has been conducted by utilizing their silica contents. ASK and ASP were added by an NaOH solution, then by heated and melted at temperature 500C for 30 minutes to produce sodium silicate solution. The solution was then acidified separately with HCl 3 M up to pH 7 and dried into silica gel of coconut husk ash (SG-ASK and silica gel of rice husk ash (SG-ASP. The result of XRD characterization showed that SG-ASK and SG-ASP both produced amorphous silica, while the result of FT-IR analysis showed that silica gel had functional groups of Si-OH, Si-O and Si-H. The research on the test adsorption of Cd2+ metal ions showed that the optimum adsorption of Cd2+ metal ions in solution by SG

  3. PEMILIHAN PRIORITAS BAHAN BAKU BIOAVTUR DI INDONESIA DENGAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARKHI PROCESS (AHP

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    Agung Siswahyu

    2014-07-01

    serangkaian proses konversi biomassa  berupa serat, gula, tepung dan minyak nabati.  Proses konversi bahan tersebut  bisa  melalui  proses  transesterifikasi,  perlakuan  panas  (pyrolisis  dan  hydrothermal, perlakuan hidrolisis oleh enzim, fermentasi, dan fischertrops.  Indonesia  memiliki potensi bahan baku yang melimpah, produksi minyak kelapa sawit Indonesia tahun 2014 mencapai 29,41 juta ton, minyak kelapa 3,38 juta ton dan 4.6 Ton minyak inti sawit ditahun 2014.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memilih prioritas bahan baku bioavtur dengan metode Analytical Hierarkhi Process (AHP. Hasil analisis AHP menunjukkan  bahwa  minyak  sawit  adalah  bahan  baku  yang  paling  potensial  dengan  bobot  0,361, kemudian  urutan  kedua  adalah  biomassa bobot  nilai  0,327  sedangkan  minyak intisawit  dan kelapa berbobot  0,156.  Berdasarkan  analisis  AHP  maka  pemanfaatan  bahan  baku  terbarukan  (renewable resourcess berbasis minyak nabati seperti minyak kelapa sawit untuk produksi bioavtur menjadi salah satu solusi yang potensial.

  4. PEMANFAATAN FRAKSI KAYA ASAM LAURAT HASIL HIDROLISIS DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE ENDOGENEUS SEBAGAI PENGAWET SUSU KEDELAI KEMASAN (Utilization of High Lauric Fraction that Produced from Coconut Endosperm Using Lipase Endogenous as Preservation of Soybean Milk Packaging

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    Moh. Su'i

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous studies show that the high lauric fraction isolated from coconut endosperm is able to inhibit pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. This research aims to study the addition of high lauric fraction that hydrolysed of coconut endosperm of the storability of soy milk packaging. High lauric fraction isolated from coconut milk, then the fraction analized of the fatty acid composition with gas chromatography (GC and then used as a preservative soy milk. The fraction is added to the soy milk with concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20%, then stored for 3 days. Every day is observed until soy milk damaged. The results showed that the fraction isolated from coconut milk contains 50.45% lauric acid, 17.52% myristic acid, 7.02% palmitic acid, 6.46% capric acid, 5.52% caprylic acid, 5.12% linoleic acid, 1.89% oleic acid, and 0.11% caproic acid. The addition of lauric acid-rich fraction of 20% were able to preserve soy milk for 2 days with a total microbe 1.00 x 104 cfu/ml, free fatty acids 0.12 m mol/ml, pH 5.05 and a balanced aroma 4 (nice. Keywords: Coconut, lauric acid, soy milk, storage ABSTRAK Hasil penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa fraksi kaya asam laurat hasil isolasi dari endosperm kelapa mampu menghambat bakteri patogen dan non patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari penambahan fraksi kaya asam laurat hasil hidrolisis dari endosperm kelapa terhadap daya simpan susu kedelai kemasan. Fraksi yang kaya asam laurat diisolasi dari santan kelapa kemudian fraksi tersebut diuji komposisi asam lemaknya menggunakan chromatografi gas (GC dan selanjutnya digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet susu kedelai. Fraksi kaya asam laurat ditambahkan ke dalam susu kedelai dengan konsentrasi 0, 10, 15 dan 20%, kemudian disimpan selama 3 hari. Setiap hari dilakukan pengamatan hingga susu mengalami kerusakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi hasil isolasi dari santan kelapa mengandung asam laurat 50,45%, asam miristat 17,52%, asam palmitat

  5. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

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    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Biaya produksi biodiesel menjadi salah satu hambatan program konversi bahan bakar minyak ke biodiesel negara-negara termasuk Indonesia dalam upaya mengantipasi terjadinya krisis energi. Salah satu penyebab biaya produksi yang tinggi adalah karena variabel biaya produksi yang diperbandingkan selama ini belum sepenuhnya mencerminkan keseluruhan potensi yang terkandung dalam biodiesel. Potensi biodiesel yang tergolong ke dalam komoditas lingkungan seperti sifat terbarukan, rendah dalam penggunaan lahan, dan ramah lingkungan perlu dimasukkan dalam perhitungan agar mendapatkan perbandingan perhitungan yang obyektif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh penambahan komoditas lingkungan pada stuktur biaya produksi biodiesel dari minyak sawit dan minyak alga. Nilai komoditas lingkungan diperkirakan dengan metode metode benefit transfer dan untuk memperlihatkan nilai keuntungan digunakan pendekatan willing to pay (WTP. Nilai-nilai komoditas lingkungan diacu dari hasil perhitungan perangkat lunak Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS versi 2000. Untuk kasus Indonesia, nilai komoditas lingkungan EPS diinferensi dengan elastisitas berdasarkan dari perbandingan nilai pendapatan per kapita negara Swedia dan Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa analisis life cycle costing (LCC yang diaplikasikan dengan menambahkan variabel eksternalitas dapat memberikan informasi yang detil tentang komposisi biaya produksi biodiesel dan dapat digunakan sebagai metode untuk mendapatkan gambaran total biaya produksi yang paling kompetitif dari beberapa sumber.  Analisis juga menyimpulkan bahwa variabel eksternalitas turut mempengaruhi kenaikan total biaya produksi biodiesel hingga 14%. Hasil analisis profitabilitas menyatakan bahwa pasokan biomasa alga untuk produksi biodiesel lebih terjamin dan berkelanjutan dibandingkan biomasa sawit karena kendala teknis dan non teknis pada produksi biomasa alga lebih mudah diatasi selain itu juga keunggulan

  6. DISEASE DETECTION FROM FIELD SPECTROMETER DATA

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    O. H. Tawfik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Oil palm plants have been planted in large scale of areas. Ganoderma disease has been recognized and diagnosed in oil palm plants to infect almost half of the oil palm plants in Malaysia. To deal with this problem, the use of vegetation indices analysis on hyper spectral field data we will examine the ability of this data in discrimination between Ganoderma disease stages in oil palm plants which will be helpful in control the spread of the diseases. By using vegetation indices the oil palm plants could be classified into 1 (T1 healthy, 2 (T2 semi healthy and 3 (T3 severe damage plant classes accurately. The results showed that the best vegetation index is the Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 among the vegetation indices to discriminate between oil palm health stages. It was realized that the modification that was applied to the Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 index of Narrowband greenness VIs has been exhibited an acceptable results in differentiate between the oil palm plant stage 1 (T1 healthy and stage 2 (T2 semi healthy. ABSTRAK: Tanaman kelapa sawit ditanam secara meluas.  Penyakit ganoderma dikenali dan didiagnosikan menjangkiti hampir separuh tanaman kelapa sawit di Malaysia. Untuk mengawal penyakit ini daripada merebak, analisis indeks tanaman dijalankan ke atas data kawasan spektrum melampau di mana keupayaan data ini diuji dalam membezakan peringkat-peringkat penyakit Ganoderma terhadap tanaman kelapa sawit. Dengan menggunakan indeks tanaman, kelapa sawit dapat diklasifikasikan kepada 1 (T1 sihat, 2 (T2 separa sihat dan 3 (T3 rosak; kelas tanaman dengan tepat. Keputusan menunjukkan indeks tanaman terbaik sebagai Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 yang merupakan indeks tanaman dalam membezakan peringkat kesihatan kelapa sawit. Adalah didapati pengubahsuaian terhadap indeks Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 yang juga indeks Jalur Sempit Hijau VI telah memberikan keputusan yang munasabah dalam

  7. KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN DAN ASPEK SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI HANTAVIRUS DI WILAYAH PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK DAN SUNDA KELAPA, JAKARTA UTARA

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    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.

  8. Pemanfaatan TKKS Sebagai Pengisi Komposit Epoxy Untuk Struktur Bergerak Mesin CNC Perkayuan

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    Farkhan

    2017-04-01

    , namun mesin CNC perkayuan umumnya dibangun dengan struktur logam yang berat, baik untuk struktur penopang maupun struktur bergeraknya. Kenyataannya, bahan baku kayunya sendiri jauh lebih ringan ketimbang struktur yang menggerakkannya. Dinamika gerakan pada struktur bergerak yang berat ini menyebabkan pemborosan daya dan getaran berlebih yang mempengaruhi ketelitian, keawetan pahat potong, dan produktivitas. Penelitian ini mengembangkan bahan komposit ringan baru dengan memanfaatkan sumber terbarukan dari limbah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS sebagai bahan pengisinya dengan matriks polimer epoxy untuk dibangun sebagai struktur bergerak mesin CNC perkayuan metode permesinan cepat 3 dimensi, untuk meningkatkan unjuk kerja dinamiknya. Analisa perbandingan menunjukkan bahan ini memiliki unjuk kerja dinamik lebih baik pada proses permesinan cepat ketimbang menggunakan besi tuang sebagai bahan tradisionalnya.

  9. KESETIMBANGAN ADSORPSI FENOL DARI ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HIBRIDA PADA ARANG AKTIF Adsoprtion Equilibrium of Phenol From Liquid Smoke of Coconut Shell onto Activated Carbon

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    Syahraeni Kadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of liquid smoke phenol of hybrid coconut shell on activated carbon was evaluated at various tempera- ture (30-70 °C and phenol concentration to determine the adsorption capacity and adsorption interaction. The data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The results showed that the activated carbon ad- sorption capacity increased with an increase in liquid smoke concentration from 0.025 to 1.0 % but it declined due to an increase in the adsorption temperature from 30 to 70 °C. The affinity of phenol onto activated carbon was higher in the high liquid smoke concentration comparing with low concentration. Adsorption capacity decreased when the phe-nol equilibrium concentration (C was 342.78 mg/L, in which it decreased from 32.67 mg/g to 13.02 mg /g. Phenoladsorption onto activated carbon was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model than Langmuir isotherm model. Thephenol adsorption capacity of activated carbon at equilibrium concentration (K has decreased from 12.05 mg/g to 9.66 mg/g when the adsorption temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C. The adsorption capacity increased from 13.46 mg/g to 17.02 mg/g at an increase in the temperature from 60 to 70 °C. The value 1/n was above zero, which means that the adsorption interaction was cooperative with the activation energy of 403.43 KJ/mol. In summary, the adsorption was chemisorption. ABSTRAK Adsorpsi fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida pada arang aktif dievaluasi pada berbagai suhu (30-70 °C dan konsentrasi fenol untuk menentukan kapasitas adsorpsi dan mekanisme adsorpsi. Data yang diperoleh dievalusi meng- gunakan model Langmuir dan Freundlich. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi asap cair dari 0,025 ke 1,0 %, namun kapasitas adsorpsi menurun akibat peningkatan suhu adsorpsi dari 30 ke 70 °C.  Hal ini

  10. PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PETIS KEPALA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG ARANG KAYU GALAM (Melaleuca cajuputi powell, SEKAM PADI (Oryza sativa L DAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA (Cocos nucifera

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    Juhana Suhanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan waktu selama 4 bulan yaitu meliputi  pelaksanaan penelitian, analisis data, penyusunan laporan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat petis sari kepala udang Windu yang berkualitas dengan penambahan tepung arang kayu galam, sekam padi, dan tempurung kelapa. Sedangkan kegunaannya adalah untuk menghasilkan petis sari kepala udang Windu yang dapat diterima dan disukai oleh konsumen. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dan dilakukan berdasarkan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan yaitu A (tanpa penambahan tepung arang, perlakuan B (penambahan tepung arang kayu Galam 0,05%, perlakuan C (penambahan tepung arang sekam padi 0,05% dan perlakuan D (penambahan tepung arang tempurung kelapa 0,05%. Masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan 3 kali ulangan. Parameter yang diuji meliputi Uji Kadar Protein, Uji Kadar Air, Uji Kadar Abu, Uji Organoleptik yaitu rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur. Penerimaan atau penolakan terhadap hipotesis didasarkan pada hasil Uji F (Analisis Sidik Ragam Dari hasil pengujian dan analisis keempat perlakuan tersebut untuk uji kadar protein yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D (26,60%, uji kadar air terendah adalah pada perlakuan D (19,28% dan uji kadar abu terendah adalah perlakuan A (7,77%, tetapi antar perlakuan pada kadar abu tidak berbeda nyata sehingga dapat diartikan kadar abu pada tiap perlakuan tidak berbeda (tidak signifikan, sedangkan uji organoleptik untuk rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D yaitu rasa (6,89, warna (7,31, aroma (6,48 dan tekstur (6,635. This research was conducted with time for 4 months which include the conduct of research, data analysis, report preparation. This study aims to make a paste shrimp head juice Windu quality with the addition of flour Galam wood charcoal, rice husk and coconut shell. While its use is to produce a paste shrimp head juice Windu acceptable and preferred by consumers. This study used an

  11. KOMPOSISI DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI ASAP CAIR SABUT KELAPA YANG DIBUAT DENGAN TEKNIK PEMBAKARAN NON PIROLISIS Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Liquid Smoke of Coconut Fiber Made by NonPirolisis Combusting Technique

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    Feti Fatimah

    2012-05-01

    mengkaji pembuatan asap cair dengan teknik non pirolisis dari bahan dasar sabut kelapa. Selanjutnya pada asap cair yang dihasilkan dengan teknik ini, dilakukan redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbonaktif. Kualitas asap cair yang dihasilkan diuji dengan melihat komponen penyusun asap cair dengan kromatografi gas - spektrofotometer massa (GC-MS serta uji aktivitas antibakteri terhadap 3 jenis bakteri yaitu Salmonella choleraeaeus, Bacillus subtilus dan Staphylococcus aureus menggunakan teknik sumur pada media PCA dengan jumlah populasi 108/ml. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa asap cair asli (tanpa redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbon aktif sedikitnya mengandung 21 komponen, asap cair redistilasi sedikitnya mengandung31 komponen dan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mengandung sedikitnya 5 komponen. Dari hasil uji antibakteri diketahui bahwa asap cair hasil redistilasi menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri yang lebih baik dibandingkan asap cair asli, sedangkan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mempunyai aktivitas yang paling kecil dibandingkan keduanya. Hal tersebut dikarenakan kandungan senyawa 2-metoksifenol yang paling tinggi pada asap cair redistilasi dibandingkan keduanya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa teknik redistilasi dapat meningkatkan kualitas asap cair sabut kelapa yang dibuat dengan metode pembakaran non pirolisis.

  12. Model Biaya Produksi Biodiesel Berbasis Minyak Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Meilita Tryana Sembiring; Sukardi Sukardi; Ani Suryani; Muhammad Romli

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable energy source in Indonesia of which the use is regulated by the government in the form of mandatory policy of biodiesel and diesel fuel blending. The production of biodiesel in Indonesia is not developed (the need is 3.4 million kiloliters but the total national production is only 1,703 kiloliters). It is because the selling price (referring to Mean of Platts Singapore) is always lower than the production cost. Biodiesel production is influenced by raw materials and p...

  13. ALTERNATIF STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN EKSPOR MINYAK SAWIT INDONESIA

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    Bambang Dradjat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The development of palm oil export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world mar ket was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of palm oil export, the experts thought that the role of government as regulators and facilitators are very important.  The government became the main actor for the export development throuh de/regulation related to the palm oil commodity.  The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i encrease capacity of Belawan and Dumai harbours, (ii reduction/elimination of loan repayment during grace period of revitalization program, (iii  human resource develeopment for both societies and workers with participative funding from Central Government, Local Government, and enterprises, (iv reduced cost and time in processing land sertification and Hak Guna Usaha (HGU, (v improved access for farmers to financial institution (bank, (vi the establishment of harbours in regions based on palm oil production in the region, and (viii the development of farm roads.      

  14. Determinan dan Stabilitas Ekspor Crude Palm Oil Indonesia

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    Eva Nurul Huda

    2017-04-01

      Tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk menganalisis seberapa besar pengaruh dari produksi kelapa sawit, nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS, harga CPO internasional dan Term of Trade terhadap ekspor CPO Indonesia pada periode Oktober 2011 sampai dengan Desember 2015. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL dengan data sekunder runtut waktu bulanan untuk periode 2011:M10-2015:M12. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa harga CPO internasional mempunyai efek negatif dan signifikan, baik dalam jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang terhadap ekspor CPO Indonesia. Variable Term of Trade dalam jangka pendek maupun panjang mempunyai efek positif dan signifikan terhadap ekspor CPO, sedangkan variabel produksi kelapa sawit dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar Amerika mempunyai pengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap ekspor dalam jangka pendek maupun panjang. Lebih lanjut, semua variabel independen secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi ekspor CPO di Indonesia, sehingga hipotesis yang menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan antara variabel independen dan dependen ditolak. Terakhir, berdasarkan pada uji CUSUM dan CUSUMQ dapat disimpulkan bahwa model ekspor CPO stabil dalam jangka panjang.

  15. Pelatihan Dan Pendampingan Pengolahan Komoditi Kelapa

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    Metasari Kartika

    2018-03-01

    ABSTRACT                 The objective of Science and Technology activity for community  of Kalimas Village through Coconut Commodity Diversification in collaboration with both partners, which are Jaya Mas Farmer Group and Family Welfare Program Group of Kalimas village, is to increase the partners’ income by producing and marketing coconut commodity diversification product (nata de coco. The problems faced by the first partner, Jaya Mas Farmer Group, are the lack of knowledge about coconut commodity diversification, the low coconut farmer income, the lack of knowledge in marketing the products, and their surrender behavior of current condition. While the problems faced by the second partner, Family Welfare Program Group of Kalimas Village, are the lack of productive activities and uninformed about how to market the products. Based on these problems, both parties agreed to process a part of coconut that is wasted (the coconut water that is in fact, economically valuable if produced into its derivate product (nata de coco product. Thus, the executing methods used in this activity are: (1 give the information of study result related to the featured product in that area, (2 workshop and supervision of soft skill about work motivation and creative thinking, (3 workshop and supervision of nata de coconata de coco production, and (4 workshop and supervision related to marketing. The result of this activity is the improvement in knowledge and skill of these partners, the creation of nata Kalimas product, publication using mass media, as well as Instagram and e-mail account for marketing product online.  Keywords: Diversification, Coconut, Nata, Workshop, Supervision

  16. Kajian Ekonomis Industri Briket Arang Tempurung Kelapa

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    Senen Machmud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the products made from coconut shell charcoal is the manufacture of which is the raw material for the manufacture of charcoal briquettes that the process can then be processed into activated charcoal. So charcoal briquettes is the raw material for activated charcoal industry. Making charcoal briquettes is not much use, although the potential of raw materials and considerable market potential. From the aspect of technology, processing charcoal briquettes relatively simple and can be implemented by the efforts of small and medium scale. Limited capital, access to markets and market information, stumbling and quality which does not meet the requirements, the constraints and problems in the development of the manufacturing of charcoal briquettes. To produce charcoal briquettes used machine tools Hydrolic Press with a production capacity per machine is 24, 3 tons per month for this type of coin and 18.2 tons of products per month for the types of products cube. Also required mixers and dryers, Klin burning and workshops. Industry Projects Charcoal Briquette is a very worthy generate NPV = 5.420.744, which means that over the next 5 years, the project will generate net present value (NPV of Rp 5.420.744, -.

  17. Analisis Peluang dan Tantangan Pengembangan Agroindustri Kelapa

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    Suci Wulandari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The organization as a pool of resources, capabilities and competencies needed togenerate physical products or intangible services which create the competitive advantage. It isdeveloped by effective management of technical aspects and by learning aspects of theorganization, and also the influence of an effective networking. How these two factors work toestablish value of the organization then effect the degree of competitiveness, is influenced byhow much the assets owned by an organization. This value is categorized into tangible andintangible assets. Development of coconut-based products shows a meaningful opportunity inthis regard. On the other hand, changes in the global environment have brought changes in thebehavior of consumers and competition conditions. Review of the role, coconut commoditiesprovides a great role to the economy nationally. Indonesia is a country with the largest area ofcoconut production in the world, followed by The Fillippines and India. Exports of coconutproducts from Indonesia tended to increase. The size of the role and potential of coconut wasnot followed by the performance of the coconut industry. This is shown by the problemsassociated with value-added products, linkages, transfer the risks and benefits, the contributionfor the development of rural agro-industry, export value of products, industrial competitivenessin medium and small agro-industry in the global market and information flow. Optimizing thevalue of intangible assets in the system of agro-industry can be improved through theimplementation of Knowledge Management occurred through developing external structure,internal structure and individual competency. Application of Knowledge Management refers tothe model of two dimensions, namely the process of knowledge creation and innovation, andelements that enable or influence the activities of knowledge creation. This model isimplemented by using Knowledge Management Roadmap which consists of 10 steps in 4phases. Through the implementation of Knowledge Management, coconut agroindustry isexpected to become the business units that have optimal value capable of performingcompetitiveness. Finally, it will satisfy the consumers through on time delivery product, createthe customer loyalty which in turn increase the sales growth and gain the result in financialaspects in earning growth

  18. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN SABUT KELAPA NASIONAL

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    A. H. Intan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Empowerment of social economic resourceprograms must be able to conduct public economy dynamic which be based atvillage or country town. These programs must be able to achieve seven goals,such as rising public income and net export income; founding industrialstructure based on the strength of Small-Medium Enterprises; founding thefoundation of economic transition to industrial age by developing forces ofagribusiness and agroindustrial system; achieving global competitive advantageby increasing productivity, innovation, and effective technology dissemination;increasing quality product as well as the global quality standars; and creatingeconomic development to attain sustainability of high economics activity andperformance and keep sustainable quality environment.Coir processing industry is one of Indonesia isindustrial sub sector which was identified having the ability to achieve thesegoals. Several logical reasons are pointed out, such as that Indonesia has greatest coconut planted areas(about 3.76 Million hectares or 31.4 percent of coconut planted areas in theworld, so that Indonesiaget 24.4 percent of coconut production share in the world. Contrast with coirexport share, Indonesiahas only about 0.6 percent (595 MT of the world export market share. Untilyear 2000, Indonesiause only about 0.06 potential resources of coir production. So that, TheNational Coir Industry has strategic position ang high prospect will be developedat the next time.This article discuss and describeseveral topics to support the Indonesian Coir Industry Development Program,such as mapping Coir Industrial Development Areas based on the potency ofcoconut production and plated area; economic of Industrial scales analysis,structure of industrial development system, feasibility study (financial andeconomic analysis, Analysis of Domestic Resources Cost, Domestic ResourcesCost Ratio and Affective Rate Protection, Finally, this article describe statedprocess of coir industry development strategy and stated strategyrecommendation to stakeholders.                                            

  19. STABILITAS FOTOOKSIDASI MINYAK GORENG SAWIT YANG DIFORTIFIKASI DENGAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH

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    Nuri Andarwulan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioriation of palm oil fortified with vitamin A and provitamin A could be caused by the presence of oxygen and light exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the initial peroxide value (PV in palm oil (1.99, 3.98, and 9.95 meq O2/kg oil and light intensity (15000, 10000, and 5000 lux on the rate of oxidation and the shelf life of palm oil fortified with Red Palm Oil (RPO equal to 45 IU vitamin A. The RPO contained β-carotene as provitamin A in the amount of 504.67 ppm. The PV and free fatty acid (FFA content were observed as the parameters of oil deterioriation during storage. The results showed that the rate of PV was influenced by light intensity, while the rate of FFA formation were more influenced by the amount of initial PV in the oil. Based on the palm oil standard quality for PV (SNI 7709: 2012, the shelf life of palm oil with the lowest initial PV at ambient temperature was 9.5 days, while that with the highest PV was 1.32 hours. The deterioration rate of RPO fortified palm oil due to light exposure was also compared with its deterioration rate due to heat and the deterioration rate of palm oil fortified with vitamin A. The shelf life of vitamin A fortified palm oil stored in the dark was 90.67 days, while RPO fortified palm oil was 68.12 days. This shelf life results showed that RPO had a potency as provitamin A fortificant for palm oil as long as it is stored in a closed container in the dark.

  20. INVESTIGASI PENGARUH PEMANFAATAN TANDAN BUAH KOSONG SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR BOILER TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN GAS RUMAH KACA

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Amiral

    2011-01-01

    The gas produced in solid waste disposal sites, particularly CH4 can be a local environmental hazard if precaution are not taken to prevent uncontrolled emissions or migration into surrounding land. Gas can migrate from solid waste disposal sites either laterally or by venting to atmosphere, causing vegetation damage and unpleasant odors at low concentration, while at concentration of 5-15 per cent in air, the gas may be form explosive mixture.Recently, a forest fire on the Indonesian islands...

  1. Effect of Crude Palm Oil Protection on Fermentation Parameter and Rumen Microbial Activity of Male Local Lamb

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    NC Tiven

    2012-09-01

    Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh proteksi kelapa sawit mentah (CPO dalam ransum terhadap parameter fermentasi in-vivo dan aktivitas mikroba. Lima belas ekor domba lokal muda jantanumur 9-12 bulan dengan bobot 14-17 kg, dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok perlakuan ransum. Kelompok pertama hanya diberi ransum basal (R0, kelompok kedua diberi ransum basal dan 3% CPO (R1, kelompok ketiga diberi ransum basal dan 3% CPO terproteksi dengan 2% formaldehid (R2. Rancangan Acak Lengkap dan dan anova satu arah digunakan pada penelitian ini dengan uji lanjut jarak ganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan CPO terproteksi dengan formaldehida (R2 pada ransum domba meningkatkan protein mikroba dalam cairan rumen. Kata kunci: parameter fermentasi, aktivitas mikroba rumen, CPO   NC Tiven  et al/Animal Production 14(3:141-146, September 2012

  2. KRITIK SOSIAL SUKU DAYAK BENUAQ DALAM NOVEL API AWAN ASAP KARYA KORRIE LAYUN RAMPAN (TINJAUAN SOSIOLOGI SASTRA MARXIS

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    Nina Queena Hadi Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mendeskripsikan novel Api Awan Asap karya Korrie Layun Rampan ditinjau dari (1 protes sosial, (2realisme sosial. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan metode content analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya protes sosial yang ditujukan kepada masyarakat yang tidak mengetahui tradisi berhuma suku Dayak Benuaq;  perusahaan pertambangan, perusahaan perkebunan, HPH, dan HTI; perusahaan kelapa sawit, tebu, dan coklat; kepada “konglomerat”; perusahaan  penambangan emas dan batu bara. Bentuk realisme sosial menggambarkan masyarakat suku dayak Benuaq yang dituduh sebagai perusak alam; kerusakan lingkungan pada wilayah yang didiami oleh suku Dayak Benuaq; ketidaktahuan masyarakat mengenai hukum dan kepemilikan tanah; dan ketidaksiapan mental secara finansial masyarakat.

  3. Sengketa Minyak Sawit antara Indonesia dan Uni Eropa

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    Novian Uticha Sally

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The background of this scientific paper is the author’s awareness of Indonesia's crude palm oil production which is abundant and the potential to expand its sales to a larger scale. But its potential to grow has to face many problems in the development process. The most severe constraint that is felt by the government of Indonesia is the black campaign on Indonesian palm oil by European countries. Palm oil produced by Indonesia is not considered environmentally friendly and causing natural damage in the plantation process. Yet, in the reality, Europe countries still use crude palm oil from the countries of themselves. This case according to international relations science can be regarded as EU’s effort of protectionism against palm oil production by another country. Protectionism is the act of a country formulating economic policy in such a way in order to protect the domestic economy from the domination of foreign products, thus requiring different powers of government that affect trade patterns and location of economic activity globally. To deal with this policy, Indonesian government must take some serious actions to minimize the occurrence of protectionism done by other countries. The same protectionism effort has also been faced by the Canadian government through the meat import that has been declined by America due to their protectionism policy. Indonesian government can carry out Canadian rescue mechanism against protectionism as a model to face European practice of protectionism. The effort is to do forum shopping to choose the right legal framework to address these issues. In addition to efforts by forum shopping, Indonesia can also make a positive campaign about the advantages of palm oil production in cooperation with the epistemic community. These things need to be done by the government of Indonesia to rescue the production of palm oil

  4. Karakterstik Serapan Suara Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate of sound absorption of coconut filter fiber composites. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157 with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0,5% KMnO4. Production methods is poltrusion and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiber length are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of sound absorpt...

  5. Analisis Gaya Spesifik Pemotongan Sabut Kelapa Muda (Cocos nucifera

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    Tika Hafzara S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To design a young coconut trimming machine, it’s important to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk. The aim of this study were to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk and generate mathematical model of specific cutting force. Sharpening angle, cutting angle and sharpened knife were optimized to get the lowest cutting force. Mathematical model has been generated to estimate the maximum cutting force for one side sharpened knife and two side sharpened knife with cutting angle (θ at 0Oand above 0O. Based on the analysis of this study, the type of knife that require the lowest cutting force is two side sharpened knife with sharpening angle (β = 10O and cutting angle (θ= 30O.

  6. KAJIAN PEMBUATAN BROWNIES KAYA SERAT DARI TEPUNG AMPAS KELAPA

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, .; Rahimsyah, A.; Ulyarti, Ulyarti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the production of high fiber brownies from coconut dreg flour. Coconut dreg is defined as solid residue obtained after extraction of coconut milk from shredded coconut. Coconut dreg flour was obtained after drying, grinding, and shieving process. This research used a Completely Randomized Design to determine the affect of coconut dreg flour concentration on brownies properties. The design used 5 levels of treatments and 4 replications. The levels were ...

  7. Komposit Hibrid Polyester Berpenguat Serbuk Batang Dan Serat Sabut Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Lumintang, Romels C. A; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2011-01-01

    Sawdust coconut trunks of palm trees and fiber coconut coir are two waste materials from the processing of coconuts and coconut tree trunks sawmill waste are plentiful materials can be utilized for producing composites using polyester resins. Both each properties materials as follow polyester resin: liquid in the open air conditions, sawdust coconut and coconut coir fiber properties is lightweight and fragile nature of the polyester adhesive used as a binder (binder) between fiber coconut coi...

  8. Pengaruh Alkalisasi Komposit Serat Kelapa-Poliester Terhadap Kekuatan Tarik

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanti, Budha; Sonief, Ahmad As'ad; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of alkalization on the tensile strength and strain of coconut fiber composites with polyester matrix by varying the concentration of NaOH as follow 0%, 2%, 5% and 8%. Alkalization is one of modifications natural fibers to improve fiber-matrix compatibility.The method of this research used a hands lay-up method. As follow the 1st coconut fiber treated without alkalization or 0% alkalization and the 2nd coconut fiber immersed in alkaline sol...

  9. Analisis Sifat Mekanik Material Komposit Dari Serat Sabut Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Oroh, Jonathan; Sappu, Frans P; Lumintang, Romels Cresano

    2012-01-01

    This research uses coco fiber having straight fiber orientation. Different volume fraction with alkali (NaOH) treatment for two hours and without treatment have applied in this work. This composite was manufactured by molding where Polyester BQTN 157 was used as matrix. Bending test was performed based on ASTM D 6110 standard. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimum bending strength of coco fiber composite for volume fraction of 0 % fiber and 100% resin, 10% fiber and 90% resin, 20%...

  10. REKAYASA UBIN DARI LAMINASI BATANG DAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA

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    Sutrisno Sutrisno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Floor Tile Design Made of Coconut Log and Shell. The research for local building materials is demanded for supporting regional potentials improvement. This research is aimed to investigate the design and quality of floor tile made of laminated coconut log and shell as floor and wall materials for housing. This design research uses structural-functional approaches, prototype manufacturing, and its testing. The result shows that (1 the log and shell of coconut can be used as floor tiling materials with specification as follows: 200 mm of length, 200 mm of width, 20 mm of depth, 550 grams of weight, brown color, and used as interior finishing for both floor and wall; (2 generally, the quality of shell layer fulfills technical requirements, except its load-strength test; and (3 for using as floor tile, the shell has good density and surface quality, but different in color and pattern.

  11. SIFAT FISIS, MEKANIS SERTA KEAWETAN BATANG KELAPA HIBRIDA

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    Istie Sekartining Rahayu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wood industry in Indonesia suffers from lack of wooden raw material because of the demand is greater than the supply. In order to solve this problem, we need to enhance the use of wood by optimalizing the use of wooden raw material wich has a great potensial, but not well used, for example hybride coconut wood. The purpose of this research were to determine physical, mechanical and chemical properties of hybride coconut wood and its vertically and horizontally variation in order to optimalize the use of hybride coconut wood. This research used three hybride coconut steems, the 6 cm disks were extracted from each stem at 1, 4, 7, and 10 m heights. The analyze of vascular bundle and parenchyma consisted of covered area per cm2 and their chemical composition. Hybride coconut wood had a low specific gravity because vascular bundle covered area was lower than parenchyma per cm2 and low wood substance portion. Low specific gravity caused low mechanical properties. Hight moisture content (specially fresh one was cause by sugar and starch extractives which had high hygroscopic ability. These extractives content also caused it to be easily attacked by wood destroying factors. Parenchyma covered area per cm2 caused high sugar and starch content. Height and depth factors were visible influence at almost all basic properties of vascular bundle and parenchyma at different level.

  12. ANALISIS PENGUJIAN STRUKTUR BALOK LAMINASI KAYU SENGON DAN KAYU KELAPA

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    Sri Handayani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood Sengon (Sengon is a type of timber that can quickly grow, accessible but its use as a construction material has not been optimized. The technology used to support the wood as a construction material is a laminate. Engineering experiments was done by making laminated beams of wood Sengon and wood coconut. The purpose of this study is to determine how much the increase in flexural strength for laminated wood Sengon beams and wood Coconut beams as a replacement of structural beam with a variety of adhesive and timber placement. The method used is an experimental method for flexural strength testing of laminated beams. The results showed an average flexural strength of the maximum obtained in laminated beams with variations EP-S (adhesive epoxy glue and placement position in the wood Sengon amounted to 679 350 kg / cm2. An increase in the strength of 254 025 kg / cm2 (59.72% are from wood Sengon bending strength 425 325 kg / cm2 (probe grade IV to 679 350 kg / cm2 (strong class III. The use of technology should pay attention to the position of the bearing laminated wood. Wood with strong higher class should be put on the outside position to provide reinforcement for the wood with a powerful low grade placed in the position.

  13. Pengemasan dan Penyimpanan Dingin Kelapa Kopyor untuk Mempertahankan Mutu

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    Muhammad Yusuf Antu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the influence of packaging material and the temperature applied during storage on the quality of kopyor coconut, to predict the shelf-life, and to determine the best packaging material and the storage temperature to keep the kopyor coconut. Research material is kopyor coconut obtained from Kalianda South Lampung. Kopyor coconut packaged in plastic film type Polyamide (PA, Polypropylene (PP, and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE each weighing 60 g. The quality parameter observed are free fatty acids (FFA, total microbes, and sensory characteristics including color, flavor, and taste. This research us Randomized Complete Design with two factors. The first factor was the packaging material with three different types (PA, PP, HDPE, and the second factor was the storage temperature at two levels of 5±2 oC and 10±2 oC. The shelf-life was predict using Partially Staggered Design (PSD technique. Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique was used to determine the best treatment. The results showed that the type of plastic packaging and storage temperature gave an effect on the total microbes, and organoleptics of color, flavor, and taste. PA packaging is the best packaging can be maintained the quality of organoleptic and reduce the microbe growth. The storage temperature of 5±2 oC can maintain quality of kopyor coconut better than 10±2 oC temperature. Based on PSD method and total microbe as critical parameters, the shelf-life of kopyor coconut at 5±2 oC is 27, 26, and 17 days for plastic PA, HDPE, and PP packaging, respectively.

  14. MINYAK KELAPA BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI PENGAWET BUAH DAN SAYURAN

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    Nunik Siti Aminah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Lack of information about coconut oil for healing some diseases, makes people ignore to use coconut oil. after the Vico (Virgin Coconut Oil recognized, now people pay attention to coconut oil. Coconut oil contain laurat acid in a large amount and this thing with other acids in coconut oil is very potential as fruit and vegetables preservative, because it is cheap, easy to apply, has litlle side effect, safe for non target and environment friendly. This Coconut oil to prolong the time of fruit saving. Pear has the followed by apple, Nephelium litchi, mango, grape and Salacca edulis. For Vegetables : potatotollamed, cucumber,tomato, carrot and paprica. The microba that can be prevented to grow are : Eschericia coli, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus niger and Scopulariopsi sp. The microba that can contaminate the fruits and vegetables are : Klebsiella, Fusariuim, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Chrysomillia, Botrytis, Synchepalastrum, Aureobasidium, Neosartorya and Monascus. Among all the fungi that produce toxin, which is called micotoxin is very harmful to human and animal health. Using coconut oil as preservatives is very easy if fruits vegetables are in small amount, they only need a paint-brush that already dipin to coconut oil then rub it to clean fruits vegetables. But if the fruit vegetables that will be preserved are in a large container filled with coconut oil is needed to soak the fruits large vegetables for 10 seconds.Key words : Coconut oil, Natural preservative, Fruit and Vegetable.

  15. PROSES PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN MINYAK KELAPA DAN MINYAK JELANTAH

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    Muthia Elma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is normally produced as cooking oil in some areas in Indonesia. However, palm oil mostly produced by industries as vegetable/cooking oil.Waste cooking oil from palm oil becomes a big problem in the environment, and creates pollution. This research aims to use waste cooking oil to produce biodiesel by mixing waste cooking oil and coconut oil. Those mixed oils become raw materials for this proces. The composition of the mixtures are 100MJ: 0MK; 75MJ: 25MK; 50MJ: 50MK; 25MJ: 75MK; and 0MJ: 100MK (% v / v of waste cooking oil (MJ and coconut oil (MK.The total of 200 mL oil mixtures was used for the esterification process with methanol composition were 38%; 30%; 28%; and trans-esterification were 19%; 20%; 21%; 23%. Esterification reaction was using the 0,5% H2SO4 as a catalyst, while transesterification was using 0.9% KOH as catalyst. The yield of biodiesel this reaserch were: 100MJ: 0MK (92.15%, 75MJ: 25MK (96.65%, 50MJ: 50MK (95.11%, 25MJ: 25MK (96.65% and 100MK: 0MJ (82.65%. Furthermore, the total glycerol values were 100MJ:0MK (0.19%, 75MJ: 25MK (0.21%, 50MJ:50MK (0.23% 25MJ: 25MK (0.22% and 100MK: 0MJ (0.26%. EN14214 standard shows that the best composition of mixtured oils was 50MJ:50MK. Then, the total glycerol was 0.23% (60-70 minutes for the esterification and transesterification reaction. Acid number value was 0.2117, saponification number was 198.41; ester content was 98.163% and water content was 0.56 ppm.

  16. IMPACT OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST CONVERSION ON THE DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF TERMITES IN JAMBI PROVINCE (Dampak Konversi Hutan Tropika Basah Terhadap Keragaman Jenis dan Kelimpahan Rayap di Provinsi Jambi

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    Suryo Hardiwinoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the ecosystems. The objective of this study was to clarify the impacts of tropical rain forests conversion into other land-uses on the diversity and abundance of termites in Jambi, Sumatera. Six land use types used in this study were primary forest, secondary forest, rubber plantation, oil-palm plantation, cassava cultivation and Imperata grassland. The result showed that a total of 30 termite species were found in the six land use types, with highest species richness and abundance in the forests. The species richness and the relative abundance of termites decreased significantly when the tropical rain forests were converted to rubber plantation and oil-palm plantation. The loss of species richness was much greater when the forests were changed to cassava cultivation and Imperata grassland, while their abundance greatly decreased when the forests were degraded to Imperata grassland. Termite species which had high relative abundances in primary and secondary forests were Dicuspiditermes nemorosus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Nasutitermes longinasus and Procapritermes setiger.   ABSTRAK  Kerusakan hutan tropika basah dapat menimbulkan dampak lingkungan berupa penurunan keanekaragaman hayati serta terganggunya fungsi dan stabilitas ekosistem. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dampak konversi hutan tropika basah  menjadi bentuk penggunaan lahan lain di Jambi Sumatra terhadap keragaman jenis dan kelimpahan rayap. Enam tipe penggunaan lahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah hutan primer, hutan sekunder, tanaman karet, tanaman kelapa sawit, kebun ketela pohon dan padang alang-alang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ditemukan 30 jenis rayap pada 6 tipe penggunaan lahan tersebut, dengan keragaman jenis dan kelimpahan individu rayap tertinggi pada lahan hutan. Kekayaan jenis dan kelimpahan

  17. STUDI EKSPERIMEN PEMILIHAN BIOMASSA UNTUK MEMPRODUKSI GAS ASAP CAIR ( LIQUID SMOKE GASES SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET

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    Sugeng Slamet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengertian umum asap cair merupakan suatu hasil destilasi atau pengembunan dari uap hasil pembakaran tidak langsung maupun langsung dari bahan yang banyak mengandung karbon dan senyawa- senyawa lain. Bahan baku yang banyak digunakan untuk membuat asap cair adalah kayu, bongkol kelapa sawit, ampas hasil penggergajian kayu, dan lain-lain. Pembuatan asap cair menggunakan metode pirolisis yaitu peruraian dengan bantuan panas tanpa adanya oksigen atau dengan jumlah oksigen yang terbatas. Biasanya terdapat tiga produk dalam proses pirolisis yakni: gas, pyrolisis oil, dan arang, yang mana proporsinya tergantung dari metode pirolisis, karakteristik biomassa dan parameter reaksi. Metode yang dilakukan diawali dengan melakukan rancang bangun unit pirolisator lengkap dengan perangkat kondensor dengan pipa tembaga tipe spiral untuk memproduksi gas asap cair dari bahan biomassa yang dipilih yaitu tempurung kelapa dan sampah organik. Metode Pirolisis yang merupakan proses reaksi penguraian senyawa-senyawa penyusun kayu keras menjadi beberapa senyawa organik melalui reaksi pembakaran kering pembakaran tanpa oksigen. Reaksi ini berlangsung pada reaktor pirolisator dengan variasi temperatur 150oC, 250oC dan 300oC selama 8 jam pembakaran. Asap hasil pembakaran dikondensasi dengan kondensor yang berupa pipa tembaga melingkar. Hasil dari proses pirolisis diperoleh tiga produk yaitu asap cair, tar, dan arang. Kondensasi dilakukan dengan pipa atau koil melingkar yang dipasang dalam bak pendingin. Air pendingin dapat berasal dari air hujan yang ditampung dalam bak penampungan. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah biomassa tempurung kelapa menghasilkan jumlah senyawa fenol lebih besar 30-33%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pada jenis biomassa ini lebih unggul dalam fungsi sebagai antioksidan, karena kaya akan kandungan senyawa fenol, sehingga lebih optimal dalam hal menghambat kerusakan pangan dengan cara mendonorkan hidrogen. Sedangkan biomassa cangkang

  18. PERSIAPAN DAN PENYUSUNAN BAHAN BAKU LOKAL UNTUK FORMULASI PAKAN IKAN

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    Kamaruddin Kamaruddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Usaha budidaya ikan dalam keramba jaring apung masih mengandalkan pasok pakan alami berupa ikan rucah yang dapat mencapai 60%--70% dari total biaya produksi. Karena itu perlu pengadaan pakan buatan yang memenuhi persyaratan kebutuhan nutrisi bagi pembesaran ikan, baik makro maupun mikro nutrien diperlukan sebagai informasi dasar dalam upaya pengembangan pakan buatan. Terdapat banyak bahan baku lokal yang sangat potensial dijadikan bahan baku pakan, seperti: ikan rucah, rebon, kepala udang (limbah cold storage, tepung darah (limbah pemotongan hewan, dan tepung DOC (limbah penetasan ayam. Dari beberapa bahan baku tersebut telah dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya dan telah dilakukan uji kecernaan masing-masing bahan menunjukkan bahwa bahan tersebut dapat mensubstitusi bahan baku impor tepung ikan sebagai sumber protein hewani. Selain bahan hewani, juga telah dilakukan analisis kandungan nutrisi bahan nabati lokal, seperti pemanfaatan bungkil kelapa sawit, bungkil kopra, dan dedak halus. Untuk menghasilkan pakan yang berkualitas, maka semua bahan harus dalam bentuk tepung yang halus, serta mempunyai keseimbangan antara protein, lemak, dan energi serta suplemen vitamin dan mineral.

  19. Penentuan Pelabuhan Hub untuk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Ekspor di Indonesia

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    Eko Andi Haranto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CPO (Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditi ekspor terbesar di Indonesia. Moda angkut darat dan sungai menjadi pilihan untuk didistribusikan menuju calon pelabuhan hub. Tugas Akhir ini bertujuan untuk merencanakan pola operasi armada pengangkut CPO, dan penentuan pelabuhan hub untuk ekspor CPO. Metode Transportasi digunakan untuk memilih pabrik pengolahan CPO sebagai pemasok utama. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa penggunaan moda darat menggunakan truk lebih optimal dibandingkan menggunakan tongkang hal ini dikarenakan kondisi sungai di Kalimantan Tengah yang dangkal. Dengan menggunakan metode transportasi didapatkan empat lokasi pabrik pengolahan minyak kelapa sawit. Pelabuhan hub yang terpilih berlokasi di Bagendang dan Bumi Harjo. Kedua titik tersebut dipilih karena sudah memiliki tangki timbun dan dermaga untuk ekspor CPO, selain itu pemilihan berdasarkan hasil analisa didapatkan biaya dari Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS ke Pelabuhan Bagendang dengan truk berukuran 10 ton memerlukan biaya sebesar Rp. 333.016,25/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS II ke Pelabuhan Bagendang Rp. 237.868,75/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. TIGER ke Pelabuhan Bumi Harjo Rp. 475.737,50/TRIP/TRUK. PT. TIGER II merupakan pabrik yang dapat melakukan pengiriman langsung menggunakan tongkang berukuran 1800 DWT melewati sungai Barito, dengan biaya Rp.123.007.828,27,- /voyage.

  20. Penentuan Persentase Kehilangan Minyak(Losses) CPO Yang Terdapat Pada Tandan KosongDi PTP. Nusantara IV (Persero) Unit Kebun Pabatu Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Anrul Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The empty bunches of palm which used for crude palm oil processing stil contains some oil because of palm stacking in Auto Feeder also the speed of Threser rotation.The oil losses analyzed by soclet extraction method.The persentage of palm oil losses in empty bunches are contained 2,30 – 2,34 %. Howover the losses persentage of palm oil according to analyst result, not exceed the norma standart 3,00 %. 112401002

  1. KONVERSI KATALITIK MINYAK SAWIT UNTUK MENGHASILKAN BIOFUEL MENGGUNAKAN SILIKA ALUMINA DAN HZSM-5 SINTESIS

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    Nurjannah Nurjannah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Terbatasnya sumber energi fosil menyebabkan perlunya pengembangan energi terbarukan yang berasal dari alam dan dapat diperbaharui. Penggunaan bahan bakar minyak bumi, baik dari penggunaan berupa alat transportasi maupun dari penggunaan oleh industri sangat mencemari lingkungan karena tingkat polusi yang ditimbulkan sangat tinggi sehingga perlu mencari bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar gasoline, solar, dan kerosene dari minyak nabati. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis dan proses katalitik cracking. Silika alumina disintesa menggunakan metode Latourette dan HZSM-5 disintesa menggunakan metode Plank. Hasil sintesa dikarakterisasi dengan Penyerapan Spektroskopi Atomis (AAS menunjukkan bahwa silika alumina dan HZSM-5 mempunyai Si/Al 198 dan 243. Luas permukaan  silika alumina dan HZSM-5 diperoleh dari analisa Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET yaitu 149,91-213,35 m2.g-1 dan ukuran pori rata-rata adalah 13oA. Perengkahan katalitik dilakukan dalam suatu mikroreaktor fixed bed pada temperatur 350-500°C dan laju alir gas N2 100-160 ml.min-1 selama 120 min. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan metode gas kromatografi. Hasil yang diperoleh untuk katalis HZSM-5 fraksi gasoline dengan yield tertinggi 28,87%, kerosene 16,70%, dan diesel 12,20%  pada suhu reaktor 4500C dan laju gas N2 100 ml/menit.

  2. Analisa Efisiensi Water Tube Boiler Berbahan Bakar Fiber, Cangkang Sawit dan Kulit Kayu Menggunakan Metode Langsung

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Dosma Putra Lumban

    2016-01-01

    Some of the factors that affect the efficiency of the boiler is a superheater pressure, water feed temperature, steam temperature, the amount of steam produced, the amount of fuel consumption and calorific value fuel combustion. Steamtab chemicallogic use companion software to calculate the value of enthalpy. The aim of this study is to get relations variations in pressure superheater with boiler efficiency, the relationship of variation of temperature feed water to the boiler efficiency, the...

  3. PERAN FISIOLOGIS SARI KEDELAI HITAM DIPERKAYA MIKROENKAPSULAN MINYAK SAWIT MENTAH PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS TIPE-2

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    Reno Irwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type-2 (DM-2 is a disease characterized by high level of blood glucose which may result in complications of other diseases. Currently, the disease prevalence of DM-2 has been increasing. Appropriate diet patterns can be a solution for DM-2 control. Black soybean milk (BSM enriched with microencapsulated crude palm oil (CPO is an example. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of BSM containing microencapsulated CPO in controlling and improving the condition of DM-2 patients. The intervention consist 2 group with 15 people DM-2 was given BSM 240 mL containing 0.4 g microencapsulated CPO daily for 28 days, while a control group with 11 people DM-2 without intervention product. Data were analyzed using software SPSS 15.0 with student-t test at significant level α=5%. Medicines prescribed to all volunteer were not terminated during the intervention period. The microencapsulated CPO usedin this study has a moisture content of 1.77±0.15%, solubility value of 65.39±2.71%, and total carotene of 295.24±7.40 ppm while BSM has protein content of 2.76±0.13%, fat 1.17±0.06%, ash 0.12±0.08%, moisture 94.69±0.04%, and carbohydrate (by difference 1.27±0.10%. The consumption of BSM containing microencapsulated CPO showed insignificant effects on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG levels (P>0.05, but significantly reduced cyclooxygenase 2 levels (P0.05, cyclooxygenase 2 (P0.05. The significant changes indicated that BSM containing microenca-psulated CPO has against DM-2 disease.

  4. BAURAN PEMASARAN PRODUK BARU PELUMAS FOOD GRADE GREASE BERBAHAN DaSAR MINYAK SAWIT

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    Ali Maksum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grease with food grade specification is essentially required on food processing production activities.  The purpose of this study is to develop a new product marketing mix for food grade grease, i.e 1 product priority, 2 pricing priority, 3 distribution priority and 4 advertising priority. This Research was conducted in Sub District Purbalingga and Padamara, Purbalingga regency with respondent SMEs food processing. Analysis of the determination of marketing mix that includes product, price, advertising and distribution using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sampling was purposive random sampling method with a population of 64 SMEs so drawn sample of 20 respondents. Result of the study showed the marketing mix priority which were: (1 advertising priority for the new food grade grease product with an ads that could attract the attention of consumers in order to made the consumers interested, tried, and bought the new food grade lubricating grease products. (2 Price priority for the new food grade grease products which was by determining the moderate prices to compete the competitors' prices while still maintained a high quality. (3 Product priority for new food grade grease product which was producing a qualified product which could withstand the wear of the engine, green colour of the product, a 350 g size packs with a rectangular shape packaging labels. (4 Distribution priority for the new food grade grease product which was a short distribution channels through mobile vendors so that the consumers were able to save costs, and got the product fast and easily

  5. Analisis Pengaruh Ukuran Pori Terhadap Sifat Listrik Karbon Aktif Dari Limbah Tandan Sawit Pada Prototipe Baterai

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    Handoyo Margi Waluyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prototype batteries was succesfully made by using activated carbon. This research aimed to examine the effect of pore size on the electrical properties of activated carbon which is used as a battery-making material. Activated carbon is synthesized using H3PO4 activator with concentration variations (mass/volume of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The carbonization was carried out at 400 °C for 1 hour, while activation at 700 °C for 1 hour. The result showed, the pore size effect on the electrical properties of the activated carbon in the battery prototype, especially for the capacitance and internal resistance of the material which has a correlation of 90% and 90.2%, respectively. The sample with 25% H3PO4 has the best pore size of 5.43μm. As the pore size of the activated carbon increases, it has caused increased capacitance and decreased internal resistance of the material. With the pore size of 5.43μm, the capacitance is 5.88mF/g and the internal resistance of the material is 662.02Ω.

  6. Polisakarida Mengandung Mannan dari Bungkil Inti Sawit Sebagai Antimikroba Salmonella typhimurium pada Ayam

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    M. Tafsin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Mannan containing polysaccharides could be used as an alternative to replace antibiotics due to their capacity to block the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine of poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate mannan containing polysaccharides from palm kernel meal (PKM and its inhibitory effect against Salmonella typhimurium. Hot water extractions were used to isolate mannan containing polysaccharides from cell wall of PKM. In vivo studies were conducted using broiler and layer chicks that were challenged orally with 104 cfu Salmonella typhimurium on third day. Split plot design was used as experimental design with strain as main plot and level of mannan polysaccharides as sub plot. The levels of mannan containing polysaccharides that were used consisted of 0 (R0; 1000 (R1; 2000 (R2; 3000 (R3; 4000 (R4 ppm, in term of total sugar. The results indicated that compared to the control group, feeding PKM containing mannan 4000 ppm decreased (P<0.01 Salmonella typhimurium incidence. The addition of mannan did not affect feed consumption. On the contrary, the addition of 4000 ppm mannan gave significantly higher feed/weight gain ratio of the chicks (P<0.05. The administration of feed supplemented with mannan from PKM did not influence weight gain of poultry. It is concluded that mannan from PKM can prevent the colonization of Salmonella typhimurium in poultry.

  7. KECERNAAN RANSUM SAPI BALI DENGAN KONSENTRAT FERMENTASI BERBASIS LUMPUR SAWIT DAN BAHAN PAKAN LOKAL

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    Irma Badarina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the dry matter and organic matterdigestibility in vivo of Bali cattle diet that supplemented with fermented concentrate ration based from palm oil sludge and several local feed sources. Fifteen Bali cattles with 2 years old and the range of live weight 184,5±3,63 kg were distributed into three treatments and five replication in Completely Randomized design. The treatment was the level of concentrate supplementation, They were P1 (10kg/day, P2(7,5kg/day and P3(5kg/day. The forage and the rice straw were adjusted as much as 10 kg/day and 1 kg/day, respectively. The composition of fermented concentrate consisted of palm oil sludge (70%, rice bran (10%, coffee husk (10% and coconut press fiber (10%. As bioactivator used”Bionak”as much as 0,3%. The an aerob fermentation took time a week. The result showed that up to the highest level (10kg/day the supplementation of fermented concentrate ration enhanced the consumption and the digestibility of the whole rations.

  8. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Manajemen Rantai Pasok Minyak Sawit Mentah Berbasis GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ringgo Afrinando

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses about information systems of CPO supply chain management in PTPN 6 Ophir. PTPN 6 management still use the conventional system (archival documents) in running their business. This information is not yet integrated with the map of plantation, so it will allow errors and inaccuracies in the planning, management and maintenance of oil palm plantations. Otherwise, the output from the production and processing of FFB to CPO and Palm Kernel also has not been well managed. So thi...

  9. Peningkatan Energi Metabolis Produk Fermentasi Campuran Bungkil Inti Sawit Dan Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Sukaryana, Yana

    2010-01-01

    The research objective is to compare the metabolism energy of palm kernel cake (80%) and rice bran (20%) mix fermentation product with the same unfermented product. To compare is used Student-t test. Determination and procedure of metabolism energy refers to Sibbald and Morse (1983) developed method. The results showed that the average metabolism energy content of palm kernel cake (80%) and rice bran (20%) mix fermentation product (2149,33 ±24,90) significantly different (P

  10. Studi Penggunaan Metil Ester Minyak Sawit sebagai Minyak Isolasi Peralatan Listrik

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    Abdul Rajab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experimental results on some parameters of palm methyl ester as insulating oil. Destillations are firstly made to obtained the composition of oil that provide the optimal compromise among measured parameters. Breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, dielectric constant, viscosity and oxidation stability were then tested on original, destilled, and destillation residual oils. The results showed that the dissipation factor and viscosity of destilled palm methyl ester comply with the standard spesification for natural ester to be used as insulating oil. Sadly, the breakdown voltage and oxidation stability of oils do not fulfill the standard. However, the lower breakdown voltage of oils seem to be tolerable as their value are still higher then that of mineral oil. Dielectric constant of oils which were higher then that of mineral oil is an advantage when the oils will be used in combination with solid insulation for more uniformly field reason.

  11. Studi Bahan Bakar Biodiesel Diperoleh Dari Reaksi Trigliserida Minyak Goreng Sawit / Etanol Dalam Katalis Basa

    OpenAIRE

    Br Bangun, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel consumption are increasing rapidly and has increased, while fossil fuel reserves are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. A potensial diesel fuel substitute is biodiesel. On this research cooking palm oil and ethanol are converted to biodiesel using base catalyst potassium hydroxide (KOH) with transesterification reaction scheme. Reaction take place during 4 hour at temperature 78oC,with comparison of ethanol : cooking palm oil molar ratio 6 ...

  12. Pertimbangan Sifat Mekanik Pelepah Sawit Terhadap Proses Pengomposan Sebagai Acuan Desain Mesin Pencacah

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    Ramayanty Bulan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical properties of palm frond are very important factor for the development of palm oil waste utilization technology. The objective of this research was to determine mechanical properties of palm frond Frond for Chopper Machine Designing. The research of composting conduct with two composting factor combination, namely: composting starter composition (i.e. Bokashi, vermi-compost and natural composting and piece of frond dimension (2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm. Sample was obtained from 5 years and 20 years palm oil trees. The average length of palm frond was 675.89 cm, average leaflet length at the palm frond base was 103.89 cm and average leaflet length at palm frond tip was 23.83 cm. Maximum compression strength at the 20 years-palm frond base was 8134.62 N and at the 5 years-palm midrib base was 4893.52 N. Maximum force requirement for cutting palm leaf was 67.67 N. The composting process indicates that Bokashi starter composition gives higher percentage of mass reduction on all variant of piece of frond dimension. Smaller piece of frond (2 cm enable the composting process quicker and had a better result. Statistical analysis reveals that combination of composting factors have significant effect on C/N ratio but insignificant on NPK content.

  13. Analisis Daya Saing Ekspor Minyak Sawit Indonesia dan Malaysia di Pasar Internasional

    OpenAIRE

    ', Hagi; Hadi, Syaiful; Tety, Ermi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze dynamics export competitiveness ofIndonesia's and Malaysia's palm oil in International market. And to analyze exportperformance of Indonesia's and Malaysia's palm oil in International market. The dataused in the study was time series of 1995 - 2009 obtained from various sourcessuch as FAO, MPOB, BPS, Dirjenbun Deptan, and Oil World. The result of thisresearch are, dynamic export competitiveness of Indonesia's palm oil haveimprovement in exporting mar...

  14. TINDAK TUTUR PERLOKUSI GURU DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA KELAS XI SMK NEGERI 1 SAWIT BOYOLALI

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    Eka Nur Insani

    2016-10-01

    and giving advice. The expressive perlocution speech acts involves hatred, pleasure, excitement. The representative form of speech acts include affirmation, description, statement of facts and conclusions. The commissive form of speech acts include denial. The results of this research showed that the perlocution speech acts function found in Indonesian language teachers are the functions for competitiveness and fun.

  15. ANALISIS JEJAK KARBON AGRIBISNIS SAWIT UNTUK MENYUSUN ARAHAN STRATEGI DAN PROGRAM CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR

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    Anggary Pasha Dewani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil agribusiness include on-farm activities (plantation and off-farm activities (palm oil mill are exposed to environmental issues as one of the contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG emission. The purpose of this study is to assess the carbon footprint of palm oil agribusiness as an input to formalize Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR strategy and program, particularly in efforts to reduce CO2 emission. The boundary of emission sources are: 1 diesel for transporting seed; 2 diesel of pump water; 3 fertilizer (N; 4 diesel for transporting FFB to mill; 5 diesel consumption at mill; 6 electricity consumption at mill; 7 POME; and 8 diesel for transporting CPO to harbour. Data to estimate CO2 emissions during 20 year of life cycle (period 1991-2011. Total emissions of palm oil agribusiness is 3904511 tonCO2, where diesel for transporting FFB (79 % and CPO (11.12 % as the largest emitters. It is influenced by the considerable distance between the location of estate SA, estate AB, mill and harbor. The accumulation of carbon stocks is 5713697 ton C / ha. initial carbon stocks was higher compared to carbon stocks in peat and mineral., Tree planting, forest conservation, waste utilization, and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM project is an effort in the company's environmental management, especially reducing GHG emissions. Strategic and programs that was formulated in the form of: 1 system integration palm oil agribusiness and cattle breeding; 2 alternative energy as a impact of CDM project; 3 participatory tree planting; and 4 socialization upon mitigation of GHG emissions.Keywords: emission (CO2, palm oil, CSR, reduction

  16. ANALISIS HARGA MINYAK SAWIT, TINJAUAN KOINTEGRASI HARGA MINYAK NABATI DAN MINYAK BUMI

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    M. Efendi Arianto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The purpose of this study was to gain better understanding on  vegetable oils and crude oil relationship. Dynamic relationship among vegetable oils and crude oil is investigated using vector error correction model (VECM. The data is monthly price data from January 1980 to December 2008, consist of price of the most produced vegetable oils, i.e. palm oil, soyabean oil and rapeseed oil. Crude oil price (CPO was taken into account since biodiesel converted from vegetable oils has become an important alternative of fuel. To get picture of dynamic interrelationship among vegetable oils and crude oil during commodity price soar period, this study was divided into period of investigation, which is period 1980-2003 (before commodity price soar and period 2004-2008 (during commodity price soar.  This study indicates that there is cointegration between vegetable oils and crude oil, and vegetable oils were influenced by crude oil especially in commodity price soar period.

  17. Pemanfaatan Digital Marketing Bagi Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah (UMKM Di Kelurahan Malaka Sari, Duren Sawit

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    Dedi Purwana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve knowledge and skill about digital marketing, especially social media, for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs business maker to enhance their sales and profit. Attended by 13 women SMEs participants, the method used in this activity is; first, explanation using power point slides and LCD projector; second, experience sharing and discussion; and last, direct practice of creating social media (Facebook and Instagram account and how to make it attractive for buyers (the pictures, the wording, the story, etc. Held on May 7, 2017, the community service is funded by DIPA BLU Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result shows that only few who actively use social media as their promotion tools and they have not separated their online shop account with their personal account, several others use it occasionally, and the rest participants have never used social media marketing for being lack of technological skill. All participants show great interest to use social media marketing continuously

  18. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

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    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  19. MODAL SOSIAL DAN PRAKTIK GOTONG ROYONG PARA PENGRAJIN GULA KELAPA DI DESA KETANDA KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

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    Dodi Faedlulloh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Palm sugar is an important commodity for Indonesia. In Banyumas regency, it plays an essential role too. Unfortunately, the palm sugar makers remain far from prosperity. There is an imbalanced social relation, the palms sugar makers are always in subordinate position towards middleman and big corporations above them. Given this condition, some palm sugar maker decided to organize themselves to have some cooperations in improving their quality of economc life. It also helps them to strengthen their bargaining position by establishing an organization called Argo MulyoJati. With its available social capital, certain value is being institutionalized in Katanda village, called GotongRoyong (mutual cooperation. Actually, It has existed inherently in the lifes of Indonesian people. Despite being a newly-born organization Argo MulyoJati is able to prove that collective work could enhance their bargaining position among the stakeholders in Katanda village. It is achieved with high level of social trust that has been growing as their social capital. This study explains how the role of social capital and the practice of mutual cooperation are conducted by members of Argo Mulyo Jati. The discussion is limited on the reformation of social capital as a power owned by palm maker, their aspect of trust as a part of social capital which supports the development of Argo MulyoJati Co-operative, and how is the institutionalization process of GotongRoyong value in the organization activities.

  20. Aplikasi Ergonomic Function Deployment (Efd Pada Redesign Alat Parut Kelapa Untuk Ibu Rumah Tangga

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    Roberta Zulfhi Surya

    2015-04-01

    Ergonomic Function Deployment (Efd Application In Coconut Grater Redesign For HousewifeAbstract. Pulverizing (coconut grated is one of daily kitchen worksconducted by housewives. A common existing coconut grater which is available on the market is normally works using a crank system. Housewives have complaints of pain in the limbs, especially the hands, waist and back after using this grater. This study aims to improve the design of coconut grater with Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD based system and determine the housewife musculoskeletal decline as users. Further, to examine pulverizing time difference after redesign. The study was conducted at RT. 001 RW. 005 West Tembilahan Hulu village, subdistrict Tembilahan Indragiri Hilir. The method use in this study is same design subject (treatment by subjects design with co added Colton equation. Atotal of 12 housewives were used and subjected to the calculation. A grater redesign with EFD system was obtained by creating House of Ergonomic (HOE matrices and determining the anthropometric data. Whilst musculoskeletal disorders were obtained by generating Nordic Body Map (NBMworksheets questionnaire. Moreover, pulverizing time was obtained by testing coconut graterused before and after redesign. Results of the study showed that the redesign tool based on Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD systemwasfound to be more convenient form which five ergonomics aspects required was fulfilled: effective, convenient, safe, healthy, and efficient (ENASE. Housewife musculoskeletal complaints decreased by 0.285% or 17.39%. This study also shows that coconut pulverizing time is 5 minutes faster and increased by 30.10% after redesigning the coconut grater crank system.

  1. Karakteristik Sifat Tarik Dan Mode Patahan Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength of composites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood, bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0.5% KMnO4...

  2. Pengaruh pemberian minyak kelapa virgin terhadap sekresi air susu ibu dan pemeriksaan asam lemak rantai sedang.

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a coconut meat processed without the addition of chemicals with low or without heating. Virgin coconut oil has been used by people in health care, especially as ointment for babies, massage oil, expedite the delivery process, smoothing the skin and nourish the hair. Virgin coconut oil was analyzed results containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Medium chain fatty acids give the adventages for pregnancy and breastfeesing women. This study aimed to determine the ...

  3. Pemanfaatan Kulit Ari Kelapa sebagai Alternatif Bahan Pakan untuk Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Sukarman Sukarman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed is one of the most important things in aquaculture. More than 50% cost productiondecided by feed. The increase of artificial feed price affected by raw material price rising could troubled the farmers and cultivator. Coconut husk as waste in traditional markets. This research purpose to know the utilization of coconut husk as alternative feed material. This research used experiment method composed of one control and three treatmenteach of it with three repetitive. The treatment composition with 5%, 10%, and 15% coconut husk flour. The observed parameter in this research is survival rate, weight absolute, specific growth rate, conversion feed, and water quality. The obtained result is the feed with 15% coconut husk flour formulation had the best result compared from control with survival rate 100 ± 0%, weight absolute 11,75 ± 1,46 gram, specific growth rate 2,89 ± 0,41% and feed conversion ratio 1,62 ± 0,16 without the alteration of water quality. Coconut husk flour can be used as alternative feed material with 15% in formulation.

  4. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

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    Astriah Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and zinc chloride (ZnCl2. Coconut coir activated carbon in this study using a variable dose of 500 mg carbon, 1000 mg and 1500 mg. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of the water content, the adsorption capacity of phenol on activated carbon from coconut husk carbon activation results and determine the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon from coconut husk carbon in the adsorption of phenol. Activators most good at absorbing phenol is sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the absorption efficiency of 93.01% at a mass of 1.5 g.

  5. PEMBUATAN LEMAK KAKAO RENDAH KALORI DENGAN MINYAK KELAPA (COCONUT OIL MELALUI REAKSI INTERESTERIFIKASI

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    Lelya Hilda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cacao fat has long chain fatty acids was high mainly palmitic and stearic can be improved their character by adding of palm oil to obtain cocoa fat was low calories. The addition of coconut oil can be done only up to 20%, which is the ratio (90:10 and (80:20 cocoa fat and coconut oil with solid fat content of 5:53 and 4:58 with a melting point 33.6 ° C and 32.8oC (32oC-35oC melting point cacao fat. The process was be done by interesterification reaction produces cocoa fat that free of trans fatty acids . Keywords: long chain fatty acaid, low calory, solid fat content, melting point

  6. Pengaruh Pemanasan Kelapa Parut dan Teknik Pengunduhan Terhadap Rendemen dan Mutu Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO

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    Sutardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO was produced from green variety ofnon-hybride coconut type. Grated coconut was heated at 500, 70°, and 90°C for 20, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Harvesting technique of VCO were done by conventional, utilization of stainless steel screen, and filter paper laminated stainless steel screen methods, respectively. Produced VCO was subsequently analyzed their productivity and quality parameters consisting of moisture content, acid number, free fatty acid (FFA, peroxide number, iodine number, saponification number, clearness and fatty acid profile of VCO. Statistical analysis was also conducted by using Analysis of Variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test with 5% significancy. The results showed that heating ofgrated coconut at 900C for 40 minutes produced 29.65 ±0.38% VCO, and it was the highest productivity.-Heating temperature ofgrated coconut and with any harvesting technique didn't statistitically have significant effect on productivity and quality of VCO. While, combination of heating temperature at 90°C and it was followed by harvesting technique using stainless steel screen produced the highest VCO i.e. 31.54 ± 0.58%. The best quality of VCO was characterized by 0.09 ± 0.01% moisture content, 0.20 ± 0.02 mg KOH/g oil of acid number, 0.12 ± 0.01% free fatty acid (FFA, 0.37 ± 0.01 meq/kg oil ofperoxide number, 5. 11 ± 0.01 g iod/100 g oil ofiodine number, 244. 12 ± 0.01 mg KOH/g oil saponification number and the VCO was clear and transparant. Fatty acid profile of selected VCO was dominated by medium chain fatty acid (C12:0 particularly lauric acid i.e. 50.26% and followed by 8.65% caprylic and 5,73% capric acids, respectively. "The quality parameters of VCO was able to meet the quality standard of VCO that was issued by APCC (Asia Pacific Coconut Community quality grade.

  7. Evaluasi Kinerja Tarik Traktor Tangan dengan Bahan Bakar Minyak Kelapa Murni

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    Desrial

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Past research shown that coconut oil can be used directly in Diesel engine by adding a heating element in the fuel delivery system. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a hand tractor pull using pure coconut oil fuel. The Diesel engine of the tractor was equipped with a fuel heater installed on the mufler. Traction performance parameters tested were wheel slippage, drawbar pull, forward speed and drawbar power on the path of concrete and soil. Besides, the tractor was also tested on plowing using a moldboard plow. The test results on the concrete track showed that the maximum drawbar pull was 1.21 kN generated at a speed of 0.92 m/s, with a maximum drawbar power of 1.21 kW at the wheel slip of 10.87%. While the drawbar pull on the soil track was 1.37 kN at a speed of 0.79 m/s, with a maximum value of 0.71 kW drawbar power when wheels slip 22.25%. The results of tillage test showed that field efficiency was 84.66%, which was not much different from the test result using Diesel fuel.

  8. PENERAPAN BIOTEKNOLOGI DALAM EKSTRAKSI MINYAK KELAPA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KHAMIR ROTI (Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Leta Leta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed for knowing the influence of temperature, pH, and their interaction on the amount and quality of oils formed in fermentative extraction of coconut oil using bakers, yeast the treatment examined temperature divided into four treatments, pH divided into two treatments, and three repetitions. All treatment in this research met SII. The research result show that: (1 Treatment of temperatures give different effects on the amount of oils, temperatures of 350C and 300C produced the highest amount of oil, give different effects on water content, temperatures of 300C and 350C resulted in the lowest amount of water content, gave different effect on iodine number, and on lathering number, temperature of 350C resulted in the lowest number, did not give different effects on the level of free-fats acid. (2 Treatment of pH did not give different effect on the amount of oil, on water content but give different effect on iodine number, on lathering number, pH of 4 was lower the pH of 4.5. (3 Interaction of treatments of temperatures and pHs give different effect on the amount of oil, temperatures of 350C with pH of 4 and temperatures of 300C with pH 4 produced highest amount of oil, give different effect on water content, temperature of 300C with the pH of 4.5 resulted in the lowest amount of water content, the temperature of 250C with pH 4.5 produced high water content (0.55%, temperature 300C with pH 4.5 resulted in the lowest peroxide number. It gives different effect on the content of free fats acid, produced oil whit bright colour, good taste and smell and it was not immediately rancid.

  9. Ketahanan Bending Komposit Hybrid Serat Batang Kelapa/Serat Gelas Dengan Matrik Urea Formaldehyde

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    Nasmi Herlina Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The composite has its own advantages compared to other alternative techniques such material is strong, lightweight,corrosion-resistant, economical and so on. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of bending strengthfiber composite hybrid coconut trunk / fiber glass using urea formaldehyde resin.Hybrid palm trunk fiber /glass fiber composite have been made by hand lay up which volume fraction fiber hybridvariation namely 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 (% with length fiber 2 cm. Every Tests conducted were bending testing with eachvariation performed three times repetition. Bending test specimens in accordance with standard ASTMD 790.The results of bending strength of palm trunk fiber hybrid composite / fiber-glass with random fiber direction that thehighest bending strength in the palm trunk fiber volume fraction 10% and 20% glass fiber that is 22.7 N/mm2.

  10. Pengaruh Variasi Putaran dan Bentuk Mata Pisau Pengurai pada Mesin Pengurai Sabut Kelapa terhadap Kapasitas Mesin

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Fajar Tri; Yohanes, Yohanes

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of coconut fiber waste at this time is very potential, because the coconut fiber waste a lot of selling value. The coconut processing itself produces 2 kinds of products that are coconut fiber and coconut coir. To increase the effectiveness and capacity of coconut fiber decomposers, it is necessary to perform several variables and in this research will use variation of rotation and shape of coconut fiber decomposition blade. which later expected to produce optimal decompositio...

  11. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Seno Darmanto; Windu Sediono; Bambang Setyoko; Murni Murni

    2012-01-01

    Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber) have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof litera...

  12. PEMANFAATAN KARBON SABUT KELAPA TERIMPREGNASI UNTUK MENGURANGI TEMBAGA(II DALAM MEDIUM AIR

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    Roy Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to produce carbons from coconut fibre which approach to activated carbon clause continue with carbon surface modification and the adsorption examination to Cu(II ions. The research consist of several phase. Carbon making of coconut fibre conducted by carbonization processes at 320-400oC with temperature interval 20oC. Carbon yielded in characterized moisture content, ash content and its adsoprtion to iodium. The carbon surface modification conducted by loaded 2-mercaptobenzotiazol (MBT on carbon. The adsorpsibility of carbon-MBT tested by influence of contact time, pH, and the isoterm adsorption pattern. The result of the study showed carbonization of coconut fibre which approach the requirement of SII No.0258-89 gained at temperature 320oC. In the present study equilibrium time of 10 minute and pH was found to be optimum for both adsorbent. While type of isothermal adsorption from carban and carbon-MBT adsorbent followed the Langmuir adsorption pattern.

  13. PELATIHAN PENGOLAHAN TEPUNG AMPAS KELAPA MENJADI BISKUIT DI DESA ADAT PENGLIPURAN, KABUPATEN BANGLI

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    I W. R. Widarta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Penglipuran village located on Bangli sub-district in Bangli regency. Coconut is one of agricultural commoditiesin this village. Rural community in Penglipuran village are inexperienced how to make cookies by coconut-byproduct. The aim of these activities was to introduce cookies production by coconut-by product to increase theadded.value The Community Service was carried out by 2 methods, namely: first, information and discussionwith rural community about cookies. Second, cookies production training. There are 20 partisipant in this activity,including delegation of female farmer groups. They have given positif response for these valuable activity.

  14. Karakteristik Mekanik Panel Dinding dari Komposit Sabut Kelapa (Coco Fiber)-Sampah Plastik (Thermoplastics)

    OpenAIRE

    Fajriyanto, Fajriyanto

    2009-01-01

    The research about utilization of coco fiber and thermoplastic waste to produce partition wall based on fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composites has been conducted. The research methodology used was experimental research method. There were three steps conducted in the research; the first, preparation of instruments and sampling of raw materials, the second, blending process for producing fiberboard composites, the third, mechanical-waterproof testing and analyzing of products. The obje...

  15. Analisis Sifat Mekanik Komposit Serat Sabut Kelapa sebagai Material Alternatif Pengganti Kayu untuk Pembuatan Kapal Tradisional

    OpenAIRE

    ', Aguswandi '; Badri, Muftil '; ', Yohanes '

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been difficult to get the wood as a material to construct the traditional ships. Alternatively, the wood can be substituted by composite materials such as the composite of coco fiber. The coco fiber composites have potential to construct a fishing boat. In this research produced the composite plates and investigation of their value of tensile strength and flexural strength. The composite composition was used 70% polyester and 30% coco fiber. Production of the composite plates...

  16. Pengaruh Minyak Kelapa Murni Terhadap Peningkatan Stamina Pada Mencit (Mus Musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pertiwi, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an oil which composed of fatty acid and dominated by medium chain triglyceride (MCT) different from palm oil which dominated by long chain triglyceride (LCT). Virgin coconut oil is rapidly digested and quickly absorbed then go into liver so that it can increase metabolism and stamina. The purpose of this research is to know stamina enhancement effect from virgin coconut oil which compared palm oil with various dose and be given in acute. In this research is use AZMI® ...

  17. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

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    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total, BOD, and COD. This research was done to evaluate the characteristics of the liquid waste quality with or without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL, and compare them with the Regulation of DIY Governor number 7/2010. It also studied the effect of pH and Concentration of chitosan coating on active charcoal as adsorbent on the decrease of Cr (total, BOD, and COD concentration in the liquid waste of leather tanning. The results indicate that the liquid waste of the leather tanning industry with and without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL have exceeded the quality standard for the liquid waste of leather tanning industry. An ANOVA statistical test indicated that Cr (total, BOD, and COD are significant at 0.05 (p < 0.05, with various pH influencing the decrease in Cr (total, BOD, and COD. The highest removal percentage resulting from the effect of chitosan concentration coating on active charcoal is obtained in adsorbent C (K3A1, with Cr (total (91.9%; BOD (99.5%; and COD (98.47%.;

  18. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera) Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Astriah Abdullah; Asri Saleh; Iin Novianty

    2013-01-01

    Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera) has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). Coconut...

  19. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER

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    Seno Darmanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof literatures can show that increase of cellulose of natural fiber will increase modulus of elasticity.The Increasing of modulus of elasticity will be maximal with cellulose more than 60%. Color ofspecimen is transparent yellow.

  20. Perancangan Mesin Pengurai Sabut Kelapa Berbasiskan Metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Nuriyadi, Nuriyadi; Yohanes, Yohanes

    2017-01-01

    Generally, coconut farmers in areas of Indragiri Hilir have not exploited waste plantation of coconut in theform of coir. There is only a small portion of them utilize the coir to be processed further but the processing ismanually or traditionally. Whereas coconut husk if it is processed properly that can increase the economicvalue of the coir and also can support the economic community. To overcome these problems, the design ofcoconut coir machine is conduced in this research. This design us...

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Sabut Kelapa pada Perencanaan Interior dan Furniture yang Berdampak pada Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Miskin

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    Titi Indahyani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut coir is one component of coconut that could be produced and decomposed into products needed by domestic or international market. Cocofiber and cocopeat are two derived products from coconut coir which through several researches could be produced into supporting material of interior and furniture, including matrass, bed sofa, and particle board like MDF, Coconut Fiber Board (CFB. Within this research, it is hoped to distribute the information about the functions and producing materials from coconut coir waste. This is supposed to be used by the government, minor industry, designer, and public to also apply and choose environment-friendly coconus coir material and sustain as a part of sustainable design, green design, social entrepreneurship and related programs. Therefore, coconut coir waste could be valued economically and has its positive effects to society who live around the coconut tree plantation area.  

  2. Studi Kualitas Minyak Goreng dari Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) melalui Proses Sterilisasi dan Pengepresan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the cooking oil quality from raw material of grated coconut flesh . The grated coconut flesh is dried within oven at 35 °C to 50 °C temperature until its water content reached 5%. Grated coconut flesh with maximum water content of 5% was weighted with magnitude of 1000 g for each treatments. It was subsequently wrapped by using cloth for sterilization processs at 10 psi, 12.5 psi and 15 psi pressures as well as 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of sterilizat...

  3. Penambahan kelapa (Cocos nucifera dan kacang tolo (Vigna unguiculata terhadap nilai indeks glikemik singkong (Manihot utilissima

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    Rini Astuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The glycemic index (GI is a notion that defences the glycaemic potency of foods. Foods with low GI will be digested and turned into glucose gradually and slowly. As a result blood glucose peak will not be so high and its fluctuation relatively in short time. Although cassava is a good source of carbohydrate, it has a high GI and low protein. Its GI factor needs to be reduced by any efforts to make it a healthy alternative food in spite of rice. Objective: To analize the effect of adding coconut and black-eyed pea to the GI factor of cassava. Method: The study used experimental observation design. There were three groups of treatment with 9 persons in each goup. After fasting for 10 hours, blood glucose were tested and 50 g of true glucose were given. Blood glucose of the subjects were tested again after 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes giving true glucose. Next on the seventh day, they were given boiled cassava, cassava with coconut (sawut and cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul. After which their blood glucose were also tested. Results: GI factor of steam cassava, shredded cassava and shredded cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul was 100,40; 70,90; and 61,88; respectively. There was a significant difference of GI level between three products (p=0,031. Conclusion: Food processing by adding coconut and black-eyed pea has effect in reducing the GI level of cassava.

  4. Karakter Morfologi Dan Molekuler Isolat Phytophthora Palmivora Asal Kelapa Dan Kakao

    OpenAIRE

    MOTULO, HIASINTA FJ; S-SINAGA, MEITY; SUASTIKA, GEDE; ASWIDINNOOR, HAJRIAL; HARTANA, ALEX

    2007-01-01

    Morphology and molecular characteristics of P.palmivora isolates from coconut and cacaoPhytophthora palmivora, is the pathogen of coconut nutfall andcacao black pod diseases. This study was conducted to differentiate theisolates of P. palmivora from coconut and those from cacao fruit based onmorphology and molecular characteristics. Samples of nutfall of coconutand black pod of cacao were collected from Banyuwangi and JemberDistricts, East Java, Minahasa and Bolaang Mongondow Districts, ...

  5. Pengaruh Kecepatan Putar Pengadukan dan Waktu Pendiaman Terhadap Rendemen dan Kualitas Minyak Kelapa Murni (VCO

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    Arniah Dali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It as done a research on the influence of the rotational speed of stirring and standing time on the yield and quality virgin coconut oil (VCO. VCO is made with mechanical engineering variations stirring round and standing time. Variations in the rotational speed of stirring cream coconut milk is 372, 385, 449, 503, and 539 rpm. The results were obtained optimum rotational speed is 503 rpm with a yield 23.66 % (v/v. Variations coconut cream standing time is 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 hours. The results  were obtained optimum standing time is 8 hours with a yield of 22.90 % (v/v, the water content of 0.17 %, acid content of 0.26 %, saponification value of 247.656 mg KOH/g of fat, and a peroxide value of 0.199 mL eq/kg.

  6. Uji Daya Hambat Sampo yang Mengandung Minyak Kelapa Murni Terhidrolisis Terhadap Jamur Penyebab Ketombe

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Nulika Fitria

    2015-01-01

    Short chain and medium chain fatty acids, mainly lauric acid are the major content of virgin coconut oil (VCO) bound as triglycerides. Partial hydrolysis of triglycerides will generate free fatty acids and glycerol. Hidrolysis using NaOH (saponification) generate lauric acid, monolaurin and dilaurin. Lauric acid and monolaurin are effective as antibacterial and antifungal agent whereas dilaurin and trilaurin are not. The purpose of this research was to study the influence of addition VCO and ...

  7. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

    OpenAIRE

    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total) at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group) of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total),...

  8. ANALISIS USAHATANI TERPADU TANAMAN DAN TERNAK KAMBING DI AREAL PERKEBUNAN KELAPA DI SULAWESI UTARA

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    Derek Polakitan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut Commodity as a source of income many people in North Sulawesi. The area of   266,147.36 ha of coconut plantation largely cultivated in monoculture. Under these conditions it is necessary to empower that coconut farming remains a mainstay source of income for the family farm. Objective of the assessment that has been done is to analyze the integrated plant and goat farming in the area of   coconut plantation. The rationale, the lower the productivity of coconut. In the 2003 - 2004 has made   the development of goats in the plantation area in KP Pandu village Talawaan Bantik Wori District of North Minahasa. Development is done using a model of integrated farming of coconut, corn and goats. One hectare of coconut land area fenced with Gliricidia produced 843.2 kg of fresh forage /90 day. 0.2 ha of  land planted with king grass has produced fresh forage 9,150kg/45 day. 0.6 ha of land planted with corn yield 2,829.6 kg and 8,787 kg of straw hay. Compiling the ability to produce forage of three forage sources can meet the needs of 90 goats. Compiling the ability to produce forage of three forage sources can meet the needs of 90 goats. An increase in profits of  Rp 634,650/year/ha in monoculture to Rp 14,262,070/year/ha in integrated farming. In conclusion, in order to increase productivity and farm income coconut diversification should do both vertical and horizontal. How to apply the integrated farming systems integration goat corn coconut (SIKJK.

  9. ANALISA KANDUNGAN EKSTRAKTIF KAYU KELAPA (Cocus nucifera Linn BERDASARKAN UMUR DAN LETAK KETINGGIAN PADA BATANG

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    Henni Aryati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the content of extractive substances based on age andlocation heights on the stem.  The introduction of the nature and chemical compositionof wood is one of the basic assessment of the use of wood.  By knowing the content of extractive substances based on age and height location on the trunk. Be expected coconut wood, forest products are expected information technology allows the oil industry serve as a nutrient such as sawn boards, cement board and furniture. Based on the function of extractive substances eksraktif divided into primary andsecondary extraction. Substance is primary extractive extractive substances dissolved  in cold water extraction and hot water, extractive content in this group are seen at the end.  Extractive dissolved in cold water extraction on the tree with the age of 30 years old ± 3.1% and the tree age of 40 years old  ± 1.87%.  Extraction using hot water extractive content in the tree with the age of 30 years ± extractive content on bigger tip to the treatment of other parts of the value of extractive content of 28.27%, while the 40 years old tree extractive content of 11.67%. The value of content in the primary extraction is caused by a function of extraction is used by plants for growth while other types of extraction is estimated as dissolved mineral, salts, sucrose, polysaccharides,  starch, gum, soluble carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins.  The big difference in the content of the primary extraction of water extraction due to cold and hot water at ambient conditions extractive was dissolved in cold water extractives that have low molecular weight and a bit of dye, while the hot water to an increase in temperature accelerates the reaction and all the soluble extractive in cold water will be dissolved in hot water extraction. The amount of extractive properties will provide a more durable high when thesesubstances are toxic extractive and will cause damage to the timber if the content ofextractives contained in wood is the favored extractive substances of insects.

  10. Deteksi dan Identifikasi Fitoplasma yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Layu Kelapa Di Pulau Derawan, Kalimantan Timur

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    Agus Eko Prasetyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coconut is a major commodity in Derawan island as source of additional income for the farmers. Research was conducted to detect and identify phytoplasmas associated with coconut wilt disease in Derawan island. Coconut wilt disease was indicated by the typical symptoms, i.e.  leaf yellowing, shorten of coconut sheaths and leaves, necrosis and collapse of old leaves, and also nut fall.  The presence of phytoplasmas in phloem tissues of coconut stem was observed using fluorescence and electron microscope.  Identification of phytoplasmas was carried out by nested-PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.  DNA fragment of phytoplasma with the size of 1.25 kbp was successfully amplified using primer pairs P1/P7, followed by primer pairs R16F2n/R16R2.  Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments showed that phytoplasma associated with coconut wilt disease in Derawan island belongs to 16SrII (witches broom phytoplasma and 16SrXI (ca. Phytoplasma oryzae groups.

  11. Pembuatan minyak kelapa secara enzimatis dengan memanfaatkan kulit buah dan biji pepaya serta analisis sifat fisikokimianya

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita Susanti; Purwanto Purwanto; Yuliana Kristiani Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic process using papain is an efficient and less expensive method for producing coconut oil. This research was conductedto produce coconut oil which meet quality requirement from Cocos Nucifera L using ripe fruit peel and seed of papaya (Carica PapayaL) as enzyme sources. The coconut oil was prepared by mixing of coconut milk and juice of papaya ripe fruit peel and/or seed; and thenthe oils produced and incubated for 24 hours. The physicochemical properties of the coconut oil were dete...

  12. PEMANFAATAN ARANG BATOK KELAPA DAN TANAH HUMUS BATURRADEN UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR LOGAM KROM (Cr

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    Anung Riapanitra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste containing hazardous and toxic chemical compounds into the environment leads to water pollution, soil and air. These chemical compounds will endanger human life and environment. One type of compound that may pollute the environment is chromium. The metal is commonly found in industrial waste such as from exhaust and industrial wastewater from etal plating company. The purpose of this research is to utilize coconut shell charcoal and soil humus as a low-cost and ready-made alternative material to reduce the concentration chromium (Cr on wastewater. Humus was taken from Baturraden region and was isolated using NaOH extraction and was furthermore purified using mixtures of HF(aq: HCl(aq. Coconut shell charcoal was produced and was mixed with the humus. Adsorption process was carried out by batch method on variations of charcoal: humus composition, pH, and contact time. Humus soil was identified using infrared spectrophotometry (IR. Determination of chromium concentration was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The purified humus yielded was 25.92% (w/w, with 34.18% moisture, and ash content of 18.09%. The results showed that the variation of composition ratio of 2:1 charcoal and humus produced the greatest percent reduction of 18.20%, and the optimum pH for the adsorption is 9. For the variation of contacts time, the optimum reaction time is at 180minutes with decreasing concentration of Pb up to 56.07%.

  13. Pemanfataan Pupuk Daun, Air Kelapa dan Bubur Pisang sebagai Komponen Medium Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Dendrobium Kelemense

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    Uhwatul Hasanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahan alternatif alami diperlukan untuk menggantikan bahan kimia yang mahal untuk kegiatan kultur jaringan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh merk, konsentrasi pupuk daun, interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek Dendrobium dan menentukan konsentrasi yang paling optimal dalam menginduksi pertumbuhan plantlet. Percobaan dilakukan dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri dari dua perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk dan konsentrasi pupuk, masing-masing dengan tiga taraf perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk (growmore, hyponex, gandasil dan konsentrasi (1 g/l, 2 g/l, 3 g/l. Pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek pada penelitian ini diukur berdasarkan parameter tinggi plantlet, jumlah daun, luas daun, jumlah akar dan panjang akar. Data dianalisis dengan anava dua arah, bila signifikan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil anava menunjukkan merk pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan jumlah daun, luas daun dan jumlah akar, konsentrasi pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan panjang akar sedangkan interaksi merk pupuk dengan konsentrasi pupuk signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun. Kombinasi perlakuan yang paling optimal yang menginduksi penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun adalah pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi 2 g/l (5,40 cm dan 5,43 cm2. Untuk mendapatkan pertumbuhan plantlet paling tinggi dan luas daun paling optimal digunakan media pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi pupuk 2 g/l.Natural alternative materials needed to replace expensive chemicals for tissue culture activities. This study aimed to examine the influence of the brand, the concentration of foliar fertilizer, interaction on the growth of dendrobium orchid Dendrobium and determine the optimal concentration in inducing the growth of plantlets. Experiments were carried out with completely randomized factorial design consisting of two treatments, the brand of fertilizer and manure concentration, each with three levels, namely brand fertilizer treatments (Growmore, Hyponex, Gandasil and concentration (1 g/l, 2 g /l, 3 g/l. Orchid plantlets growth in this study was measured by high parameter plantlets, number of leaves, leaf area, root number and root length. Data were analyzed by two-way ANAVA, if significant followed by Duncan test. Results of ANAVA showed a significant effect on the brand of fertilizer increase in the number of leaves, leaf area and number of roots, the concentration of fertilizer significantly influenced the high increase of plantlets and root length, while the interaction with the concentration of manure fertilizer brands significantly to the high increase of plantlets and leaf area. The most optimal combination of treatments that induce high addition of plantlets and leaf area was Hyponex fertilizer with a concentration of 2 g / l (5.40 cm and 5.43 cm2. To get the highest plantlet growth and optimal leaf area most used media Hyponex fertilizer with manure concentration of 2 g/l.

  14. Respon Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Dendrobium sp. Melalui Aplikasi Ekstrak Tauge dan Air Kelapa pada Media Organik

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    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Growth Response of Orchid Plantlets of Dendrobium sp. by Aplicación of Bean Sprouts Extract and Coconut Water in Organic Medium The aim of this researh is to obtain the effect of coconut water and bean sprouts extract and the best combination added to organic medium on growth of orchid planlets in vitro. The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Udayana University, Pegok Denpasar from Mei until Oktober 2012. The research design was Completely Randomized Design (RAL with ten treatments and six replications. The results of this ezperiment showed that addition of coconut water at concentration of 150 ml/l and bean sprouts extract of 50 ml/l resulted in the best growth of orchid planlet which includes the height of plantlets (4,10 cm, the number of leaf (3,33 leaves, length of root (1,07 cm. The total fresh weight of plantlet was 0,20 g and total oven dry-weight of plantlet was 0,021 g.

  15. Ergonomi Function Deployment Pada Redesign Alat Parut Kelapa Untuk Ibu Rumah Tangga

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    Roberta Zulfhi Surya

    2014-10-01

    Abstract. Grate the coconut is one of kitchen activity which faces by housewife in daily life. A coconut grater product which is distibuted in market, one of them is manual crank system. Housewife complain that they feel painfull in their body, especially at hand. Waist and back after using available old tool. This research is purposed to improve the design of coconut grater with crank system by ergonomic function deployment (EFD approach, also to known mosculuskletal reducing of housewife as user and show differention time of grater after redesign done. Research was conducted in RT. 001 RW.005 Tembilahan, Indragiri Hilir District. Research model used treatment by subject design with total sample is 12 housewife which is calculation by Colton Formula. Improvement new coconut grater design with crank system which EFD got by creat the matrix house of ergonomic (HOE and determination of anthropometry data. Mosculuskletal complain on housewife is measured by making the Nordic Body Map (NBM Questionnaire work sheet. Time of grated the coconut got by testing coconut grater by crank system on before and after using. Research finding after redesign of coconut grater of crank system shown that design of coconut grater of crank system with EFD and base on ergonomic acpects (effective, confort, savety, healthy and efficient. Mosculuskletal complaint that happend on housewife decrease about 0,285 or 17,39%. Time of grate is also faster around 5 minutes or has imporove 30,1%.

  16. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI POTENSI BAKTERI LIPOLITIK DARI LIMBAH SBE (SPENT BLEACHING EARTH SEBAGAI AGEN BIOREMEDIASI

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    Fitralia Elyza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Limbah minyak kelapa sawit yang terbanyak adalah SBE (Spent Bleaching Earth, limbah ini mengandung residu minyak tinggi yang dapat mencemari lingkungan, 30% residu minyak pada limbah SBE dapat digunakan bakteri untuk pertumbuhannya, sehingga adanya bakteri mampu menjadi agen bioremediasi pencemaran SBE. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mendapatkan bakteri lipolitik sebagai agen potensial bioremediasi pada limbah SBE. Metode pengambilan sampel limbah SBE secara random sampling. Sampel tanah diambil secara acak dari beberapa titik area limbah SBE. Bakteri diisolasi dari sampel limbah SBE, kemudian dilakukan tahapan yaitu : pemurnian, seleksi, uji potensi, bakteri berpotensi mereduksi lipid dikarakterisasi dan diidentifikasi genusnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Aktivitas enzim lipase yang tinggi menandakan bahwa bakteri lipolitik bekerja optimal merombak zat pencemar. Bakteri yang memiliki potensi sebagai agen bioremediasi terdiri dari genus Citrobacter (B1, Enterobacter (B2 dan Acinetobacter (B3. The most palm oil waste is SBE (Spent Bleaching Earth, this waste had many reduced lipid that got pollution for inviroments, Bacteria can use lipid from SBE as much as 30% for growed. So that consist of bacteria in SBE as a potensial agent for remediation. This study aims to obtain lipolytic bacteria as a potential agent of bioremediation. The method of sampling soil were taken at random from SBE waste, Bacteria were isolated from the SBE waste, then they were selected into steps : performed purification, selection, potential test, then characterized and identified it’s genus of potential bacteria. The results showed that the higest activity enzyme of lipolytic indicated that the lipolytic bacteria worked optimal for reduce polution. Bacteria had potential as a bioremediation agent consisting of genus Citrobacter (B1, Enterobacter (B2 and Acinetobacter (B3.

  17. PENERAPAN SIX SIGMA UNTUK PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PRODUK BIMOLI CLASSIC (Studi Kasus : PT. SALIM IVOMAS PRATAMA – BITUNG

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    Prudensy F. Opit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk memberikan solusi peningkatan standar proses internal perusahaan yang bertujuan untuk meminimasi defect atau nonconforming sehingga trend kegagalan produk menurun untuk tiap periodenya adalah metode Six Sigma. Melalui penerapan siklus DMAIC (Define, Measure, Improve, Analyze, and Control dalam Six Sigma, maka indeks kapabilitas proses (Cp serta Defect per Million Opportunies (DPMO dapat diketahui. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada PT. Salim Invomas Pratama-Bitung, sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pembuatan minyak goreng dengan menggunakan bahan baku kelapa sawit, dimana salah satu produk yang dihasilkan adalah Bimoli gelon 5 liter (classic. Dari karateristik kualitas Peroxide Value (PV yang diukur oleh perusahaan selama satu periode (Februari-Maret 2007, kadar PV dengan batas maksimum 3% sering mengalami penyimpangan. Melalui pengolahan data serta analisis dengan menggunakan siklus DMAIC, didapatkan Cp sebesar 1,11 dengan nilai DPMO sebesar 3,4. Kata Kunci :        Pengendalian Kualitas, Six Sigma, DMAIC, DPMO, SOP, Indeks Kapabilitas Proses     One of method used to give solution of corporate internal process standard improvement, whose goal to minimalize defect or nonconforming, so trend of product  decrease for each period is six sigma method. Through DMIAC  cycle (Define, Measure, Improve, Analyze, and Control on six sigma, The  capability Index (CP and defect per million opportunities (DPMO will be knew. This reaserch was be done by PT Salim Invomas Pratama , Bitung, is one of edible oil corporate, one of product is bimoli. From quality characteristic in one period (February-March 2007 . PV content has 3 % as maximum limit. Trough data process and analysis use DMAIC, get 1,11 as CP and 3,4 s DPMO point  Keywords :Quality Control, Six Sigma, DMAIC, DPMO, SOP, Indeks Kapabilitas Proces

  18. MIKROEMULSIFIKASI FRAKSI TIDAK TERSABUNKAN DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Microemulsification of Unsaponifiable Fractions of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

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    Teti Estiasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refining that contains valuable bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, tocopherol, tocotrienols, and squalene which acummulates in unsaponifiable fraction (USF. In emulsion form, USF will be convenient and easy to use as food supplements or fortificants. Microemulsion is a type of emulsion that has stable droplet sizes of less than 10 m. Hence, the best emulsifier for USF microemulsion is important to be determined. The USF microemulsion was prepared by homogenizing the sample mixtures at 12.000 rpm for 20 min at USF concentration of 10% (w/v with lecithin and tween 80 as the emulsifiers at concentratiosn of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/v. The microemulsions were analyzed for their viscosity, stability, and particle size distributions, as well as microstructures. The results showed that characteristics of microemulsion were affected by emulsifier types and concentrations. Tween 80 produced better microemulsion than lecithin as indicated by more stable emulsions, smaller droplet sizes, and narrower ranges of droplet size distributions. Increasing lectihin concentrations resulted in a narrower droplet size distribution but the average droplet size was not always smaller. Conversely, increasing tween 80 concentrations increased the average droplet sizes and ranges of particle size distributions. The most suitable emulsifier for USF microemulsion was tween 80 at concentration of 0.5%. This microemulsion contained bioactive compounds derived from USF, namely vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene.

  19. Penentuan Kadar Air Dan Kadar Kotoran Minyak Inti Sawit Di PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Nadapdap, Nova Dana Isabela

    2010-01-01

    PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – tebing tinggi is factory which manufactures CPO starting from fresh fruit bunch to be crude oil.And the second product produced by PTPN III is Palm kernel.The proses of palm kernel oil within several steps are separation,solution,drying and storage.In other to be distributed,palm kernel must the following the quality specification free fatty acid 0,5 %,water content 7,0 %,pollutant content 6,0 %,ang these are the standart for obtaining high quality palm kernel.An...

  20. Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Bungkil Inti Sawit, Gaplek Dan Onggok Melalui Teknologi Fermentasi Dengan Kapang Berbeda Sebagai Bahan Pakan Ayam Pedaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sukaryana, Yana; Nurhayati, Nurhayati; Wirawati, Chandra Utami

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Cage, Lampung State Polytechnic. Object of study was fermented a mixture of palm kernel cake (PKC) and cassava (C), and a mixture of palm kernel cake (PKC) cassava byproduct (CBP) then to broilers applied. Fermentation research designed using completely randomized design factorial 2x2x6. The first factor was type of mold (Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus Niger), a mixture of both of the second factor (PKC...

  1. Pemanfaatan Silika Abu Sekam Padi sebagai Bahan Pengisi Rubber Membrane Filter Press untuk Memisahkan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to obtain rubber membrane filter press (RMFP) from natural rubber (NR) as well as synthetic rubber (chloroprene rubber and nytrike butadiene rubber). The research method was done my vulcanizing natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and filler to shape RMFP. Research formulation was done with 8 units of experiments using variations of mixers that have been pre-determined. The examination to the RMFP was done with ASTM test methods that cover parameters such as viscometer mo...

  2. ANALISIS 3-MONOKLORO-1,2-PROPANADIOL (3-MCPD ESTER DALAM MINYAK SAWIT DENGAN INSTRUMEN KROMATOGRAFI GAS-SPEKTROSKOPI MASSA

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    Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of components called as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters has been found in some vegetable oils, particularly palm oil. Analysis of these components needs GC-MS instrument to reach a low level detection, parts per billion or ppb level. An effort to validate the 3-MCPD esters analysis by GC-MS method (Weiβhaar method using phenyl boronic acid (PBA as a derivatizing agent and isotopic internal standard (IS 3-MCPD-D5 followed by the determination of 3-MCPD in commercial palm oils has been conducted. The analytical results showed the instrumental performance as follows: instrument linearity for the analysis of 3-MCPD standard solutions containing IS 2.0 μg/mL was obtained at a concentration range of 0.25-7.50 μg/mL test solution with R2 higher than 0.990, precision of 3-MCPD as well as IS retention time was less than 2.0% which was acceptable according to JECFA guidance. Instrument detection limit (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were read from GC-MS based on the linearity experiment, i.e. 0.17 and 0.59 μg/mL solution, respectively. Method linearity by using palm oil as a matrix also showed R2 higher than 0.990. Recovery test result at 40 μg/g gave an accuracy at 83.29 ± 7.12% which is in the range of AOAC standard (80-110% and precision at 5.38% (less than RSDHORWITZ. Analysis of 14 palm oils from local market showed 100% of the sampels were positive to contain 3-MCPD esters. 3-MCPD esters in palm oil were found at a concentration range of 8.15-58.14 µg 3-MCPD/g sample.

  3. ANALISIS 3-MONOKLORO-1,2-PROPANADIOL (3-MCPD) ESTER DALAM MINYAK SAWIT DENGAN INSTRUMEN KROMATOGRAFI GAS-SPEKTROSKOPI MASSA

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifah Nuryani Lioe; Nancy Dewi Yuliana; Dias Indrasti; Yane Regiyana; Cony Arisya Putri

    2015-01-01

    A group of components called as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters has been found in some vegetable oils, particularly palm oil. Analysis of these components needs GC-MS instrument to reach a low level detection, parts per billion or ppb level. An effort to validate the 3-MCPD esters analysis by GC-MS method (Weiβhaar method) using phenyl boronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent and isotopic internal standard (IS) 3-MCPD-D5 followed by the determination of 3-MCPD in commercial pal...

  4. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

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    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  5. Perilaku Alturisme Karyawan (Studi Kasus pada Mandor Perkebunan Sawit Perseroan Terbatas (PT.Tribuana Mas Kabupaten Tapin

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    Asty Wulandari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks of developing into adulthood is to work to meet the needs of his life. Technological advances, materialism, hedonism and the demands of the post-industrial society's needs make some people work brutally for what they want to be fulfilled. Even people are apathetic to the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, there are still a handful of employees who care about their environmental conditions by behaving altruism as happened in PT.Tribuana Mas (TBM. The purpose of this study is to describe employee altruism behavior and explore the factors that encourage employees to behave altruism. The results of the research on 3 employees of PT.Tribuana Mas plantation, Afdeling Juliet conducted qualitatively (nonparticipant observation and in-depth interview, altruism behavioral components are mostly the same, that is behaving helpfully, considering the rights and welfare of others, sharing and honesty. While the different components are seen from the behavior of donating & generosity and Cooperation. Components of altruism behavior reflected on the employees are also in accordance with the teachings of Islam, the namely charity with the foundation of god (ikhlas and there are still nuanced humanity. It is influenced by various factors, both situational (external and within (internal

  6. PENGARUH LAJU PENDINGINAN, SUHU, DAN LAMA KRISTALISASI PADA PROFIL TRIASILGLISEROL DAN SIFAT PELELEHAN PRODUK FRAKSIONASI MINYAK KELAPA

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    Mursalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fractionation will produce a fraction of olein and stearin with different composition of high melting and low melting as well the distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG in the form of trisaturated (St3, disaturated (St2U and monosaturated (StU2. This research aimed to study the effect of critical cooling rate and crystallization temperature on the composition and profile of TAG changes as well the melting properties of the fractionated coconut oil products. Coconut oilwas heated at 70°C then cooledat differentcooling rate to reach various crystalization temperatures. The oil was then stirred at 15rpm and allowed to crystallize at different period of time, and finally fractionated by vacuum filtration using Whatman #40 paper. Fractionation temperatures were the same as crystalization temperatures. The results showed that the critical cooling rate was proportional to the solid-like to liquid-like ratio, the content of St3 and SFC profile of olein fraction but inversely proportional to the content of St2U and StU2 TAG. Interval crystallization temperature between 21.30 and 21.73 °C produced the S/L ratio, the content of St3 TAG and SFC profiles of olein fractions lower and the content of St2U and StU2 TAG higher than the temperature interval below or above it. Coconut oil fractionation more effective in higher crystallization temperature or lower critical cooling rate. In these cooling treatments, St3 TAG which has high melting pointwould be concentrated at stearin fraction, while St2U and StU2 TAG and MCTwould be at olein fraction. Therefore, it will increase melting properties of stearin fraction and decrease olein fraction.

  7. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN ALKALI, FRAKSI VOLUME SERAT, DAN PANJANG SERAT TERHADAP KEKUATAN TARIK KOMPOSIT SERAT SABUT KELAPA - POLYESTER

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    Yudha Yoga Pratama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of wood in Indonesia is no longer able to meet their need, which is opening an opportunity for study in material alternatives. Coconut fiber is very potential material for wood replacement composite, since its availability is abundant and its utilization is still low. Meanwhile, some factors have been studied as single affecting variable for natural fiber composite. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence factors of alkali treatment, fiber length, fiber volume fraction and interaction between factors on the tensile strenght of coco-fiber polyester composite. 108 pieces of composites have been prepared as speciments of tensile test which comply ASTM D 638 standard. The testing result was processed using completely randomized full factorial experiment. The experiment showed significant difference for all three factors. The highest value of tensile strenght is 22.57 MPa for 2 hours alkali treatment, 10 mm fiber length and fiber volume fraction of 35%. This value has met the standard minimum tensile strength of hardboard according to ANSI A135.4 2004.

  8. Kinerja dan Nilai Tambah Agroindustri Sabut Kelapa pada Kawasan USAha Agroindustri Terpadu (Kuat) di Kecamatan Pesisir Selatan Kabupaten Pesisir Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Safitri, Yunica; Abidin, Zainal; Rosanti, Novi

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to analyze (1) the performance (physic and financially) of cocofiber agroindustry, (2) added value of coco fiber agroindustry. The research was conducted in Kawasan Usaha Agroindustri Terpadu(KUAT) at Pesisir Selatan Sub-District of Pesisir Barat District and the location was choosen purposively. Research location was chosen purposively based on the quantity of workers. Data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative method. The results showed that (1) performance o...

  9. Pemanfaatan Limbah LDPE dan serat pendek sabut kelapa dengan campuran aspal dan pasir dalam pembuatan genteng komposit polimer

    OpenAIRE

    Yusniyanti, Erna

    2014-01-01

    The research on the utilization of waste LDPE (Low Density Poly Ethilen) and short fibers with a mixture of coconut fiber and sand bitumen in the manufacture of polymer composite tile has been done. This study aimed to determine the effect of variations in the composition of short coir fiber and reduction of sand on the characteristics of tile. Samples made with the composition of LDPE, used asphalt remains, namely 30%, 5% of the total mass of the sample, while the percentage composition of s...

  10. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN ALKALI, FRAKSI VOLUME SERAT, DAN PANJANG SERAT TERHADAP KEKUATAN TARIK KOMPOSIT SERAT SABUT KELAPA - POLYESTER

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    Yudha Yoga Pratama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of wood in Indonesia is no longer able to meet their need, which is opening an opportunity for study in material alternatives. Coconut fiber is very potential material for wood replacement composite, since its availability is abundant and its utilization is still low. Meanwhile, some factors have been studied as single affecting variable for natural fiber composite. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence factors of alkali treatment, fiber length, fiber volume fraction and interaction between factors on the tensile strenght of coco-fiber polyester composite. 108 pieces of composites have been prepared as speciments of tensile test which comply ASTM D 638 standard. The testing result was processed using  completely randomized full  factorial experiment. The experiment showed significant difference for all three factors. The highest value of tensile strenght is 22.57 MPa for 2 hours alkali treatment, 10 mm fiber length and fiber volume fraction of 35%. This value has met the standard minimum tensile strength of hardboard according to ANSI A135.4 2004.

  11. Pemanfaatan Limbah Buah Pisang Dan Air Kelapa Sebagai Bahan Media Kultur Jaringan Anggrek Bulan (Phalaenopsis Amabilis) Tipe 229

    OpenAIRE

    Djajanegara, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Coconut water and rotten banana fruits are commonly found in traditional markets as organic wastes. One way to overcome the problems caused by these organic wastes is to convert these unuseful matter into an important and economically useful matter by using them as components of tissue culture media. One important commodity that is usually propagated by tissue culture is Phalaenopsis orchid type 229 (Phalaenopsis amabilis). Therefore, it would be more benefit to substitute the expensive chemi...

  12. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BUAH PISANG DAN AIR KELAPA SEBAGAI BAHAN MEDIA KULTUR JARINGAN ANGGREK BULAN (Phalaenopsis amabilis) TIPE 229

    OpenAIRE

    Djajanegara, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Coconut water and rotten banana fruits are commonly found in traditional markets as organic wastes. One way to overcome the problems caused by these organic wastes is to convert these unuseful matter into an important and economically useful matter by using them as components of tissue culture media. One important commodity that is usually propagated by tissue culture is Phalaenopsis orchid type 229 (Phalaenopsis amabilis). Therefore, it would be more benefit to substitute the expensive chemi...

  13. Substitusi Medium Sintetik dengan Pupuk Daun, Air Kelapa dan Ekstrak Nabati pada Subkultur Anggrek Cattleya pastoral Innocence secara In Vitro

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    Etty Handayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A research was perfomed to find the proper of coconut water and natural ekstracts combined with Hyponex medium that compared with Vacin & Went medium. This research has been done at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. The method of this research was arranged in Randomized Complete Design with 9 treatments and 8 replications. The treatments were VW + NAA 0,5 ppm + BAP 3 ppm, green Hyponex 3 g/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + bean sprouts 150 g/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + tomatoes 150 ml/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + avocado 150 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + bean sprouts 150 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + tomatoes 150 ml/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + avocado 150 g/l. The each of Hyponex mediums were given with bananas 150 g/l and coconut water 150 ml/l. The result of this research showed that Hyponex mediums combined with natural ekstract was not signicicantly with Vacin & Went medium to high and shoot growth. Red Hyponex medium 3 g/l combined bananas 150 g/l and coconut water 150 ml/l resulted the best high, leaf and shoot in tissue culture Cattleya pastoral innocence orchid.

  14. Peningkatan Kinerja Mesin Diesel dengan Produksi Biodiesel dari Kelapa (Coconut Nufera dan Unjuk Kinerjanya Berbasis Transesterifikasi dengan Sistim Injeksi Langsung

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    Soni Sisbudi Harsono

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. Use of biodiesel especially from CPO has not been popularly used either for transportation nor for industrial fuel, while in foreign countries, it has been used for transportation fuel even just be blended. As the available of fosil fuel ten to decrease, the use of a renewable fuel biodiesel will be promising. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of amall diesel engine using biodiesel as fuel source. Performance test of small diesel engine using biodiesel was conducted in the laboratory by using engine dynamometer. The results shown that mixing 30% of biodiesel and 70% fosil fuel (petro diesel gave the best performance among other percentage mixture. Mixing 30% of biodiesel and 70% fosil fuel gave maximum power 5.36 HP at 2190 rpm and maximum torque 1.748 Nm. Its lower comparing than pure petro diesel that gave 5.41 HP at 2200 rpm and maximum torque 1.761 Nm. The gas emission was also evaluated simultaneously. The results shown that the mixing 30%: 70% produced low carbon monoxide (CO and low hydrocarbon (HC than petro diesel.

  15. PENGARUH SUBSTITUSI AIR KELAPA MUDA DENGAN PENGENCER SITRAT KUNING TELUR TERHADAP MOTILITAS DAN PERSENTASE HIDUP SPERMATOZOA ANJING

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    I Nyoman Sulabda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of tender coconut water substitutionon egg yolk citrate diluent with different doses on local breeds dog sperm motility and livespermatozoa. Semen was manually collected. Progressive motility and percentage of livespermatozoa were evaluated under a microscope utilizing a drop of semen between awarmed glass slide and coverslip, both at a temperature of 38 0C. The percentage of motileand live spermatozoa were examined by counting 100 spermatozoa using the classificationof Christiansen (1984. Sperm viability was assessed by eosinnegrosin staining. The result showed that coconut water substitution has significant effect on the motility and livespermatozoa . Combination between the levels of coconut water in the egg yolk citratediluent could be applied as an alternative diligent instead of egg yolk diligent for dogsemen up to 75%.

  16. Analisis Kadar Protein Total Dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Air Dan Daging Buah Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) Dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Margata, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, coconut palm is one of the big contributors for the economy of the people and nation. As food, coconut water and coconut meat contain some nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and also proteins. During maturation, changes in protein content of coconut water and coconut meat may happen. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in coconut water and coconut meat, and their changes in young and mature coconuts....

  17. Pengaruh Kombinasi Pupuk Kandang Sapi dan Abu Sabut Kelapa sebagai Pupuk Utama dalam Budidaya Tanaman Brokoli (Brassica oleracia L.

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    Eko Binti Lestari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effectiveness of coconut fibre ash as an additive nutrient for growth and yield of Broccoli (Brassica oleracia L., and to determine the best combination between manure and coconut fibre ash in organic farming of Broccoli. This research conducted using single factor experiment that arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD. The treatments are (1 Manure 0,75 kg + Coconut fire ash 24,3 g (2 Manure 0,75 kg + Coconut fibre ash12,15 g, (3 Manure 0,75 kg + without Coconut fibre ash, (4 Manure 1 kg + Coconut fibre ash 24,3 g, (5 Manure 1 kg + Coconut fibre ash 12,15  g, (6 Manure 1 kg + without coconut fibre ash, (7 Manure 1,25 kg + Coconut fibre ash 24,3 g, (8 Manure 1,25 kg + Coconut fibre ash 12,15 g, (9 Manure 1,25 kg + without coconut fibre ash. The result showed that the combination between manure and coconut fibre ash have not significantly different in number of leaves, flowering time, fresh weight, flower size, fresh weight of flower. However, the combination between manure 1,25 kg and coconut fibre ash 24,3 g is considered to be the most efficient in organic farming of Broccoli.

  18. KOMBUCHA DENGAN VARIASI KADAR GULA KELAPA SEBAGAI SUMBER KARBON [Kombucha from Different Coconut Sugar Concentration as a Carbon Source

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    Merkuria Karyantina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha has been known as traditional medicine that can cure various diseases, such as hypercholesterol. Kombucha made of fermented sweetened tea using symbiotic growth of khamir and bacteria. Functional properties of kombucha related to metabolite that has been produced during fermentation process, glucuronic acid. The aim of this research was to get a fit carbon source that can produce kombucha which have highest glucuronic acid. The result showed that microbe that dominated at the beginning through the end of fermentation process was a group of khamir, i.e 1.81x107 ; 1.43x106 ; 2.40x107 ; 7.00x104 CFU/mL for 1, 4, 7, and 10% of additive coconut sugar. Kombucha at 4% of coconut sugar yielded 8.86 ppm of glucuronic acid. Meanwhile, kombucha with 10% of coconut sugar yielded 6.22 ppm of glucuronic acid. Total acid has no corelation with glucuronid acid formation during the fermentation process.

  19. Kajian Pemanfaatan Pupuk Organik Cair Isi Rumen Kerbau Dan Air Kelapa Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Caisim (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Patmawati, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the best composition, consentrate and the frequency of rumen of buffaloes and coconut water as liquid organic fertilizer towards the growth and production of mustard greens. This research carried out at the land experiment of UMSU Agricultural Faculty, at the region of medan amplas subdistrict. This research was carried out in September up to November 2012. The enviroment design used in the research was split split plot design with 3 factors and repeated 2 time...

  20. DEKOMPOSISI SAMPAH JANUR KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. DAN NIBUNG (Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack Ridl. DALAM LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI

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    I Putu Candra Noviarta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing volume of garbage of Balinese Hindu’s offering is still a problem. The garbage, when it is decomposed however could be useful for fertilized. This organic litter can be decomposed in biopore. This research ainied to investigated the decomposition rate of C. nucifera and O. tigillarium litter in biopores. This research was conducted between February and July 2015. Garbage were collected from temples in Jembrana city and treated at Dangin Tukadaya village, Jembrana Distric. Sampels were arranged in a Factorial Randomized Blocked Sampling Design 2 factors i.e: treatments and times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 23 weeks. The result showed that decomposition rate 98,63% of cocos litter and 99,23% of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore on week 23 compared to 89,06% of cocos and 75,76 % of oncosperma litter in control. Decomposition mean rate is 9,33 %/week of cocos litter and 9,64 %/week of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore but in control is 7,85 %/week of cocos and 8,07 %/week of oncosperma litter. Total cocos and oncosperma litter decomposition took about 23,3 and 23,2 weeks in biopore but for control 25,8 and 30,4 weeks The number of millipedes (Harpaphe haydeniana as decomposer was found higher compared to other decomposers such as earth worms and molusca. Keywords: decomposition, biopore, decomposer, bali, cocos litter, oncosperma litter

  1. USULAN PERBAIKANUNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS FILLINGPLANT DENGAN PENDEKATAN LEAN MANUFACTURING PADA PT SMART Tbk SURABAYA

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    Darminto Pujotomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam industri manufaktur, produktivitas merupakan kemampuan perusahaan untuk mengoptimalkan output dari input yang digunakan. Output yang dihasilkan harus dapat memenuhi demand konsumen. PT Smart Tbk Surabaya merupakan salah satu industri manufaktur yang bergerak dalam produksi pengolah minyak kelapa sawit. Dalam proses produksinya terjadi ketidakseimbangan output produksi dengan demand konsumen yang harus dipenuhi. Hal tersebut terjadi karena adanya waste selama proses filling. Permasalahan ini diselesaikan dengan pendekatan Lean Manufacturing dengan memberikan usulan improvement pada proses filling dengan menggunakan metode Line Balancing. Value stream mapping digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi waste yang terjadi selama proses filling berlangsung. Tools yang digunakan dalam lean manufacturing dan line balancing ini digunakan untuk mereduksi cycle time. Berdasarkan hasil analisis didapatkan empat usulan improvement yaitu perbaikan alur proses filling, penggabungan operasi kerja plugging dan capping, continuous flow dengan line balancing dan redesain layout. Usulan improvement tersebut dapat menekan tingkat defect, mengurangi total operation time menjadi 188,55 detik/batch, meningkatkan efisiensi lini menjadi 79,83% dan menurunkan delay time menjadi 23%.     Abstract Productivity is the company’s ability to optimize output from all input that they use to production. The output they produce must fulfill the customer demand. PT Smart Tbk Surabaya is one of the private manufacturing industries which are existed in the processing of palm oil. There are unbalance condition during processing the product. The output of the production is different from the customer demand. It happened because there are some wastes during the filling process. This research is focus on solving the problem by using Lean Manufacturing and creating the improvement in filling proces by using line balancing method. The purpose of value stream mapping is to identify waste

  2. POTENSI MAGGOT UNTUK PENINGKATAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN STATUS KESEHATAN IKAN

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    Melta Rini Fahmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan maggot sebagai pakan alternatif ikan telah dikaji di Loka Riset Budidaya Ikan Hias Air Tawar (LRBIHAT, Depok. Maggot merupakan larva serangga black soldier (Hermetia illusence yang dapat mengkonversi material organik menjadi biomassanya. Salah satu keunggulan maggot adalah dapat diproduksi dalam berbagai ukuran, sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Penyimpanan maggot pada suhu rendah dapat menghambat pertumbuhan dan mempertahankan kehidupannya. Produksi maggot pada ukuran kecil dimulai dari penyediaan telur, penetasan, dan pembesaran dalam media PKM (Palm Kernel Meal atau bungkil kelapa sawit, pemanenan dan penyimpanan dalam suhu rendah. Nilai nutrisi maggot pada umur 6-7 hari adalah protein: 60,2%; lemak: 13,3%; abu: 7,7%; karbohidrat: 18,8%. Percobaan pemanfaatan maggot sebagai suplemen pakan diujikan terhadap ikan Balashark (Balantiocheilus melanopterus Bleeker ukuran 2,0 ± 0,2 g. Hasil yang didapatkan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian maggot memberikan pertumbuhan dan sintasan yang lebih baik. Dampak penambahan maggot pada ikan terlihat signifikan terhadap gambaran darah ikan yang menunjukkan daya tahan tubuh ikan yang lebih baik. Maggot utilization as fish feed alternative has been studied at Loka Riset Budidaya Ikan Hias Air Tawar (LRBIHAT, Depok. Maggot is an insect larvae of black soldier (Hermetia illusence that can convert organic material to its body biomass. One of the advantages in maggot culture is that it can be produced in different sizes according to fish requirement. Keeping maggot at low temperature can delay its growth while keeping it alive. Production of small size maggot starts from eggs preparation, hatching, and rearing in media of PKM (Palm Kernel Meal or coconut oil cake of palm, cropping and then keeping it in low temperature. Nutritional value of maggot at the age of 6-7 days is as follows: protein, 60.2%, fat; 13.3%, ash; 7.7%, carbohydrate; 18.8%. Trial feeding using maggot as feed supplement was done on Balashark

  3. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI EKSPOR CRUDE PALM OIL INDONESIA DALAM PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL

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    fakhrus radifan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan ekspor unggulan yang mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sebagai salah satu penyumbang pendapatan devisa Indonesia dari ekspor tersebut. Produk olahan dari kelapa sawit yang kaya akan manfaat mempunyai peluang ekspor yang cukup besar di pasar internasional, selain diolah sebagai bahan baku industri minyak goreng, margarin, sabun dll. CPO juga dapat dijadikan bahan bakar alternatif nabati pengganti minyak bumi yang dapat diperbaharui. Namun volume Ekspor CPO Indonesia yang cenderung berfluktuatif dan mengalami penurunan dapat menjadikan kendala ekspor dalam perdagangan internasional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variabel independen (Produksi CPO Indonesia, kurs Rupiah/Dolar AS, dan harga minyak mentah dunia terhadap variabel dependen (Ekspor CPO baik dalam jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang.Penelitian ini menggunakan data runtut waktu atau time series. Model analisis yang digunakan adalah alat analisis ekonometrika model koreksi kesalahan (Error Correction Model/ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa variabel independen dalam jangka panjang berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap ekspor CPO Indonesia. Bagi produsen CPO Indonesia diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kapasitas produksinya, mencermati perkembangan harga minyak mentah dunia dan pergerakan kurs rupiah terhadap Dolar Amerika. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil is one of the main export commodities which are able to contribute Indonesia's foreign exchange earnings from the export. Products processed from palm oil which is rich in benefits has a sizeable export opportunities in international markets, in other hand  it is also can be used as raw material for cooking oil, margarine , soap etc. CPO can also be used as an alternative fuel vegetable oil substitute that

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF RED PIGMENT PRODUCTION BY MONASCUS PURPUREUS FTC 5356 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    Farhan M. Said

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as environmental conditions and nutrients are significant for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulations of the factors are the most effective way to stimulate the growth of the microorganism, which can be used to optimize the yield of a product. In this study, Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to optimize the production of red pigment by Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 using the petioles of oil palm fronds (OPF as a substrate in solid state fermentation (SSF. The data was analyzed using Design Expert Software. The optimum combination predicted via RSM was confirmed through experimental work. The interactions between three variables such as initial moisture content (%, initial pH value (pH, and peptone concentration (% were studied and modelled. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the optimal conditions for red pigment production 47 AU/g with the biomass of 425.1 mg/g was at 55% initial moisture content, 3% of peptone, and at pH 3.  The RSM results showed that the initial pH value had a significant effect on red pigment production (P-value <0.05. The validation of these results was also conducted by fermentation with predicted conditions and it was found that there was a discrepancy of 0.39% between the values of the experimental result and those of the predicted values. ABSTRAK: Keadaan persekitaran dan nutrien merupakan faktor-faktor penting dalam pertumbuhan mikroorganisma. Manipulasi faktor-faktor tersebut adalah kaedah terbaik bagi meningkatkan pertumbuhan mikroorganisma dan mengoptimumkan penghasilan produk. Kajian ini mengguna pakai Rekaan Gabungan Pusat (CCD melalui Kaedah Tindak balas Permukaan (RSM bagi penghasilan pigmen merah optimum oleh Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 menggunakan batang pelepah kelapa sawit (OPF sebagai perumah dalam proses penapaian pepejal (SSF. Data telah dianalisis menggunakan perisian Design Expert. Gabungan parameter

  5. Pengaruh Kecepatan Homegenisasi Terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Krim Nanopartikel dengan Metode High Speed Homogenization (HSH

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    Galuh Suprobo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle cream is the development of nanotechnology in cosmetics fields for improving the function of cream. High speed homogenization (HSH is one of the methods for creating nanoparticle cream. In this research, the use of natural materials based palm oil derivative  such as stearic acid, cetil alcohol, cetil stearil alcohol was chosen in nanoparticle cream producing by using HSH methods.The speed variable of  homogenization of 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2,000 rpm and 2,500 rpm  intended to find out the influence of speed toward the  properties of cream product. The observation result showed the influence on physical display in term of texture but not in homogeneity , stability and cream color. The pH of the product during two months storage for all variables were still stable. The particle size was increased in the homogeneity of speed at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm. In this research has produced the cream in particle size from 239.86 to 358.10 nm which enter in nanoparticle category 50 nm to 1000 nm. The stability of nanoparticle cream product in the range of 97,20 to 98%.ABSTRAKKrim nanopartikel merupakan pengembangan nanoteknologi di bidang kosmetik untuk meningkatkan fungsi krim tersebut. High speed homogenization (HSH merupakan salah satu metoda dalam pembuatan krim nanopartikel. Pada penelitian ini, krim nanopartikel dibuat menggunakan bahan baku alami turunan kelapa sawit yaitu asam stearat, setil alkohol, setil stearil alkohol dengan metoda HSH. Variabel kecepatan homogenisasi pada 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm dan 2500 rpm dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kecepatan terhadap sifat-sifat krim. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perubahan kecepatan homogenisasi dalam reaktor berpengaruh terhadap tampilan fisik dari segi tekstur, akan tetapi tidak mempengaruhi terhadap kehomogenan, stabilitas dan warna krim. Dari pengamatan selama 2 bulan penyimpanan diketahui tidak terjadi perubahan pH selama penyimpanan untuk keempat variabel. Ukuran partikel

  6. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

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    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  7. Penggunaan Analisis Regresi Linear Berganda untuk Mendapatkan Model Prediksi Respon Asam Lemak Bebas dan Dobi Hasil Rebusan Tandan Buah Segar Sawit

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    Pandu Imam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Target of this research are : ( 1 Knowing physical result of steaming of Fresh Fruit Bunch; ( 2 Knowing the chemical of result of steaming of Fresh Fruit Bunch; ( 3 Finding model of prediction respon result of sterilization of Fresh Fruit Bunch ( 4 Determining time depth of steaming most precise to condition of raw material ( FFB to be sterilization. This research done at PT.Bio Nusantara Teknologi Bengkulu, by using horizontal type sterilizer. Research method the used  experiment which is  direct to be done at factory.  Multiple regression analysis to analyse data obtained, to the investigation of influence of free variable to variable of respon representing indicator efficacy of sterilization operation. Result of research indicate that treatment of variation : heavy classification of bunches,  fruit maturity and time depth steaming to have an effect on to respon result of sterilization perceived. Model of Prediction of met steaming respon as follows : Y1(Evaporation % = 5,18 - 0,042 X1- 0,012 X2+0,082 X3 ; Y2 ( Fruit lose, g=1629,96+8,14X1 - 3,22 X2 - 10,22 X3 ; Y3(Throughput apart mesokarp, g / men = - 0,748 - 0,297 X1 + 0,111 X2 + 0,336 X3 ; Y4 (percent heavy of mesokarp = 60,12 - 0,044 X1 + 0,018 X2 - 0,103 X3 ; Y5 ( Amount of kernel break = - 1,515 - 0,06 X1+ 0,035 X2 + 0,115 X3 ; Y6 ( FFA = - 0,655 + 0,011 X1 + 0,029 X2 + 0,032 X3 and  Y7 ( DOBI = 5,205 - 0,001 X1 + 0,01 X2 - 0,024 X3. Time depth steaming correct to braise small FFB, unrippe = 95 minute with score assess 7; Small FFB, mature = 95 minute with score assess 6; Small FFB over  mature = 90 minute with score assess 6. Time depth steaming correct for big FFB, unrippe = 100 minute with wight assess 6; Big FFB mature = 80 minute with score assess 5 and for big FFB, over mature = 95 minute with score assess 6.

  8. SIFAT FISIK MINYAK SAWIT KASAR DAN KORELASINYA DENGAN ATRIBUT MUTU [Physical Properties of Crude Palm Oil and Their Correlations to the Quality Attributes

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    Nur Wulandari1,2*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of crude palm oil (CPO in the world. Process engineering applications of CPO during handling, transporting, and processing, need baseline data related to CPO’s physical properties. This research was aimed to obtain baseline data about physical properties of CPO and to study the correlation between CPO’s quality attributes to their physical property parameters. Study on physical property and quality of CPO was conducted to five CPO samples from different CPO’s producers. Those samples had variations on physical property parameters and quality attributes. Some physical property parameters of CPO were depended on the temperature of measurements. CPO samples showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour at 25°C with various flow behaviour index (n and concistency index (K, other wise at 55°C all CPO samples showed Newtonian behaviour.There were good correlations between quality attributes of CPO to their physical property parameters at 25°C, including correlations between free fatty acid contents of CPO and the temperatures of crystallization, as well as between iodine values and the rheological properties of CPO.

  9. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

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    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  10. PENERIMAAN PANELIS DAN SIFAT KIMIAWI EMULSI LABU KUNING DAN FRAKSI OLEIN SAWIT [Pannelists Acceptance and Chemical Properties of Pumpkin and Palm Olein Fraction Emulsion

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    Anton Rahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce functional food products with the main ingredient of pumpkin and olein fraction of red palm oil (OF-RPO. This research was conducted in two stages. The first was to analyze consumer acceptance where a Completely Randomized Design was used with one factor. The factor was the composition of pumpkin and OF-RPO levelled as follow: 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 0:100 (v/v. In the second stage, analyses of carotenoids using HPLC, FFA, pH, vitamin C, and peroxide values were carried out on selected formula (mixture of pumpkin and OF-RPO, formula with 100 mL of pumpkin, formula with 100 mL of OF-RPO, and negative control (without pumpkin and OF-RPO, before and after the storage period of two months, except for HPLC analysis. The best formula based on acceptance test was a composition of 90 mL pumpkin and 10 mL OF-RPO was further diluted 1:4 (v/v. Characteristics of the product were sweet, sour, not bitter, not grassy, and not rancid. The emulsion product contains trans-β-carotene at 141.65±0.47 mg/L, equivalent to 237 UI activity of vitamin A/mL. The content of trans-β-carotene was found at the highest (341.83 mg/L from the pumpkin juice, while the OF-RPO had the lowest trans-β-carotene content (41.2 mg/L. Product was acidic with a pH of 3.6±0.1 and with vitamin C content of 13.2±1.2 mg/100 g of product. Acidity and vitamin C levels tended to remain stable during the storage period for two months. Peroxide value of the emulsion product was at 0.8 mEq oxygen/kg. The FFAs were in the range of 1.59 to 1.73% and they also did not change significantly after storage for two months.

  11. PENERIMAAN PANELIS DAN SIFAT KIMIAWI EMULSI LABU KUNING DAN FRAKSI OLEIN SAWIT [Pannelists Acceptance and Chemical Properties of Pumpkin and Palm Olein Fraction Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Rahmadi; Yuliadini Puspita; Sukmiyati Agustin; Miftakhur Rohmah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to produce functional food products with the main ingredient of pumpkin and olein fraction of red palm oil (OF-RPO). This research was conducted in two stages. The first was to analyze consumer acceptance where a Completely Randomized Design was used with one factor. The factor was the composition of pumpkin and OF-RPO levelled as follow: 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 0:100 (v/v). In the second stage, analyses of carotenoids using HPLC, FFA, pH, vitamin C, and peroxid...

  12. Uji Beberapa Konsentrasi Ekstrak Tepung Akar Tuba (Derris Eliptica Benth.) untuk Mengendalikan Hama Ulat Api Setora Nitens Wlk. (Lepidoptera; Limacodidae) pada Tanamankelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    ', Wahyudianto; Laoh, Jeltje Hennie; Rustam, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    Nettle caterpillar Setora nitens Walker. is one of the major pests of oil palm plant. The use of synthetic chemical pesticides to control pest has many negative impacts such a pest resistance, pest resurgence and environmental pollution. To reduce the negative impacts cause by synthetic chemical pesticides, then application of the alternative pest control using botanical insecticides such as Derris eliptica Benth. Which is environmentally friendly is needed. This research is aims to test the ...

  13. PENGURANGAN KADAR ASAM LEMAK BEBAS (FREE FATTY ACID DAN WARNA DARI MINYAK GORENG BEKAS DENGAN PROSES ADSORPSI MENGGUNAKAN CAMPURAN SERABUT KELAPA DAN SEKAM PADI

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    Chairul Irawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils that used frequently will be destructed the physical and chemical of its composition and structure. The treatment of waste cooking oil is challenging due to the pressure of undesirable component such as FFA and colour degradation. This research aims are investigated the ability of mixed adsorbent from rice husk and coir coconut fiber to reduce FFA and colour of waste cooking oil. The adsorbent was activated with H3PO4 1 M. This adsorben use about 5, 10, and 20% of weight waste cooking oil with composition mixing adsorbent of rice husk and coir coconut fiber 30:70 ; 70:30 ; 50:50 ; 100:0 and 0:100 have prepared. Adsorben put into beaker glass of waste cooking oil then batch adsorption proccess was going on about 1 hour use heater and magnetic stirrer with mixing speed 100 rpm and temperature 80oC, then filtered and analyzed in order of FFA, colour, density, and water content. As the result, the best dose adsorben for maximum reduce FFA was 20% of weight waste cooking oil with composition mixing adsorbent of rice husk and coir coconut fiber 30:70 which gave FFA was 0,294% and value of colour was 295 PtCo.The effectivity reduce for FFA was 57,07% and value of colour was 37,04%.

  14. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

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    Asri Widyasanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experimental method with descriptive analysis. The treatments in this study were A =concentrations of VCO 100 %, B = concentrations of VCO 80 % and castor oil 20 %, C = concentrations of VCO 50 % and castor oil 50 %, D = concentrations of VCO 20 % and castor oil 80 %, and E = concentrations of castor oil 100 %,  from 200 gram soap base. The parameter observed for liquid soap included chemical properties, physical properties of soap, and organoleptic test. The result shows that all treatments complies the requirement SNI 06-4085-1996. The formula of liquid soap with treatment B was revealed as the best product with 0.01 % of total alkali content, pH value of 9.16 , specific gravity 1.06, and total plate count 5colonies/g. This technology process of natural liquid soap production with the VCO and castor oil could be develop and apply in industrial scale.

  15. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil) dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil) terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Widyasanti; Shayana Junita; Sarifah Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experiment...

  16. PENGEMBANGBIAKAN Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 GALUR LOKAL PADA BERBAGAI MACAM PH MEDIA AIR KELAPA DAN TOKSISITASNYA TERHADAP JENTIK NYAMUK VEKTOR Aedes aegypti DAN Anopheles aconitus

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    Blodine Cb. P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture of bioinsecticide containing active Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain on various kinds on coconut water pH and its toxicity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles aconitus were carried out in the laboratory on Institute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development Salatiga. The objectives of this study were : To determine the optimum pH from various kinds of coconut water pH forculturing of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain. This study was using 20 coconuts with 6-8 months age coconut on average weight around 1 kg that contained water approximately 400-500 ml/coconut were taken from Kunir Rejo village, Butuh regency, Purworejo district. Fifteen out of 20 coconuts were used to culture cells and spores of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain and 5 coconuts were used to analyze the contain of coconut water in the Institute of Health Laboratory Semarang. The results showed, that B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain can culture at ranges from pH 7 to pH 8.5 with the pH7 as the optimum pH. Total Viable Cell (TVC and a Total Viable Spore Count (TVSC were 3,5 x 10 degree 10 cells /ml and 3, 3 x 10 degree 10 spores/ml respectively. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 = 10.56 ppm and LC95 = 22. 13 ppm against Ae. agypti larvae and LC50 = 5 ppm and LC95 = 11 ppm against An.aconitus larvae. The result showed the analyze test contain of coconut water were 1.92 % carbohydrate, 0.01 % fat, 0.06 % protein and reduced glucose 1.87 %. Coconut water can be used asan alternative local media to culture B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain. Key words : B. thuringiensis H-14, pH, coconut water media.

  17. PENGURANGAN KADAR ASAM LEMAK BEBAS (FREE FATTY ACID) DAN WARNA DARI MINYAK GORENG BEKAS DENGAN PROSES ADSORPSI MENGGUNAKAN CAMPURAN SERABUT KELAPA DAN SEKAM PADI

    OpenAIRE

    Chairul Irawan; Tiara Nur Awalia; Sherly Uthami W.P.H

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oils that used frequently will be destructed the physical and chemical of its composition and structure. The treatment of waste cooking oil is challenging due to the pressure of undesirable component such as FFA and colour degradation. This research aims are investigated the ability of mixed adsorbent from rice husk and coir coconut fiber to reduce FFA and colour of waste cooking oil. The adsorbent was activated with H3PO4 1 M. This adsorben use about 5, 10, and 20% of weight was...

  18. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

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    Fanny Widadie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

  19. Hubungan Antara Lingkungan Kerja Dan Kerjasama Tim Dengan Kepuasan Kerja

    OpenAIRE

    Oktapiani, Marliza

    2011-01-01

    The Objectivity of study is to examine the work Environment and Teamwork in improving to lecture's job satisfaction teacher's at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta. In this study, the method applied is descriptive quantitative method. Analysis unit refers lecture's job satisfaction at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta . Instrument applied in collecting of data it is questioner.This study covers: (1) is the work Environment lecture's job satisfaction teacher'...

  20. HUBUNGAN ANTARA LINGKUNGAN KERJA DAN KERJASAMA TIM DENGAN KEPUASAN KERJA

    OpenAIRE

    Oktapiani, Marliza

    2011-01-01

    The Objectivity of study is to examine the work Environment and Teamwork in improving to lecture's job satisfaction teacher's at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta. In this study, the method applied is descriptive quantitative method. Analysis unit refers lecture's job satisfaction at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta . Instrument applied in collecting of data it is questioner.This study covers: (1) is the work Environment lecture's job satisfaction teacher'...

  1. THE EFFECT OF WORKING CAPITAL ON THE PROFITABILITY OF PALM OIL PLANTATION COMPANIES

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    Tania Prafitri

    2017-05-01

    perusahaan. Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh manajemen modal kerja terhadap profitabilitas perusahaan. Modal kerja dianggap sebagai masalah yang penting dalam manajemen keuangan dan memiliki efek pada likuiditas serta pada profitabilitas perusahaan. Selain itu, manajemen modal kerja yang optimal memberikan kontribusi yang besar dalam pencapaian tujuan perusahaan. Penulis menggunakan data sekunder yang bersumber dari laporan tahunan 6 perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit  yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI selama tahun 2009–2015. Profitabilitas sebagai variabel dependen diukur dengan return on investment (ROI.Cash conversion cycle (CCC, current ratio (CR, financial debt ratio (FDR, dan fixed financial asset ratio (FFAR merupakan variabel independen. Model analisis yang digunakan adalah model regresi panel menggunakan Fixed Effect Model. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh negatif dari modal kerja terhadap profitabilitas. Profitabilitas akan bertambah saat waktu siklus konversi kas berkurang.  Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan yang memiliki waktu siklus konversi kas yang pendek mampu mengumpulkan kas yang diperlukan untuk operasional sehari-hari perusahaan.Kata kunci: modal kerja, siklus konversi kas, rasio lancar, rasio hutang, rasio aktiva tetap  profitabilitas

  2. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

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    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  3. VALIDASI MODIFIKASI METODE WEIßHAAR UNTUK ANALISIS 3-MCPD ESTER DALAM MINYAK GORENG SAWIT [Validation of Modified Weißhaar’s Method for 3-MCPD Esters Analysis in Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Tanti Lanovia1,2)*; Nuri Andarwulan1,3); Purwiyatno Hariyadi1,3)

    2014-01-01

    The 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 3-MCPD esters were found in any type of refined vegetable oil -mostly produced during the refining process- and recognized as emerging food contaminants. Several analytical methods have been developed and one of which was a Weißhaar's method. The study aims to validate the modified Weißhaar's method for analysis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters in refined palm oil. Ion fragments were used for identification and quantification of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-d5. 3...

  4. VALIDASI MODIFIKASI METODE WEIßHAAR UNTUK ANALISIS 3-MCPD ESTER DALAM MINYAK GORENG SAWIT [Validation of Modified Weißhaar’s Method for 3-MCPD Esters Analysis in Palm Oil

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    Tanti Lanovia1,2*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters were found in any type of refined vegetable oil -mostly produced during the refining process- and recognized as emerging food contaminants. Several analytical methods have been developed and one of which was a Weißhaar's method. The study aims to validate the modified Weißhaar's method for analysis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters in refined palm oil. Ion fragments were used for identification and quantification of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-d5. 3-MCPD was determined by GC-MS after released from its ester by transesterification with sodium methoxide and derivatized with phenylboronic acid. The validation showed that liniarity response (r=0.994 was observed from a linear regression by using external standard and internal standard at a concentration range of 0.008 and 0.377 µg mL-1. The LOD of the validated method was 0.06 µg g-1 while its LOQ was 0.20 µg g-1, precision (relative standard deviation, RSD was 6.16%, and accuracy (as percentage of recovery was in the range of 95.83-113.27%. This results indicated that the modified method was valuable and sensitive for detection of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters. Using the validated method, 3-MCPD esters content of a commercial palm oil sample was determined and calculated as the difference between total 3-MCPD and free 3-MCPD, which was 13.24 µg g-1. Total 3-MCPD content of several palm oils were at a concentration range of 13.94-34.52 µg g-1. These results also showed that there was a correlation between 3-MCPD with diacylglyceride (DAG. Samples with DAG content gave a high test results of 3-MCPD with a coefficient of correlation of r=0.752.

  5. MEKANISME ANTIBAKTERI METABOLIT Lb. plantarum kik dan MONOASILGLISEROL MINYAK KELAPA TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGAN PANGAN [Mechanism at Antibacterial Activity of Lb. plantarum kik Metabolites and Monoacylglycerol Coconut Oil upon Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Asriani1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial mechanism of mixture between metabolites Lb.plantarum klik and monoacylglycerol coconut oil was found through analysis of the MIC levels. The level of 1 and 2 MIC can increase the leakages of the gram positif bacterial sell (L.monocytogenes and B.cereus and that of the gram negative bacteria (S.typhimurium. The leackages of cell was measured by spectrofotometer and represented increasing of the absorbance of the protein nucleic acid . The absorbance of metal ion was evaluated using a AASS (measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and it indicated that the absorbance increased of 40.2% and 22.1% for Ca 2+ and K+ respectively. Observation of cell damage on L. monoctogenes and S. tyhimurium using SEM (scanning Electron Microscopy resulted in morphological damage on both MIC 1 and 2 in which MIC 2 was severly damage.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU KOMBINASI SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI, EKSTRAK JAGUNG, ATAU SANTAN KELAPA [Characterization of Fermented Products Made From Caprine Milk in Combination with Soy Extract, Corn Extract or Coconut Extract

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    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best combination of caprine milk with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract in the production of flavored fermented milk products. Products were analyzed for the lactic acid content, crude protein, viscosity and also organoleptic properties (color, texsture, flavour, overall acceptance. This study was performed by a Completely Randomized Design with four kind of treatments, i.e.caprine, caprine milk in combination with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract with five replications. The result indicated that the caprine milk in combination with soy extract resulted an acceptable flavored fermented milk product containing 0.78% lactic acid, 6.62% crude protein, and had a viscosity of 2120 centipoise. The texture of the most liked flavoured fermented milk product was viscous to most viscous, and the flavour was slightly sour to sour.

  7. Aplikasi Sensor Cahaya Untuk Alarm Anti Pencuri

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    Asita Shoman Muzaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kasus pencurian di rumah kosong yang ditinggal pergi oleh pemiliknya belakangan ini marak terjadi. Berangkat dari pemikiran ini penulis mencoba merancang alarm yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan seseorang saat rumah dalam kondisi kosong, ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Alat ini mempunyai prinsip kerja yaitu mendeteksi bayangan seseorang yang melewati titik tertentu. Perancangan dan pembuatan perangkat ini menggunakan sensor cahaya berupa LASER dan LDR yang dirangkai dengan transistor sebagai saklar otomatis serta LED dan telepon rumah untuk melakukan panggilan kepada nomor telepon pemilik rumah. Komponen yang dipakai dalam pembuatan perangkat ini antara lain IC LM7805, LASER pointer, resistor, transistor BC108, LED, relay dan telepon rumah. Perancangan dan pembuatan alat menggunakan software multisim 10.1 sebagai simulator rangkaian, dan software eagle 5.1.1 untuk mendesain jalur rangkaian pada papan PCB. Saat cahaya LASER tidak sampai ke LDR karena terhalang oleh sesuatu, maka rangkaian output yang berupa indikator LED dan panggilan dari telepon rumah akan aktif

  8. Penentuan Jumlah Teller Optimum Dengan Menggunakan Teknik Simulasi ProModel di PT Bank Sumut Cabang Utama Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko, Rio

    2012-01-01

    Sistem antrian yang diterapkan pada PT. Bank Sumut Cabang Utama Medan menerapkan sistem antrian FIFO / FCFS (First Come First Serve. Pada PT. Bank Sumut Cabang Utama Medan terdapat sepuluh teller atau server yang bertugas melayani pelanggan. Setiap pelanggan yang datang wajib mengambil nomor antrian kemudian menunggu untuk dipanggil oleh teller yang kosong dan kemudian melakukan transaksi. Teller yang telah selesai melayani satu pelanggan kemudian menekan tombol agar antrian berikutnya dapat ...

  9. Cemaran Kapang pada Pakan Sapi dan Uji In Vitro Sirih terhadap Pertumbuhan Kapang Aspergillus flavus (MOLD CONTAMINATION IN CATTLE FEED AND IN VITRO ASSAY OF PIPER BETEL AGAINTS GROWTH OF MOLD CONTAMINANT ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

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    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    . Penicillium sp and 17 species of mold were the most frequently found compared to other fungi. Powders the best form of the piper betel as antimold. ABSTRAK Cemaran kapang pada pakan dan bahan penyusunnya adalah penting sebab kapang yang tergolong patogenik dan toksigenik dapat mencemari dan menyebabkan mikosis dan mikotoksikosis pada ternak sapi. Informasi mengenai kapang pencemar diperlukan dalam usaha pengendaliannya. Berdasarkan penelitian sebelumnya diketahui daun sirih (Piper betle mempunyai aktivitas antikapang yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh data cemaran kapang pada pakan ternak sapi dan bahan penyusunnya dari propinsi Banten, Lampung, DKI Jakarta, dan Jawa Barat, serta menguji sirih sebagai obat herbal antikapang yang telah terpilih dari tanaman obat tradisional asli Indonesia. Isolasi dan  identifikasi kapang telah dilakukan pada tepung, gliserida, onggok, jagung, kacang, kelapa, kopi, konsentrat, lamtoro, nenas, beras, rumput, sawit, singkong, ampas tahu, tepung ikan, tepung tulang dari provinsi Banten, Lampung, DKI Jakarta, dan Jawa Barat. Isolasi dilakukan dengan membiakkan sampel pada media agar, Kapang yang sudah tumbuh pada media diidentifikasi. Pakan yang telah dicampur dengan ektrak dan serbuk ditambahkan inokulum kapang, kemudian diinkubasi. Setelah 3-7 hari diinkubasi, dihitung colony forming unit (CFU yang berkembang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar pakan tercemar kapang, tetapi levelnya masih berada di bawah batas ambang. Cemaran kapang pada tepung, jagung, konsentrat, dan ampas tahu melebihi batas ambang. Kapang-kapang tersebut adalah Aspergillus sp, A. amstelodami, A. clavatus, A. candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. niger, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Hyphomycetes sp., Miselia sterilata, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., dan Rhizopus sp. Kapang Penicillium sp adalah yang paling banyak ditemukan pada pakan yakni sebanyak 2,56.107 CFU. Uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa

  10. PENGARUH PROSES PENGOLAHAN DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot esculenta Crantz DENGAN BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN TERHADAP KADAR β-KAROTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiliana Liem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pada banyak negara berkembang, defisiensi vitamin A menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang serius. Pemanfaatan bahan pangan nabati yang dapat menjadi sumber utama vitamin A merupakan salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Daun singkong adalah salah satu bahan pangan nabati yang kaya β-karoten, dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap kebutuhan vitamin A, dan mudah didapatkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh variasi pengolahan daun singkong terhadap kadar β-karoten. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan unit eksperimental 100 gram daun singkong yang mirip dengan variasi Adira 4, segar, berwarna hijau cerah, tidak ada cacat atau noda pada permukaan kulit, dan bagian pucuk tanaman (3-5 susun daun. Daun singkong dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok perlakuan pengolahan (segar, perebusan dengan air garam, perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan perebusan dengan santan, dan perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan dengan penumisan dengan minyak goreng dengan 5 kali replikasi. Kadar β-karoten olahan daun singkong diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri. Hasil menunjukkan kadar β-karoten berbeda secara signifikan pada semua kelompok perlakuan pengolahan (p=0,001. Perlakuan yang satu dengan perlakuan yang lain pada semua pasangan perlakuan juga memiliki perbedaan yang signifikan. Kadar β-karoten olahan daun singkong dari yang tertinggi berturut-turut didapatkan dari pengolahan perebusan dengan air garam (79,534 ± 5,784 µg/g, perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan penumisan dengan minyak goreng (65,926 ± 6,244 µg/g, daun singkong segar (43,530 ± 11,062 µg/g, dan perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan perebusan dengan santan (19,022 ± 3,509 µg/g. Variasi cara pengolahan mempengaruhi kadar β-karoten dalam daun singkong akibat faktor-faktor pengolahan, seperti suhu, pH, waktu, matriks pangan, dan pemakaian minyak kelapa sawit. Daun singkong

  11. PERKEMBANGAN ENZIM PENCERNAAN LARVA IKAN PATIN, Pangasius hypophthalmus sp.

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    Irzal Effendi

    2003-05-01

    50x40 cm dengan kepadatan 20 ekor/l.  Larva diberi pakan dengan tiga skedul pemberian; skedul I, Artemia dan cacing diberikan ketika larva ikan patin berumur masing-masing 2-8 dan 7-15 hari; skedul II, Artemia 2-6 hari dan cacing 5-15 hari; skedul III, Artemia 2-4 hari dan cacing 5-15 hari. Chlorella diberikan sepanjang pemeliharaan larva. Contoh larva umur 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 dan 15 hari diambil sebanyak 0,5 g setelah dipuasakan selama 4 jam.  Asai protease, lipase dan amilase terhadap homogenate larva  dilakukan dengan menggunakan masing-masing substrat kasein 1%,  minyak kelapa sawit dan pati 1%.  Anatomi, isi saluran pencernaan, pertumbuhan bobot dan kelangsungan hidup larva juga diamati.  Tidak terdapat perbedaan pertumbuhan larva yang diberi pakan dengan skedul berbeda, namun larva yang diberi Artemia lebih lama (skedul I memiliki kelangsungan hidup lebih baik.  Larva ikan patin umur 1 hari setelah menetas ternyata sudah mengandung enzim protease dan lipase di saluran pencernaannya.  Perkembangan enzim pencernaan memiliki pola yang hampir sama pada setiap skedul pemberian pakan.  Aktivitas protease menurun pada larva umur 3 hari, selanjutnya meningkat tajam hingga larva umur 7 hari, kemudian menurun tajam hingga larva umur 10 hari dan akhirnya menurun landai.  Aktivitas lipase meningkat lambat hingga larva umur 3 hari, kemudian meningkat tajam hingga larva umur 5 hari, selanjutnya menurun tajam hingga larva umur 7 hari dan akhirnya menurun landai.  Aktivitas amilase semakin meningkat lambat dengan bertambahnya umur larva hingga 5 hari, selanjutnya meningkat tajam hingga larva berumur 7 hari dan kemudian menurun.  Perkembangan enzim pencernaan larva ikan patin ini sejalan dengan perkembangan (diferensiasi anatomi saluran pencernaan.  Saluran pencernaan larva berisi Artemia, cacing dan plankton dengan jumlah yang semakin meningkat dengan bertambahnya umur larva.  Kata kunci:  Enzim pencernaan, perkembangan, larva, ikan patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus

  12. KONTRIBUSI SEKTOR PARIWISATA TERHADAP GDP INDONESIA TAHUN 2004 - 2009

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    Alfiah Mudrikah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Indonesia memiliki kekayaan dan sumberdaya alam yang melimpah serta didukung dengan lautan dan ribuan pulau yang mengelilinginya.Berbagai kekayaan sumberdaya alam yang dimilikinya menjadi potensi tersendiri bagi Indonesia untuk mengembangkan pariwisata terutama dibidang alamnya. Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia yang terdiri dari 17.508 pulau atau disebut juga sebagai nusantara atau negara maritim, telah menyadari pentingnya sektor pariwisata terhadap perekonomian Indonesia dikarenakan pertumbuhan pariwisata Indonesia selalu di atas pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia (Soebagyo 2012. Maka dari itu pariwisata belakangan ini selalu menjadi pusat perhatian bagi wisatawan untuk mengunjungi tempat wisata tersebut. Industri pariwisata merupakan salah satu cara yang tepat dalam meningkatkan kemajuan ekonomi masyarakat baik lokal maupun global. Pariwisata mempunyai pengaruh dan manfaat yang banyak, diantaranya selain menghasilkan devisa negara dan memperluas lapangan kerja, sektor pariwisata bertujuan untuk menjaga kelestarian alam dan mengembangkan budaya lokal (Dritasto dan Anggraeni 2013. Pada tahun 2008 kepariwisataan Indonesia berkontribusi terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB sebesar Rp. 153,25 trilyun atau 3,09% dari total PDB Indonesia (BPS, 2010. Pada tahun 2009, kontribusinya meningkat menjadi 3,25%. Pertumbuhan PDB pariwisata pun sejak tahun 2001 selalu menunjukkan angka pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan PDB nasional. Walaupun masih menunjukkan angka sementara, pada tahun 2009 pertumbuhan PDB pariwisata mencapai 8,18%, sedangkan PDB nasional hanya 4,37%. Pada tahun yang sama, devisa dari pariwisata merupakan kontributor terbesar ketiga devisa negara, setelah minyak dan gas bumi serta minyak kelapa sawit. Peringkat ini menunjukkan kecenderungan yang terus meningkat sejak tahun 2006 yang hanya menempati peringkat ke-6 dari 11 komoditi sumber devisa

  13. Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing in captive pond

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    . Sulistiono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing was employed in captive pond at Citarate village, Lebak Regency (Banten from May to December 2008.  The rearing activity was done in captive pond sized 5x5x1.3 m3 divided into 22 smaller ponds sized 1x1x1.3 m3 with a hiding hole (constructed by pile stones, supported by two small ponds sized 30x40x40 cm3 for sea and fresh water stocks, respectively.  The coconut crab (N=22 individuals at cement pond I and N=18 individuals at cement pond II were reared in each small ponds (density: 1 individual/pond, feed by a piece of coconut (20-50 gram per individual in each cement pond.  The coconut and the water (sea and fresh water were replaced for 2-3 times per week. Result of the study showed that survival rate was around 82% (ponds I and 83% (ponds II, and mortality was around 18% (ponds I and 18% (ponds II. The coconut crab growth at captive ponds I and II were around 17.5 and 52 gram per month, respectively. Key words:  Preliminary study, rearing, coconut crab (Birgus latro   ABSTRAK Uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan di kolam penangkaran di Desa Citarate, Kabupaten Lebak (Banten pada Bulan Mei sampai Desember 2008.  Kegiatan pemeliharaan dilakukan pada bak semen berukuran 5x5x1.3 m2 yang terbagi menjadi 22 bak semen lebih kecil yang berukuran 1x1x1.3 m3 dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (berupa tumpukan batu, serta bak kecil sebagai tempat penampungan air laut dan tawar masing-masing berukuran 30x40x40 cm3. Kepiting kelapa (N=22 ekor pada kolam I dan N=18 pada kolam II dimasukkan ke dalam setiap kolam (kepadatan 1 individu/kolam, dan diberikan pakan utama berupa potongan kelapa ukuran sekitar 20-50 gram per individu per kolam.  Penggantian kelapa dan air (tawar dan laut dilakukan 2-3 kali per minggu. Hasil uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa menunjukkan bahwa tingkat sintasan (survival rate di kolam peliharaan berkisar 82 (Kolam I dan 83% (Kolam II

  14. Kasus Paedofil Di Indonesia: Kajian Afektif Menuju Kebijakan Pendidikan

    OpenAIRE

    Harianto, Harianto

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon in the year 2016 recorded cases of "pedophile" in Indonesia such as: Sarno (46) in Duren Sawit Jakarta, Andri Sobari alias Emon (Sukabumi) conduct pedophile about 114 children, at Jakarta International School, Samai and Sodikin (Tegal), Bali And Batam. The problem is how the affective study of the case of Paedofil in Indonesia towards the Education Policy? The purpose of this paper answers the following questions: Can a pedophile case affect the moral destruction of a nation? Does ...

  15. IDENTIFIKASI KOMODITI UNGGULAN PADA SEKTOR PERTANIAN DI KABUPATEN INDRAGIRI HILIR PROVINSI RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisca Vaulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Setelah otonomi masing-masing daerah memiliki lebih dari kebebasan dalam menentukan komoditas yang diprioritaskan dalam pembangunannya. Salah satu potensi di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir adalah pertanian. Untuk pertanian diperlukan identifikasi komoditas pertanian utama yang akan dikembangkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi komoditas pertanian utama terlihat dari dasar komoditas pertanian, spesialisasi dan lokalisasi komoditas pertanian yang diprioritaskan untuk dikembangkan di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir. Penelitian menggunakan metode studi kasus, data yang digunakan adalah data dari tahun 2014-2015, menggunakan analisis ekonomi LQ regional, spesialisasi quotient dan lokalisasi quotient. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir kering padi, kacang tanah, ubi kayu, pepaya, durian, mangga, kelapa, pinang, kelapa, sagu, domba, sapi dan perikanan umum. KS dan KL nilai kegiatan pertanian terspesialisasi di setiap kabupaten. Pengembangan prioritas komoditas padi kering, kedelai, kacang tanah, ubi kayu, pepaya, mangga, durian, jeruk, pinang, kakao, domba dan perikanan umum. Kata kunci : Komoditas Unggulan, Komoditas Pertanian

  16. Pemanfaatan Limbah Investment Menjadi Barang Kerajinan

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    Hastuti Kusreni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk memanfaatkan kembali limbah investment padat yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan teknologi proses pembuatan barang kerajinan yang bisa  diterapkan untuk usaha kecil kerajinan. Pada pembuatan perhiasan dengan metode wax lost casting digunakan bahan investment powder yang menghasilkan limbah padat investment. Limbah padat investment bisa dibuat barang kerajinan dengan cara menambah resin katalist, gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa, semen putih, yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki sifat plastisitas, meningkatkan kekuatan dan mempercepat pengeringan. Untuk menentukan kualitas sampel dilakukan uji terhadap sifat plastisitas, kekuatan, kekerasan dan waktu pengeringan yang dilakukan secara visual. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa dengan komposisi 10:2:1:4, pengeringan selama 3 hari menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang kurang keras, plastis dan kuat. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, semen putih dengan komposisi 10:2:4, pengeringan selama 3 jam menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang keras dan plastis. Kata kunci : limbah investment padat

  17. The correlation of urban heat island in tropical middle-class housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Zuber Angkasa

    2017-11-01

    A very limited number of green and sustainable construction studies have explored factors related to Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical middle-class housing. This paper aimed to investigate the correlation of Urban Heat Island in tropical middle-class housing in three urban housing for middle-class residents of Palembang, which were Taman Sari Kenten, TOP Jakabaring, and Talang Kelapa. Samples consisted of 125 Taman Sari Kenten housing, 27 Talang Kelapa housing, and 12 TOP Jakabaring housing. Independent variables were the resident density, socioeconomic status, house location, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, air conditioner, pro-environment institution, and NEP scale. The Analytic method included correlation and regression. We identified that all housing had different UHI profiles where Taman Sari Kenten had the highest UHI (4.17 K), followed by Talang Kelapa (2.66 K) and TOP Jakabaring (0.66 K) against temperature in measuring station nearby, owned by BMKG (National Meteorological Station). UHI correlated with the resident density, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, and air conditioner. The results should add to the design of ideal housing in the tropical climate for middle-class residents, focusing on its ability to mitigate Urban Heat Island.

  18. PENGARUH VARIASI TEKANAN PENGEPRESAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS BRIKET ARANG

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    Reni Setiowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar alternatif diperlukan untuk pengganti sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbarui.Salah satu bahan bakar alternatif tersebut yang dikembangkan adalah briket arang dengan memanfaatkan limbah biomassa.Pada penelitian ini dibuat briket arang dengan mengkaji pengaruh variasi tekanan pengepresan dan komposisi bahan terhadap sifat fisis briket arang. Proses karbonisasi pada tempurung kelapa 450ºC selama 15 menit. Serbuk kayu dikarbonisasi menggunakan klin drum selama 4-5 jam. Perbandingan komposisi bahan tempurung kelapa dengan serbuk kayu adalah sebagai berikut 75%:25%, 25%:75%, 50%:50%, 100%:0%, 0%: 100% dengan tekanan pengepresan 50 N/cm2, 100 N/cm2,150N/cm2. Pengeringan briket dilakukan di dalam oven dengan suhu 60°C selama 24 jam. Briket berbentuk silinder dengan diameter 5 cm.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan briket paling optimum dengan perbandingan komposisi bahan 100% tempurung kelapa menggunakan tekanan antara 100-150 N/cm2 dengan nilai parameter uji sebagai berikut densitas 0.634 gr/cm3, kekuatan mekanik 43.167 N/cm2 dan lama pembakaran 64,39 menit.

  19. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

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    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  20. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Gedung Serbaguna Purnama di Jl R.A Kartini Bangkalan

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    Chairun Nisya Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Era pembangunan pasca jembatan Suramadu diharapkan menjadi tonggak kebangkitan daerah, sehingga kesejahteraan masyarakat yang merupakan cita-cita pembangunan akan terwujud. Akan tetapi fakta yang terjadi di lapangan, beberapa pembangunan mengalami kondisi yang kurang layak secara finansial. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisa HBU pada sebuah lahan gedung serbaguna Purnama Bangkalan. Analisis legal, fisik, keuangan, dan produktivitas maksimum adalah proses dan metodologi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini. Objek studi sebuah lahan gedung yang dianggap kosong seluas 600 m2 terletak di kawasan komersial alun-alun kota Bangkalan. Hasil yang diperoleh yaitu hotel merupakan alternatif penggunaan yang memberikan nilai tertinggi dengan nilai lahan menjadi sebesar Rp 4,086,635/m2 dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum sebesar 253%

  1. PERANCANGAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN PROTOTYPE SISTEM PARKIR

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    Indah Ayu Septriyaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Abstrak  Sistem parkir manual pada pelayanan parkir mall memerlukan pengelolaan dan pengembangan sistem yang lebih rumit dan jauh dari kata efisien. Informasi yang didapatkan pengelola parkir terkait kondisi parkir di lapangan setiap harinya masih kurang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah merancang dan mengembangkan prototype sistem parkir. Metode pengembangan dan perancangan sistem pada penelitian ini adalah metode Waterfall. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sistem ini dapat mendeteksi keberadaan mobil pada slot parkir yang tersedia dengan bantuan Intel Galileo Board Gen 2 sebagai kontroler, sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor dan sensor ultrasonik (PING sebagai alat bantu pendeteksi keberadaan mobil. Sistem dapat menampilkan aktifitas parkir pada aplikasi web seperti kondisi lahan parkir kosong, lahan terisi, waktu masuk, waktu keluar, lama parkir dan kapasitas parkir yang tersedia serta grafik pemakaian lahan parkir. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa perancangan dan pengembangan sistem berhasil diimplementasikan. Kata Kunci : Sistem parkir, waterfall, Intel Galileo Board Gen 2,sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor, sensor ultrasonik

  2. Study on Spatial and Temporal Changes of Forest Cover Due to Canal Establishment in Peat Land Area, Central Kalimantan

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    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang dampak dari pembangunan saluran irigasi terhadap distribusi spasial hutan dun lahan terbuka di eks pengembangan lahan gambut, Kalimantan Tengah. Untuk mengetahui kondisi penutupan hutan sebelum dun sesudah pembangunan saluran, digunakan citra Landrat TM rekaman tahun 1996 (sebelum pembangunan, 1998 dun 1999 (sesudah pembangunan. Hipotesis yang digunakan adalah penurunan air tanah sebagai akibat dari pembuatan saluran telah menjadi "driving force" perusakan lahan. Indikator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalahpersentase distribusi lateral dari penutupan hutan serta terbukanya lahan-lahan kosong basah maupun kering di sekitar kanal. Penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya hubungan yang sistematis antara penurunan persentase penutupan hutan dun peningkatan persentase luas lahan terbuka dengan jarak dari saluran-saluran air yang dibangun, khususnya pada areal A. B dan C dimana satuan lahannya didominasi oleh lahan gambut. Penelitian ini sekaligus menggambarkan tentang peranan CIS dalam evaluasi gejala pemicu terjadinya kerusakan lingkungan.

  3. Tender coconut water as alternative food to increase potassium intake among prehypertension adult female?

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    Farapti Farapti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hampir seluruh populasi di dunia mengonsumsi kalium lebih rendah dari rekomendasi yangdianjurkan. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas yang tinggi kalium. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk menganalisis asupan kalium pada perempuan prahipertensi dan menentukan peningkatan asupankalium dengan pemberian air kelapa muda untuk menurunkan tekanan darah di antara subyek prahipertensi.Metode: Pada uji klinis paralel single blind dengan subyek sebanyak 32 guru perempuan dan karyawatiprahipertensi berusia 25-44 tahun di Surabaya bulan April – Juni 2013. Pemilihan subyek penelitian denganrandomisasi blok, 16 subyek tiap kelompok. Kelompok perlakuan (P mendapat air kelapa muda disertaipenyuluhan gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol (K mendapat air putih disertai penyuluhan gizi. Penilaianasupan kalium dengan food record 2x24 jam selama fase run in, minggu pertama, dan minggu kedua periodepenelitian. Food record dianalisis menggunakan nutrisurvey, dan kandungan kalium dalam air kelapa mudasegar dan air putih dianalisis dengan metode atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Hasil: Pada awal penelitian, rerata asupan kalium subyek 1420,28±405,54 mg/hari atau sekitar 30,22%± 8,63% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG. Selama perlakuan, didapatkan peningkatan asupan kaliumsebesar 2 kali lipat dan meningkat signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi masih lebih rendah darirekomendasi AKG dan WHO.Kesimpulan: Pada perempuan prahipertensi, asupan kalium dikategorikan rendah, dan air kelapa mudasegar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut dapat meningkatkan asupan kalium. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:12-16Kata kunci: asupan kalium, air kelapa muda segar AbstractBackground: Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium.Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drinks high in potassium. The study aimed to analyze potassiumintake in prehypertension subjects and to identify the

  4. Sistem Cerdas Reservasi dan Pemantauan Parkir pada Lokasi Kampus Berbasis Konsep Internet of Things

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    Dody Ichwana Putra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the people who use vehicles on the campus is increasing. It makes more difficult to find an empty slot parking area on the campus. This study aims to develop a system parking reservation and monitoring on-campus area using NFC and IoT concept. NFC was used to confirm booking code that generated by the system. In the parking area, ultrasonic sensors were installed to detect parking space availability. IoT concept has been applied to build this system. Apps on users smartphone can do the reservation process to the desired parking location via internet. Black box testing was done by building a prototype using the number of data locations parking slots in the Andalas University. The test results showed that this system has been able to detect the location of vacant parking slots and do reservations with time for sending data to the server is 0.7952 sec. Penggunaan kendaraan yang semakin meningkat di lokasi kampus pada saat ini mengakibatkan semakin sulitnya menemukan tempat parkir kosong. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan sistem reservasi dan pemantauan parkir pada lokasi kampus menggunakan NFC dan konsep IoT. NFC digunakan untuk melakukan konfirmasi dari kode pemesanan yang telah dihasilkan oleh sistem. Pada lokasi parkir, sensor jarak ultrasonik dipasang untuk mendeteksi ketersediaan parkir. Konsep IoT telah diterapkan untuk membangun sistem ini. Aplikasi pada perangkat telepon cerdas telah berhasil melakukan reservasi pada lokasi parkir yang diinginkan melalui Internet. Pengujian sistem dilakukan dengan pengujian kotak menggunakan data uji jumlah tempat parkir yang ada di lingkungan kampus Universitas Andalas. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem telah mampu mendeteksi lokasi parkir yang kosong dan melakukan reservasi dengan waktu pengiriman data ke server selama 0.7952 detik.

  5. Effect of Different Fatty Acid Sources of Diet on Growth Performance of Botia Botia macracanthus Bleeker

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    . Sunarto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish requires essential fatty acid for growth. Freshwater fish needs linoleat fatty acid (n-6 or combination of linoleat and a-linolenat acids (n-3.  Fish oil contains higher level of n-3, corn oil is rich of n-6, while coconut oil is rich of saturated fatty acids.  This study was conducted to determine the effect of fatty acid sources in diet on growth performance of botia Botia macracanthus. Sources of fatty acid examined were coconut oil (control, corn oil, fish oil, and corn oil + fish oil + coconut oil. The results of study show that daily growth rate of fish fed on diet containing mix of corn-coconut-fish oils (8.39% and only corn oil (8.15% was higher (p0.05.  Survival rate of fish at all treatments was similar, ranged from 90.00 to 93.33%.  Thus, the results suggested that diet containing only corn oil is suitable for botia to obtain higher growth rate and lower feed conversion rate. Keywords: fatty acid, growth performance, botia, Botia macracanthus ABSTRAK Ikan membutuhkan asam lemak essensial (EFA = Essential Fatty Acid untuk pertumbuhannya.  Ikan air tawar memerlukan asam lemak linoleat (n-6 atau gabungan asam lemak linoleat (n-6 dan alfa-linolenat (n-3.  Minyak ikan banyak mengandung asam lemak n-3, minyak jagung kaya akan asam lemak n-6, sementara minyak kelapa banyak mengandung asam lemak jenuh.  Sumber asam lemak yang diuji adalah minyak kelapa  (kontrol, minyak jagung, minyak ikan, dan minyak jagung + minyak ikan + minyak kelapa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan harian ikan botia yang diberi pakan yang mengandung campuran minyak jagung-kelapa-ikan (8,39% dan minyak jagung (8,15% saja lebih tinggi (p0,05.  Kelangsungan hidup ikan pada semua perlakuan relatif sama, yaitu berkisar antara 90,00-93,33%. Dengan demikian, pakan untuk ikan botia cukup mengandung minyak jagung saja untuk mendapatkan laju pertumbuhan yang tinggi dengan konversi pakan yang rendah. Kata kunci: asam lemak, kinerja pertumbuhan

  6. Perspektif Karyawan Perbankan pada Komunikasi Internal dengan Two-Way Symmetrical Communication dan Internal Marketing

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    Mia Angeline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the internal communication in the two branches of foreign banks in Kelapa Gading from the perspectives of two-way symmetrical communication and internal marketing. The second problem investigated is the effectiveness of the use of email as a means of internal communication. Data were collected through interviews and literature. The results showed that the perception of employees not in accordance with the concept of two-way communication and internal marketing, but this policy has led the organization to these concepts. In the use of email, employee perceptions still see that the email is an effective internal communication media despite having many weaknesses.  

  7. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

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    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  8. Study of Fiber Treatment and Water Absorption toward Tensile Stength of Coconut Filtrate/Polyester Composite

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    Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tapis Kelapa (coconut filter as natural fiber, in this time it resourches very copius but no longer be exploited off hand andwaste though in fact it used for alternative to be composite. The objective of this research is to investigated tensile strength ofcomposite tapis kelapa as reinforcement and epoxy 7120 and hardener versamid 140 as matrix. The fiber is treated with thechemical NaOH with percentage 0,5%, 1% dan 2% in weight, respectively. This research used coconut-tapis fibre which cutas long as 1cm with 0%,5%,7,5%,10% fiber volume fraction, respectively. Soaking time on the water are 24 hour, 48 hour,98 hour and 196 hour, respectively. For testing of speciment in tensile test with ASTM D3039. The result of this researchshown that the composite with no treatment with NaOH have soak the water better than the composite with treatment NaOH.The average of tensile strength with no treatment NaOH less than with treatment NaOH. The highest strength are reached bycomposite with 10% fraction volume on 48 hour soaking time equal to 52 MPa. While the lowest tensile strength are reachedby composite with 0% fraction volume fibre equal to 16,667 MPa. The average of tensile strength that soak in mineral waterbetter than sea water.

  9. Strategi Promosi, Diferensiasi dan Keputusan Pembelian pada Kepuasan Pelanggan

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    Masruroh Masruroh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today every goods and services industry always tries to develop their comparative and competitive ability. Therefore the company no longer only think of profits but start to pay attention to other potential sectors that is able to sustain or increase revenue hence the customers interests becomes a major concern. The case study in this research is Promotion and Differentiation Strategy, on customer of PT Indomobil Trada National - Nissan Kelapa Gading. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the Promotion and Differentiation Strategies of Buying Decision and Its Impact on Customer Satisfaction. The method used in this study is Path Analysis. This research produces the structural equation Y = 0.375 X1 + 0.560 X2 + 0.42 ε1 where R2 = 82.1% and Z = 0.381 X1 + 0.524 Y + 0.48 ε2 where R2 = 76.4%. Promotion and Differentiation Strategies is effective in providing a positive influence towards Buying Decision, as well as Promotion Strategy and Buying Decision which has positive influence towards Customer Satisfaction, but Differentiation does not significantly influence Customer Satisfaction, so we recommend PT Indomobil National Trada - Nissan Kelapa Gading further enhance the existing Promotion Strategy to enhance influence in inducing Customer Satisfaction.

  10. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

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    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Insiden prehipertensi di Indonesia dimulai sejak usia dewasa muda. Salah satu faktor risiko prehipertensi adalah asupan kalium rendah. Asupan makanan kalium tinggi akan menurunkan tekanan darah (TD. Air kelapa muda segar adalah khas minuman tinggi kalium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh air kelapa muda segar terhadap tekanan darah prehipertensi wanita. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian acak tersamar tunggal di antara 32 subjek perempuan berusia 25-44 tahun. Subjek dibagi menjadi dua kelompak masing-masing terdiri dari 16 subjek. Kelompok perlakuan diberi air kelapa muda segar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari dan konseling gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol diberi air 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari dan konseling gizi. Penilaian tekanan darah dilakukan pada hari 0, hari ke-8, dan hari ke-15. Analisis statistik menggunakan t-test dan test Mann-Whitney. Hasil: Rerata asupan kalium sebanyak 1420,28 ± 405,54 mg / hari atau 30,22 ± 8,63% dibandingkan dengan Recomendasi Diet Indonesia 2004. Selama masa penelitian, asupan kalium meningkat secara signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan. Di samping itu terdapat penurunan tekanan darah pada kedua kelompok, dan yang lebih besar terjadi pada kelompok perlakuan tetapi tidak signifikan secara statistik (P > 0,05. Ratarata penurunan yang signifikan terhadap tekanan darah sistolik pada kelompok perlakuan (P = 0,031, sementara penurunan tekanan diastolik tidak menunjukkan perubahan yang signifikan (P=0.134 Kesimpulan: Air kelapa muda segar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut cenderung menurunkan tekanan darah sistolik, tetapi tidak terhadap tekanan darah diastolik. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:64-8Kata kunci:air kelapa muda segar, tekanan darah, sistolik dan diastolikAbstractBackground: The incident of prehypertension in Indonesia has started since young adulthood. One of the risk factors of prehypertension is low potassium intake

  11. PENGELOLAAN ASET WAKAF OLEH LNW IBADURRAHMAN DURI DALAM MENINGKATKAN KESEJAHTERAAN UMMAT

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    Fitrianto Fitrianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available LNW Ibadurrahman  merupakan salah satu Nazir wakaf yang mengelola harta wakaf di Duri. Tata kelola wakaf oleh LNW Ibadurrahman melalui 16 (enam belas jenis program  wakaf uang tunai seperti, wakaf perkebunan,balai latihan kerja, rumah yatim, pendidikan pesantren belading, Maqdis Ibad, pembebas Riau Menghafal, Warung Maqdis, Koperasi Ibadurrahman, TK maqdis, dan Bisnis Tiketing Haji dan Umrah. Melalui  enam belas program wakaf uang tersebut,  LNW Ibadurrahman menggunakannya langsung uang wakaf sesuai dalam  membangun, mengelola dan memproduktifkan infrastruktur sebagai aset wakaf. Sedangkan program  wakaf uang tunai  lainnya diproduktifkan sebagai aset wakaf yang menghasilkan nilai surplus wakaf seperti usaha perkebunan karet, perkebunan sawit dan permodalan bisnis (Koperasi, tiketing dan Warung Maqdis. LNW Ibadurrahman menggunakan nilai surplus wakaf yang ada dalam pemberdayaan aset-aset wakaf dan kesejahteraan ummat

  12. Implementasi Sistem Perparkiran Otomatis dengan Menentukan Posisi Parkir Berbasis RFId

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    FREEON ALKAPON IMBIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Apartemen merupakan salah satu tempat tinggal yang ideal di kota metropolitan yang menyediakan banyak fasilitas bagi penghuninya. Salah satu fasilitas tersebut adalah tersedianya area parkir yang memadai dan nyaman bagi penghuni yang memiliki kendaraan, pada kenyataannya saat ini sistem perparkiran yang digunakan masih bermasalah. Masalah yang ditimbulkan dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai lahan parkir yang kosong serta penempatan kendaraan yang tidak sesuai sehingga sering kali pemilik kendaraan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk sekedar menemukan tempat parkir yang kosong. Berdasarkan hal itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir yang memudahkan pengendara kendaraan yang hendak parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir menggunakan Teknologi RFId. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa C#. Pada sistem ini proses pengambilan data secara kontinyu menggunakan mikrokontroler Atmega16 sebagai komponen kendali utamanya. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Sistem pengambilan data secara kontinyu menggunakan kartu RFId sistem ini dapat menggantikan operator. Sensor cahaya (LED dan LDR akan berlogika 1 jika ada mobil yang lewat. Kata kunci: Parkir, RFId, LED, LDR, Mikrokontroler, Atmega16, Microsoft Acess, C#. ABSTRACT Apartment is an ideal place of living in a big city ,it provides a lot of facilities .One of apartment facilities is a parking lot that are adequate and comfortable for its occupants who have vehicles . Problems caused in the parking system is the lack of information regarding the parking lot is empty and the placement of the vehicle that is not in accordance with the wishes so that often the owner of the

  13. PEMBUATAN APLIKASI SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN UNTUK PROSES KENAIKAN JABATAN DAN PERENCANAAN KARIR PADA PT. X

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    Andreas Handojo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling empty position on company often become complicated process because the candidate who can be placed in that position by matching between employee-profile and position-profile sometimes not well define. To minimize that problem, there should be a method such as decision support system which can analize employees who suitable with the available position. This decision support system for profile matching process and gap analization is made based on company's data and rules which locate on PT.X. Profile Matching process is taken to recommend employees in Positioning and Carrier Planning based on three stages, which are Intelectual Capacity, Working Area and Attitude. The result of this process is represented ini rank of employees as recommendation for decision maker in deciding which employee is suitable for the position.This Software is using Microsoft Access 2000 for database and Borland Delphi 5.0 as compiller. Form the result of this implementation system can be seen that this software can be very helpfull on decision support to profile matching in positioning and career planning on PT. X. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengisian jabatan yang kosong pada proses kenaikan jabatan sering mengalami kesulitan karena pengajuan calon kandidat yang bisa menempati jabatan tersebut dengan cara pencocokan profil karyawan dan profil jabatan kurang terdefinisi dengan baik. Untuk meminimumkan kendala tersebut diperlukan suatu sistem pendukung keputusan yang dapat menganalisa beberapa karyawan yang sesuai dengan profil jabatan yang ada. Sistem pendukung keputusan untuk proses profile matching dan analisis gap ini dibuat berdasarkan data dan norma-norma SDM yang terdapat di PT. X. Proses Profile Matching dilakukan untuk menentukan rekomendasi karyawan dalam Sistem Kenaikan Jabatan dan Perencanaan Karir berdasar pada 3 aspek yaitu Kapasitas Intelektual, Sikap Kerja dan Perilaku. Hasil dari proses ini berupa ranking karyawan sebagai rekomendasi bagi

  14. PERBANDINGAN DESAIN IPAL ANAEROBIC BIOFILTER DENGAN ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR UNTUK LIMBAH CAIR TEKSTIL DI SURABAYA

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    Yogie Restu Firmansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluen Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL di Pabrik Tekstil X belum memenuhi kriteria yang ada, terutama untuk masalah warna. Sistem pengolahan IPAL menggunakan Anaerobic Biofilter memiliki kelebihan menyisihkan bahan organik yang tinggi, kebutuhan lahan yang relatif tidak besar, dan biaya operasi yang murah dibandingkan dengan sistem lumpur aktif yang menggunakan proses aerasi. Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC juga memiliki kelebihan yang sama dengan anaerobic biofilter. Perbandingan antara kedua sistem tersebut diperlukan untuk mengetahui sistem yang paling efektif untuk mengolah air limbah di Pabrik Textil X. Pengolahan adsorbsi batok arang kelapa dipilih untuk menghilangkan warna. Perencanaan ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode yang sistematis dimulai pengumpulan data primer dan sekunder yang berupa data karakteristik dan debit air limbah, lalu dilakukan perhitungan dan penggambaran Detail Engineering Desan (DED, volume pekerjaan dan Rancangan Anggaran Biaya (RAB, setelah itu dilakukan pembahasan untuk membandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari unit anaerobic Biofilter yang dilengkapi adsorbsi arang batok kelapa dan Rotating Biological Contactor yang dilengkapi adsorbsi arang batok kelapa, lalu diambil kesimpulan dan saran yang relevan dengan tujuan dari perancanaan ini. Dari perhitungan DED didapat dimensi untuk masing masing unit IPAL sebagai berikut Bak ekualisasi (2,6 m x 2,6 m x 2 m, Septic tank (1,75 m x 1,5m x 2,5m, Anaerobic Filter 4 kompartemen (4,5m x 2,5m x 2,5m, , RBC 2 shaft  (2,75m x 2,75 m x 1m, Adsorbsi (3,5 mx 6,75m x 0,55m. Biaya investasi alternative 1 sebesar Rp   700.193.694,29, biaya operasi sebesar Rp 50.222.462,40, biaya perawatan sebesar Rp 3.495.000,00. Alternatif 2 biaya investasi sebesar Rp 777.526.655,53, biaya operasi sebesar Rp Rp 53.012.599,20  , biaya perawatan sebesar Rp 3.495.000,00. Kelebihan anaerobic filter adalah biaya investasi yang lebih kecil, kebutuhan lahan yang lebih sedikit yaitu

  15. EFEKTIVITAS LIMBAH RAMBUT DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR MINYAK OLI PADA AIR LIMBAH BENGKEL

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    Zainal Akhmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Effectiveness Of Hair Waste In Reducing Waste Oil Level In Waste Water Of Service Station. Waste service stations classified as B3 waste because they contain hazardous materials that may damage or pollute the environment or endanger human health.  The purpose is to determine the efficient design of wastewater treatment with the combination of hair waste as media capture and coconut shell charcoal as filtration media in reducing total oil in wastewater. This study is quasi-experimental. The independent variables include combinations of hair waste as media capture and coconut shell charcoal as filtration media with a thickness of 40 cm and 80 cm, while the dependent variable is the oil content in the wastewater. The location of research is motor vehicle repair shop Tire MTL jl. Wahid Hasyim, office Surya Pratama numbers 4-5 Pontianak. The content of the oil content of wastewater motor vehicle repair shop before treatment by an average of 26.466 mg / l and 4.283 mg / l of after treatment. From the results of these measurements that effectively amounted to 83.6%. Waste Water Treatment with a combination of hair waste and coconut shell charcoal as an effective filtration media for reduced total oil in wastewater for the motor vehicle repair shop. Abstrak: Efektivitas Limbah Rambut Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Minyak Oli Pada Air Limbah Bengkel. Limbah bengkel digolongkan sebagai limbah B3 karena mengandung bahan berbahaya yang dapat merusak atau mencemari lingkungan atau membahayakan kesehatan manusia. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan desain efektivitas pengolahan air limbah dengan kombinasi limbah rambut capture media dan arang tempurung kelapa sebagai media filtrasi dalam mengurangi minyak total dalam air limbah. Penelitian ini merupakan kuasi-eksperimental. Variabel bebas mencakup kombinasi dari limbah rambut capture media dan arang tempurung kelapa sebagai media filtrasi dengan ketebalan 40 cm dan 80 cm, sedangkan variabel dependen adalah

  16. Get A&Wdicted! di Restoran Khas Amerika: Pengaruh Cognitive Learning dan Message Reception and Processing Terhadap Perubahan Sikap Konsumen

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    Elsye Rumondang Damanik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Article clarified a research on cognitive response effect on cognition, attitude, and purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cognitive learning and a set of message processing system to persuade consumers. Researcher obtained the data and information from literature study, media, and direct observation to A & W Restaurants located at Rawamangun, Kelapa Gading Mall, and Bina Nusantara University. The result shows that human thinking process relates to ego involvement which includes culture and living habit is influential to the way people process the message. Finally, it is concluded that it is important to understand how consumers do message processing in order to make marketers able to determine the right marketing strategy to influence their consumers’ attitudes. 

  17. Identifikasi Sistim Peternakan di Manokwari, Papua Barat-Indonesia

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    D. A. Iyai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan peternakan yang moderen membutuhkan kejelasan dan ketegasan batasan, corak dan dinamika produksinya. Penelitian eksploratif dengan metode survei melalui pendekatan Participative Rural Appraisal selama satu bulan dilakukan untuk mencatat sumberdaya yang dimiliki oleh para peternak berdasarkan kawasan agro-ekologi di Manokwari, yang meliputi Manokwari Utara, Manokwari Selatan, Warmare, Prafi, Masni, Oransbari, Ransiki, Anggi dan Minyambouw. Karakteristik agroekologi dibuat dengan software Microsoft Office VISIO. Matriks sederhana digunakan untuk pengelompokan kriteria komoditi ternak, komoditi pertanian, dan komoditi perikanan dan indikator BioFisik. Sistim peternakan terpadu yang dapat diidentifikasi pada wilayah agroekologi pesisir adalah sistim peternakan sapi berbasis tanaman kelapa (cocobeef dan tanaman pertanian (crops livestock farming system serta backyard poultry farming system. Pada daerah dataran rendah sistim yang dikembangkan adalah cattle-palm farming system, pig palm farming system, goat faming system, poultry farming system dan Crops livestock farming system. Pada kawasan Agroekologi Dataran Tinggi, Crop Pig Farming System, Poultry Farming System dan Backyard Cattle farming system sudah dikembangkan.

  18. Rancang Bandun Game Edukasi Dagang Jajanan Bali Berbasis Android

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    Anak Agung Putu Mahendra Putra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Game bukan merupakan hal yang baru di Masyarakat Indonesia. Game yang berisi unsur edukasi sangat jarang ditemukan, apalagi game yang bisa memupuk rasa cinta terhadap kebudayaan Indonesia kepada para pemainnya. Jajanan Bali biasanya dibuat untuk keperluan hari raya agama hindu di Bali atau sebagai makanan ringan Masyarakat Bali. Game Edukasi Dagang Jajanan Bali dibuat untuk memberikan edukasi tentang resep-resep Jajanan Bali dimana memperkenalkan bahan-bahan umum seperti tepung, gula, kelapa, dan berbagai macam bahan lainnya tergantung dari jenis jajanan apa yang dibuat. Metode pembelajaran dengan menggunakan game merupakan salah satu inovasi dalam pengenalan jenis-jenis Jajanan Bali dan bahan-bahan umum yang dipakai dalam pembuatan Jajanan Bali. Game ini dibuat berbasis Android dengan menggunakan Corona SDK. Hasil dari kuesioner menyatakan 50% mendapat pengetahuan tentang Jajanan Bali yang terdapat dalam Game. Kata kunci: Android, Jajanan Bali, Game Edukasi

  19. Rekayasa Alat Penghasil Asap Cair untuk Produksi Ikan Asap 1. Uji Coba Alat Penghasil Asap Cair Skala Laboratorium

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    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2006-04-01

    penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu pembakaran 200-250o C, tempurung kelapa dengan kadar air 11,40% menghasilkan asap cair sebanyak 48,10%, sisa pembakaran berupa arang sebanyak 31,33%, jumlah komponen yang hilang sebanyak 20,56% dengan kinerja alat sebesar 250,52 g/jam.m kondensor. Komponen terbanyak asap cair yang dihasilkan adalah senyawa 9-octadecenoic acid (Z-, tetradecyl ester (C32H62O2 sebanyak 71,68%. Pada suhu pembakaran 300–450oC asap cair yang dihasilkan sebanyak 48,66%, sisa pembakaran berupa arangsebanyak 26,30%, komponen asap yang hilang sebanyak 25,04% dengan kinerja alat 253,44 g/jam.m kondensor. Pada suhu tersebut komponen terbanyak asap cair adalah senyawa 2-lauro-1,3-didecoinyaitu 37,53%.

  20. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN PASAR OTAK-OTAK BANDENG DI KABUPATEN GRESIK

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    Nofiyati Nofiyati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik konsumen otak-otak bandeng di Gresik, (2 menganalisis atribut-atribut yang mempengaruhi pembelian otak-otak bandeng di Gresik. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Toko Muzanah dan Sari Kelapa. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode diskriptif dan analisis konjoin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumen otak-otak bandeng berusia antara 25-35 tahun, rata-rata pendidikan terakhir sarjana dan bekerja sebagai karyawan swasta dengan gaji rata-rata lebih dari Rp. 2.500.000dan memiliki tanggungan keluarga antara 1-5 orang. Berdasarkan hasil analisis konjoin diketahui bahwa konsumen otak-otak bandeng lebih menyukai bahan kemasan kardus, desain kemasan bergambar bandeng, rasa pedas, harga Rp. 45.000 dan ukuran berat 400 gr.MARKETING STRATEGY OF OTAK-OTAK BANDENG IN GRESIKABSTRACTThe aims of this study are (1 to know the characteristics of the consumers who buy otak-otak bandeng in Gresik, (2 to analyze what kinds of attributes that become the consumers’ choice on otak-otak bandeng in Gresik. This study is conducted in Muzanah Store and Sari Kelapa. This study uses descriptive analysis and conjoint analysis. The results of this study show that the consumers who buy otak-otak bandeng are consumers in the age of 25-35 years old with college as their last education that work as private sector employees with salary > Rp 2,500,000 and have a number of family members of 1-5 people. The results of conjoint analysis show that the consumers prefer cardboard packaging material, milkfish image packaging design, dominant blue color packaging, spicy flavor, price of Rp 45,000, and size of 400 gr.

  1. Analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada Lahan Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya

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    Akmaluddin Akmaluddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laju pertumbuhan penduduk dan tingkat perekonomian yang semakin meningkat di  kota-kota besar seperti Surabaya, bertolak belakang dengan  ketersediaan lahan yang terbatas. Selayaknya properti yang akan dibangun di atas suatu lahan dapat memberikan manfaat yang maksimal serta efisien agar hasilnya dapat dirasakan demi pembangunan wilayah tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perhitungan  penggunaan yang paling memungkinkan dan diizinkan dari suatu tanah kosong atau tanah yang  sudah dibangun, dimana secara fisik dimungkinkan, didukung atau dibenarkan oleh peraturan, layak secara keuangan dan menghasilkan nilai tertinggi. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada lahan di Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya seluas 1.150 m2 yang direncanakan akan dibangun hotel. Lahan tersebut berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial seperti hotel, apartemen, perkantoran dan pertokoan. Analisis tersebut menggunakan tinjauan terhadap aspek fisik, legal, finansial dan produktivitas maksimumnya. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif properti komersial hotel yang memiliki penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik pada pemanfaatan lahan dengan nilai lahan Rp. 67.069.980,31/ m2.

  2. Metode Face Recognition untuk Identifikasi Personil Berdasar Citra Wajah bagi Kebutuhan Presensi Online Universitas Negeri Semarang

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    Luthfi Maslichul Kurniawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hasil evaluasi dari Sistem Presensi Online Pegawai Universitas Negeri Semarang adalah adanya proses-proses curang di dalam sistem presensi dengan menitipkan presensi atau melakukan foto presensi kosong. Sistem Presensi Online Pegawai yang dikembangkan dengan bahasa pemrograman PHP, basis data MySQL dan pustaka JavaScript JPEGCam itu tidak cukup mampu memberikan gambaran tentang kedisiplinan dari pegawai di lingkungan Universitas Negeri Semarang. Untuk itulah, perlu dibangun sebuah sistem yang mampu mengolah data-data foto yang ditangkap dari proses presensi online tersebut untuk dianalisis apakah ada wajah manusia yang terdeteksi. Maka, dikembangkanlah sebuah sistem face recognition yang dirancangbangun menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Python dan pustaka OpenCV. Hasil dari rancang bangun ini adalah sistem face recognition yang mampu berjalan secara otomatis di komputer server untuk membaca basis data presensi, mengolah foto-foto yang tersimpan pada basis data tersebut, mendeteksi wajah pada foto-foto yang diolah kemudian menampilkan hasilnya pada tabel basis data presensi untuk diolah dalam bentuk skor deteksi wajah yang tampil di rekapitulasi presensi online pegawai. 

  3. Model Perkembangan Perumahan di Wilayah Peri Urban Kota Surabaya (Studi Kasus : Kabupaten Sidoarjo

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    I Dewa Made Frendika Septanaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini perkembangan wilayah peri urban di berbagai kawasan metropolitan menunjukkan adanya pertambahan luas permukiman dalam jumlah banyak (real estate atau yang biasa di kategorikan sebagai proses formatif yang bersifat invasif. Kecenderungan beberapa wilayah peri urban yang menunjukkan pesatnya pertumbuhan perumahan ternyata tidak sepenuhnya terjadi di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Fenomena  penurunan pengadaan perumahan yang terjadi pada periode  2006 – 2010 menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan antara rendahnya pengadaan (supply rumah dengan kebutuhan (demand atas perumahan yang semakin meningkat. Hasil akhir penelitian ini  menunjukkan bahwa faktor geografis (spasial dalam pemodelan GWR yang menyebabkan penuruan jumlah pengadaan perumahan di masing-masing kecamatan berbeda-beda, namun secara holistik disebabkan oleh pengaruh harga lahan, keterbatasan ketersediaan lahan kosong untuk peruntukan perumahan dan jarak dari lumpur Lapindo Kecamatan Porong. Sedangkan faktor aspasial yang mempengaruhi adalah stabilitas kondisi ekonomi, besarnya biaya taktis (transaction cost dan biaya dampak pembangunan (development impact fees, kendala perizinan serta aturan atau regulasi untuk pembebasan lahan yang tidak mengikat.

  4. PENGEBLUR DAUN INDIGO PENGHASIL PASTA PEWARNA ALAMI BAGI UKM PENGRAJIN BATIK DI KECAMATAN GUNUNG PATI SEMARANG

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    Sri Rahayuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pewarna alami dari daun indigo yang berupa pasta sangat mudah dalam pemrosesannya, sangat menjanjikan apabila dijadikan suatu usaha karena pengusaha batik saat ini sudah tersebar diseluruh propinsi, sehingga kedepannya batik bisa menjadi komoditi eksport dengan pemanfaatan pewarna alamiah ini. Pewarna alami dari pasta daun indigo sangat ramah lingkungan, limbah yang dihasilkan bisa menyuburkan tanaman, selain itu pola penanaman yang sangat mudah. Pasta Indigo pada proses pembuatannya berbiaya rendah, sehingga sangat menguntungkan. Hal ini bisa mensejahterakan penduduk pedesaan dengan memanfaatkan sumberdaya pedesaan dengan budidaya tanaman indigo dengan pemanfaatan lahan-lahan kosong dimana masa petiknya adalah 3 bulan dan setelah 3 tahun tanaman diganti yang baru. Metode kegiatan yang dilaksanakan adalah pelatihan dan bimbingan implementasi IPTEK sederhana melalui pengenalan sistem produksi tepat guna. Hasil yang dicapai adalah mesin pengeblur dan mesin perajang daun khusus berbahan stenlis, sehingga umur ekonomisnya panjang, alat bisa diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga hasil pemotongan daun indigo dengan mesin perajang bisa terpotong sempurna karena kalau dilakukan perendaman bisa maksimal, demikian juga mesin pengeblur sangat efektif karena tidak melakukan secara manual pada proses pengebluran. Pasta Indigo diharapkan mampu meningkatkan peran industri mikro dalam pembangunan daerah, penciptaan lapangan kerja, peningkatan pendapatan bagi Pengrajin batik, maupun yang berkeinginan menekuni usaha penghasil pasta dengan menggandeng para pengrajin batik.

  5. KAJIAN STRATEGI PROMOSI KESEHATAN SANITASI TOTAL BERBASIS MASYARAKAT (STBM DI KELURAHAN TIRTO KECAMATAN PEKALONGAN BARAT KOTA PEKALONGAN

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    Yulis Indriyani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM merupakan pendekatan untuk mengubah perilaku higienis dan saniter melalui pemberdayaan masyarakat dengan cara pemicuan. Fenomena yang terjadi di Kelurahan Tirto masih terdapat perilaku BABS sebanyak 84 KK, perilaku buang sampah secara sembarangan (di lahan kosong dan sungai, dan mengalirkan limbah cair rumah tangga (limbah deterjen dan air bekas mandi ke sungai. Tujuan penelitian: Mengkaji secara mendalam strategi promosi kesehatan (advokasi, bina suasana, dan pemberdayaan masyarakat STBM di Kelurahan Tirto Kecamatan Pekalongan Barat Kota Pekalongan. Rancangan penelitian ini menggunakan metode studi kasus dengan desain eksploratoris kualitatif. Hasil penelitian: Pencapaian lima pilar  STBM di Kelurahan Tirto belum maksimal yaitu pada pilar stop BABS dan pilar pengelolaan limbah cair rumah tangga secara aman. Terdapat beberapa hambatan yang mempengaruhi hasil capaian tersebut diantaranya konsistensi komitmen yang tegas belum diterapkan bagi pelaku yang mengalirkan pembuangan feses ke sungai, belum adanya pelatihan teknis STBM bagi tokoh masyarakat, metode CLTS bersifat terbatas di satu RW, dan masyarakat Kelurahan Tirto belum mengoptimalkan swadaya atau iuran secara kolektif untuk menyediakan penambahan sarana sanitasi berupa septic tank dan bak penampungan. Saran: Pertama, penerapan punishment dari Kelurahan Tirto untuk mencapai Kelurahan ODF bagi pelaku yang mengalirkan pembuangan feses ke sungai. Kedua, pertemuan untuk menjalin koordinasi antara Pemerintah Kota Pekalongan dan Pemerintah Kabupaten Pekalongan untuk bersama mengelola limbah cair rumah tangga secara aman. Ketiga,  pelatihan teknis STBM bagi tokoh masyarakat untuk mencapai perilaku buang air besar secara sehat di Kelurahan Tirto. Keempat, penambahan bak penampungan limbah cair rumah tangga melalui swadaya masyarakat.

  6. SEKULARISASI DALAM PANDANGAN HARVEY COX

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    Fauzan Fauzan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar kaum agamawan (ortodoks memandang sekularisasi sebagai ancaman terhadap eksistensi agama. Namun sebaliknya, Harvey Cox memandang sekularisasi sebagai teologi perubahan sosial yang bertujuan mendobrak kebuntuan agama yang terbelenggu oleh ide “pemeliharaan” dan “kemapanan”. Tulisan ini membahas pandangan Harvey Cox tentang sekularisasi, konsepnya tentang Kota Sekuler (Secular City, dan Tuhan pada masyarakat sekuler. Cox melihat sekularisasi merupakan sebuah keniscayaan sejarah. Sekularisasi merupakan gerakan yang membebaskan manusia dari dogma yang membelenggu kebebasan manusia. Melalui simbol Kota Sekuler, Cox menghadirkan paradigma teologi yang lebih sesuai dengan keadaan masyarakat modern saat ini. Cox melihat bahwa Tuhan sebagaimana yang diajarkan oleh Kristiani –juga agama lain– bukanlah Tuhan yang sebenarnya. Tuhan tak lebih dari sebuah penamaan yang kehadirannya terkadang kosong dan ambigu. Semenjak penamaan dilekatkan dalam lingkungan sosio kultural tertentu, maka kata “Tuhan” tidak suci lagi. Apabila Tuhan dimaknai secara “ketat” dalam ruang tradisi yang berbeda-beda, maka akan terjadi benturan yang terkadang membutuhkan pengorbanan jiwa.

  7. REPRESENTASI PEREMPUAN PADA LUKISAN DI BAK TRUK

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    Obed Bima Wicandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The backs of dump trucks have transformed to not only as a transportation mechanism, but also as visual communication media. This phenomena goes along with the many advertisements that utilizes this kind of medium in promoting certain products. But the backs of dump trucks become a promotional medium because of the already many paintings painted on them, which they are originally plain on the right, left, and the back sides. Women become figures that many portray as their painted subjects. This article focuses more on the painting phenomena that uses the female figures through a gender study, to see whether woman representations in the paintings of the backs of trucks are signified as having imbalanced gender relations. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Bak truk telah menjelma tidak saja menjadi alat transportasi namun juga media komunikasi visual seiring dengan semakin banyaknya iklan yang memanfaatkan media ini dalam mempromosikan suatu produk. Namun perjalanan bak truk menjadi media promosi diawali oleh bertebarannya lukisan yang memanfaatkan bak truk yang semula kosong di sisi kanan, kiri maupun belakang truk. Perempuan menjadi figur yang banyak dipakai sebagai objek lukis. Tulisan ini lebih menyoroti fenomena lukisan yang banyak mengambil figur perempuan dalam kajian gender, untuk melihat apakah representasi perempuan dalam lukisan di bak truk tersebut dimaknai sebagai adanya ketimpangan dalam relasi gender. Kata kunci: representasi, perempuan, bak truk, lukisan, relasi gender.

  8. PENGUKURAN SIFAT POLARISASI BERBAGAI MINYAK NABATI MENGGUNAKAN LAMPU IR DAN LASER HE-NE

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    U Kaltsum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji sifat polarisasi berbagai minyak nabati (minyak sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak zaitun, VCO, minyak curah, dan jelantah dengan variasi keadaan baru dan kadaluwarsa, menggunakan lampu IR dan laser He-Ne. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menempatkan minyak nabati diantara polarisator dan analisator. Hasil penelitian pada kedua sumber cahaya menunjukkan pola yang hampir sama. Minyak zaitun dan VCO memiliki perubahan sudut polarisasi alami kecil, sedangkan minyak sawit, kedelai, jelantah, dan curah memiliki perubahan sudut polarisasi alami besar. Besarnya perubahan sudut polarisasi minyak kadaluwarsa lebih besar dibanding minyak baru. Perubahan sudut polarisasi sebanding dengan jumlah radikal bebas (ALB, peroksida dan molekul asimetri (asam lemak jenuh, molekul rantai panjang. Meskipun pola yang dihasilkan oleh kedua sumber cahaya sama, namun lampu IR memberikan nilai perubahan sudut polarisasi yang lebih tinggi dari laser He-Ne. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena daya lampu IR lebih besar dari He-Ne, sehingga energi yang dihasilkan lampu IR lebih tinggi dan perubahan sudut polarisasinya lebih besar. This research based on previous research that using IR lamp (250 watt and He-Ne laser (1 mW on a mixture of palm oil and animal oil. Both of light source were used again to measure polarization properties of various vegetable oils (palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, VCO, rainfall oil and used cooking oil with a variety of new and expired. The tools used were a set polarization, IR lamp, He-Ne laser, and power supply. The experiment was done by placing vegetable oil between the polarizer and analyzers. The result showed both of light sources had similar pattern; polarization changes of olive oil and the VCO were small, while polarization changes of palm oil, soybean oil, used cooking oil, and rainfall were high. Polarization change of expired oil was higher than new oil. The value of polarization change was proportional to free

  9. Aplikasi Berbagai Bahan ZPT Alami untuk Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan Bibit Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco Airy Shaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Kurniati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kemiri Sunan  merupakan tanaman alternatif penyediaan bahan bakar nabati dan bahan baku berbagai produk industri. Kulit benih kemiri yang keras menjadi penghalang dalam perkecambahan. Kondisi ini dapat diperbaiki dengan pemberian zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT eksogen alami seperti umbi bawang merah sumber auksin, rebung bambu sumber giberelin, bonggol pisang dan air kelapa sebagai sumber sitokinin. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui kemampuan berbagai bahan ZPT alami atau kombinasinya untuk menstimulasi perkecambahan dan pertumbuhan bibit kemiri sunan asal biji. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juni sampai Oktober 2016, rancangan percobaan yaitu Rancangan Acak Kelompok yang diulang tiga kali, dengan perlakuan: a0 : kontrol (tanpa ZPT; a1 : ekstrak umbi bawang merah (BM; a2 : ekstrak rebung bambu (RB; a3: ekstrak bonggol pisang (BP;   a4 : air kelapa (AK; a5: BM + RB; a6 : BM + BP;  a7 : BM + AK; a8 : RB+ BP; a9 : RB+ AK;  a10  : BP+ AK; a11  : BM + RB + BP + AK. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap daya kecambah, tinggi bibit umur 30 hari setelah tanam (HST, 37 HST, 44 HST, dan 51 HST, juga jumlah daun pada 51 HST. Aplikasi zpt BP + AK menghasilkan daya kecambah paling baik (97,78 %, namun tidak berbeda dengan aplikasi RB + BP; BM+ RB+ BP+ AK; BM + AK. Aplikasi zpt asal BP + AK menghasilkan tinggi bibit tertinggi (13,57 cm. Jumlah daun terbanyak dihasilkan pada aplikasi BP + AK (1,45 helai. Secara umum zpt bonggol pisang + air kelapa memberikan hasil paling baik, namun umbi bawang merah maupun rebung bambu mempunyai harapan untuk dikembangkan. Candlenut cv. Sunan is alternative biofuels plant also as raw of many industrial products. Its hard pulp seed becomes barrier of germination. This condition can be overcome by  giving natural plant growth regulators (PGRs, i,e shallot as auxin source, bamboo shoot as gibberellin source, banana bulb and coconut water as sources of cytokinin. The research aim was knowing effect of

  10. Tekanan Metarhizium anisopliae dan Feromon terhadap Populasi dan Tingkat Kerusakan oleh Oryctes rhinoceros

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    Wtjaksono Witjaksono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the most serious pests in coconut palm tree. Biological control for controlling the pest is done by applying fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae on its breeding sites to infect the larvae. Recent development for controlling Oryctes beetle was including the use of pheromone trap baited with ethyl-4-methyl octanoic which attract both male and female of the Oryctes beetle. This research was aimed to determine the effect of combination of both entomopathogen and pheromone application on the population dynamics of rhinoceros beetle, and the intensity of leaf damage on coconut tree. For this purpose, a research was conducted in local farmer coconut tree in the Bojong Village, Panjatan District, Kulon Progo from June 2009−January 2010. Observation including leaf damage intensity before and after application, the number of adult beetle trapped by pheromone, and the number infected larvae in the breeding site. The result showed that there were significant differences among all treatments in term of intensity of leaf damage, the number of trapped adult beetle, and the number of larvae at the breeding site. Leaf damage on control, pheromone application, and combined treatment were: 4.73%; 1.08% and 0.65%. The number of trapped Rhinoceros beetle by ferotrap was 101; in combined treatment was 52. The number of M. anisopliae infected grub were 265 out of 281 total observed grub.   INTISARI Kerusakan tanaman kelapa akibat serangan Oryctes rhinoceros terjadi mulai pada tanaman muda. Mengingat besarnya kerugian yang ditimbulkan, maka perlu diupayakan cara pengendalian yang efisien, efektif dan aman bagi sumber daya alam dan lingkungan. Salah satu cara pengendalian secara hayati adalah dengan menggunakan cendawan patogenik Metarhizium anisopliae. Selain menggunakan cendawan, upaya terkini dalam mengendalikan kumbang badak adalah dengan menggunakan perangkap berferomon. Feromon dengan bahan aktif Etil-4-metil oktanoat dapat

  11. KUAT MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET PADA PERALATAN RUMAH TANGGA DAN KANTOR

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    Athena Athena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electric and magnetic fields strength of electronic household appliances and office equipments were conducted in Jakarta (Duren Sawit and Paseban sub-districts. Samples of home appliances include television, radio, electric bulb, refrigerator, microwave oven, iron, washing machine, heating jar, AC, and fan. The only samples of office equipment are computers. In addition to home appliances and office equipment, electric and magnetic fields strength were also measured in living rooms, and in office working rooms. The instrument used for the electric and magnetic fields strength measurement is Holaday portable field strength meters model HI 3604. Among all the household samples, television (310 V/m in 100 cm from the source, and iron (1680 V/m in 3 cm from the source exposed the highest electric field. While the highest magnetic field exposure is from microwave oven (8,25 µT in 3 cm from the source; 4,45 µT in 30 cm from the source; 0,72 µT in 100 cm from the source. The highest electric field exposure of the living room was detected in Paseban district (44,6 V/m and the higest magnetic field exposure was detected in the working rooms (0,073 µT.In this study the electric and magnetic fields exposures measured from various home appliances, office equipments, and office working rooms were still under the value of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAZWorld Health Organization (WHO recommendation in 1990.

  12. Rapid determination of silver in cultivated Japanese and South Korean oysters and Japanese rock oysters using the 24.6-s neutron activation product 110Ag and estimation of its average daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues of cultivated Japanese (Miyagi Prefecture) and South Korean (Koje-do and Kosong) oysters and Japanese rock oysters (Honshu Island) were analyzed to measure silver levels. The soft tissues, namely hepatopancreas, gill, muscle, and mantle were separated, freeze-dried, pulverized, and analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation analysis method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (INAA-CSS). The method consisted of the irradiation of samples in a neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 using the rapid transfer system in an inner pneumatic irradiation site of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility for 12-15 s, decay for 20 s, and counting for 60 s. The 657.8-keV gamma-ray of the 24.6-s nuclide 110 Ag was used for assaying silver. The method was validated using NIST, NRC and NIES certified reference materials. An absolute detection limit of 0.05 μg silver using NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was achieved. About 10-50 times higher levels of silver were found in cultivated Japanese oysters compared to the South Korean ones. The silver concentrations in cultivated oysters in Miyagi Prefecture showed the following trend: gill > mantle > hepatopancreas > muscle as well as on the age. Rock oysters generally had higher silver content compared to cultivated oysters. A very preliminary value of about 0.466 μg silver average intake per person per day was estimated from the consumption of oysters by the people living in the Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  13. EFISIENSI CONSTRUCTION WETLAND TYPHA SP. SEBAGAI PENGOLAH AIR LIMPASAN JALAN RAYA SECARA ALAMI

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    Rudatin Windraswara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bersifat desain eksperimental pada skala laboratorium untuk mengetahui kemampuan Typha latifolia. sebagai tanaman wetland dalam mereduksi BOD dan COD yang berasal polutan air limpasan jalan raya sebagai bagian dari sistem drainase yang berkelanjutan. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah air limpasan jalan yang berasal dari air hujan yang kemudian masuk ke saluran pengumpul (drainase jalan. Habitat wetland disimulasikan menggunakan kolom dengan tabung yang memiliki volume kosong 20 liter. Susunan tabung adalah sebagai berikut; tanaman wetland, air, pasir dan batu kerikil. Satu tabung lagi akan berlaku sebagai kontrol dengan susunan yang sama tanpa tanaman wetland. Desain tabung memiliki spesifikasi sebagai berikut bahan acrylic dengan ukuran diameter 9,7 cm, tinggi 40 cm, volume 20 liter, media pasir setinggi 10 cm, kerikil 15 cm, kemudian diisi air setinggi 15 cm dari batas kerikil. Nilai BOD dari sampel kontrol setelah hari ke-3 menjadi 87 mg/l dari nilai semula 104 mg/l sedangkan nilai BOD dari sampel uji setelah hari ke-3 menjadi 44 mg/l dari nilai semula 104 mg/l. Hasil ini menunjukkan tanaman tersebut mampu menghilangkan nilai BOD sebesar 65% atau BOD removal sebesar 65%. Nilai COD dari sampel kontrol setelah hari ke-3 menjadi 309 mg/l dari nilai semula 210 mg/l sedangkan nilai COD dari sampel uji setelah hari ke-3 menjadi 87 mg/l dari nilai semula 210 mg/l. Hasil ini menunjukkan tanaman Typha latifolia mampu menghilangkan nilai COD sebesar 58,6% atau COD removal sebesar 58,6%. Kedua parameter tersebut telah sesuai dengan baku mutu Kepmen LH no 112 tahun 2003 dan Kepmen LH no 51 tahun 1999.

  14. ANALISIS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU PERUMAHAN NASIONAL DI KOTA MEDAN

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    Wahyu Fahreza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui untuk mengetahui : (1 Kondisi ruang terbuka hijau publik pada perumahan nasional (perumnas Kota Medan ditinjau dari luasan, vegetasi, jenis dan perawatan. (2 Aktifitas yang dimanfaatkan pada ruang terbuka hijau publik perumahan nasional (perumnas. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kota Medan tahun 2015. Populasi dalam penelitian ini yaitu Perumahan Nasional Martubung, dan Perumahan Nasional Helvetia karna kedua Perumahan nasional ini berada di Kota Medan. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah semua populasi (Total sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik observasi, studi dokumenter dan wawancara. Data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian, menunjukan bahwa (1 kondisi RTH publik pada kedua perumahan nasional ini ditinjau dari luasan, jenis, vegetasi dan perawatan. Untuk luasan RTH, kedua perumahan nasional ini belum optimal dan belum memenuhi syarat yang ditentukan Kementrian PU yang mensyratkan 20% dari luas kawasan. Jenis RTH pada perumahan nasional ini yaitu taman, lapangan sepak bola, lapangan olahraga, bantaran danau, dan lahan kosong terbengkalai. Untuk vegetasi pada RTH, masih terlalu sedikit sehingga mengurangi nilai keindahan dan keteduhan pada RTH kedua perumahan nasional ini, hal itu terlihat dari tanaman-tanaman yang layu, kering dan gersang. Perawatan RTH yang dilakukan kurang maksimal hal itu terlihat dari rumput yang tidak teratur dan lebat, ranting pohon yang berjatuhan serta fasilitas didalam RTH yang rusak. (2 Aktifitas yang dimanfaatkan pada ruang terbuka hijau publik perumahan nasional (perumnas. Ada beberapa RTH yang tidak dilakukan pemanfaatan aktifitas didalamnya. Jenis aktifitas yang ada pada kedua perumahan nasional ini hampir sama, yaitu bermain bola, bermain bulu tangkis, bermain futsal, bermain voli, berolahraga seperti jogging dan senam, bermain anak-anak, bersosialisasi, berjualan dan acara-acara tahunan. Kata Kunci: RTH, perumnas

  15. PEMODELAN KONDUKTIVITAS ION DALAM STRUKTUR Li2Sc3(PO43 (Modeling Ionic Conductivity in Li2Sc3(PO43 Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram La Kilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Fasa Li2Sc3(PO43 merupakan material konduktor superionik yang dapat diaplikasikan sebagai baterai yang dapat diisi ulang (rechargeable. Ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dapat mengalami migrasi dari posisi terisi ke posisi kosong. Penelitian ini telah memodelkan migrasi ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dengan menggunakan metode bond valence sum (BVS. Metode ini dapat memprediksi bilangan oksidasi suatu atom berdasarkan jarak dengan atom-atom tetangga. Source code berbasis BVS yang digunakan adalah JUMPITER yang mensimulasi efek gaya listrik eksternal yang bertindak pada ion litium sehingga nilai BVS litium dapat dipetakan terhadap jarak. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa konduksi ion Li+ dapat terjadi pada arah [010], [101], dan [120]. Namun, lintasan konduksi ion Li+ lebih mudah terjadi pada arah [120] atau bidang ab dengan nilai maksimum BVS adalah 0,982. ABSTRACT g-phase of Li2Sc3(PO43 is a lithium super ionic conductor which can be applied as a rechargeable lithium battery. Lithium ions of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 can migrate from occupied site to vacant site. In this research, simulation of Li+ ions migration in the structure of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 carried out using bond valence sum (BVS to predict the oxidation state of Li+ion based on the distance of the ion to neighboring atoms. BVS-based code used JUMPITER to simulate the effect of external electrical force acting on the lithium ions to produce the lithium BVS value which can be mapped to the distance. The simulation results shows that Li+ ion conduction can be occurred on [010], [101], and [120] directions. However, the Li ion conduction pathway occur more easily in the direction of [120] or ab plane with the BVS maximum value is 0.982.

  16. ANALISIS ARAH DAN PERLAKUAN SERAT TAPIS SERTA RASIO EPOXY HARDENER TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS KOMPOSIT TAPIS/EPOXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tapis kelapa (Coconut filter as natural fiber, in this time its resources very copius but no longer be exploited and thrown off hand as waste though in fact its used for other material dissimilar inovatif and high economic valuable that is as one of natural fiber alternative to be composite. The objective of this research is to investigate the behavior changing of physical and mechanical properties of composite tapis kelapa as reinforcement and epoxy 7120 with hardener Versamid 140 as matrix. The fiber is treated with the chemical NaOH and KMnO4 with percentage 0.5%, 1%, and 2% in weight, respectively. The ratio of epoxy and hardener is 7:3 and 6:4, and fiber orientation 0o, 45o, dan 90o. For testing of the speciment in tensile test with ASTM standard D3039 and three point bending test with ASTM standard D790. The result of this research obtained that fiber treatment with KMnO4 give the better effect to machine properties compared to NaOH. Variation of percentage 0.5%, 1%, and 2% NaOH and KMnO4 give the effect in fiber surface which higher percentage make the cleaner of surface, decrease of wax contain, and roughness of fiber surface so that stronger of linkage of fiber and matrix and increase of tensile strength, bending strength, and bending modulus of the composite. The highest tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and bending strength are 70.23 MPa, 446.24 GPa and 97.81 MPa respectively reached at composite with ratio epoxy/hardener 7:3; by 2% KMnO4 and fiber orientation 45o. While the highest modulus of elasticity is 385.48 GPa reached at composite with the ratio epoxy/hardener 6:4; 2% KMnO4 and fiber orientation 90o. Keywords: Tensile Strength, bending strength, ratio of epoxy/hardener, NaOH, KMnO4

  17. KAJIAN TEKNIS-EKONOMIS ALAT PENGERING PATI SAGU MODEL CROSS FLOW VIBRO FLUIDIZED BED (Study on Technical-Economic of Sago Starch Dryer Model of Cross Flow Vibro Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi Jading

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate performance of vibro cross flow fluidized bed dryer using biomass fuel for drying sago starch. The phase of research were evaluation of dryer heated by a biomass stove using coconut shell as a fuel and observation of the drying temperature, moisture content, drying time, energy analysis, and drying effiviency, as well as calculation of its economic analysis. The dryer has dimension of 200x50x1500 cm for length, width, hight, respectively, and working capacity of 35kg/process. The results showed that biomass fuel consumption for drying sago starch for 7 hours was 12740,00 MJ (70 kg/process and electricity consumption for blower and vibrator was 37,80 MJ. Furthermore, the dryer reduced moisture content of sago starch from 42% (wb to 12% (wb with temperature in the vibrator chamber of 40-60 oC and relative humidity of 50%, as well as ambient temperature of 30 3C and drying efficiency of 46,02%. Economic analysis showed that the dryer had NPV of Rp. 16.002.858, BCR of 1,53, IRR of 35%, and PBP of 3,51 years. Keywords: Cross flow, vibro fluidized bed dryer, biomass stoves, sago starch, financial analysis   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan pengujian terhadap alat pengering pati berbasis sagu model cross flow vibrofluidized bed bertenaga biomassa. Tahapan penelitian meliputi pengujian alat pengering menggunakan tungku biomassa berbahan bakar tempurung kelapa dengan melakukan pengamatan suhu selama pengeringan, penurunan kadar air, waktu pengeringan, kebutuhan energi, efisiensi pengering, dan analisis finansial. Konstruksi alat pengering pati sagu model vibro fluidized bed bertenaga biomassa berukuran panjang, lebar dan tinggi masing-masing (200x50x1500 cm, serta memiliki daya tampung atau kapasitas maksimum pati sagu basah 35 kg/proses. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa alat pengering ini mampu mengeringkan pati sagu selama 7 jam, dengan konsumsi bahan bakar tempurung kelapa sebanyak 70 kg

  18. Sustainability of three modified soil conservation methods in agriculture area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, M. A.; Sara, F. H.; Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Samodra, G.; Widicahyono, A.; Ardiana, N.; Widiyati, C. N.; Astuti, E. M.; Martha, G. K.; Malik, R. F.; Sambodo, A. P.; Rokhmaningtyas, R. P.; Swastanto, G. A.; Gomez, C.

    2018-04-01

    Recent innovations in soil conservation methods do not present any breakthrough. Providing more attractive soil conservation methods from the farmer’s perspective is however still of critical importance. Contributing to this soil research gap we attempt to evaluate the sustainable use of three modified conservation methods, namely JALAPA (Jala Sabut Kelapa - geotextile made of coconut fibres), wood sediment trap, and polybag system compared to traditional tillage without conservation method. This research provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the performance of each conservation measures. Therefore, in addition to the total sediment yield value and investment cost – as quantitative analysis, we also evaluate qualitatively the indicator of soil loss, installation, maintenance, and the durability of conservation medium. Those criteria define the sustainability use of each conservation method. The results show that JALAPA is the most effective method for controlling soil loss, but it also requires the most expensive cost for installation. However, our finding confirms that geotextile is sensitive to sun heating by which the coconut fibre can become dry and shrink. Wood sediment trap is the cheapest and easiest to install; however it is easily damaged by termite. Polybag method results in the highest productivity, but requires more time during the first installation. In terms of the farmer’s perspective, soil conservation using polybag system was the most accepted technique due to its high benefits; even if it is less effective at reducing soil loss compared to JALAPA.

  19. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  20. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI LARUTAN ASAP CAIR TERHADAP MUTU BELUT ASAP YANG DIHASILKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan riset tentang pengaruh konsentrasi larutan asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan. Belut yang digunakan adalah jenis Monopterus albus dan asap cair yang dipakai diperoleh dari CV Pusat Pengolahan Kelapa Terpadu,Yogyakarta. Riset pendahuluan dilakukan untuk mengetahui waktu pengeringan yang terbaik, dengan melakukan pengeringan dalam oven pada suhu 90ºC selama 2, 4, 6, dan 8 jam diikuti pengujian kadar air terhadap produk yang dihasilkan. Riset utama dilakukan unluk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan dengan variasi konsentrasi larutan asap cair 0, 10, 20, dan 30%. Penilaian mutu dilakukan berdasarkan analisis komponen asap, komposisi proksimat, den mutu organoleptik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan asap cair terbaik untuk pembuatan belut asap adalah 30% dengan waktu pengeringan 8 jam yang menghasilkan rendamen 28,04%. Secara umum produk ini disukai oleh panelis dengan nilai orgenoleptik 7,36 dengan karakteristik kadar air 10,38%, lemak 2,74%, protein 68,96%, dan abu 15,81%. Asap cair den belut asap hasil pengolahan menggunakan asap cair tidak mengandung senyawa Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH, sebaliknya belut asap komersial mengandung senyawa PAH.

  1. The effectiveness of flipped classroom learning model in secondary physics classroom setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, B. D.; Suprapto, N.; Pudyastomo, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    The research aimed to describe the effectiveness of flipped classroom learning model on secondary physics classroom setting during Fall semester of 2017. The research object was Secondary 3 Physics group of Singapore School Kelapa Gading. This research was initiated by giving a pre-test, followed by treatment setting of the flipped classroom learning model. By the end of the learning process, the pupils were given a post-test and questionnaire to figure out pupils' response to the flipped classroom learning model. Based on the data analysis, 89% of pupils had passed the minimum criteria of standardization. The increment level in the students' mark was analysed by normalized n-gain formula, obtaining a normalized n-gain score of 0.4 which fulfil medium category range. Obtains from the questionnaire distributed to the students that 93% of students become more motivated to study physics and 89% of students were very happy to carry on hands-on activity based on the flipped classroom learning model. Those three aspects were used to generate a conclusion that applying flipped classroom learning model in Secondary Physics Classroom setting is effectively applicable.

  2. Penambahan Bulking Agent untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Kompos Sampah Sayur dengan Variasi Metode Pengomposan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Rohim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan utama pengomposan dalam penelitian ini adalah sayur dan sabut kelapa sebagai bulking agent. Kedua bahan tersebut digunakan karena ketersediannya yang melimpah di lokasi penelitian yaitu Pasar Puspa Agro, Sidoarjo. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penambahan bulking agent dan metode pengomposan. Penambahan bulking agent yang digunakan yakni 40%, 50% dan 60% yang mana persentase tersebut diperoleh dari hasil perhitungan rasio C/N campuran dari kedua bahan yang masuk rentang 25-40. Sedangkan metode pengomposan yang dipakai adalah metode 1 (tidak dicacah, dilapis, metode 2 (dicacah, dicampur dan metode 3 (dicacah, dilapis. Dimensi pengomposan yaitu 0,5x0,5x1 m dan pembalikan untuk metode 1 dan 3 yakni 3 hari sekali selama 2 minggu pertama, seminggu sekali sampai minggu keenam dan 2 minggu sekali sampai kompos matang. Sedangkan pada metode 2, pembalikan dilakukan 3 hari sekali sampai kompos matang. Parameter kualitas kompos yang digunakan mengacu pada SNI 19-7030-2004 meliputi suhu, pH, kadar air, kadar C-organik, N total dan rasio C/N. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah jika ditinjau dari penambahan bulking agent kualitas kompos yang paling baik yaitu dengan penambahan 60%. Apabila ditinjau dari metode pengomposan, kualitas kompos yang paling baik yaitu menggunakan metode 3 (dicacah, dilapis.

  3. PENGGUNAAN MIKORIZA DAN PUPUK NPK DALAM PEMBIBITAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume

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    NFN Danu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan baku  untuk industri pengolahan kayu dan serat dari tahun ke tahun semakin meningkat, sedangkan pasokan bahan baku dari hutan alam semakin menurun, akibatnya terjadi kelangkaan bahan baku industri pengolahan kayu dan pulp. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan pengembangan hutan tanaman yang memadai. Tanaman nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume  merupakan jenis alternatif prioritas dalam pembangunan hutan tanaman penghasil kayu. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan pengembangan hutan tanaman nyawai adalah penggunaan bibit bermutu, karena bibit yang berkualitas akan menghasilkan tegakan dengan tingkat produktivitas tinggi. Pengadaan bibit nyawai bermutu dapat melalui teknik perbanyakan generatif maupun vegetatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan kombinasi pemupukan dan mikoriza yang tepat untuk menghasilkan bibit nyawai yang berkualitas. Buah nyawai dikumpulkan dari Kebun Raya Cibodas (Cianjur. Lokasi Penelitian di persemaian Nagrak. Perkecambahan dilakukan dengan menabur benih pada bak kecambah yang berisi media yang telah disterilkan. Media penyapihan menggunakan tanah sub soil ditambah mikoriza: tanpa mikoriza (C0, Glomus sp. (C1, Acaulospora sp. (C2 dan dosis NPK sebanyak : 0,0 g (P0, 0,5 g/polybag (P1, 1,0 g/poybag (P2. Pengadaan bibit nyawai dapat menggunakan campuran media tanah subsoil + 30 % serbuk sabut kelapa (coco peat +10 % arang sekam padi (v/v, CMA Glomus sp dan Acaulospora sp mampu berkolonisasi dengan akar bibit nyawai. Pemberian pupuk NPK 0,5 – 1,0 gram per polybag dapat meningkatkan serapan hara P.

  4. EKSISTENSI DAN SEBARAN NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN MAKASSAR

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    Yosefina Dota T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi dan sebaran nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus telah dilakukan di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Kec. Tamalanrea, Makassar. Penelitian bersifat eksploratif dengan melakukan sampling terhadap lima lokasi yaitu : a Fak. Peternakan (Utara, b Fak. Hukum (Timur, c Pusat Kegiatan Penelitian/PKP (Selatan, d Workshop/Dekat Pondokan mahasiswa (Barat dan e Fak. MIPA (Tengah. Sampling nyamuk menggunakan metode ovitrap (menggunakan attraktan Eluisine Indica L. dan survei terhadap berbagai tempat penampungan air. Sampel telur dan larva nyamuk yang diperoleh disimpan dalam microtube berisi alkohol 70% kemudian diidentifikasi berdasarkan Rueda (2004. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus ditemukan hidup dan berkembang biak di kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. Eksistensi dan sebaran kedua jenis nyamuk tersebut dipengaruhi oleh faktor adanya manusia/masyarakat kampus yang beraktivitas baik di dalam ruangan (indoor maupun di luar ruangan (outdoor, adanya berbagai tempat penampungan air baik buatan (bak mandi, ember maupun barang bekas (botol/kaleng bekas, tempurung kelapa, vegetasi/tanaman dan berbagai macam hewan yang berada di sekitaran kampus. Hasil penelitian dalam ruangan (indoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di dalam ruangan gedung PKP sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di Fak. Hukum. Hasil penelitian di luar ruangan (outdoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di area Workshop sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di area PKP.

  5. Kandungan Komponen Fenolat, Kadar Fenolat Total, dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Madu dari Beberapa Daerah di Jawa dan Sumatera

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    Ichda Chayati

    2015-03-01

    phenolic contents. The best antioxidant activity was found in coffee honey, and this activity did not correlated with its total phenolic contents. Keywords: antioxidant, monofloral honey, phenolic ABSTRAK Latar Belakang. Banyak penyakit yang dapat timbul karena proses degeneratif yang dapat diperlambat dengan adanya sistem antioksidan. Madu merupakan salah satu bahan pangan yang diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Tujuan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan berbagai jenis madu dari beberapa daerah di Jawa dan Sumatera. Metode. Penelitian laboratorium terhadap empat jenis madu yaitu madu bunga kopi, sawit, randu dan rambutan. Penentuan kandungan komponen fenolat dilakukan dengan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC dan pengukuran kadar fenolat total dilakukan dengan reagen folin-ciocalteu. Aktivitas antioksidan diukur berdasarkan peredaman radikal bebas 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan retensi dalam sistem asam linoleat dengan standar butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan Analysis of varian (Anova dilanjutkan Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT. Korelasi antar analisis dilakukan dengan uji korelasi Pearson. Hasil. Keempat jenis madu yang diteliti mempunyai kandungan fenolat berupa asam klorogenat, asam kafeat, asam ρ-koumarat, asam ferulat, pinobanksin, quercetin, luteolin, pinocembrin dan chrysin. Komponen fenolat dominan untuk tiap madu bervariasi tergantung jenis madunya. Kadar fenolat total pada keempat jenis madu antara 2.000 sampai 4.400 ppm. Kandungan fenolat total paling tinggi terdapat pada madu randu, namun aktivitas antioksidan paling tinggi ditunjukkan oleh madu kopi. Urutan besarnya aktivitas antioksidan berturut-turut adalah madu kopi, madu randu, madu sawit, dan madu rambutan. Aktivitas antioksidan yang tinggi tidak berbanding lurus dengan kandungan fenolat totalnya. Kesimpulan. Madu dari beberapa daerah di Jawa dan Sumatera mengandung sembilan senyawa aktif, dengan kadar fenolat

  6. MODEL PERENCANAAN PRODUKSI PADA RANTAI PASOK CRUDE PALM OIL DENGAN MEMPERTIMBANGKAN PREFERENSI PENGAMBIL KEPUTUSAN

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    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of production planning in Crude Palm Oil industry is discussed on this paper. An interactive model is made due to the involvement of decision maker’s preference in production planning. The model is built for Nucleus-Plasma palm estate system. The sources of fresh palm fruit bunches are obtained from nucleus estate, plasma estate and outsourcing. A single objective fuzzy linear programming model is built with the following steps: (1 Decision variables, parameters are identified from the real system of Crude Palm Oil industry as well as determination of constraints and objective function; (2 Fuzzy parameters are determined using modified S curve membership function. Linear programming model is also formulated at this step. Risk quality of raw material is represented by percentage of defect raw material; (3 Model is then validated using data from Nucleus-Plasma palm estate system. The result shows that S curve membership function is able to represent the preference of decision makers. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Tulisan ini membahas sebuah model perencanaan produksi dalam kerangka rantai pasok agroindustri crude palm oil (minyak sawit mentah. Model dibuat interaktif karena melibatkan preferensi pengambil keputusan dalam perencanaan produksi. Model dibangun pada lingkup perkebunan yang menggunakan sistem Perkebunan Inti Rakyat (PIR. Sumber pasokan tandan buah segar berasal dari kebun inti, kebun petani plasma, dan kebun luar. Konsep pemodelan yang diterapkan adalah programa linear fuzzy dengan obyektif tunggal. Model dikembangkan dalam beberapa tahapan. Pertama, mengidentifikasi variabel, parameter, kendala dan fungsi obyektif. Kedua, menetapkan parameter fuzzy dengan fungsi keanggotaan berbentuk kurva S dimodifikasi. Pada tahap ini dilakukan formulasi model dalam bentuk programa linear. Resiko kualitas yang berasal dari bahan baku direpresentasikan dalam bentuk persen jumlah cacat. Ketiga, melakukan pengujian model menggunakan data

  7. ANALISIS STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN SEKTOR PERTANIAN SUB SEKTOR BAHAN PANGAN DI KABUPATEN BOYOLALI

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    Muhammad Zaenuri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini adalah 1. Komoditas tanaman bahan makanan unggulan apa saja yang ada di masing-masing kecamatan di Kabupaten Boyolali, 2 Bagaimana strategi perencanaan pengembangan subsektor tanaman bahan makanan dilihat dari kelengkapan infrastruktur di Kabupaten Boyolali, 3 Bagaimana laju pertumbuhan sektor tanaman bahan makanan yang dimiliki tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Boyolali. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis Location Quotient (LQ, Shift Share (SS, Klassen Typologi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dengan menggunakan analisis Location Quotient (LQ diketahui pengembangan komoditas padi terdapat di Kecamatan Ngemplak, Kecamatan Banyudono, Kecamatan Sawit. Komoditas tanaman jagung terdapat di Kecamatan Selo, Kecamatan Ampel, Kecamatan Cepogo dan Kecamatan Musuk. Komoditas ubi kayu di Kecamatan Klego, kecamatan Simo. Komoditas ubi jalar di Kecamatan Selo, Kecamatan Simo dan Kecamatan Mojosongo. Komoditas kacang tanah ada di Kecamatan Boyolali dan Kecamatan Nogosari. Komoditas kedelai di Kecamatan Juwangi, Kecamatan Sambi, Kecamatn Kemusu dan Kecamatan Wonosegoro. The problems that were in this research is 1 Commodities food plants seed material what it was in each carpel kecamatan in kabupaten boyolali, 2 how strategy sub planning the development of the food crops sector seen from the completeness of the infrastructure in boyolali district, 3 how sector growth rate of plants of food material possessed every sub-district in boyolali district. The data used was secondary data. Data analysis methods using analysis loqation quotient (LQ, shift share (SS, klassen typologi . According to the research using analysis loqation quotient (LQ development rice is in in ngemplak, in banyudono, in palm. Corn is crops in district violoncello, in ampel, in cepogo and in musuk. Commodities cassava in district klego, in simo. Commodities sweet potatoes in in violoncello, in simo and

  8. Eschatological Expression In The Holy Text (A Preliminary Hermeneutical Exploration on Selected Eschatological Narratives in the Qur’an and the Bible

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    Asep Nahrul Musadad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key concept that lies in almost every religions, as asserted in each holy texts, is eschatological doctrine. The apocalyptic belief in the last day has been existed throughout the history of civilizations with the various expression. Eschatological narrative in the holy texts ought to deemed as a historical text that revealed within its space and time. Accordingly, it is a historizing thing, which contains plenty of stories besides it’s sacred messages. This sense of historical awareness is pointed out – for example – by the eschatological narratives in the Qur’an which strongly influenced by socio-religious circumstances and topographical conditions in Arabian Peninsula at the time of revelation, as the Bible that has cased up its eschatological narratives based on a certain historical event: the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD by Roman soldiers. The central purpose of this paper is to explore the connection and influence of the certain historical moments on the style and construction of both, the Qur’an and the Bible eschatological narratives, through a simple hermeneutical analysis.                    Abstrak: Salah satu konsep kunci yang melandasi hampir seluruh agama, sebagaimana tertera dalam kitab-kitab sucinya adalah persoalan eskatologis. Kepercayaan apokaliptik akan adanya hari akhir terdapat hampir di setiap sejarah peradaban dalam beberapa ekspresi yang berbeda. Narasi eskatologis dalam beberapa teks suci hendaknya tidak hanya dilihat sebagai teks suci yang turun di ruang yang kosong. Dalam hal ini, ia menyejarah dan memberikan suatu kisah lain di samping pesan sakralnya. Hal ini terlihat jelas bagaimana narasi eskatologis dalam Al-Qur’an sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi sosio-religius dan keadaan topografis semenanjung Arab ketika itu. Begitu juga dengan Bibel yang mengemas narasi eskatologisnya berdasarkan suatu even sejarah tertentu, dalam hal ini penghancuran Yerusalem oleh bangsa Romawi

  9. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

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    DECY NATALIANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  10. Mapping the Customer Experience Management Strategies for Customer Loyalty in Retail Hypermarket Jabodetabek

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    Jerry Marcellinus Logahan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, competition in the global market has become increasingly difficult and and at the same time products and services provided by retail companies tend to be similar. So in such circumstances, customers expect not only satisfied with the products and services, but also the pursuit of the perfect shopping experience during the shopping process. The purpose of this study was to devise a customer experience management strategy at a hypermarket retailer Carrefour, Hypermart, Giant, and Lotte Mart. Both overall and per hypermarket retail chains that have the same character. The method used is Factor Analysis, Multi Dimension Scaling (MDS. The object of research is the hypermarket retail customers in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi to sample 360 people. The results of MDS mapping CEM variable per retail hypermarket retail hypermarket seen no one who is in the first quadrant in which the dimensions 1 and 2 positive namely Gianthypermarket retail. Tthere are three retail hypermarket located in quadrant 2 wherein the dimensions of 1 positive and 2 negative dimension namely retail Carrefour, Hypermart and Lotte Mart. In MDS can be classified Group 1 are the outlets; Group 1 are GPS (Giant Plaza Semanggi, CLB (Carrefour Lebak Bulus, CPH (Carrefour Permata Hijau and HPV (Hypermart Pejaten Village which leads to a positive value. While other outlets in group 2 are CCB (Carrefour Cibinong Bogor, GBT (Giant BSD Tangerang, GMD (Giant Margo city Depok, HPB (Hypermart Pondok Gede Bekasi, HJT (Hypermart JACC Thamrin, LRP (Lotte Mart Ratu Plaza, LKG (Lotte Mart Kelapa Gading, LF (Lotte Mart Fatmawati have in common in the lower quadrant (negative.

  11. PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN PERILAKU TOKOH MASYARAKAT TENTANG MALARIA DI KABUPATEN PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

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    Shinta Shinta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Kabupaten Purworejo. Pemberantasan malaria tidak mungkin dapat berhasil dengan baik tanpa adanya peran serta masyarakat dan keterlibatan mitra terkait. Untuk meningkatkan peran serta masyarakat dan menggalang kemitraan dalam pemberantasan malaria diperlukan informasi tentang pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku (PSP dari masyarakat maupun tokoh masyarakat di daerah sasaran. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam menggunakan pertanyaan terbuka terhadap tokoh masyarakat formal dan informal. lnforman tokoh formal adalah Camat, Kepala Desa dan Kepala Dukuh. Informan tokoh informal adalah guru sekolah, ulama, kader PKK dan karang taruna. Tujuan penelitian untuk menemukan metode pemberantasan malaria secara tepat guna. Hasil penelitian: Pengetahuan informan tentang cukup baik, sudah mengenal tanda tanda, penyebab dan cara pengobatan. Malaria ditularkan oleh nyamuk Anopheles, ada juga yang mengatakan Aedes ataupun tidak tahu. Posisi nyamuk ketika menggigit menungging; menggigit pada malam hari, hila ada orang yang melahirkan atau ada hajatan, masih ada yang mengatakan siang hari; tempat perkembangbiakan di kubangan, kolam, tempurung kelapa, saluran air, masih ada yang mengatakan di air kotor dan bak mandi. Pengobatan dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara; pengobatan modern dengan klorokuin, pengobatan tradisional dengan daun pepaya, buah mahoni, kulit pohon kina, akar alang-alang, brotowali dan pace. Mengenai sikap informan sudah baik, dalam upaya mencari pengobatan warga akan mendatangi Puskesmas, bidan desa,  juru malaria desa, dokter, membeli obat di warung atau ke dukun. Malaria mengakibatkan tidak dapat bekerja/sekolah beberapa hari, dapat menyebabkan kematian, dapat sembuh setelah makan obat dan istirahat sebentar. Perilaku informan mengenai cara menghindari gigitan, cara mengurangi resiko gigitan nyamuk sudah baik namun dalam pencegahan malaria umumnya masih rancu dengan cara pencegahan

  12. PERBAIKAN MUTU BUNGKIL KOPRA MELALUI BIOPROCESSING UNTUK BAHAN PAKAN IKAN BANDENG

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    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra adalah hasil ikutan dari ekstraksi minyak dari daging buah kelapa kering yang masih mengandung protein sekitar 16%-18% dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai bahan pakan ikan. Faktor pembatas penggunaan bungkil kopra adalah kualitas nutrisi yang rendah antara lain karena kandungan lemak kasarnya agak tinggi dan mudah tengik sehingga perlu peningkatan ketersediaan biologisnya melalui fermentasi menggunakan mikroorganisme. Mikroba yang digunakan terdiri atas (A Aspergillus niger, (B Saccharomyces cereviceae, (C Rhizopus sp., dan (D Bacillus subtilis. Bungkil kopra yang sudah difermentasi kemudian dikeringkan dan ditepungkan, lalu dilakukan analisis proksimat, uji ketengikan dengan menentukan bilangan peroksidanya, dan komposisi asam aminonya. Juga dilakukan analisis kecernaannya untuk ikan bandeng ukuran sekitar 50 g dengan metode marker menggunakan krom oksida (Cr2O3. Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh fermentasi dapat meningkatkan kandungan protein bungkil kopra 21%-42% dan menurunkan kandungan lemak dan serat kasarnya masing-masing 50% dan 27% pada fermentasi menggunakan Rhizophus sp., serta menurunkan bilangan peroksida 10%-47%. Nilai koefisien kecernaan protein dan lemak bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp., A. niger, dan S. cereviceae lebih tinggi masing-masing 10%-11% dan 9%-13% dibanding bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan B. subtilis dan tanpa fermentasi. Bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus  sp. mengalami peningkatan kualitas nutrisi yang terbaik untuk bahan pakan ikan bandeng.

  13. Pembuatan Biobriket dari Limbah Cangkang Kakao

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    Munas Martynis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biobriquette is an alternative energy as fuel substitute which is produced from organic materials or underutilized agricultural waste (biomass. Some types of biomass waste has considerable potential as wood waste, rice husks, straw, bagasse, palm shells, and municipal solid waste. Another untapped potential is the cocoa shell waste. These wastes are not used if it will cause a bad odor and may damage ecosystems. This study aims to see the effect of particle size variations and biobriquette shape to the biobriquette compressive strength produced, quality analysis, and combustion rate of biobriquette. The making of biobriquette used starch as adhesive as much as 50% of the biobriquette weight, variations of biobriquette particle size were 30 mesh and 60 mesh, the shape of biobriquette were hollow cylinder and solid cylinder. The results showed that biobriquette generated met the fuel standards for households. The best biobriquette was hollow cylinder biobriquette with the size of 30 mesh and the resulting calorific value was more than 4000 cal/g. Based on burning test, biobriquette obtained could be used as fuel.ABSTRAKBiobriket merupakan energi alternatif pengganti bahan bakar yang dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan organik atau limbah pertanian (biomassa yang kurang termanfaatkan. Beberapa jenis limbah biomassa memiliki potensi yang cukup besar seperti limbah kayu, sekam padi, jerami, ampas tebu, cangkang sawit, dan sampah kota. Potensi lain yang belum tergarap adalah limbah cangkang kakao. Limbah-limbah tersebut apabila tidak dimanfaatkan maka akan menimbulkan bau yang tidak sedap dan dapat merusak ekosistem lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh variasi ukuran partikel dan bentuk biobriket terhadap kuat tekan biobriket yang dihasilkan, menganalisa mutu dan laju pembakaran bioriket. Pembuatan biobriket ini menggunakan bahan perekat tepung kanji sebanyak 50 % dari berat biobriket, variasi ukuran partikel biobriket adalah 30 mesh

  14. Karakterisasi Mutu dan Nilai Gizi Nasi Mocaf dari Beras Analog - (Characterization of Quality and Nutrition Value of Cooked Rice Mocaf from Rice Analog

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    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on rice consumption needs to be reduced to overcome the problems of rice supply and health problems. Alternative proposed is producing mocaf-based rice analog. This research aims to study the quality characterization and nutritional value of mocaf-based rice analog. Rice mocaf was made based on mixture of mocaf, rice flour, water and palm oil using variable: 50, 60 and 70% mocaf.  Mocaf rice then cooked by using rice cooker, steamer or microwave. The results showed mocaf rice 60% yield highest calorific value.  The best cooking method  was steaming that resulted nutrient content and calorific value consisting of 49.15% water; 2.05% fat; 2.09% protein; 46.45% carbohydrate; 35.8 mg/kg of iron; 403.4 mg/kg of potassium; 193.8 mg/kg of calcium, 2.0 mg/kg of vitamin B1 and 212.53 ca/100 g calorific value.Keywords: mocaf, nutritional value, quality characterisation, rice ABSTRAKKetergantungan pada konsumsi beras perlu dikurangi untuk mengatasi permasalahan pasokan beras dan masalah kesehatan. Alternatif yang dapat diusulkan adalah dengan pembuatan beras analog berbasis mocaf. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari karakterisasi mutu dan nilai gizi nasi mocaf dari beras analog. Beras mocaf dibuat berdasarkan campuran mocaf, tepung beras, air dan minyak goreng sawit, dengan komposisi mocaf  50, 60 dan 70%. Beras mocaf kemudian dimasak dengan cara menggunakan rice cooker, pengukusan atau microwave. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan beras mocaf 60% menghasilkan nasi mocaf dengan nilai kalori tertinggi. Pemasakan terbaik adalah dengan cara pengukusan dengan kandungan gizi dan nilai kalori yang dihasilkan terdiri dari 49,15%  air; 2,05% lemak; 2,09% protein; 46,45% karbohidrat; 35,8 mg/kg besi; 403,4 mg/kg kalium; 193,8 mg/kg kalsium, 2,0 mg/kg vitamin B1 dan 212,53 kal/100 g nilai kalori.Kata kunci: beras, karakterisasi mutu, mocaf, nilai gizi

  15. Efisiensi Perusahaan Crude Palm Oil (CPO di Indonesia

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    Amzul Rifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is an important Indonesian agricultural product as a raw material for cooking oil and an export commodity. In order to achieve maximum profit, the companies producing the CPO need to produce it efficiently. This study used the data from the 2013 Annual Manufacturing Survey conducted by the Statistics Indonesia. In this survey, there were 547 factories producing CPO. The efficiency measurement utilized the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach using value of production as the output and two inputs, namely the number of workers and raw material value. The results showed that there are 17 factories out of 547 factories which are efficient indicated by the efficiency value of one. Factories owned by the private national companies have the highest average of efficiency followed by the foreign and government-owned companies. In regards to location, factories located in Kalimantan Island have higher average efficiency compared to those located in Sumatra Island and other islands. Meanwhile, factories with local market orientation have a higher efficiency compared to those with export market orientation.Keywords: CPO, efficiency, data envelopment analysis (DEAABSTRAKCrude Palm Oil (CPO merupakan salah satu andalan produk pertanian Indonesia baik sebagai bahan baku minyak goreng maupun komoditas ekspor. Untuk mencapai keuntungan maksimum, maka perusahaan penghasil CPO perlu berproduksi secara efisien. Penelitian ini menggunakan data-data perusahaan sawit yang berasal dari Survei Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur 2013 yang dilakukan oleh Badan Pusat Statistik. Pada survei ini terdapat 547 pabrik yang merupakan penghasil CPO. Pengukuran efisiensi menggunakan analisis Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA dengan satu output, yaitu nilai produksi serta dua input, yaitu jumlah pekerja dan nilai bahan baku. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan dari 547 perusahaan terdapat 17 perusahaan yang efisien yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai efisiensi sebesar satu

  16. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

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    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2012-11-01

    ,yield biodiesel meningkat secara drastis pada kondisi superkritis (270-290oC. Demikian pula halnyadengan rasio molar minyak kedelai-metanol, dimana hasil biodiesel meningkat tajam denganmeningkatnya rasio molar minyak-metanol hingga 1:24. Yield maksimum dicapai pada 290oC, waktureaksi 90 menit dan rasio molar minyak terhadap metanol 1:24, yaitu sebesar 86% untuk minyakkedelai dan 88% untuk minyak sawit

  17. ANALISIS PERUBAHAN PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP HASIL AIR DI DAS CISADANE HULU

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    Nilda Nilda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Air merupakan salah satu kebutuhan dasar yang sangat penting bagi manusia. Terdapat beberapa faktor utama penyebab perubahan sumber daya air, diantaranya adalah perubahan penutupandan pengelolaan lahan yang meningkatkan kekedapan lahan.Salah satu tujuan pengelolaan DAS adalah mencapai kondisi tata air optimal yang dapat dikenali dari sifat aliran sungai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui distribusi perubahan penggunaan lahan yang terjadi di wilayah DAS Cisadane Hulu dari tahun 2003 sampai 2010; (2 mengetahui perubahan hasil air akibat distribusi perubahan penggunaan lahan. Daerah kajian penelitian adalah DAS Cisadane Hulu dengan luasan sekitar 22.288,01 ha. Penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu analisis perubahan penggnaan lahan dan prediksi aliran dengan model HEC-HMS. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan peta pengunaan lahan dari BIG (Badan Informasi Geospasial tahun 2003 dan Peta Penggunaan Lahan tahun 2010 hasil interpretasi Citra ALOS. Selanjutnya kedua peta tersebut dianalisis dengan metoda tabel silang (cross tabel untuk memperoleh data perubahan penggunaan lahan dari setiap kelas penggunaannya. Kedua data series penggunaan lahan ini digunakan sebagai input pada model prediksi debit aliran HEC-HMS. Selanjutnya dibangun juga skenario-skenario untuk melihat dampak perubahan lahan terhadap debit aliran di DAS Cisadane Hulu. Metode bilangan kurva (SCS-CN dipilih untuk menghitung besar curah hujan efektif, yaitu dari pengurangan curah hujan bruto dengan berbagai bentuk kehilangan air (loss. Transformasi dari curah hujan efektif menjadi hidrograf aliran langsung (direct runoff diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode hidrograf satuan SCS Curve Number. Selama kurun waktu 2003 – 2010 terjadi perubahan penggunaan lahan di DAS Cisadane Hulu. Luas Hutan bertambah 223,78 ha, pemukiman 214,78 ha, rumput/tanah kosong 85, 73 ha, dan gedung 12, 64 ha. Terjadi penguarangan luas semak belukar 225,64 ha, tegalan/ladang 145,92 ha, sawah irigasi 124

  18. ANALYSIS OF GAMMA HEATING AT TRIGA MARK REACTOR CORE BANDUNG USING PLATE TYPE FUEL

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    Setiyanto Setiyanto

    2016-10-01

    , telah dilakukan kajian penggunaan bahan bakar jenis pelat seperti yang digunakan oleh RSG-GAS. Berbagai langkah analisis telah disiapkan, termasuk perhitungan desain teras, dan sistem keselamatannya. Penggunaan elemen bakar tipe pelat menghasilkkan reaktor dapat dioperasikan hanya dengan 20 elemen bakar. Dibandingkan teras aslinya, nampak bahwa teras baru menjadi lebih kecil dan kompak, rapat dayanya naik, tetapi menyisakan beberapa ruang kosong yang dimungkinkan untuk menempatkan fasilitas iradiasi di teras. Dengan adanya fasilitas iradiasi di dalam teras, maka pembangkitan panas gamma di teras menjadi faktor baru yang harus diperhatikan. Untuk alasan ini, telah dilakukan perhitungan pembangkitan panas gamma teras reaktor Triga 2000 Bandung mengunakan program Gamset. Perhitungan didasarkan pada persamaan atenuasi liner, sumber garis dan arah perambatan tiga dimensi. Selain panas gamma di teras, akan dihitung juga panas gamma di reflektor (Lazy Susan, dan di CIP untuk berbagai jenis bahan. Diperoleh hasil bahwa panas gamma di CIP cukup signifikan (0,87 w/g, tetapi di posisi Lazy Susan relatif kecil, rata-rata hanya 0,11 w/g. Dari hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan CIP untuk iradiasi perlu mempertimbangkan panas gamma dalam perhitungan LAK nya. Kata kunci: panas gamma, reaktor nuklir, reaktor penelitian, keselamatan reaktor

  19. PERSAMAAN PERLAKUAN PARA PIHAK DALAM BERACARA DI KPPU DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM ACARA PERADILAN INDONESIA

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    I Made Sari

    2016-07-01

      atau argumentasi pihak yang lainnya sebelum hakim menjatuhkan putusan, wajib dilaksanakan dalam berpekara. Tidak seimbangnya posisi dari pihak-pihak yang berperkara dalam persidangan KPPU akan menimbulkan masalah dalam mencari keadilan. Bagaimana kedudukan Putusan Komisi Pengawas Persaingan Usaha ditinjau dari sistem hukum acara peradilan di Indonesia?; serta bagaimanakah bentuk perlindungan hukum terhadap terlapor, apabila terlapor tidak mendapatkan hak atas persamaan perlakuan dalam beracara di KPPU?. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian hukum normatif mencakup penelitian terhadap sistematika hukum,  sinkronisasi hukum, sejarah hukum, yang beranjak dari konflik norma yang mengatur mengenai Kedudukan hukum putusan KPPU; dan norma kosong dalam tata cara berperkara di KPPU. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa (1 Kedudukan hukum putusan Komisi Pengawas Persaingan Usaha dalam hukum acara peradilan adalah putusan Komisi Pengawas Persaingan Usaha sebagai putusan quasi judicial dengan hukum acara yang dibuat sendiri yang disebut Tata Cara Penanganan Perkara di KPPU; disamping Kitab Undang - Undang Hukum Acara Perdata. (2 Bentuk  perlindungan hukum bagi pelaku usaha sebagai terlapor masih belum diatur secara tegas sehingga mengandung potensi bahwa pihak terlapor dapat dikorbankan karena ketiadaan aturan yang jelas mengenai bentuk formulasi perlindungan hukum dalam beracara di KPPU atas di korbankannya hak atas persamaan perlakuan dari terlapor.

  20. Kombinasi Boraks dan Asam Borat sebagai Bahan Penghambat Api dan Antirayap Pada Kayu Meranti Merah

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    Mahdi Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kayu mempunyai sifat yang mudah terbakar dan sebagian besar mempunyai keawetan alami yang rendah. Perbaikan kualitas kayu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kelemahan tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengimpregnasikan bahan kimia yang bersifat menghambat api dan beracun terhadap organisme perusak kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat kemampuan boraks:asam borat (1:1 untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering dan mengetahui proses pengawetan yang efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan kayu meranti merah (Shorea spp berukuran 6 x 15 x 500 cm. Waktu pengawetan adalah 1, 2, dan 3 jam serta konsentrasi bahan pengawet 7% dalam 5 ulangan. Metode pengawetan menggunakan metode sel kosong dengan tekanan 12 kg/cm2 . Pengujian ketahanan terhadap api mengacu pada ASTM E 69-02 prosedur B, pengujian ketahanan terhadap rayap kayu kering mengacu pada metode rayap makan tanpa pilihan. Parameter yang diamati ialah absorpsi, retensi aktual, intensitas bakar, suhu pembakaran maksimal, lama pembaraan, mortalitas rayap kayu kering, pengurangan berat contoh uji, derajat kerusakan dan kondisi fisik sampel setelah uji bakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi boraks:asam borat (1:1 memiliki efektivitas yang tinggi untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering. Proses pengawetan yang paling efektif adalah lama penekanan 2 jam dengan absorpsi 331 kg/m3 ; retensi aktual 28,8 kg/m3 ; intensitas bakar 10,9%; suhu pembakaran maksimal 140ºC; lama pembaraan 1,03 menit; mortalitas rayap kayu kering 100%; pengurangan berat contoh uji 0,002%; serta derajat kerusakan kategori ringan. Katakunci: penghambat api, anti rayap, boraks, Shorea spp, Cryptotermes cynocephalus   Borax and Boric Acid Combination As Fire Retardant and Anti-termite Agents on Red Meranti Wood Abstract Woods have properties which are easy to be ignited by fire and most of them have a low natural durability. Therefore, it is required to

  1. Political Islam and Religious Violence in Post-New Order Indonesia

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    Abdil Mughis Mudhoffir

    2016-01-01

    Orde Baru. Konsekuensinya, dibutuhkan negara yang kuat dengan membentuk instrumen-instrumen keamanan semacam undang-undang anti-terorisme dan satuan khusus kepolisian anti-teror. Kedua, pendekatan kultural yang melihat meningkatnya kekerasan disebabkan oleh ketidakmampuan masyarakat dalam membangun toleransi keagamaan. Dengan kata lain, masyarakat dianggap lemah. Solusinya, dibutuhkan dialog antar-agama yang intensif. Menurut penulis, dua pendekatan tersebut kurang memadai dalam memahami meningkatnya kekerasan agama pasca-Orde Baru. Fakta sejarah menunjukkan bahwa kemunculan kelompok-kelompok Islam politik merupakan hasil dari hubungan yang fluktuatif antara Islam dan negara sepanjang Orde Baru. Dan, kehadiran eksponen Islam politik juga merupakan bentuk respon terhadap situasi sosial-ekonomi-politik. Artinya, Islam politik tidak hadir dalam ruang kosong, melainkan muncul sebagai respon terhadap krisis di tengah absennya respon populis lain dari kelompok kiri.

  2. ASUPAN SERAT MAKANAN DAN KADAR KOLESTEROL-LDL PENDUDUK BERUSIA 25-65 TAHUN DI KELURAHAN KEBON KALAPA, BOGOR

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    Yunita Diana Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOne of the main risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia as measured by elevated LDL cholesterol level. Life style change by lack of fruits and vegetables consumption considered a risk to increased cholesterol level. Intake of dietary fiber provide many health benefits. Dietary fiber intake may reduced the risk for the occurrence of various diseases, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the association between dietary fiber consumption and the content of LDL cholesterol for the people of 25-65 years of age at Kebon Kelapa Village in Bogor in 2013. The study was a cross-sectional design. The study utilized baseline data from Cohort Study of Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors conducted by National Institute of Health Research and Development using bivariate analysis. The result showed that the proportion of high LDL cholesterol was 78.3% with the mean cholesterol level 120 mg/dl. The mean daily dietary fiber consumption was 7 gram/day. All samples significant consumed food fiber below RDA(<25 gram/day which 78.3 percent of them had high LDL cholesterol levels. Age, intake of fat and vegetable protein had a significant association with LDL cholesterol levels.Keywords: LDL cholesterol, dietary fiber intake, HypercholesterolemiaABSTRAKSalah satu faktor risiko utama penyebab aterosklerosis adalah hiperkolesterolemia yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya peningkatan kadar kolesterol LDL. Perubahan pola hidup yang ditandai dengan kurang mengonsumsi sayuran dan buah merupakan salah satu risiko terjadinya peningkatan kadar kolesterol LDL. Asupan serat makanan memberikan banyak keuntungan bagi kesehatan. Asupan serat-makanan dapat mengurangi risiko untuk terjadinya berbagai penyakit, seperti PJK, stroke, hipertensi, diabetes,dan obesitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan asupan serat-makanan dengan kadar kolesterol LDL pada penduduk usia 25

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

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    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical

  4. OPTIMASI PROSES PEMBUATAN BRIKET BIOMASSA MENGGUNAKAN METODE TAGUCHI GUNA MEMENUHI KEBUTUHAN BAHAN BAKAR ALTERNATIF YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (Optimization of Biomass Briquettes Production Process Using Taguchi Method

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    Musabbikhah Musabbikhah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Permasalahan yang dihadapi pembuat dan pengguna briket adalah briket yang dihasilkan kualitasnya rendah ditinjau dari nilai kalor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan kualitas briket terbaik dari limbah biomassa dalam memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bakar alternatif rumah tangga yang murah dan ramah lingkungan guna mewujudkan masyarakat mandiri energi. Metode yang digunakan untuk menentukan kualitas briket adalah metode Taguchi. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah tekanan pengepressan, waktu penahanan, model cetakan, suhu pengeringan, lama pengeringan dan komposisi bahan, sedangkan variabel terikat adalah nilai kalor briket. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas briket terbaik ditinjau dari nilai kalor tertinggi yaitu pada setting parameter A2B1C2D2E2F1, artinya tekanan pengepressan 225 kg/cm2, waktu penahanan 5 menit, model cetakan sarang tawon (kotak, suhu pengeringan 60 °C, lama pengeringan 3 hari, perbandingan limbah jarak pagar : arang sekam : arang tempurung kelapa : perekat adalah 5 : 3: 2 : 1. Rata-rata nilai kalor biobriket yang dihasilkan sebesar 5.323 kal/g. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa briket mempunyai nilai kalor yang tinggi dan memenuhi SNI, sehingga briket layak untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bakar alternatif yang ramah lingkungan. ABSTRACT Problems that encountered on manufacturers and users of briquettes is low quality of the briquettes in terms of heat value. The aim of this research is to determine the best quality of the briquette which is made from biomass waste. The briquette is expected to be used to fulfill the need of inexpensive and environmentally friendly of alternative household fuel, by which the energy independent community could be realized.The method used to determine the quality of the briquette is Taguchi method. The independent variables involved are compressive strength, holding time, mold model, drying temperature, drying time and material composition. The dependent variable is the highest

  5. Keragaman Genetik Metarhizium anisopliae dan Virulensinya pada Larva Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros

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    Aisyah Surya Bintang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the important pests of coconut tree. One of eco-friendly control applied for this pest is by using entomopathogenic fungiMetarhizium anisopliae. There is not much information about the variability and virulence of M. anisopliae toward O. rhinoceros. M. anisopliae isolates obtained from Biological Control Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada were cultured on PDA medium.M. anisopliae isolates was isolated from O. rhinoceros larvae (MaOr, Lepidiota stigma larvae (MaLs, Brontispa longissima beetle (MaBl.O. rhinoceros beetles were obtained from Kulon Progo, DIY. This study used molecular test, and virulence test toward 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae by using dipping method. Molecular test by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, showed that MaOr was located at different group (out group with MaLs and MaBr. On the density 107 conidium/ml MaOr and MaLs were more virulent than MaBl towards 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae. INTISARI Kumbang badak (Oryctes rhinoceros merupakan salah satu hama penting pada tanaman kelapa. Salah satu upaya pengendalian yang ramah lingkungan adalah dengan menggunakan jamur entomopatogen, yakni Metarhizium anisopliae. Belum banyak diketahui mengenai keragaman dan juga virulensi dari M. anisopliae terhadap O. rhinoceros. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaman genetik M. anisopliae dan virulensinya pada larva kumbang badak. Isolat yang digunakan berasal dari Laboratorium Pengendalian Hayati, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada dalam bentuk kultur murni pada medium PDA. Isolat yang gunakan diisolasi dari larvaOryctes rhinoceros (MaOr, larva Lepidiota stigma (MaLs, dan kumbang Brontispa longissima (MaBl. Serangga yang diuji berasal dari daerah Kulon Progo, DIY. Pengujian secara molekuler dengan analisis sekuensing dan filogenetik, menunjukkan bahwa isolat MaOr terletak pada grup yang berbeda dengan MaLs dan Ma

  6. EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan

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    Rossie Wiedya Nusantara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis alih fungsi lahan gambut yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah pada hutan rawa gambut primer (HP, hutan gambut sekunder (HS, semak belukar (SB, kebun sawit (KS, dan kebun jagung (KJ dan menganalisis pengaruh suhu dan jeluk muka air tanah (water-table depth terhadap emisi CO2 tanah. Sampel dari tiap tipe lahan diambil sebanyak lima ulangan, total sampel 25. Saat pengukuran respirasi CO2 tanah gambut dilakukan pengukuran suhu tanah dan muka air tanah. Pengukuran di lapangan dilaksanakan dua kali yaitu awal musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa emisi CO2 tanah tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut adalah pada tipe lahan KJ (6,512 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (1,698  ton ha-1 th-1 serta pada tipe lahan KS (6,701 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (3,169 ton ha-1 th-1 berturut-turut. Suhu tanah gambut tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut berturut-turut adalah pada tipe lahan SB (27,78 oC dan HP (22,78 oC, dan pada tipe lahan KS (29,08 oC dan HP (26,56 oC serta jeluk muka air tanah gambut berturut-turut pada tipe lahan KJ (56,2 cm dan  SB (32,1 cm. Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah gambut adalah suhu tanah, jeluk muka air tanah dan pengelolaan lahan yang menyebabkan perubahan sifat tanah gambut, seperti ketersediaan C-organik (jumlah dan kualitas bahan organik, pH tanah dan kematangan gambut. ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze peatland use change that caused changes soil emissions of CO2 at primary peat swamp forest (HP, secondary peat forest (HS, shrub (SB, oil palm plantations (KS and corn field (KJ, and to analyze the influence of temperature and water-table depth to soil emission of CO2. Soil samples were taken from each five replications that accunt for 25 samples. Simultaneously with measurement of soil respiration measuremnts soil temperature. Field measurement is carried out twice at the beginning of dry season and

  7. The Effect of Inflation on The Currency Exchange Rate Seen in The Islamic Finance

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    Agus Purnomo

    2017-06-01

    keuangan syariah. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Metode kuantitatif menggunakan analisis data kebijakan moneter keuangan Indonesia dengan menggunakan data dari Bank Indonesia untuk mengetahui kinerja perekonomian dalam keuangan syariah, sedangkan metode penelitian kualitatif menggunakan analisis wawancara dari karyawan Bank Indonesia. Data tahun 2013 menunjukkan bahwa inflasi mengalami kenaikan, pada bulan Februari menunjukan nilai Inflasi 5,31% sampai pada periode tahun 2014 bulan Juni menunjukan nilai inflasi 6,7%. Pada tahun 2015 mengalami Inflasi sebesar 7,26% dan tahun 2016 mengalami Inflasi sebesar 3,60%. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan, pengaruh inflasi terhadap nilai tukar rupiah dalam perspektif keuangan syariah terjadi karena menurunnya ekspor ke luar negeri akibat lambatnya pertumbuhan perekonomian dunia, turunya harga minyak mentah dunia, turunnya harga batubara, serta turunya harga minyak sawit dan harga karet. Faktor-faktor tersebut yang menyebabkan terjadinya inflasi terhadap nilai tukar mata uang rupiah terhadap dolar Amerika.

  8. Analisis Koefisien Absorpsi Bunyi Pada Komposit Penguat Serat Alam Dengan Menggunakan Alat Uji Tabung Impedansi 2 Microphone

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    Cok Istri Putri Kusuma Kencanawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Dalam perambatannya gelombang bunyi dapat di halangi dengan menggunakan suatu medium yang memiliki sifat-sifatkedap suara, sehingga energi yang ditransmisikan akan mampu dikurangi/dihambat oleh medium tersebut. Salah satumetode yang dapat dipergunakan untuk mengetahui kemampuan peredaman (koefisien absorpsi suatu mediumterhadap gelombang bunyi yang datang dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan Tabung Impedansi 2 Microphone.Sedangkan sebagai mediumnya adalah panel komposit. Mengingat dalam perkembangan ilmu bahan saat ini banyak digunakan komposit dengan penguat serat alam, dan salah satu sifat yang dikaji adalah sifat akustiknya. Kajian ini lebihmenitik beratkan sifat akustik komposit berpenguat serat alam, mengingat selama ini banyak serat alam yang terbuangpercuma menjadi limbahsehingga mencemari lingkungan. Jenis-jenis serat alam yang digunakan sebagai penguatantara lain : serat serabut kelapa, serat jerami, serat batang pisang, serat nenas, serat kapuk dan serat batang kelapasawit, sedangkan frekuensi pengukuran koefisien absorpsi terhadap medium ini berkisar anatra 200 hz sampai dengan1400 hz, dengan ketebalan spesiemn uji antara 2 mm sampai dengan 4 mmdengan menggunakan metode pengujianTabung impedansi 2 mikrophone, sesuai dengan standart ISO 10534-2:1998 and American Standart forTestingMaterials (ASTM E1050-98. Dalam kajian ini diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa pada frekuensi rendah koefisienabsorpsi bahan cukup tinggi antara 0,4 sampai dengan 0,6 dan kemampuan serap bunyi ini akan menurun denganmeningkatnya frekuensi, sedangkan pengaruh ketebalan bahan juga mempengaruhi sifat akustiknya.Kata kunci: komposit, serat alam, koefisien absorpsi, tabung impedansi Abstract: In the propagation of sound waves can be prevented by using a medium that has properties soundproofed, so that thetransmitted energy to be able to be reduced / inhibited by the medium. One method that can be used to determine theability of damping (absorption coefficient of a

  9. EKTOPARASIT (FLEAS PADA RESERVOIR DI DAERAH FOKUS PEST DI KABUPATEN BOYOLALI PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-09-01

    cheopsis yang mengandung Yersinia pestis. Kabupaten Boyolali merupakan salah satu daerahfocus pest di Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi spesies tikus dan pinjal, menghitung kepadatan tikus, infestasi pinjalpada tikus dan indeks pinjal sebagai indikator kerentanan terhadap penularanpest. Penelitian merupakan survei deskriptif dengan desain cross sectional. Populasi adalah semua tikus dan pinjalyang adadi Kabupaten Boyolali. Sampel adalah tikus dan pinjalyang berhasil ditangkap menggunakan life trap dengan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asinyang diletakkandi dalam dan luar rumah (masing-masing2 perangkap. Tikus disisir untuk mendapatkan pinjal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah tikusyang tertangkap247 ekor. Terdapat4 jenis tikus dan mamalia kecil yang ditemukan R. tanezumi,R. tiomanicus,R. exulans,N. fulvescens dan S.murinus dengantrap succes sebesar5,71%. Hanya3 jenis tikus dan S.murinus yang terinfeksi pinjal. Spesies pinjalyang ditemukan X. cheopis dan S. cognatus. Indeks pinjal khusus : Xenopsylla cheopis sebesar1,67; indeksflea (pinjal Stavilus cognatus0,88 dan indeks pinjal umum2,55. Indikator sistem kewaspadaan terhadap penularan pest dengan indeks pinjal khusus >1 dan indeks pinjal umum >2, maka KecamatanSelo perlu waspada terhadap kemungkinan penularanpest di wilayahnya sehingga perlu upaya pengendalian populasi tikus dan pinjal.Kata kunci: ektoparasit,reservoir, fleas, pest

  10. Pengaruh Pengurangan Kadar Air dan Penggunaan Bahan Pengikat Kadar Air dalam Pembuatan Cake Bengkuang

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    Wilsa Hermianti

    2016-12-01

    semi basah berupa cake bengkuang dengan jumlah bengkuang yang dominan yakni sampai 50% dari adonan cake namun hanya mempunyai ketahanan simpan selama 3 hari. Guna meningkatkan masa simpannya dilakukan penelitian pengurangan kadar air bahan baku bengkuang dan penggunaan bahan pengikat dalam pembuatan cake bengkuang. Perlakuan pengurangan kadar air bengkuang dilakukan dengan menggunakan juicer dan dipress. Sebagai pembanding (kontrol dilakukan tanpa pengurangan kadar air. Penggunaan bahan pengikat kadar air bengkuang adalah dengan penambahan kelapa, tepung maizena, dan tepung beras. Cake bengkuang menggunakan formula bahan pengikat kandungan air bengkuang dengan tepung maizena serta pengurangan kadar air bahan baku bengkuang dengan dipress memberikan hasil yang optimal dengan nilai organoleptik yang disukai panelis, kadar air 28,50%, karbohidrat 56,31%, protein 6,13%, lemak 10,23%, energi 341,86 kkal/100g, serat pangan 5,98%, kalsium 27,77mg/100g, dan inulin 5,92%, daya simpan selama 5 hari pada suhu kamar dan 4 minggu pada suhu kulkas.

  11. SPESIES TIKUS, CECURUT DAN PINJAL YANG DITEMUKAN DI PASAR KOTA BANJARNEGARA, KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA TAHUN 2013

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    Dina Supriyati

    2014-01-01

    dan pendekatancross sectional. Data tikus dari penangkapan tikus menggunakan live trap. Populasi adalah fauna tikus yanghidup di Pasar Kota Banjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap yang diberiumpan kelapa bakar dan mentimun. Analisis data secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tikus yangtertangkap sebanyak 33 ekor .Tikus yang banyak tertangkap adalah Rattus tanezumi (84,85% dan paling sedikittertangkap Rattus norvegicus (3,03%. Tikus berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan 20 ekor (60,61%daripada tikus betina 13 ekor (39,39%. Tikus sebagian besar terdapat di dalam los pasar (77,42% daripada diluar los pasar (22,58%. Trap success tikus sebesar 8,25% dengan keberhasilan penangkapan paling tinggi padahari ke-2 (4,5%. Trap success berdasarkan lokasi penangkapan di dalam los pasar lebih besar (6,5% daripadaluar los pasar (1,75%. Jumlah pinjal yang menginfestasi spesies tertangkap sebanyak 67 ekor. Spesies pinjalyaitu Xenopsylla cheopis. Indeks umum pinjal sebesar 2,03 melebihi standar. Perlu dilakukan pengendalian tikusdan pinjal (Xenopsylla cheopis.Kata kunci: keberhasilan penangkapan, tikus, pinjal

  12. PEMANFAATAN SEREH (Cymbopogon Cytratus DALAM MENURUNKAN BAU PADA PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR DAN POTENSINYA DALAM MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABAI (Capsicum Annum

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    Nurhasanah Nurhasanah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in the use of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus to reduce odors in liquid organic fertilizer has been conducted in Bogor for 6 months. This study begin with a liquid organic fertilizer produced from 1 kg of shrimp waste, 1 kg of maize, 1 kg of bean sprouts, 10 liters of coconut water, 500 ml of EM4 and 500 g of sugar through fermentation process for 6 weeks. Then the result of liquid organic fertilizer was added by an ingredient lemongrass as deodorizing with doses of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v. After that it is fermented for 2 weeks. The next stage was the application of liquid organic fertilizer as a foliar fertilizer at chillies (Capsicum annum planting using a completely randomized design (CRD 1 factors type of using liquid organic fertilizer (control, liquid organic fertilizer without lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 10% lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 20% lemongrass and liquid organic fertilizer + 30% lemongrass respectively at doses of 0, 6, 12 and 18 ppm. The parameters measured were odor (NH3 and H2S, levels of macro nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and micro nutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe after fermenting process, and the production of crops (fruit number and fruit weight after planting. Research results show that the higher dose of lemongrass added cause levels of odor (NH3 and H2S in the liquid organic fertilizer decreased and content of macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and phytohormones increased. The planting results indicate liquid organic fertilizer which added 20% lemongrass in a dose of 12 ppm was the optimal dose in increasing crop production. Penelitian penggunaan sereh (Cymbopogon citratus dalam menurunkan bau pada pupuk organik cair telah dilakukan di Bogor selama 6 bulan. Penelitian ini diawali dengan membuat pupuk organik cair yang dihasilkan dari 1 kg limbah udang, 1 kg jagung, 1 kg touge, 10 Liter air kelapa, 500 ml EM4 dan 500 g gula pasir melalui proses fermentasi selama 6 minggu. Kemudian pada

  13. Etnobotani Upacara Kasada Masyarakat Tengger, di Desa Ngadas, Kecamatan Malang, Poncokusumo, Kabupaten Malang

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    Nindya Helvy Pramita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui  persepsi masyarakat, mengetahui  jenis-jenis  tanaman  yang  digunakan  untuk upacara  Kasada serta  mengetahui  peran  serta  masyarakat  Tengger  di Desa    Ngadas dalam mengkonservasi  tanaman  yang  digunakan upacara  Kasada.  Metode penelitian  yang  digunakan  adalah  metode survei,  observasi  dan wawancara semi  terstruktur  dengan menggunakan  50  responden.  Analisis penggunaan tumbuhan  dengan menggunakan  rumus  indeks  konsensus / fidelity  level. Hasil  penelitian ini  menunjukkan  persepsi  masyarakat sangat tinggi terhadap pelaksanaan  upacara  Kasada  serta  penyerahan  hasil  bumi. Tanaman yang  digunakan  untuk  upacara  Kasada  meliputi  16  jenis tanaman. Nilai  penggunaan  tanaman  tertinggi  adalah  edelweis (Anaphalis longifolia 96%,  padi  (Oryza  sativa  94%,  kentang (Solanum tuberosum 90%,  bawang  prei  (Allium  fistulosum  86%, putihan(Buddleja asiatica  84%, kubis  (Brassica  oleraceae  80%, antinganting  (Fuchsia magellanica  78%, pisang  raja  (Musa  paradisiaca 74%,  telotok  (Curculigo latifolia  70%, kenikir/gumitir  (Cosmos caudatus  68%,  pinang  (Areca catechu  dan beringin  (Ficus benjamina    46%,  danglu  (Engelhardia spicata  40%,  janur daun kelapa  (Cocos  nucifera  30%,  sirih  (Piper  betle 28%,  dan  jagung(Zea mays  24%.  Upaya  konservasi  keanekaragaman hayati  yang dilakukan  oleh masyarakat  Tengger  telah  berkembang  sejak lama, khususnya  pada masyarakat  yang  memiliki  pengetahuan lokal. Konservasi  dilakukan dengan menanam  flora  tersebut  di ladang, pekarangan  dan  jalan-jalan sekitar desa. Konsep pengelolaannya mengacu  pada  pemanfaatan  berkelanjutan  untuk memperoleh dinamika  ekosistem  yang  selaras  dan  seimbang  bagi kehidupan masyarakat Tengger.Kata  kunci: Desa  Ngadas,  indek

  14. Kinerja Pengeringan Gabah Menggunakan Alat Pengering Tipe Rak dengan Energi Surya, Biomassa, dan Kombinasi

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    Tamaria Panggabean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy drying was performed using a hybrid drier utilizing solar energy, biomass and combined solar-biomass energy as energy sources. This research objective was to evaluate performance of the hybrid paddy drier using solar energy and paddy straw and coconut coir biomass. The experimental and descriptive method was used. The result showed that the drier with solar system was capable to generate temperature of drying chamber to 40.42 °C in average, while the average relative humidity was 41.45%. The paddys final moisture was 14.88%w.b after 7 hours of drying with drying rate of 0.64% d.b/h and energy consumption of 32,595.32 kJ. Paddy drying with biomass energy system was capable to obtain drying chambers temperature of 33.8 °C in average, the average relative humidity of 57%, the final moisture of 15.57%, the drying rate of 0.50 %d.b/h and energy consumption of 160,662.15 kJ with the same drying times. The solar-biomass drying system was capable to achieve temperature of 39.98 °C, the average relative humidity of 45.85 %, the final moisture of 15.33%w.b with drying rate of 0.55 %d.b/h and energy consumption of 136,457.76 kJ. Therefore, the best performance for drying paddys was with the solar drying system.   ABSTRAK Pengeringan gabah dapat dilakukan menggunakan alat pengering energi surya, energi biomassa dan energi kombinasi surya dan biomassa.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja alat pengering gabah hybrid energi surya dan biomassa jerami padi dan sabut kelapa.  Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental dan deskritif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengeringan gabah dengan energi surya menghasilkan suhu ruang pengering rata-rata 40,42 °C, kelembaban relatif ruang pengering rata-rata 41,45 %, waktu pengeringan 7 jam, kadar air akhir rata-rata 14,88 %bb, laju pengeringan rata-rata 0,64 %bk/jam, dan energi pengering 32.595,32 kJ.  Pengeringan gabah dengan energi biomassa menghasilkan suhu ruang

  15. HIDROLISIS SELULOSA MENJADI GLUKOSA DENGAN KATALIS HETEROGEN ARANG AKTIF TERSULFONASI

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    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CELLULOCE HYDROLYSIS TO GLUCOSE USING ACTIVE CARBON SULPHONATED HETEROGENOUS CATALYST. Enzimatic process and acid hydrolysis process are common process for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Unfornately, the two processes are expensive process and korosif process. Hence, the new process, that use sulfonaned active carbon catalyst is important to developing. The sulfonated active carbon is made from carbonated coconut sheel under temperature at 350oC. After carbonation, sulfonated active carbon soaked under sulphate acid 96% at 150oC until 15 hours. The result is then washed and dried, and tested catalyst characteristics in the form of H+ capacity, pore size catalysts by used BET surface area, functional groups by used FTIR, and morphology catalyst structure by used SEM. Catalyst performance was tested in an autoclave reactor through a hydrothermal process with difference of the catalyst amount and temperature. The results showed that the test characteristics of H+ capacity is 2.95 mmol/g, the pore size is 29 m2/gr. FTIR analyze showed that the presence of sulfonate groups read at a wavelength of vibration 1750 cm-1 and 1379 cm-1. By SEM analyze showed that the morphological structure of sulfonated active carbon is more open than other catalyst. By testing catalyst, the highest conversion of glucose is 87.2 %. Keywords: cellulose; glucose; sulfonate active carbon; thatch Abstrak Teknologi yang sudah digunakan dalam mengubah selulosa menjadi glukosa adalah dengan proses enzimatik dan hidrolisis asam. Kedua teknologi tersebut masih memiliki kendala teknis, yaitu  harga enzim yang mahal, proses yang korosif dan menimbulkan limbah, sehingga diperlukan pengembangan teknologi baru salah satu diantaranya yaitu dengan metode katalis heterogen berupa karbon aktif tersulfonasi. Karbon aktif tersulfonasi ini dibuat dari tempurung kelapa yang dikarbonisasi pada temperatur 350oC, selanjutnya direndam dalam asam sulfat 96% pada temperatur 150oC selama 15 jam

  16. KRITERIA KUALITATIF PENENTUAN PRODUK UNGGULAN KOMODITAS PERKEBUNAN DENGAN METODE DELPHI DI KABUPATEN KOLAKA-SULAWESI TENGGARA

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    Dhian Herdhiansyah

    2013-06-01

    upaya mencapai konsensus, maka dilakukan dengan Metode Delphi. Ada tujuh indikator strategis digunakan sebagai kriteria penetapan produk unggulan komoditas perkebunan: (1 berbasis kepada potensi sumber daya lokal, (2 memiliki kesempatan yang tinggi untuk akses pada pasar domestik dan dunia, (3 menghasilkan nilai tambah yang tinggi, (4 didukung oleh teknologi dan sumber daya manusia yang handal, (5 ramah lingkungan, dengan menerapkan teknologi yang ramah dan bersih terhadap lingkungan,  pemanfaatan limbah pertanian yang optimal, serta menerapkan manajemen limbah yang baik, (6 melaksanakan prinsip-prinsip kerjasama dengan orientasi bisnis, dan (7 secara administratif dan ekonomi layak bagi pengembangan bisnis. Hasil perhitungan skor setiap indikator menunjukkan bahwa sebagai produk unggulan komoditas perkebunan adalah kakao di urutan pertama skor 4,6, cengkeh dan lada di urutan ke dua skor 4,3, jambu mete, kelapa,dan kopi di urutan ke tiga skor 4,2. Kata kunci: Penentuan produk unggulan, metode Delphi, komoditas perkebunan

  17. ANALISIS KEBERADAAN BIDAN DESA DAN DUKUN BAYI DI JAWA TIMUR

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    Mochamad Setyo Pramono

    2013-03-01

    through the course. Suggestion: Patterns midwife partnership with shamans only one way to improve the coverage of deliveries by health personnel. The approach must be done from two sides, which is also in the community. The abilityof midwives to promotive and preventive accordance with the local culture are factors in addition to the factors of education and knowledge in society itself. Key words: midwives, tradistional birth attendants, East Java ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Tujuan MDGs yang berupa meningkatkan kesehatan ibu, salah satu indikatornya adalah proporsi pertolongan kelahiran oleh tenaga kesehatan terlatih. Terkait dengan hal tersebut yang menjadi ujung tombak dilapangan adalah bidan desa. Kehadiran profesi bidan bukan berada di dalam lahan yang kosong, karena secara tradisi keberadaan dukun bayi telah ada terlebih dahulu. Pada kondisi geografis dan sosial masyarakat yang beragam, keberadaan mereka bisa menjadi khazanah kekayaan budaya. Menjadi menarik ketika dua kepentingan yang sejalan tetapi berbeda latar belakang ini bertemu di lapangan. Bagaimana eksistensi mereka di masyarakat terutama di perdesaan yang tradisinya masih kuat. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan gabungan penelitian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tahun 2011 di empat kabupaten di Jawa Timur yaitu Sampang, Probolinggo, Jombang dan Madiun. Pemilihan kabupaten mengacu pada karakteristik masyarakat di Jawa Timur yaitu Madura, Pandalungan, Arek dan Mataraman. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara observasi dan wawancara mendalam, informannya adalah bidan desa dan dukun bayi pada tiap wilayah puskesmas terpilih. Data dianalisis dengan teknik analisis domain, kategorial dan komponensial, sehingga membentuk matriks atau tipologi. Hasil: Terdapat dikotomi bidan senior dan bidan muda. Bidan senior kebanyakan berasal dari luar daerah. Jumlahnya terbatas sementara cakupan wilayah yang luas, tidak jarang membuat mereka memilih tinggal di pusat kecamatan. Akibatnya, pelayanan