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Sample records for korean longitudinal study

  1. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Eun; Jang, Sung In; Ju, Yeong Jun; Kim, Woorim; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun Cheol

    2017-07-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011-2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joo Eun; Jang, Sung-In; Ju, Yeong Jun; Kim, Woorim; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011?2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or...

  3. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  4. A change in social activity affect cognitive function in middle-aged and older Koreans: analysis of a Korean longitudinal study on aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between a changes in social activity and cognitive function in Koreans aged 45 years or older. Data were obtained from 6076 participants aged 45 years and older included in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012). Cognitive function was measured using the mini-mental state examination-Korean version (MMSE-K). Participation in social activities was classified as "consistent participation," "consistent non-participation," "participation to non-participation," and "non-participation to participation." Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between type of social activity (religious organizations, friendship organizations, leisure/culture/sports clubs, family or school reunion, volunteering work, and political organizations), and cognitive function. Individuals who reported "no participation to participation" (b = 0.778, p cognitive decline than those who reported "consistent non-participation" (p cognitive function and consistent participation in religious activities, friendship organizations, and family/school reunions was particularly strong (b = 0.325, p older persons) may help preserve cognitive function in individuals aged 45 years or older in Korea. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Association between muscle strength and metabolic syndrome in older Korean men and women: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women in Korea. Korean men and women 65 years and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n = 647) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. The diagnosis of MS was evaluated according to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors, as determined by peak torque per body weight (newton meter per kilogram) and hand-grip strength per body weight (newton per kilogram), was measured. Participants without MS had greater leg muscle strength and grip strength per weight. The effect of MS on muscle strength was more prominent in men than in women in our study population. Only men showed a significant interaction between MS and age for muscle strength (P = .014), and the effect was greater in men aged 65 to 74 years compared with those older than 75 years (119.2 ± 31.2 vs 134.5 ± 24.3 N m/kg). Participants with MS had weaker knee extensor strength after controlling the covariates (β = -90.80, P = .003), and the interaction term (age × MS × male sex) was significant (β = 1.00, P = .017). Metabolic syndrome is associated with muscle weakness, and this relationship is particularly pronounced in men. Age can modify the impact of MS on muscle strength. Men aged 65 to 74 years with MS need a thorough assessment of muscle strength to prevent disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011–2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. PMID:28581275

  7. A change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years and more: analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sig

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between a change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years or more. Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) (2006-2010), with 5,327 participants aged 45 years or more. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) with the logit link was used to investigate an association between a change in social activity during 2006-2008 (or 2008-2010) and depression among respondents in year 2008 (or Y2010). Depression was measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D10) and a change in social activity was classified with four categories, i.e. "consistent participation", "consistent non-participation", "participation to non-participation", and "non-participation to participation". Social activity was divided into various elements and the same analysis was conducted for each of these elements. Those with consistent non-participation and from participation to non-participation were more likely to be depressed than those with consistent participation and from non-participation to participation in social activities (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.22-1.71], OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.15-1.58] vs. OR 1.00 [Reference], OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.09-1.48]). In addition, the strength of the negative association between consistent or new participation in social activity and depression was different across different elements of social activity. The negative association was particularly strong for leisure, culture or sports clubs, and for family or school reunion. For improving the mental health of the population aged 45 years or more, the promotion of their continued or new participations in leisure/culture clubs and family/school reunion might be needed in South Korea.

  8. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress and premenstrual symptoms among Korean women studying in the U.S. and South Korea: A longitudinal web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-07-01

    Premenstrual symptoms have been reported to be highly correlated with levels of perceived stress; however, the magnitude of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships among perceived stress, acculturative stress, and premenstrual symptoms. The study used a 10-week longitudinal web-based design. A total of 98 female Korean international students studying in the U.S. and 89 Korean domestic students studying in South Korea were recruited using convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. The participants completed 10 weekly web-based surveys. Data were analyzed through descriptive analyses, linear multivariable mixed model regressions, t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regressions. The levels of both perceived stress and menstrual-related symptoms were higher during the premenstrual phase in Korean international students than in domestic students (p Korean international students, perceived stress (β = 0.30; p Korean domestic students, a history of sexual abuse was the strongest related factor (β = -0.28; p < .001). Because stress is a potentially modifiable factor, understanding its relationship to premenstrual symptoms can contribute to relieving these symptoms.

  10. The impact of living arrangements on quality of life among Korean elderly: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the impact of different living arrangements on quality of life (QoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. We used data from the first to fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using the first wave as a baseline, the data included 5050 individuals aged 60 years and older with at least one living child. QoL and HRQoL were measured using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korean Labor Institute that bears similarity to the EQ-VAS. Living arrangements were categorized based on household composition (single household, one-generation household, two-generation household, and three-generation household) and the marital status of a cohabiting adult child. A generalized estimating equation was used to examine the association between living arrangements and QoL/HRQoL. Compared to elderly individuals living in three-generation families with a married child, those in a single household (QoL: β = -2.67 [P = 0.001]; HRQoL: β = -2.24 [P = 0.007]), those living in a three-generation family with an unmarried adult child (QoL: β = -5.19 [P living in a two-generation family with an unmarried adult child (QoL: β = -2.88 [P living alone, but also for those living with an unmarried adult child; elderly persons who are female and part of the lowest equivalent household income group must receive particular attention.

  11. Effects of social integration on depressive symptoms in Korea: analysis from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Yunhwan; Jang, Sung-In

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The effects of a range of types of social integration and patterns of change in social integration over time were examined directly in relation to depressive symptoms in a large sample of the Korean population aged ≥45 years. Methods Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) between 2006 and 2012 were assessed using longitudinal data analysis. We included 10242 research subjects at baseline (2006) and based the primary analysis on generalised linear mixed models to examine association between social integration and depressive symptom. Results The odds ratio (OR) for depressive symptoms in individuals at the lowest level of social integration was 1.539-fold higher (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.360-1.742) that that for those at highest level of social integration. Results of subgroup analysis according to gender revealed a similar trend. A five-class linear solution fit the data best; Class 1 (lowest constant social integration level, 10.5% of the sample) was significantly associated with the highest risk of depressive symptoms (OR 1.933, 95% CI 1.706-2.190). Conclusions The results of the present study provide a scientific basis for the specific association between the level of social integration and changes in social integration pattern with the risk of depressive symptoms in current practice. Therefore, interventions to provide emotional support for older adults via social integration may be important to protect against depressive symptoms. What is known about the topic? Although there has been considerable discussion about social integration among old adults, few studies related to effect of social integration on depression have been conducted. What does this paper add? The findings of the present study indicate that a high level of social integration is inversely related to depressive symptoms and is also associated with a substantial positive effect on depressive symptoms among individuals aged ≥45 years. What are the

  12. Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Impaired Muscle Quality in Older Men with Diabetes: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

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    Ji Won Yoon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on muscle quality in older men with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThis was a subsidiary study of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging. Among 326 older men consenting to tests of body composition and muscle strength, 269 men were ultimately analyzed after the exclusion because of stroke (n=30 and uncertainty about the diagnosis of diabetes (n=27. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Muscle strength for knee extension was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle quality was assessed from the ratio of leg strength to the entire corresponding leg muscle mass.ResultsThe muscle mass, strength, and quality in patients with type 2 diabetes did not differ significantly from controls. However, when patients with diabetes were subdivided according to their glycemic control status, patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of ≥8.5% showed significantly decreased leg muscle quality by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 4.510; P=0.045 after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking amount, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and duration of diabetes. Physical performance status was also impaired in subjects with an HbA1c of ≥8.5%.ConclusionPoor glycemic control in these older patients with diabetes was associated with significant risk of decreased muscle quality and performance status. Glycemic control with an HbA1c of <8.5% might be needed to reduce the risk of adverse skeletal and functional outcomes in this population.

  13. Depressive Symptoms, Falls, and Fear of Falling in Old Korean Adults: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Paik, N-J; Kim, K W; Jang, H-C; Lim, J-Y

    2017-01-01

    Fall is a common cause of disability and death in old adults, and much research has been focused on identifying risk factors and developing preventive measures. Yet the majority of preceding research has been focused on physical performance. This study aims to evaluate the association between fall and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional data of 431 men and 546 women was collected from old Korean adults living in Seongnam, Korea. Geriatric fall assessment was conducted by self-report questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with both fall and fear of falling in old adults. A clear gender difference was newly discovered, as depression played a stronger role in women. These results imply that clinicians should consider the negative affect of geriatric patients when assessing fall risk. Also, measures against depression might be effective in reducing falls.

  14. Effects of a change in social activity on quality of life among middle-aged and elderly Koreans: Analysis of the Korean longitudinal study of aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Shin, Jaeyong; Kwon, Jeoung A; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a relationship between altered social activity and quality of life in later life. Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012), which consisted of 7096 participants aged 45 years or older. Change in social activity was classified into four categories; that is, "consistent non-participation," "participation to no participation," "no participation to participation" and "consistent participation." Social activity was divided into various elements, and the same analysis was carried out for each element. The linear mixed model was used to investigate the association between changes in social activity and quality of life among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. Those with changes from "participation to no participation" (b 2.253, P social activity and quality of life varied across different elements of social activity. The positive association was particularly strong for religious activities, friendship organization, leisure/culture clubs, family/school reunion and voluntary work (b 1.451, P < 0.0004; b 5.049, P < 0.0001; b 4.903, P < 0.0001; b 4.757, P < 0.0001; b 4.562, P < 0.0001; respectively, for consistent participation vs consistent non-participation). Consistent participation in religious activities, friendship organizations, leisure/culture clubs, family/school reunion ,and volunteer work improves quality of life among middle aged and older Koreans. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 132-141. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Does relationship satisfaction and financial aid from offspring influence the quality of life of older parents?: a longitudinal study based on findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yeong Jun; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Woorim; Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-07-26

    Quality of life (QoL) in old age is of major importance because the global population is aging rapidly. Offspring support, including financial and emotional support, is important in later life and directly affects the wellbeing of elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between QoL in older parents and offspring support. We used baseline data from the 2006-2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, from 3,274 individuals aged 65 years or older. We measured the individual's QoL using a visual analog scale and included both relationship satisfaction and regular economic support as variables. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to perform longitudinal regression analysis on the data. Regarding the QoL of older parents, those with an unsatisfying relationship with their offspring had a QoL of -21.93 (SE = 0.55; P financial aid from their offspring had a QoL of -0.92 (SE = 0.38; P = 0.0171) compared to those who received such economic support. Combination effects were observed, with cases living alone - and having poor offspring relationships and no regular financial support from their offspring - showing the most drastic decrease in QoL (-23.46; SE = 1.03; P < 0.0001). Offspring support influences the QoL of elderly individuals, and Korean children appear to play a crucial role in the QoL of their (older) parents. Considering that the role of offspring is rapidly diminishing due to industrialization policies, initiatives are required to revitalize offspring support for elderly parents.

  16. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Long working hours and precarious employment are relatively common in South Korea. Since both can impact on mental health, this study examined their independent and combined effects on depressive symptoms of employees. Data were from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), 2010-2013. A total of 2733 full-time employees without depressive symptoms were analysed. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of the number of working hours per week (eg, 35-40 hours, 41-52 hours, 53-68 hours, and >68 hours) and employment status (permanent vs precarious employment) on depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11 scale. Compared with individuals working 35-40 hours/week, employees working above 68 hours (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34) had higher odds of depressive symptoms after full adjustment. Similarly, precarious employees (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) showed worse mental health than permanent employees. In the combined effect model, employees in precarious employment who worked above 68 hours/week (OR, 2.03 95% CI 1.08 to 3.83) exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms compared with permanent employees working 35 to 40 hours/week. Long work hours and precarious employment status were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and addressing the vulnerable groups of employees to reduce the mental health burden of economically active individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Working hours and self-rated health over 7 years: gender differences in a Korean longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ki, Myung; Kim, Keun-Hoe; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Wonyun

    2015-12-23

    To investigate the association between long working hours and self-rated health (SRH), examining the roles of potential confounding and mediating factors, such as job characteristics. Data were pooled from seven waves (2005-2011) of the Korean Labour and Income Panel Study. A total of 1578 workers who consecutively participated in all seven study years were available for analysis. A generalized estimating equation for repeated measures with binary outcome was used to examine the association between working hours (five categories; 20-35, 36-40, 41-52, 53-68 and ≥ 69 h) and SRH (two categories; poor and good health), considering possible confounders and serial correlation. Associations between working hours and SRH were observed among women, but only for the category of the shortest working hours among men. The associations with the category of shortest working hours among men and women disappeared after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. Among women, though not men, working longer than standard hours (36-40 h) showed a linear association with poor health; OR = 1.41 (95% CI = 1.08-1.84) for 52-68 working hours and OR = 2.11 (95% CI = 1.42-3.12) for ≥ 69 working hours. This association persisted after serial adjustments. However, it was substantially attenuated with the addition of socioeconomic factors (e.g., OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.07-2.57)) but only slightly attenuated with further adjustment for behavioural factors (e.g., OR = 1.63 (95% CI = 1.05-2.53)). The associations with job satisfaction were significant for men and women. The worsening of SRH with increasing working hours only among women suggests that female workers are more vulnerable to long working hours because of family responsibilities in addition to their workload.

  18. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  19. The effect of offspring on depressive disorder among old adults: Evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2006 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether having an offspring protects against or increases the risk of depressive disorders. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) from 2006 and 2012 was assessed using longitudinal data analysis. We have included 10,149 research subjects at baseline and estimated the prevalence of depressive disorders for those with children. The number of offspring was from zero to five or more, and the composition of offspring is from zero boys and zero girls to two or more boys and two or more girls. For parents with zero offspring, the estimate for depressive disorder was 0.464 higher (SE: 0.123, p-value: 0.000, OR: 1.389; 95% CI: 1.176-1.640) and for parents with five or more offspring, the estimate for depressive disorder was 0.1 higher (SE: 0.104, p-value: 0.013, OR: 1.315; 95% CI: 1.150-1.504) compared to parents with two offspring. For parents with zero boys and zero girls, the estimate for depressive disorder was 0.599 higher (SE: 4.750, p-value: depressive disorder was 1.328 higher (SE: 3.820, p-value: 0.000, OR: 1.328; 95% CI: 1.189-1.482) compared to parents with one boy and one girl. Our results indicate that there is a large effect of offspring on the prevalence of depressive disorder, with significant positive effects for mothers. Fathers are at lower risk for depressive disorder than mothers, and the graph was U-shaped. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The neurobiological role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in recovery from trauma. Longitudinal brain imaging study among survivors of the South Korean subway disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung J; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Kim, Dajung J

    2011-07-01

    A multiwave longitudinal neuroimaging study in a cohort of direct survivors of a South Korean subway disaster, most of whom recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder 5 years after trauma, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the brain correlates of recovery from a severe psychological trauma. To investigate region-specific brain mobilization during successful recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder by assessing cortical thickness multiple times from early after trauma to recovery, and to examine whether a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism was associated with this brain mobilization. Five-year follow-up case-control study conducted from 2003-2007. Seoul National University and Hospital. Thirty psychologically traumatized disaster survivors and 36 age- and sex-matched control group members recruited from the disaster registry and local community, respectively, who contributed 156 high-resolution brain magnetic resonance images during 3 waves of assessments. Cerebral cortical thickness measured in high-resolution anatomic magnetic resonance images using a validated cortical thickness analysis tool and its prospective changes from early after trauma to recovery in trauma-exposed individuals and controls. Trauma-exposed individuals had greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (DLPFC) thickness 1.42 years after trauma (right DLPFC, 5.4%; left superior frontal cortex, 5.8%; and left inferior frontal cortex, 5.3% [all clusters, P ≤ .01]) relative to controls. Thicknesses gradually normalized over time during recovery. We found a positive linear trend, with trauma-exposed individuals with a valine/valine genotype having the greatest DLPFC cortical thickness, followed by those with a methionine genotype and controls (P < .001 for trend). Greater DLPFC thickness was associated with greater posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reductions and better recovery. The DLPFC region might play an important role in psychological recovery from a

  1. Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Depression According to Employment Status in Married Women: A Longitudinal Study Utilizing Data from Panel Study on Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Won; Kim, Ju Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study was to examined the moderated mediation effect of self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and depression among married women with children using longitudinal data from the 3rd to 6th Panel Studies on Korean. The data from the Panel Study of Korean Children (Korea Institute of Child Care and Education) was collected as part of a longitudinal inquiry of babies born in 2008, their parents and their community environments. Only the data collected from the married women over the age of 20 who participated in the maternal survey was used for this study. The initial level of married women's parenting stress affects the initial level and the rate of change in self-esteem; the initial level of self-esteem, the initial level and rate of change in depression; and the initial level of parenting stress, the initial level of depression. However, the impact of the rate of change in parenting stress on that of self-esteem was significant only in employed women while the impact of the rate of change in self-esteem on that of depression was significant only in unemployed women. It is necessary to manage parenting stress among married women through various programs and education that increase self-esteem in order to reduce their level of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  3. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008?2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N.; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 10...

  4. Does Depression Moderate or Mediate the Relations between Deficits in Competence and Aggression?: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeonsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of child depression in the relations between deficits in competence and aggression by replicating and extending the study by Cole et al. (1996). In a two-wave longitudinal study, 6th-grade children (n = 329) completed self-report measures of three domains of competence (i.e. social, academic,…

  5. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008-2013 Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-08-01

    To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83-3.10). The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  6. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of Academic Burnout in Korean Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Keunhwa; Choi, Hyunju; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal relationships between the initial values and slopes of three dimensions of burnout syndrome (i.e. emotional exhaustion, cynicism and academic inefficacy). The study utilized four-wave longitudinal data from a total of 367 (81.6% response rate) middle school students in South Korea. Comprising a 6-month interval survey, the first survey was conducted in June 2010, the second in December 2010, the third in June 2011 and the fourth in December 2011. All participants were 13-year-olds at the first and second surveys, and 14-year-olds at the third and fourth surveys. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey was used for each survey to assess the level of academic burnout. The longitudinal data were analysed using latent growth modelling. The results of the study indicated that high initial values (intercept) for emotional exhaustion were associated with a higher rate of increase (slope) in cynicism and academic inefficacy. On the other hand, high initial values for cynicism and academic inefficacy were associated with a lower rate of increase in the other dimensions. This longitudinal study should promote understanding of burned-out students and contribute to the literature by informing the design of prevention programmes for academic burnout. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Min Jung; Park, Sun Young; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2014-09-01

    Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up.

  9. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jongbae Park

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented...

  10. The effect of employment transitions on physical health among the elderly in South Korea: A longitudinal analysis of the Korean Retirement and Income Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to answer three research questions: First, is the positive effect of retirement on physical health replicated in Korea? Second, is there any difference in health effects of employment transition according to employment status? Third, to what extent do monetary, non-monetary and work-related factors explain the effects of employment transitions on changes in physical health? The longitudinal panel data from five waves of the Korea Retirement and Income Study was used. We conducted (a) the pooled cross-sectional analysis, which used five-wave pooled data; and (b) the fixed-effects analyses to investigate how within-individual changes in employment status correspond to changes in subjective physical health among older adults aged 55 to 84. Results show that transition into retirement leads to poor physical health in Korea, and such effect was moderately mediated by both monetary and non-monetary factors. Compared to respondents who moved to non-precarious employment, those who became employers, self-employers, precarious workers, and unpaid family workers experienced significantly greater odds of reporting subjective poor physical health. Job dissatisfaction seems to be the most important mechanism through which employment transitions were translated into increasing likelihood of poor physical health. In conclusion, the social cost of retirement should consider the negative effects of retirement on the well-being and psychological health of retired individuals and their relationships with family, friends and neighbors, as well as income loss and economic uncertainty. Improving employment quality and working conditions for older working adults may be crucial in accomplishing longer and healthier working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Genetic Diversity in the Korean Peninsula Based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Suh, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyo-Soon; Jung, Hyun-Sik; Park, In-Ho; Choi, Yien-Kyeoug; Choi, Kyoung-Mi; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2011-12-01

    Vivax malaria has reemerged and become endemic in Korea. Our study aimed to analyze by both longitudinal and cross-sectional genetic diversity of this malaria based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein (PvMSP) gene parasites recently found in the Korean peninsula. PvMSP-1 gene sequence analysis from P vivax isolates (n = 835) during the 1996-2010 period were longitudinally analyzed and the isolates from the Korean peninsula through South Korea, the demilitarized zone and North Korea collected in 2008-2010 were enrolled in an overall analysis of MSP-1 gene diversity. New recombinant subtypes and severe multiple-cloneinfection rates were observed in recent vivax parasites. Regional variation was also observed in the study sites. This study revealed the great complexity of genetic variation and rapid dissemination of genes in P vivax. It also showed interesting patterns of diversity depending, on the region in the Korean Peninsula. Understanding the parasiteninsula. Under genetic variation may help to analyze trends and assess the extent of endemic malaria in Korea.

  12. Comparisons of predictive values of sarcopenia with different muscle mass indices in Korean rural older adults: a longitudinal analysis of the Aging Study of PyeongChang Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang IY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Il-Young Jang,1,2,* Hee-Won Jung,3,4,* Chang Ki Lee,5 Sang Soo Yu,2 Young Soo Lee,1 Eunju Lee1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 2PyeongChang Health Center & County Hospital, Gangwon-Do, 3Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST, Daejeon, 4Geriatric Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-Do, 5Goldman Urology Clinic, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: It is important to define lean muscle mass when diagnosing sarcopenia, but there is still controversy on the clinical implication of sarcopenia derived by height, weight, and body mass index (BMI adjusted muscle mass indices. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal clinical relevance of 3 sarcopenia definitions in the Korean population. Patients and methods: We conducted comprehensive geriatric assessments for 1,379 community-dwelling older participants in the Aging Study of PyeongChang Rural Area (ASPRA cohort and followed them up prospectively for death, institutionalization, and disability every 3 months. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group consensus algorithm, combining grip strength, gait speed, and muscle mass.Results: Among 1,343 participants (mean age: 76 years, 741 women analyzed, there were 29 deaths and 89 institutionalizations during 22.0 ± 8.3 months follow-up (mean ± SD. All three muscle indices correlated to age and sex. All sarcopenia criteria with muscle mass indices of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI adjustment significantly predicted death or institutionalization. However, when adjusted for age and sex, only the sarcopenia criteria with muscle mass index of height adjustment were significantly associated with major adverse health outcomes.Conclusion: Adjusting age and gender, the sarcopenia definition from the quintile-based muscle index of height

  13. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbae Park

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented briefly here including 1 Quality of Life of liver cancer patients after 8 Constitutional acupuncture; 2 Developing a Korean version of Measuring yourself Medical Outcome profile (MYMOP; and 3 Survey on 5 Shu points: a pilot In the first study, we have included 4 primary or secondary liver cancer patients collecting their diagnostic X-ray film and clinical data f개m their hospital, and asked them to fill in the European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire before the commencement of the treatment. The acupuncture treatment is set up format but not disclosed yet. The translation and developing a Korean version of outcome measures that is Korean clinician friendly has been sought for MYMOP is one of the most appropriate one. The permission was granted, the translation into Korean was done, then back translated into English only based on the Korean translation by the researcher who is bilingual in both languages. The back translation was compared by the original developer of MYMOP and confirmed usable. In order to test the existence of acupoints and meridians through popular forms of Korean acupuncture regimes, we aim at collecting opinions from 101 Korean clinicians that have used those forms. The questions asked include most effective symptoms, 5 Shu points, points those are least likely to use due to either adverse events or the lack of effectiveness, theoretical reasons for the above proposals, proposing outcome measures

  14. The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Min; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ji Hong; Chang, Gyu Tae; Kim, Hocheol; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-05-02

    Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. Female adolescent rats were randomly assigned to groups that received distilled water (per os [p.o.] twice a day; control), recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; 20 μg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.] once a day), or two different doses of YJT (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o. twice a day). In each group, treatment was maintained for 4 days. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 2 - 4. Tetracycline hydrochloride (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to form fluorescent bands on the growth plates on day 3 for measuring the longitudinal bone growth rate. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the growth plate was identified using immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the rate of bone growth in the 300 mg/kg YJT group (523.8 ± 23.7 μm/day; P growth plate in the 300 mg/kg YJT and rhGH groups. YJT increased the longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation with increasing increments of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expression. Based on these findings, YJT may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of growth retardation during adolescence.

  15. A STUDY ON THE KOREAN IONOSPHERIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere in accordance with solar activity can affect the transmission of radio waves. The effect of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. The present study is based on the Korean ionospheirc data obtained at the AnYang Radio Research Laboratory from January 1985 through October 1989. The data are analyzed to show the daily and the annual variations of the ionosphere. The data are also used to simulate the density distribution of the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law.

  16. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  17. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  18. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  19. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  20. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HONORIFIC USE IN KOREAN EMAIL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.

  1. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongki Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. “Stagnant blood within the body” was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis.

  2. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  3. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  4. A Study on the Korean Medicine Education and the Changes in the Traditional Korean Medicine during the Japanese Colonial Era: Focused on the Korean Medicine Training Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongyuan

    2018-04-01

    The modern education institutes play an important role in fostering professional talents, reproducing knowledge and studies, and forming the identities of certain academic fields and vocational communities. It is a matter of common knowledge that the absence of an official Korean medicine medical school during the Japanese colonial era was a severely disadvantageous factor in the aspects of academic progress, fostering follow-up personnel, and establishment of social capability. Therefore, the then Korean medicine circle put emphasis on inadequate official education institutes as the main factor behind oppression. Furthermore, as the measure to promote the continuance of Korean medicine, the circle regarded establishing civilian Korean medicine training schools as their long-cherished wish and strived to accomplish the mission even after liberation. This study looked into how the Korean medicine circle during the Japanese colonial era utilized civilian training schools to conduct the Korean medicine education conforming to modern medical school and examined how the operation of these training schools influenced the changes in the traditional Korean medicine. After the introduction of the Western medical science, the Korean medicine circle aimed to improve the quality of Korean medicine doctors by establishing modern Korean medicine medical schools. However, after the annexation of Korea and Japan, official Korean medicine medical schools were not established since policies were organized centered on the Western medical science. In this light, the Korean medicine circle strived to nurture the younger generation of Korean medicine by establishing and operating the civilian Korean medicine training schools after the annexation between Korea and Japan. The schools were limited in terms of scale and status but possessed the forms conforming to the modern medical schools in terms of education system. In other words, the civilian training schools not only adhered to the

  5. A Study of Renogram in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The patterns of renogram in patients with Korean hemorrhagic fever were evaluated with clinical course and renal hemodynamic changes in various clinical stages. The renal plasma flow was measured by hippuran blood clearance using 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate and hippuran renogram was analysed means of quantitative and qualitative methods in 26 patients of Korean hemorrhagic fever. The results obtained with this study were as follows;1) During the oliguric phase of Korean hemorrhagic fever, the renogram showed non-functioning (flat) or obstructive pattern. The group of patients with non-functioning pattern of renogram had more severe impairment of renal function and grave prognosis than the group with obstructive pattern of renogram. 2) During the diuretic phase, the renogram showed obstructive or dysfunction ar normal pattern, which was related with the recovery of renal function. Obstruction pattern of renogram was observed till the 2nd week of diuretic phase. Normal pattern of renogram began to appear by the 2nd week of diuretic phase. 3) During the convalescent phase of Korean hemorrhagic fever, 40% of patients showed dysfunction pattern of renogram, and the recovery of abnormal renogram in Korean hemorrhagic fever was more delayed than the recovery of clinical features and laboratory findings. 4) The renogram showed normal pattern 6 months after onset of Korean hemorrhagic fever in all cases. 5) There was significant correlationship between the pattern of renogram and the decrease of renal plasma flow in the patients with Korean hemorrhagic fever. The decrease of renal plasma flow was marked in the patients with non-functioning pattern of renogram and was least in the patients with dysfunction pattern of renogram. All above results suggested that the renogram reflects the effective renal plasma flow and degree of renal impairment, and the renogram may be one of the important indexes which could give us a more precise prognosis in Korean hemorrhagic fever.

  6. Korean ESL Parents' Perspectives and Maintenance of Mother Tongue: A Case Study of Two Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores the language attitudes and perceptions of Korean parents, with regard to their children's native language maintenance and ESL education in the US. The primary focuses are on (1) what aspects are held by Korean parents toward the maintenance of the native language in the US, and (2) how these perspectives operate in their…

  7. Korean University Students' Attitudes and Motivation towards Studying English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the attitudes of Korean university students towards studying English and to determine if attending after-school English academies has had a negative impact on their attitudes towards studying English. The study also sought to determine if studying English leads to anxiety, and more importantly if…

  8. Predictors of suicidal ideation in Korean American older adults: analysis of the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Peter J; Kim, Kim B; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Hochang B

    2017-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation among Korean American older adults and assess the self-rated mental health of Korean American older adults with suicidal ideation with or without depressive syndrome. The Memory and Aging Study of Koreans is a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of a community-representative sample of Korean American older adults (N = 1116) residing in the Baltimore-Washington area. Participants were interviewed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). In addition, demographic information, self-rated mental health, and self-rated physical health status were obtained. In this study, 14.7% of Korean American older adults reported suicidal ideation. Predictors of suicidal ideation included living alone, major or minor depressive syndrome (diagnosed by the PHQ-9K), shorter duration of residency in the USA, and poorer self-rated mental health status. Of those who reported suicidal ideation, 64% did not have minor or major depressive syndrome. However, their self-rated mental health was as poor as that of those with major or minor depressive syndrome but without suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation without depressive syndromes was common among Korean American older adults. For this group of elders with poor self-rated mental health, future studies should look to improving early detection of suicide risks and developing feasible suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A study on the denuclearization policy in Korean peninsular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.; Choi, Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    The prime ministers of North Korea and South Korea adopted 'Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsular' (Joint Declaration) on December 31, 1991. Unprecedented as an agreement between two political powers of a divided country, this Joint Declaration is important for its historical significance. To analyze the denuclearization policy in the Korean peninsular, this dissertation suggests a framework which can be established on the factors facilitating the denuclearization both on the level of international politics and on the politics of a divided country. A substantial nuclear proliferation theory should be based on the study in detail of the nuclear proliferation cases of about 40 individual countries. This dissertation may be meaningful as a concrete study of the denuclearzation in the Korean peninsular on theoretical and practical basis

  10. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  11. A Study on the Textbook Designed to Teach Korean as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    It is the reality of Korean language education that the development of teaching materials for Korean language for academic purposes are not so brisk, compared to that of the materials for general purpose, as the education of Korean language as a foreign language has just begun to proceed. The focuses of this study are to survey the brief history…

  12. A preliminary conceptual design study for Korean fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keeman, E-mail: kkeeman@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan; Oh, Sangjun; Lee, Young Seok; Yeom, Jun Ho; Im, Kihak; Lee, Gyung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neilson, George; Kessel, Charles; Brown, Thomas; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present design guidelines and requirements of Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) and CS (central solenoid) magnet. ► Present a preliminary result of the radial build scheme of Korean DEMO reactor. -- Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy, so called fast-track approach. Korean strategy for fusion energy can be regarded as a fast-track approach and one special concept discussed in this paper is a two-stage development plan. At first, a steady-state Korean DEMO Reactor (K-DEMO) is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used as a component test facility. Then, at its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electric generation on the order of 300 MWe and the competitiveness in cost of electricity (COE). The major radius is designed to be just below 6.5 m, considering practical engineering feasibilities. By using high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn-based superconducting cable currently available, high magnetic field at the plasma center above 8 T can be achieved. A design concept for TF magnets and radial builds for the K-DEMO considering a vertical maintenance scheme, are presented together with preliminary design parameters.

  13. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  14. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong

    2017-11-01

    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong-kyu, Lee

    This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

  16. A Study on the Radio Propagation in the Korean Ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. If ionospheric conditions are suitable, the charged particles can remove energy from radio waves and thus attenuate the signal. Also, a radio wave traveling a path along which the electron density is not constant undergoes changes in direction, position and time of propagation. The present study is based on Korean ionospheric data obtained at the AnYong Radio Research Institute from Jan. 1985 through Oct. 1989. The data are used to simulate the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law. The effects of the model ionosphere on the radio wave propagation, such as the angle, position error, time delay, and the attenuation, are studies for the various cases of the wave frequency and the altitude.

  17. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Agent Orange exposure and risk of death in Korean Vietnam veterans: Korean Veterans Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ryu, So-Yeon; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2014-12-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was a mixture of phenoxy herbicides, containing several dioxin impurities including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Various military herbicides, including AO, were sprayed by the US military and allied forces for military purposes during the Vietnam War. This study was performed to identify the associations between the AO exposure and mortality in Korean Vietnam veterans. From 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2005, 180 639 Korean Vietnam veterans were followed up for vital status and cause of death. The AO exposure index was based on the proximity of the veteran's unit to AO-sprayed areas, using a geographical information system-based model. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox's proportional hazard model. The mortality from all causes of death was elevated with AO exposure. The deaths due to all sites of cancers combined and some specific cancers, including cancers of the stomach, small intestine, liver, larynx, lung, bladder and thyroid gland, as well as chronic myeloid leukaemia, were positively associated with AO exposure. The deaths from angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and liver disease including liver cirrhosis were also increased with an increasing AO exposure. Overall, this study suggests that AO/TCDD exposure may account for mortality from various diseases even several decades after exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects of AO/TCDD exposure on human health. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Study on the Internationalization of Korean Nuclear Journals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Y. C.; Yoo, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide some thoughts for a listing of the Korean nuclear journals in the Science Citation Index(SCI), by an analysis of indicators based on the data gathered from relevant literature : Journal of Korean Nuclear Society(JKNS) and Nuclear Engineering and Technology (NET) as cited in the SCI source journal. The study examines as an indicator the number of papers in the JKNS and NET that have been cited by KAERI researchers in the SCI Source Journal (to the end of August 2006). This paper also gives a review of the statistics provided by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), as an authoritative source for an evaluation of a global cataloguing of scientific and technical journals, and suggests a view for a listing of the Korean nuclear journals in the SCI by a review of associated selection criteria and methods. It concludes there is a need to increase the number of citations in the SCI source journals of the NET papers to be published from the most recent previous two years

  20. Comparative Study on Subjective Experience of Elder Abuse Between Older Korean Immigrants in the United States and Older Koreans in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationship between sociodemographic factors and elder abuse among older Koreans in the United States and Korea. Survey data from older Koreans aged between 60 and 79 years from the two countries ( n = 480) were analyzed descriptively and in binary logistic regressions. This study found a similar prevalence of elder abuse in the two samples, with 26% of older Korean immigrants in the United States reporting abuse and 23% of older Koreans in Korea reporting abuse. However, there were significant differences in the types of emotional abuse experienced by older Koreans in both countries. Reports of some types of emotional abuse, such as 'name calling' and 'silent treatment,' were significantly higher in the United States than in Korea. These findings expand our knowledge of the experience of elder abuse among older Koreans in both countries.

  1. Decision making about Pap test use among Korean immigrant women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Gallo, Joseph J; Nolan, Marie T; Han, Hae-Ra

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how individuals make decisions about Pap tests concerning their personal values helps health-care providers offer tailored approaches to guide patients' decision making. Yet research has largely ignored decision making about Pap tests among immigrant women who experience increased risk of cervical cancer. To explore decision making about Pap tests among Korean immigrant women. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using 32 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant women residing in a north-eastern metropolitan area. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive coding. Although most women with positive decisions made their own decisions, some women deferred to their providers, and others made decisions in collaboration with their providers and significant others. While women making positive decisions tended to consider both barriers to and facilitators of having Pap tests, women making negative decisions predominantly discussed the barriers to having Pap tests, such as modesty and differences between the South Korean and US health-care systems. The women's reflections on their decisions differed regarding their Pap test decisions. Women's desired roles in the decision-making process and reflection on their decision outcome appeared to vary, although most participants with positive decisions made their own decisions and were satisfied with their decisions. Future research should conduct longitudinal, quantitative studies to test our findings regarding decision-making processes and outcomes about Pap tests. The findings should be incorporated into cervical cancer screening practices to fulfil the unmet needs of immigrant women in patient-provider communication and to facilitate women's decision making about Pap tests. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  3. A cohort study of incident microalbuminuria in relation to HOMA-IR in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Chun, Hyejin; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won; Cho, Choo Yon; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Ko, Taeg Su; Kim, Eugene; Park, Se-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Hong, Seok Jin; Hong, Hyun Pyo

    2015-06-15

    Despite the previous studies showing the relationship between microalbuminuria and insulin resistance, longitudinal effect of insulin resistance on development of microalbuminuria is not clearly identified in non-diabetic population. One thousand six hundred three non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 had been followed up for the development of microalbuminuria until 2010. Microalbuminuria was evaluated by urine-albumin creatinine ration, and insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk for microalbuminuria according to the tertile of HOMA-IR. During 5465.8 person-y of average follow-up, microalbuminuria developed in 76 (4.7%) participants. Incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the level of HOMA-IR (tertile 1: 3.0%, tertile 2: 4.1%, tertile 3: 7.1%, PHOMA-IR was set as reference, hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 1.15 (0.56-2.35) and 2.07 (1.05-4.09) for those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of HOMA-IR, even after adjusting multiple covariates, respectively (P for linear trend=0.054). Increased insulin resistance was a predictor of microalbuminuria in Korean men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  5. Radiologic study of silicosis in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ok; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seap

    1982-01-01

    These radiologic studies were carried out on 265 cases of silicosis which were diagnosed clinically at Industrial Accident Hospital affiliated with Catholic Medical College, during the period of 3 years from 1974 to 1976. 265 cases od silicosis consisted of 96 cases (35%) of coal miner, 91 cases (34%) of coal choicer and 82 cases (31%) of others. The average age was 42.2 years and average working period was 9.2 years. Qualitative and quantitative features in the analysis of roentgen findings were based on UICC/Cincinnati and KLO classification. The qualitative features showed 26% of 'p' opacity, 46% of 'q' opacity, 4% of 'r' opacity as rounded profusion and 5% of 's' opacity, 11% of 't' opacity, 2% of 'u' opacity as irregular profusion of small opacities. Large opacities showed 3% of group A, 2% of group B and 1% of group C. Quantitative features revealed 25% of Type 1, 54% of Type 2, 16% of Type 3 and 5% of Type 4. The qualitative and quantitative features showed significant differences as age and working period increased. 70% of this study group were associated with radiological complications and complication rate was increased with age and working period. Major complications were pulmonary emphysema, tuberculosis and pleural abnormalities

  6. Radiologic study of silicosis in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ok; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seap [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    These radiologic studies were carried out on 265 cases of silicosis which were diagnosed clinically at Industrial Accident Hospital affiliated with Catholic Medical College, during the period of 3 years from 1974 to 1976. 265 cases od silicosis consisted of 96 cases (35%) of coal miner, 91 cases (34%) of coal choicer and 82 cases (31%) of others. The average age was 42.2 years and average working period was 9.2 years. Qualitative and quantitative features in the analysis of roentgen findings were based on UICC/Cincinnati and KLO classification. The qualitative features showed 26% of 'p' opacity, 46% of 'q' opacity, 4% of 'r' opacity as rounded profusion and 5% of 's' opacity, 11% of 't' opacity, 2% of 'u' opacity as irregular profusion of small opacities. Large opacities showed 3% of group A, 2% of group B and 1% of group C. Quantitative features revealed 25% of Type 1, 54% of Type 2, 16% of Type 3 and 5% of Type 4. The qualitative and quantitative features showed significant differences as age and working period increased. 70% of this study group were associated with radiological complications and complication rate was increased with age and working period. Major complications were pulmonary emphysema, tuberculosis and pleural abnormalities.

  7. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  8. Examining Longitudinal Relationship among Effort Reward Imbalance, Coping Strategies and Academic Burnout in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between effort-reward imbalance as a stressor and academic burnout as a strain. The study also examined the moderation effect of coping strategies, a problem-focused coping and an emotion-focused coping, in the relationship between effort-reward imbalance as a stressor and middle school…

  9. The comparative study of resonance disorders for Vietnamese and Korean cleft palate speakers using nasometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyun-Gi

    2017-12-01

    Nasalance is used to evaluate the velopharyngeal incompetence in clinical diagnoses using a nasometer. The aim of this study is to find the nasalance differences between Vietnamese cleft palate children and Korean cleft palate children by measuring the nasalance of five oral vowels. Ten Vietnamese cleft palate children after surgery, three Vietnamese children for the control group, and ten Korean cleft palate children after surgery with the same age participated in this experimentation. Instead of Korean control, the standard value of Korean version of the simplified nasometric assessment procedures (kSNAP) was used. The results are as follows: (1) the highest nasalance score among the Vietnamese normal vowels is the low vowel /a/; however, that of Korean normal vowels is the high vowel /i/. (2) The average nasalance score of Korean cleft palate vowels is 18% higher than that of Vietnamese cleft palate vowels. There was a nasalance score of over 45% among the vowels /e/ and /i/ in Vietnamese cleft palate patients and /i/, /o/, and /u/ in Korean cleft palate patients. These different nasalance scores of the same vowels seem to cause an ethnic difference between Vietnamese and Korean cleft palate children.

  10. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  11. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  12. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  13. The radiological study of optic canal in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seong Sook; Juhn, Jae Ryang; Lee, Jang Sik; Chae, Yoo Soon; Bae, Cheol

    1982-01-01

    Various methods of taking of optic foramen view and availabilities have been studied by many foreign investigators, but those in Korea have not been reported yet. The authors have measured and examined the size and shapes of optic foramina of optic foramen views in 111 Korean checked at Inje Medical College Hospital during about 3 years form June 1979 to March 1982. The cases were divided into two groups, A and B, for the convenience of study. Group A consisted of 50 normal Korean 5 to 55 years of age with no visual symptoms and signs. Group B included 69 patients 3 to 75 years of age with visual symptoms and signs. The results were as follows: 1. Mean value of actual diameter of optic foramen measured by Goalwin's method in Groups A: Right: A diameter; 4.21 mm, B diameter; 4.32 mm, Left: A diameter; 4.29 mm, B diameter; 4.30 mm. 2. Absolute symmetry of the great diameters of both optic foramina in Group A; 36%, difference of 0.5 or less; 28%, from 0.5 to 1.0 mm; 18%, from 1.0 to 1.5 mm; 8%, uncomparable cases; 10%. The greatest difference was 1.4 mm. 3. The shapes of optic foramen in Group A: oval shape; 65%, circular; 29%, keyhole or double foramen; 6%. 4. In Group B, the peak age group was second decade (31%), the most common clinical cause of examination of optic foramen view was optic nerve atrophy (30%), and the pathologic findings were only 4 cases (7%). 5. The technique of optic foramen view by modified Pfeiffer's method delineated the outline of optic foramen more clearly than ordinary Rhese's method in our experience

  14. Injuries in elite Korean fencers: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Jun; Brian Byung, Song

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to assess the risk of injury associated with training activities in a population of elite Korean fencers training for the Olympic games. We analysed the incidence of sports injuries, based on data prospectively collected over an 8-year period (January 2008 to December 2015) at the National Training Center in Seoul, Korea. The population of elite fencing athletes was stratified according to fencing category (sabre, epee and foil), sex, injury location (body region and site) and injury severity (mild or level I injury, requiring treatment for 1-3 days; moderate or level II injury, requiring treatment for 4-7 days; and severe or level III injury, requiring treatment for ≥8 days). A total of 1176 injuries were recorded during the study period, with an average of 3.3 injuries per athlete annually. Of these, over half (52.6%) were mild injuries, with most injuries occurring in the lower extremity (47.2%), followed by injuries to the upper extremity (26.4%), trunk (21.4%), and head and neck area (5.0%). For all weapon categories, there was a significant difference between male and female athletes in terms of injury location and severity (p≤0.005). We hope that our data describing injury location and severity according to weapon category and sex can help one understand the circumstances that lead to injuries in elite Korean fencers and can be used in the development of programmes to reduce the incidence of sports injuries and enhance athletic performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  16. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  18. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, David K

    2007-01-01

    Fog has always been a difficult phenomenon to forecast. Its unpredictable nature and propensity to quickly decrease visibilities have had adverse effects on military operations for many years across the Korean peninsula...

  19. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  20. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. The North Korean refugees' mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees' mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  2. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  3. Antithyroid Drugs and Congenital Malformations: A Nationwide Korean Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2018-03-20

    Untreated or insufficiently treated Graves disease in pregnancy may pose risks to both mother and fetus. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are the treatment mainstay, but the potential teratogenic effect of these drugs has prompted clinicians to question the safe management of this vulnerable population. To examine the association between maternal prescriptions for ATDs and congenital malformations in live births. Nationwide cohort study. Korean National Health Insurance database. A cohort of 2 886 970 completed pregnancies linked to live-born infants in 2 210 253 women between 2008 and 2014. Maternal prescriptions for ATDs in the first trimester. The risk for overall and organ-specific congenital malformations in offspring, with logistic regression models used to control for potential confounders. 12 891 pregnancies (0.45%) were exposed to ATDs during the first trimester. The prevalence of malformations in exposed offspring was 7.27%, compared with 5.94% in offspring of women who were not prescribed ATDs during pregnancy (P 495 mg) during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk for malformations compared with a low dose (1 to 126 mg) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.06 to 3.30]). The study used a prescription claims database to assess ATD exposure. Exposure to ATDs during the first trimester was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations, particularly for pregnancies in which women received prescriptions for MMI or both ATDs. None.

  4. Radiologic study of mandibular third molar of Korean youths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    The author has made a study on the classification of the mandibular 3rd molars of Korean youths through dental radiography by means of Pell and Gregory's classification and on the prevalence of the dental caries of distal surface of the mandibular 2nd molar adjacent to the mandibular 3rd molars turned anteriorly. The results are as follow; 1. It was found that the largest case number was class I (272 cases, 52.9%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar. 2. The mesio-angular position was the largest number (239 cases, 46.5%) in the relation of the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd molar to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 3. The mesio-angular position of class I was the largest number (140 cases, 27.2%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar and the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd moral to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 4. The average angle of the long axis of mandibular 3rd molar in mesioangular position or horizontal position to the occlusal plane was 143 W 5. Mandibular 3rd molar with lesion such as dental cries or pericoronitis was 73 cases (14.2). 6. The caries incidence rate of the distal surface of the 2nd molar was about 3.1%.

  5. Roentgenographic studies of Korean adults profile with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    A roentgraphic cephalometric study was made on the soft and hard tissue profile of Korean adults. The subject consisted of 52 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Twenty one landmarks were plotted and two oriented lines named SnH line and SnV line were drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms. The means and the standard deviations from the subjects were calculated in each measuring category and the means were compared with those of male and female samples. The results were obtained as follow: 1. In depth and height, individual variations and sex differences of the lower facial profile were larger than the upper face. 2. The sex differences of upper facial profile were larger in height than depth. 3. The individual variations and sex differences of the top of nose were the smallest in all measuring points. 4. The thickness of the soft tissue of upper face and upper lip in male sample were larger than those of female, but the same matter were not found in mental region.

  6. [A study on Horace N. Allen's medicine and recognition of Korean body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah

    2011-12-31

    Je Jung Won was the first modern-style Government hospital built by the Korean King Ko-Jong in April 1885, and it was the medical missionary Horace Newton Allen(1858~1932) who made one of the greatest contributions to the establishment of the hospital. Allen was an American missionary. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University with a degree in theology in 1881, and completed one-yearcourse at Miami Medical College. In Korea and America he worked as a physician, a missionary, an American diplomatic minister to Korea and a Korean minister's secretary to America. While acting as a mediator between Korea and America, he knew and recorded the domestic and foreign situation of Korea during Gaehwagi(the civilized and enlightened age). Thus to study him is to understand Korea's Gaehwagi as well as to research American medical missionaries. During his stay in Korea(1884~1905), Allen steadily wrote diaries and letters about Korean politics, diplomacy, society, culture, and medicine. Thus his public/private record through diaries and letters(the quantity of these materials amounts to several thousands) supplements the Korean early modern era's historical record. However, until now these materials have received little scholarly attention from researchers except for a few historians of missionary work between Korea and America, or of Korean modern medicine. I intended to use these materials to suggest a new perspective on the study of Korean Gaehwagi. Allen, along with John W. Heron, who came to Seoul on June 21st 1885, treated about 10,460 Korean patients in the first year of the opening of JeJungWon. They made "the first annual report of the Korean Government Hospital". This report explained how Allen and Heron regarded and treated Korean patients. Allen's diaries, letters and other writings offer a realistic view of how the western people actually recognized the Korean people at that time. As a western doctor, Allen had an ambivalent attitude toward Korean medical concepts

  7. Study on the Correlation between PSR and Korean Stress Test for Continued Operation of Aging NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Korean nuclear regulatory authority established the stress test guideline based on the EU stress test, and KHNP prepared the execution plan in response to the guideline for the CO of Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1. PSR is a comprehensive safety review program for long term operation of NPP, which was developed by IAEA. Korea adopted PSR in 1999 as the regulatory requirement for CO of NPP. The IAEA standard guideline for PSR program was updated in 2003. However, the Korean PSR has not been revised yet to apply the new IAEA guidelines. Additionally, national legal systems and guidelines associated with the adoption of stress tests are urgently required as well. These revisions are imperative in order to ensure the reliability of NPPs, and to promote public acceptance and understanding. This study presents the technical basis and proposals for review actions necessary to address the issues and controversies surrounding the continued operation and decommissioning of aging NPPs in Korea. As discussed earlier in characteristics of Korean Stress Test, it is more comprehensive than the EU Stress Test in terms of its multilateral evaluation which includes equipment durability, plant operation, human factors, and safety margins, hence substantially raising the significance and value of the evaluation process. Thus, the addition of Korean Stress Test to the existing Korean Evaluation of CO is expected to greatly increase the quality of safety assessment of aging NPPs in Korea due to its stricter safety policies, hence providing a more meaningful evaluation process. However, a one-time application of the Korean Stress Test to only Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 would be a waste of the great effort that has been done thus far to improve the Korean Evaluation of CO and develop the Korean Stress Test. By extending the Korean Stress Test to all NPPs in Korea would maintain and ensure the reliability of NPPs as well as public

  8. A study of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographic images of a selected Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    To determine the more valuable information to detect the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiographs of a selected Korean population for the implant. This study analysed 288 panoramic radiographic images of patients taken at the Dental hospital of Chosun University retrospectively. Indirect digital panoramic X-ray machine (ProlineXC, PLANMECA, Finland) with processing by using Directview CR950 (Kodak, U.S.A.) and Direct digital panoramic X-ray machine (Promax, PLANMECA, Finland) were used for all exposures. All images were converted into Dicom format. The common position of the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (68.1%). The mental foramen was lower symmetrical in 81.8% of cases. The mandibular canal was not identified at anterior portion and discontinued with the mental foramen in 27.8% of all cases, in 42.4% identified with lower border line continued with the mental foramen, in 14.6% with both upper and lower border lines, and in 15.3% unilaterally identified with lower border line. Clinicians can estimate the upper border line of the mandibular canal from the confirmation of the mental foramen and the lower border line of the mandibular canal symmetrically on the panoramic radiography taken in adjusted midsaggital plane of patient's head

  9. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  10. Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012, including 9370 adults (40–69 years without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference, 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.55, 0.95, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95, and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97, but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14. Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04. This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations.

  11. Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Son, Jakyung; Jang, Jiyoung; Kang, Ryungwoo; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kyong Won; Lee, Seung-Min; Lim, Hyunjung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012), including 9370 adults (40–69 years) without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat) and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95), and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97), but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14). Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04). This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations. PMID:28505126

  12. A Roentgenocephalometric Study for the Acceptable Profile in Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, You Dong; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the hard and soft tissue profile and comparison of the both sexes in Korean adults using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 122 males and 116 females from 18 to 22 years of age selected on the basis of their excellent occlusion and harmonious profile. It was an investigation about the interrelationships in the angles which consisted of Frankfort horizontal plane (FH plane), Sella Nasion plane (SN plane), Nasal floor plane (NF plane) and Mandibular plane (Md plane) as reference planes, and of the axial inclinations of the upper anterior tooth to Nasal floor plane (NF Plane) and of the lower anterior tooth to Mandibular plane (Md Plane). Among the 14 categories established on the soft tissue landmarks, the 6 categories were studied for the relationship to Frankfort horizontal plane (FH Plane), and the 8 categories were studied for the soft tissue contour. The results were as follows: 1. Among 8 measured angles in the hard tissue, the angle of FH-Md, NF-Md and N-Md were greater in females than in males. 2. The axial inclinations of the anterior teeth to NF Plane and Md plane were slightly greater in males than in females. 3. Among 14 measured angles in the soft tissue, the angles of G-Sn-P and E-Pog-Sn were greater in males, and FH-G-Sn, G·Sn-Sn·Pog and Pog-Sn-P were greater in females. 4. In males, the variability of measured values in both lips region were high.

  13. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  14. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  15. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  16. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Cho, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60 Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  18. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Korean American Elderly: Findings from the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang B

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of depression among community-dwelling Korean American elderly (KAE). A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey using a two-step sampling strategy to obtain a representative community sample. The authors recruited study participants at religious, service, and business establishments in the KA community (26 churches, 6 senior centers, 2 medical daycare centers, 1 supermarket). Community-dwelling first-generation KAE (N = 1,118; mean age ± SD: 70.5 ± 7.0 years; female: 67.2%). Trained bilingual nurses and community health workers interviewed participants face-to-face for demographic information, chronic conditions, and depression using the Korean versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). 30.3% of KAEs were classified as having either mild (PHQ-9K score 5-9; N = 218, 19.5%) or clinical depression (PHQ-9K score ≥10; N = 120, 10.8%), respectively. One of seven KAE (N = 164, 14.7%) endorsed thoughts of death or self-injury, but only 63 (5.7%) reported utilizing mental health services. The authors also identified several predictors of depression, including living arrangement (living alone versus living with family/spouse); having chronic conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, digestive disorders, or chronic bronchitis; years of education; and cognitive impairment. The authors' findings reveal a high prevalence of depression among KAE and a low level of mental health service utilization. Because there are urgent needs for culturally and contextually relevant interventions, the authors also discuss the feasibility of community-based interventions to reduce the burden of depression, which should be incorporated into a management system for multiple chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A roentgenological study of the pelvimetry in the Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Kap Won

    1972-01-01

    Author studied the pelvimeteric values with the x-ray pelvimetry of Colcher-Sussman method, and the features of pelvis and fetus in 191 cases of the Korean pregnant women visited at Busan National University Hospital and Busan Marynoll Hospital during about 5 years from January 1967 to July 1972. The patients were divided retrospectively into four groups, such as A,B,C, and D, in according to the result of the delivery. Group A meant 56 cases who had the normal delivery. Group B meant 26 cases who had the normal spontaneous delivery with the prolonged time in the course. Group C meant 24 cases who had the vacum of forceps delivery with the prolonged time in the course. Group D meant 85 cases who had the cesarean operation. The results obtained were summarized as follows; (I) The measurements of x-ray pelvimetry for group A. (1) Pelvic inlet (i) A-P diameter; M ±m=11.43 ± 0.13 (ii) Transverse diameter; M ±m=12.57 ± 0.10 (2) Mid-pelvis (i) A-P diameter; M ± m= 11.29 ± 0.10 (ii) Transverse diameter; M ± m=10.04 ± 0.08 (3) Pelvic outlet (i) A-P diameter; M ± m= 6.93 ± 0.11 (ii) Transverse diameter; M ± m=9.88 ± 0.11 The above measurement obtained were smaller in its figures than those of Shin and Kim, and even more smaller as compared with those of American (Table 31). (II) Comparison of Group A (normal delivery) with Group D (C-section) (1) Features of maternal pelvis (i) Flat sacum was not seen in Group A, but 28% in Group D. (ii) Anteriorly angulated coccyx was not seen in Group A, but 8% in Group D. (ii) Subpubic angle, smaller than 69 in degree, was 14% in Group A, but 34% in Group D. (2) Features of fetus (i) Right sided position of spine was 11% in Group A, but 34% in Group D. (ii) Absence of engagement was 8% in Group A, but 30% in Group D, therefore, those cases in which duration of pregnancy was prolonged and absence of engagement was observed, and seemed to be recommendable of the cesarean operation

  1. A roentgenological study of the pelvimetry in the Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Kap Won [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Author studied the pelvimeteric values with the x-ray pelvimetry of Colcher-Sussman method, and the features of pelvis and fetus in 191 cases of the Korean pregnant women visited at Busan National University Hospital and Busan Marynoll Hospital during about 5 years from January 1967 to July 1972. The patients were divided retrospectively into four groups, such as A,B,C, and D, in according to the result of the delivery. Group A meant 56 cases who had the normal delivery. Group B meant 26 cases who had the normal spontaneous delivery with the prolonged time in the course. Group C meant 24 cases who had the vacum of forceps delivery with the prolonged time in the course. Group D meant 85 cases who had the cesarean operation. The results obtained were summarized as follows; (I) The measurements of x-ray pelvimetry for group A. (1) Pelvic inlet (i) A-P diameter; M {+-}m=11.43 {+-} 0.13 (ii) Transverse diameter; M {+-}m=12.57 {+-} 0.10 (2) Mid-pelvis (i) A-P diameter; M {+-} m= 11.29 {+-} 0.10 (ii) Transverse diameter; M {+-} m=10.04 {+-} 0.08 (3) Pelvic outlet (i) A-P diameter; M {+-} m= 6.93 {+-} 0.11 (ii) Transverse diameter; M {+-} m=9.88 {+-} 0.11 The above measurement obtained were smaller in its figures than those of Shin and Kim, and even more smaller as compared with those of American (Table 31). (II) Comparison of Group A (normal delivery) with Group D (C-section) (1) Features of maternal pelvis (i) Flat sacum was not seen in Group A, but 28% in Group D. (ii) Anteriorly angulated coccyx was not seen in Group A, but 8% in Group D. (ii) Subpubic angle, smaller than 69 in degree, was 14% in Group A, but 34% in Group D. (2) Features of fetus (i) Right sided position of spine was 11% in Group A, but 34% in Group D. (ii) Absence of engagement was 8% in Group A, but 30% in Group D, therefore, those cases in which duration of pregnancy was prolonged and absence of engagement was observed, and seemed to be recommendable of the cesarean operation.

  2. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  4. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with Pap test use among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Chung, Yoonkyung

    2017-10-01

    Lack of medical care in North Korea and vulnerability to human trafficking during their migration increase risks of cervical cancer among North Korean refugees. To better understand factors influencing Pap test use, we conducted a qualitative study of eight North Korean refugees in South Korea. Individual barriers were limited knowledge, lack of perceived need for preventive services, and concerns about costs. Environmental facilitators included having female providers, receiving family support, and free screenings. Refugees' health outlook, including viewing cancers as fatal diseases, hindered seeking Pap tests. Multi-faceted approaches to address individual and environmental factors in promoting Pap tests are warranted.

  5. A radiographic study of growth plate closure compared with age in the Korean native goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.J.; Shin, H.J.; Kang, S.K.; Cho, J.K.; Chang, D.W.; Lee, Y.W.; Jeong, S.M.; Park, S.J.; Shin, S.T.; Lee, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the growth plate closure time with aging in the Korean native goat. Radiographs of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, ulna, femur and tibia were obtained at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 30, 43 and 52 weeks after birth in 30 Korean native goats. The secondary ossification centers were scrutinized and assessed the maturity process on the basis of the criteria (stage 0 to 10). The secondary ossification centers of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, femur and tibia and proximal ulna epiphysis appeared immediately after birth

  6. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Yun, Hyo-Young; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi-Eun

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, pKorea (t=2.02, preligion (t=2.17, preligion (t=4.21, pKorea (t=2.04, pNorth Korean adolescent refugees.

  7. Working Papers on Asian American Studies: Annotated Bibliography on Koreans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher

    This classified annotated bibliography on Koreans in America includes references on the following topics: (1) Korean American directories, (2) immigration history, (3) deportation cases, (4) Korean students in the U.S., (5) Korean Americans in the Asian American Movement, (6) state and federal legislation affecting Koreans in America, (7) Korean…

  8. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  9. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  10. The politics of China studies in South Korea: A critical examination of South Korean historiography of modern China since 1945

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyoun HWANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the South Korean scholarship on modem Chinese history since 1945 can be characterized as apolitical with its objectivism,positivism,liberalism,and anti-communist nationalism.This characteristic is a product of not only the Cold War and the military regimes of South Korea but also the political orientation and stance of the senior historians who played an initial and decisive role in determining the goal,direc tion,and research methods of South Korean studies concerning modem China.The SouthKorean perspective they promoted usually meant the study of liberal,apolitical topics in Chinese history from a nationalist perspective without any political/ideological influences.The utility of modern Chinese history has mainly lain in helping to construct an anti-socialist,modern Korean nation-state through modernization.South Korean historians of modem China,the paper argues,have not been able to induce a meaningful,broad discussion of critical historical issues in modem China as they might pertain to South Korean society,thus failing to utilize them to help challenge and transform the undemocratic South Korean society and regimes.Hence,the future success of new academic undertakings since the 1990s by South Korean historians will be determined by whether or not they are able to make a radical break from the previous scholarship,in particular,from its objectivism and nationalism.

  11. Becoming Global Elites through Transnational Language Learning?: The Case of Korean Early Study Abroad in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sohee; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, early study abroad (ESA) in English-speaking countries has been a popular educational strategy for pre-university Korean students to acquire important language skills such as global English, which is imagined to help them prepare for the competition in global educational and occupational market. However, as ESA, commonly…

  12. Misery in Dark Shadows behind the High Achievement Scores in South Korean Schooling: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonjung; Kristjánsson, Kristján; Walker, David I.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the hidden background behind the highly praised school results in South Korea. An ethnographic case study is used to cast light on how schooling is actually experienced by South Korean students. Two main results are reported from these data. First, evidence is presented of damaging "cultural elements" such…

  13. Korean-American Student Perceptions on Literacy and Identity: Perspectives from an Ethnographic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…

  14. A Study of Reading Comprehension in Older Children Using Selected Korean Bible Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2014-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the difference in Bible comprehension scores among gender-based groups of older children using selected passages from three Bible translations: the Children's Bible, the Easy Bible, and the New Revised Korean Bible. Procedures: A total of 288 older children in three churches (Beautiful Baptist…

  15. A Study of Korean Working Mothers with Infants: Implications for Research and Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, So-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broad range of variables that predict maternal self-efficacy with a sample of 92 Korean working mothers whose infants are cared for at non-maternal child care settings. In addition, differences between mothers of infants on welfare roll and their socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts (not on welfare)…

  16. A Case Study of the Flipped Classroom in a Korean University General English Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Erika; Seong, Myeong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Research has proven the effectiveness of Flipped Classrooms (FC) for a variety of settings. However, more exploration needs to be done in regards to how FC can be used effectively in foreign language classrooms. The purpose of this study was to 1) explore student perceptions of FC in a Korean university general English course and 2) provide…

  17. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  18. Integrating Rapport-Building into Language Instruction: A Study of Korean Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Yung

    2016-01-01

    Using a conversation-analytic approach along with the notions of frame and footing (Goffman 1981), this study examines what strategies teachers use to build rapport with their students in Korean as a foreign language classrooms. It also discusses what kinds of interactional resources they employ in tandem with these strategies. Analysis of…

  19. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Won Noh; Hyo-Young Yun; Hyunchun Park; Shi-Eun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p

  20. Simultaneous vs. Successive Bilingualism among Preschool-Aged Children: A Study of Four-Year-Old Korean-English Bilinguals in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Young; Park, Anne; Lust, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The current study compares simultaneous vs. successive bilingualism through a mixed-method research design with four four-year-old Korean-English bilingual children who were born and raised in the USA. Two simultaneous bilinguals were exposed to Korean and English from birth, whereas two successive bilinguals were exposed to Korean from birth, but…

  1. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  2. The preliminary effect of a parenting program for Korean American mothers: a randomized controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    Traditional Korean American discipline is characterized by a lack of expression of affection and use of harsh discipline. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effect of the Incredible Years Parenting Program among Korean American mothers. A randomized controlled experimental study design was used; 29 first-generation Korean American mothers of young children (3-8 years old) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=20) and control (n=9) groups. Intervention group mothers received a 12-week parenting program. Control group mothers did not receive the intervention. Mothers reported on discipline styles (positive, appropriate, and harsh), level of acculturation, and their child's outcomes (behavioral problems and social competence) at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up intervals. After completing the program, intervention group mothers significantly increased use of positive discipline as compared to control group mothers. Among intervention group mothers, high-acculturated mothers significantly increased appropriate discipline whereas low-acculturated mothers significantly decreased harsh discipline. In the 1-year follow-up, intervention group mothers maintained the significant effect for positive discipline. Providing this program appears to be a promising way of promoting positive discipline among Korean American mothers.

  3. Dentofacial transverse development in Koreans according to skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soonshin; Noh, Yoonjeong; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the normative data of dentofacial transverse dimensions according to the skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion, assess gender differences and determine correlations between transverse variables. A total of 577 Korean subjects between ages 7 to 19 years and exhibiting skeletal Class I occlusion were categorized by skeletal maturation index (SMI) of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs. Dentofacial transverse dimensions were assessed using posteroanterior cephalograms. Independent two-sample t -tests were used to analyze differences between genders. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between transverse measurements. Dentofacial transverse norms relevant to skeletal maturation stages were established. The average maxillomandibular width difference and ratio at growth completion was 22.16 mm and 77.01% for males; 23.70 mm and 74.06% for females, respectively. Males had greater facial, maxillary and mandibular widths compared to females at every SMI stage. The maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed the strongest correlation for both sexes (r = 0.826 for males, r = 0.725 for females). Dentofacial transverse norms of Korean adolescents were established according to developmental stage. All dentofacial widths were greater in males at growth completion. Maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were strongly correlated. This study may serve as a guideline for the assessment of dentofacial transverse growth according to skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  5. Long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Jang, Suk-Yong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-08

    We examined the long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression using longitudinal data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Depression symptoms were measured using the 11 items of Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D-11), and we categorized parental divorce timing into 'early childhood', 'adolescent' and 'none'. Although participants who experienced parental divorce during adolescence exhibited a significantly higher CES-D-11 score (p = .0468), 'early childhood' participants displayed the most increased CES-D-11 score compared to the control group (p = .0007). Conversely, among participants who were unsatisfied with their marriage, those who experienced parental divorce in early childhood showed lower CES-D-11 scores, while 'adolescent period' participants exhibited significantly higher CES-D-11 scores (p = .0131). We concluded that timing of parental divorce exerts substantial yet varied effects on long-term depression symptoms and future marriage satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Chul Gab; Kang, Dongmug; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children’s brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. Results The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. Conclusions The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out. PMID:23555766

  7. Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. METHODS: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out.

  8. Morphometric study of the lumbar spinal canal in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H M; Kim, N H; Kim, H J; Chung, I H

    1995-08-01

    The anatomic dimensions of the vertebral body and spinal canal of the lumbar spine were analyzed in Koreans. To determine the normal dimension of the lumbar spinal canal in Koreans, to determine whether there are any racial differences in the morphometry of the lumbar spinal canal, and to provide criteria for diagnosing spinal stenosis in the Far Eastern Asian. Some radiologic and anatomic studies have been conducted regarding the size of the lumbar spinal canal of whites and blacks in western and African countries. One-thousand-eight-hundred measurements were performed on the transverse and sagittal diameters of vertebral bodies and spinal canals using complete sets of 90 lumbar vertebrae. The mean mid-sagittal diameter of the lumbar spinal canal in the Korean population was less than that measured in white and African populations, but there was no significant differences between the Korean, white, and African populations regarding the transverse diameter of the lumbar spinal canal. The mid-sagittal diameter of the lumbar spinal canal is narrowest in the Far Eastern Asian population; the radiologic criteria of spinal stenosis should be reconsidered for these people.

  9. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  10. Validity and Reliability Study of the Korean Tinetti Mobility Test for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Hee Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Joong-Seok; Yun, Ji Young; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Younsoo; Kim, Ji Seon; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Park, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Jinyoung; Jang, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling. The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale). We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.

  11. Mortality in North Korean migrant households: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M

    1999-07-24

    A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.

  12. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ingyu [Hanshin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Giang [Sol Bridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture.

  13. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, Ingyu; Do, Giang

    2012-01-01

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture

  14. [Study of the Korean medical book-Suwen Dayao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao-Chen

    2011-03-01

    The Korean, Gyoo-joon Lee (1855 - 1923, also named Shigu Shanren), was born in Yingri County, Qingbeidao and was familiar with literature and history and Chinese medicine. In 1906, he completed the book Suwen Dayao, selecting 25 chapters from Suwen and deleted WAND Bing's notes but made some own notes with his excellent ideas. The book is in a block-printed edition (in 1906, few and held in Xinglin Academy) and a hand copy edition (by his disciple Won-se Lee in 1921). Gyoo-joon Lee was familiar with Suwen and was good at clinical practice and his medical theory could be seen in his papers-Suwen Fushuo and Baibing Zongkuo in Chapter 4 of Suwen Dayao which embodied the close combination of clinical practice and medical theory. Baibing Zongkuo was written in seven-character regulated verses which reflected Gyoo-joon Lee's ability of reading and writing in Chinese. There are many outstanding ideas in Suwen Dayao. The Fangzhi Bafa written by his disciple Jong-sun Lee was attached to the end of the book, which are valuable for the combination of the theory in Suwen, decoctions in Shanghan Lun and current decoctions. Suwen Dayao expanded the influence of Huangdi Neijing in Korea and fostered a lot of talent.

  15. A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P casino employees with gambling problems.

  16. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mo Moon

    Full Text Available Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years (p = 0.014, concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI disease (p = 0.012 and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001 were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months. During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017, internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011, and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016. However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  17. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  18. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  19. Study deviance-type scale in the development of Korean elder

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to develop a questionnaire of deviant behavior for the Korean elderly people which may make a big contribution to the examination of deviance behavior of the elderly people and may play an important role in providing a methodological basis. In order to accomplish the purpose of the this study, there were three different stages; (a) making preliminary question items, (b) refining the items of the scale through a plot study, and (c) finalizing question items by a main survey....

  20. Transnationality or Globality? The Korean Wave and Methodological Challenges in Media and Cultural studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jaeho

    2017-01-01

    Making the case for a new media/cultural studies that takes a transregional, transcultural and transdisciplinary approach, this contribution notes how the global popularity of Korean Wave has highlighted the limitations of methods rooted in notions of national identities. Studies have challenged western hegemony of knowledge production and are suggestive of new academic communities beyond Eurocentric nation states that may be both multinational and multicultural.This contribution however warn...

  1. A study on multi-cultural family wives adapting to Korean cuisine and dietary patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngil; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research for immigrated women nationwide about food cultures to provide the possibility which Korean food culture would be developed harmoniously with various foreign f...

  2. A Study on Plasma Renin Activity in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suhng Gwon; Cho, Bo Yun; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Won Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Won Dong; Yun, Hong Jin

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the possible pathophysiologic role of renin in acute renal failure observed in Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), the author measured the basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and the stimulated PRA by radioimmunoassay for angiotensin I in 15 normal controls and 42 KHF patients who are admitted in Seoul National University Hospital and Nation Army Hospital from Jan. 1975 to Jan. 1976. The results obtained were as follows:The mean basal PRA in normal control group was 2.9±2.16 ng/ml/hr in the patients during the oliguric phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 4.7±2.13 ng/ml/hr, and there was statistically significant increase compared to the normal control. In the patients during the diuretic phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 3.4±2.09 ng/ml/hr, and there was statistically significant decrease compared to the oliguric phase of KHF. In normal control group, the mean basal PRA was 2.9±2.16 ng/ml/hr. And the PRA 1 hour after the administration of Lasix 40 mg intravenously (stimulated PRA) was 5.3±2.20 ng/ml/hr and there was statistically significant increase compared to basal level. In oliguric phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 4.6±2.01 ng/ml/hr. And stimulated PRA was 4.4±2.34 ng/ml/hr and there was no significant changes. In diuretic phase of KHF, the mean basal PR was 3.3±1.86 ng/ml/hr. And stimulated PRA was 5.2±2.58 ng/ml/hr and there was statistically significant increase compared to basal level. There were statistically no significant correlations between basal PRA and stimulated PRA and serum creatinine. BUN, urine volume and peritoneal dialysis.

  3. Roentgenographic studies on the growth and development of lower third molars in Korean female

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Soon; Lee, Sung Woo [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    The author obtained the following results through the studies on 1012 roentgenograms of lower third molar regions of Korean female; 1. The rate of presence of lower third molars was 78.9 percent. 2. The period that crowns of lower third molars become completed was 16.1 years. 3. The period that completion of apices of lower third molars become completed was over 27 years.

  4. Rate of humidifier and humidifier disinfectant usage in Korean children: A nationwide epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jisun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Eun; Choi, Yean Jung; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Jung Lym; Lee, Ye Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-05-01

    In South Korea, a cluster of humidifier disinfectant-induced lung injury (HDLI) cases developed between 2006 and 2011. There are no existing reports regarding the rate of humidifier disinfectant (HD) usage in the general population of Korean children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of humidifier and HD usage in the general population of Korean children. This is a general population-based birth cohort multicenter study, Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) from 2008, a humidifier and HD-related questionnaire administered to 1577 subjects (809 male, 768 female) in 2015 (n=1577). The questionnaire consisted of four categories (humidifier usage, HD usage, exposure duration, and type of HD brands). A total of 75.6% (1192/1577) had used a humidifier, and the rate of HD usage was found to be 31.1% (409/1316). Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), used as a disinfectant, was found to have the highest usage rate (62.0%). HD was used for less than 3 months of the entire lifetime of most of the subjects. In conclusion, approximately 30% of young Korean children were exposed to HD. PHMG-containing HD was the most commonly used. These results suggest that a nationwide epidemiologic investigation is needed urgently, and children exposed to HD should be investigated regarding their status of lung injury, including a pulmonary function test. Moreover, a long-term follow-up period may be required to evaluate HD usage-associated lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Longitudinal Causal Directionality between Body Image Distress and Self-Esteem among Korean Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woochul; Epstein, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-esteem and body image distress, as well as the moderating effect of relationships with parents, among adolescents in Korea, using nationally representative prospective panel data. Regarding causal direction, the findings supported bi-directionality for girls, but for boys the…

  6. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  7. Neural correlates of Korean proverb processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, You Gyoung; Kim, Dae Yul; Shim, Woo Hyun; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Ho Sung

    2017-10-01

    The Korean language is based on a syntactic system that is different from other languages. This study investigated the processing area of the Korean proverb in comparison with the literal sentence using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the effect of opacity and transparency of proverbs on the activation pattern, when familiarity is set to the same condition, was also examined. The experimental stimuli included 36 proverbs and 18 literal sentences. A cohort of 15 healthy participants silently read each sentence for 6 s. A total of 18 opaque proverbs, 18 transparent proverbs, and 18 literal sentences were presented pseudo-randomly in one of three predesigned sequences. Compared with the literal sentences, a significant activation pattern was observed in the left hemisphere, including the left inferior frontal gyrus, in association with the proverbs. Compared with the transparent proverbs, opaque proverbs elicited more activation in the right supramarginal gyrus and precuneus. Our study confirmed that the left inferior frontal gyrus mediates the retrieval and/or selection of semantic knowledge in the Korean language. The present findings indicated that the right precuneus and the right supramarginal gyrus may be involved in abstract language processing.

  8. Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Brief Clinical Form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to provide a brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q in Korean translated from the original NPI-Q that is intended for the evaluation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in routine clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We developed a Korean version of the NPI-Q (KNPI-Q and compared subitems with those of the Korean version of the NPI (KNPI in 63 dementia patients; 47 patients had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease with dementia, 8 with vascular dementia, and 8 with dementia with Lewy body disease. The diagnosis was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for possible and probable Alzheimer's disease and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, criteria for vascular dementia and other dementing diseases. All patients received the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating within 1 month of the KNPI-Q. Results: Test-retest reliability of the KNPI-Q using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.89 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.90 for the distress scale. The prevalence of analogous symptom ratings differed by less than 6.7%. Convergent validity between the KNPI-Q and the NPI using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.879 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.92 for the distress scale. Conclusions: The KNPI-Q is a reliable and brief instrument that can be employed for screening in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and associated caregiver distress. It may be suitable for use in general clinical practice and could be administered as a brief neuropsychiatric interview.

  9. Childhood risk factors in Korean women with anorexia nervosa: two sets of case-control studies with retrospective comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Heo, Si Young; Kang, Heechan; Song, Ki Jun; Treasure, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) in Korean women. Two sets of case-control comparisons were conducted, in which 52 women with lifetime AN from Seoul, S. Korea, were compared with 108 Korean healthy controls and also with 42 women with lifetime AN from the UK in terms of their childhood risk factors. A questionnaire designed to conduct a retrospective assessment of the childhood risk factors was administered to all participants. The Korean AN women were more likely to report premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, and emotional undereating and were less likely to report having supportive figures in their childhood than the Korean healthy controls. There were no overall differences in the childhood risk factors between the Korean and British women with AN. Premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, less social support, and emotional undereating merit attention as risk factors in Korean AN. The current results are informative, but an epidemiologically robust prospective case-control study would be needed to validate these findings. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An acoustical study of English word stress produced by Americans and Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2002-05-01

    Acoustical correlates of stress can be divided into duration, intensity, and fundamental frequency. This study examined the acoustical difference in the first two syllables of stressed English words produced by ten American and Korean speakers. The Korean subjects scored very high in TOEFL. They read, at a normal speed, a fable from which the acoustical parameters of eight words were analyzed. In order to make the data comparison meaningful, each parameter was collected at 100 dynamic time points proportional to the total duration of the two syllables. Then, the ratio of the parameter sum of the first rime to that of the second rime was calculated to determine the relative prominence of the syllables. Results showed that the durations of the first two syllables were almost comparable between the Americans and Koreans. However, statistically significant differences showed up in the diphthong pronunciations and in the words with the second syllable stressed. Also, remarkably high r-squared values were found between pairs of the three acoustical parameters, which suggests that either one or a combination of two or more parameters may account for the prominence of a syllable within a word. [Work supported by Korea Science Foundation R01-1999-00229.

  11. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  12. Validation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae

    2018-02-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present

  13. Annotated Bibliography on Koreans in America. Working Papers on Asian American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Takabashi, Michiko, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography lists bibliographies, directories, articles, unpublished papers, manuals, citations, conference reports, and other documents dealing with Koreans in America. Topics considered include general history, immigration history, deportation cases, Korean students, State and Federal legislation affecting Koreans in America,…

  14. A Comparative Study of Personal Time Perspective Differences between Korean and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oi-Sook; Geistfeld, Loren V.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the personal time perspectives of Korean and American college students. The results indicate American students have a personal time perspective that is different from their Korean counterparts. Implications for working with Koreans and Americans as foreign students are considered. (Contains 5 tables.)

  15. Studies on the reference Korean and estimation of radiation exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, G.H.; Kim, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of establishment of Reference Korean and estimation of internal and external exposure doses in the Reference Korean, we have surveyed reference values for Koreans such as physical standards including height, weight, and body surface area, food consumption rate of daily intake of radioactive substances and exposure dose from natural radiation. (Author)

  16. Feasibility study of structured diagnosis methods for functional dyspepsia in Korean medicine clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwan Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD is the seventh most common disease encountered in Korean medicine (KM clinics. Despite the large number of FD patients visiting KM clinics, the accumulated medical records have no utility in evidence development, due to being unstructured. This study aimed to construct a standard operating procedure (SOP with appropriate structured diagnostic methods for FD, and assess the feasibility for use in KM clinics. Methods: Two rounds of professional surveys were conducted by 10 Korean internal medicine professors to select the representative diagnostic methods. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate compliance and time required for using the structured diagnostic methods by three specialists in two hospitals. Results: As per the results of the professional survey, five questionnaires and one basic diagnostic method were selected. An SOP was constructed based on the survey results, and a feasibility study showed that the SOP compliance score (out of 5 was 3.45 among the subjects, and 3.25 among the practitioners. The SOP was acceptable and was not deemed difficult to execute. The total execution time was 136.5 minutes, out of which the gastric emptying test time was 129 minutes. Conclusion: This feasibility study of the SOP with structured diagnostic methods for FD confirmed it was adequate for use in KM clinics. It is expected that these study findings will be helpful to clinicians who wish to conduct observational studies as well as to generate quantitative medical records to facilitate Big Data research. Keywords: Big Data, Dyspepsia, Korean medicine, Feasibility studies, Observational study

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  18. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  19. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Park, Pil Sook; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Korean national athletes' knowledge, practices, and attitudes of doping: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Young Hoon

    2017-02-14

    Despite the efforts of the World Anti-Doping Agency and national anti-doping agencies at the international level, a relatively low and steady rate of positive doping tests still persists all over the world. Evidence on adolescents using doping substances exists, and the proportion of adolescents engaging in doping practices is small but significant. In relation to the international research trends on anti-doping, this study aims to evaluate doping knowledge, practices, and attitudes among Korean adult and adolescent elite athletes to provide effective information on anti-doping policies and education programs. This study was a cross-sectional study of 454 Korean elite athletes (249 adults in 23 events and 205 adolescents in 22 events). Data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items regarding doping practices and knowledge, brief definitions of performance-enhancing substances/methods and recreational substances, and the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). Adolescent (47.3%) and adult (57.0%) athletes received information on banned substances of their respective sports from the Korea Anti-Doping Agency, and 39.0 and 53.4% of adolescents and adults, respectively, had knowledge of banned substances and had permissive attitudes toward doping compared to those who were unaware. Adolescent and adult athletes have inadvertently (1.5 and 3.6%, respectively) or knowingly (1.0 and 2.8%, respectively) taken banned performance-enhancing substances, and 2.4 and 3.2%, respectively, knew someone who had taken banned substances. And the adolescent athletes in motor skill category (PEAS: 40.24 ± 10.91) were more permissive toward doping than those in team category (PEAS: 35.08 ± 10.21). An in-depth anti-doping education for Korean athletes should be more widely implemented, and effective anti-doping policy should meet the athletes' demographic characteristics, personalities, and values.

  1. Developing a culturally-tailored stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors: A focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. Objectives To gain better understanding of (i) Beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) Attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) Barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking program. Design An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64–90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8–11 participants. Methods Focus group audio tapes were transcribed and analyzed using standard content analysis methods. Results Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g., too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring ‘balance’ was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialization while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking program. Conclusions Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. Implications for practice A stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and

  2. Cohort Profile: The JS High School study (JSHS): a cohort study of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-04-01

    Major aetiologies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases begin in childhood and atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities can be observed among children and adolescents. Adolescent cohort studies have important advantages because they can observe earlier changes in vascular structure and function. The purpose of the JS High School study (JSHS) is to identify biomarkers predicting or indicating early structural and functional vascular change in adolescents. The JSHS is a prospective cohort study of a Korean adolescent population. The target population of the JSHS was first-graders (aged 14 to17 years) at a high school of South Korea. Enrolment and baseline examinations were conducted in years 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Among the total eligible population of 1115 students, 1071 (96.1%) participated in the study and completed all baseline examinations. Informed consent forms were obtained from each participant and his/her parent or guardian. Baseline examinations include: questionnaires on demographics, health behaviours, medical history, and depression symptoms; fasting blood analysis; anthropometric measurement; body impedance analysis; blood pressure measurement; radial artery tonometry; bone densitometry; pulmonary function tests; and carotid ultrasonography. Participants enrolled from 2007 through 2012 were re-examined after 30 months of follow-up, and those who enrolled in 2012 were re-examined after 24 months of follow-up. The corresponding author may be contacted for potential collaboration and data access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  4. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  6. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  7. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  8. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  9. Study of Achilles Tendon Reflex in Normal Korean and Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Yung; Kim, Kwang Won; Yae, Sung Bo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to establish the diagnostic value of Achilles tendon reflex and to determine the normal value of Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean, the author measured the Achilles tendon reflex time by photomotograph. This study was carried out in 272 cases with various thyroid diseases and 340 normal Korean. 1) The Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean was like this, between 11 years old and 20 years old; male (62 cases); 250±27 msec, female (36 cases); 266±27 msec, between 21 years old and 30 years old; male (38 cases); 271±27 msec, female (21 cases); 284±27 msec, between 31 years old and 40 years old; male (26 cases); 275±25 msec, female (29 cases); 291±27 msec, between 41 years old and 50 years old; male (20 cases); 286±35 msec, female (24 cases); 307±42 msec, between 51 years old and 60 years old, male (20 cases); 296±33 msec, female (20 cases); 318±46 msec, over 61 years; male (24 cases) 301±33 msec, female (20 cases); 325±35 msec. The Achilles tendon reflex time was delayed with increasing age and delayed in the female. 2) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly shortened to 221±20 msec in untreated hyperthyroidism. 3) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly delayed to 435±59 msec in hypothyroidism. 4) The Achilles tendon reflex time was not changed significantly in other thyroid diseases with norms thyroid function. 5) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed good correlationship with ETR, T 3 RU, 131 I thyroid uptake and serum TSH. 6) Reproducibility of Achilles tendon reflex time was good, and no significant difference between left and right was noted. 7) Diagnostic accuracy of Achilles tendon reflex time was 71% in hyperthyroidism and 90% in hypothyroidism. 8) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed useful test to evaluate the clinical course of the hyperthyroidism.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD, a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7, rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7 in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD, while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7 was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009 in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033 in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248 in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057 in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012 in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114 in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population.

  11. Older Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared to their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Songee; Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Seino, Satoshi; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 576-583. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. [A study of infant mortality rate in Korean rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y H

    1981-10-31

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to identify the level of birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas. The objectives of this study were to collect available information on birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas, and estimate actual levels of birth and infant mortality in these areas. Within these areas, events of birth and death are continuously recorded by the field health workers, such as the Family Folder, maternal health service card, and the infant-child health service card. Study areas included all the KHDI demonstration areas (Hongchon, Okgu, Gunee). However, 2 myons in the Okgu area were excluded from the study areas since there was no community health practitioner assigned there. The data were collected by 24 community health practitioners and 80 community health aides in the 3 demonstration areas, according to the survey format. These health workers examined and searched existing records. After filling out the survey questionnaires, these health workers made contact with village health workers, "Li" chiefs, mother's club chiefs, or Saemaul leaders at the village level in order that they might gather additional information on possible items which were omitted. Afterwards, health workers made home visits to selected households which were known to have had births or deaths during the 1 year period between January-December 1979. A review of the activities of the health workers during this study indicated that professional survey workers were needed. In addition, 8 surveyors were employed and trained by KHDI to strengthen field survey efforts; they were dispatched to Hongchon and Okgu for 17 days. A total number of 3302 live births and 120 infant deaths were recorded during 1979. All data collected were tabulated by manual counting in the KHDI office. Infant mortality was estimated to be 36.34/1000 births in the demonstration areas during 1979 (rate in Hongchon Gun was 34.5, 31.0 in Okgu Gun, and 46.2 in Gunee Gun). (author's)

  13. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...... new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  14. Validation of general job satisfaction in the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Goo; Hwang, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of general job satisfaction (JS) in the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS). We used the data from the 17th wave (2014) of the nationwide KLIPS, which selected a representative panel sample of Korean households and individuals aged 15 or older residing in urban areas. We included in this study 7679 employed subjects (4529 males and 3150 females). The general JS instrument consisted of five items rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The general JS reliability was assessed using the corrected item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The validity of general JS was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Pearson's correlation. The corrected item-total correlations ranged from 0.736 to 0.837. Therefore, no items were removed. Cronbach's alpha for general JS was 0.925, indicating excellent internal consistency. The CFA of the general JS model showed a good fit. Pearson's correlation coefficients for convergent validity showed moderate or strong correlations. The results obtained in our study confirm the validity and reliability of general JS.

  15. Korean experimental studies on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Lim, K.M.; Choi, G.S.; Choi, H.J.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, data on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants have been produced almost exclusively at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), where experimental studies have been carried out for last about 20 years. These works are briefly outlined in this paper which shows results with emphasis on rice data. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radionuclides including radiocesium and radiostrontium were measured through greenhouse experiments for various crop species. Not only conventional transfer factors but also those based on the activity applied to unit area of the soil surface were investigated. Field studies on the transfer of fallout 137 Cs were carried out for rice and Chinese cabbage. As for parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, interception factors and translocation factors were obtained through greenhouse experiments. Plants were sprayed with radioactive solutions containing 54 Mn, 57 Co, 85 Sr, 103 Ru and 134 Cs at different growth stages. Experiments on the plant exposure to airborne HTO and I 2 vapor were also carried out. The transfer parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops, radionuclides and isotope application times. Most experiments were designed for acute releases of radioactivity but some results are applicable to steady-state conditions, too. Many of the produced data would be of use also in other countries including Japan. (author)

  16. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che

    1980-01-01

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process

  17. Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease: Methodology and Baseline Sample Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Choi, Murim; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Kim, Jee Wook; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-11-01

    The Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (KBASE) aimed to recruit 650 individuals, aged from 20 to 90 years, to search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate how multi-faceted lifetime experiences and bodily changes contribute to the brain changes or brain pathologies related to the AD process. All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, multi-modal brain imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, [ 11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, blood and genetic marker analyses at baseline, and a subset of participants underwent actigraph monitoring and completed a sleep diary. Participants are to be followed annually with clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and biannually with the full KBASE assessment, including neuroimaging and laboratory tests. As of March 2017, in total, 758 individuals had volunteered for this study. Among them, in total, 591 participants-291 cognitively normal (CN) old-aged individuals, 74 CN young- and middle-aged individuals, 139 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 87 individuals with AD dementia (ADD)-were enrolled at baseline, after excluding 162 individuals. A subset of participants (n=275) underwent actigraph monitoring. The KBASE cohort is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants with a wide age range and a wide distribution of cognitive status (CN, MCI, and ADD) and it has several strengths in its design and methodologies. Details of the recruitment, study methodology, and baseline sample characteristics are described in this paper.

  18. The healthcare experiences of Koreans living in North Carolina: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Kim, Suk-Sun

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the healthcare experiences of Korean immigrants aged 40-64 living in the North Carolina Triangle area of the Southeastern United States. Using a mixed methods design, we collected quantitative data via a questionnaire from 125 participants and conducted a focus group with 10 interviewees from December 2010 to February 2011. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests and chi-square tests, and a thematic analysis was used for the focus group study. Questionnaire findings showed that only 27.2% had sufficient English skills to communicate adequately. Participants with insurance were significantly more likely to be employed (P tourism (22.6%) and lack of information or knowledge (6.5%). The following themes emerged from the data collected during the focus group: (i) barriers to utilisation of healthcare services; (ii) facilitators of utilisation of healthcare services; and (iii) social support seeking for health management. Our mixed methods study findings indicate that healthcare disparities exist among Korean immigrants and that a number of factors, including health literacy, may contribute to their poor health outcomes. Continued collaboration among community members, healthcare professionals and academicians is needed to discuss the community's health concerns and to develop sustainable programmes that will ensure meaningful access to care for those with limited English proficiency and medically underserved populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  20. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  1. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  2. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  3. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  4. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  6. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  7. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  8. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  9. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  10. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  12. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  13. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  14. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  16. A radiological study on lumbar disc herniation in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Park, In Sik; Suh, Won Hyuk; Lee, Min Jae

    1979-01-01

    Among the patients operated because of lumbar disc herniation from January 1973 to May 1979 at Korea University Hospital, 154 cases were analyzed radiologically and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The ratio of male to female was 1.96 : 1. 2. The incidences of single and multiple involvement were 74.7% and 25.3%. 3. Most frequent level of lumbar disc herniation was L4-5 interspace. 4. The incidences of left, central and bilateral defects were 45.45%, 33.76%, 12.33% and 8.44% respectively. 5. The incidences of spina bifida and transitional vertebra were 24.04% and 9.09% respectively. 6. The overall mean of the lumbosacral angle was 33.97 .deg. 7. The overall mean depth of the lumbar lordosis was 8.48 mm. 8. The ratio of the height of L4-5 interspace to the shorter anteroposterior diameter of L-5 body was obtained by authors' idea. The mean ratios of male and female patients of L4-5 disc herniation which had no evidence of the narrowing of L4-5 interspace on simple radiologic finding were 0.3042 and 0.3064 respectively. So the ratio had a little value in the diagnosis of L4-5 disc herniation on simple radiologic study. 9. Myelography had high diagnostic accuracy, and the majority of the pseudonegative finding on lumbar disc herniation myelographically was seen at L4-5 disc herniation.

  17. A radiological study on lumbar disc herniation in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Park, In Sik; Suh, Won Hyuk; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Among the patients operated because of lumbar disc herniation from January 1973 to May 1979 at Korea University Hospital, 154 cases were analyzed radiologically and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The ratio of male to female was 1.96 : 1. 2. The incidences of single and multiple involvement were 74.7% and 25.3%. 3. Most frequent level of lumbar disc herniation was L4-5 interspace. 4. The incidences of left, central and bilateral defects were 45.45%, 33.76%, 12.33% and 8.44% respectively. 5. The incidences of spina bifida and transitional vertebra were 24.04% and 9.09% respectively. 6. The overall mean of the lumbosacral angle was 33.97 .deg. 7. The overall mean depth of the lumbar lordosis was 8.48 mm. 8. The ratio of the height of L4-5 interspace to the shorter anteroposterior diameter of L-5 body was obtained by authors' idea. The mean ratios of male and female patients of L4-5 disc herniation which had no evidence of the narrowing of L4-5 interspace on simple radiologic finding were 0.3042 and 0.3064 respectively. So the ratio had a little value in the diagnosis of L4-5 disc herniation on simple radiologic study. 9. Myelography had high diagnostic accuracy, and the majority of the pseudonegative finding on lumbar disc herniation myelographically was seen at L4-5 disc herniation.

  18. An epidemiological study of enuresis in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S D; Sohn, D W; Lee, J Z; Park, N C; Chung, M K

    2000-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of enuresis in children of elementary school age, to evaluate the impact of enuresis on these children and their parents, and to identify the methods and effectiveness of managing enuresis. Subjects and methods A randomly selected cross-sectional study was conducted in one elementary school in each urban ward (nine schools) in Pusan, Korea. The parents of these 12 570 children aged 7-12 years were asked to complete questionnaires which included items about the presence and frequency of enuresis, its perceived impact and management. Enuresis was defined as an episode of wetting occurring at least once per month. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 55.8% (girls 28.2%, boys 27.6%). The prevalence of nocturnal, diurnal and combined enuresis was 9.2%, 2.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The overall prevalence of enuresis declined with age from 20.4% at 7 years old to 5.6% at 12 years old; 342 (57.0%) parents and 318 (55. 6%) children were concerned about enuresis. The common self-help strategies were waking the child at night to void (38.1%) and restriction of water intake (25.7%). Of the enuretic children, only 13.7% had consulted a health worker. The prevalence rates for enuresis in Pusan are similar to those reported from European countries. Enuretic children and their parents were moderately concerned about enuresis and the parents primarily used self-management within the family.

  19. A study on Korean nursing students’ educational outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasil Oh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe outcome indicators of nursing education including critical thinking, professionalism, leadership, and communication and to evaluate differences among nursing programs and academic years. A descriptive research design was employed. A total of 454 students from four year baccalaureate (BS nursing programs and two three-year associate degree (AD programs consented to complete self-administered questionnaires. The variables were critical thinking, professionalism, leadership and communication. Descriptive statistics, χ2-test, t-tests, ANOVA, and the Tukey test were utilized for the data analysis. All the mean scores of the variables were above average for the test instruments utilized. Among the BS students, those in the upper classes tended to attain higher scores, but this tendency was not identified in AD students. There were significant differences between BS students and AD students for the mean scores of leadership and communication. These findings suggested the need for further research to define properties of nursing educational outcomes, and to develop standardized instruments for research replication and verification.

  20. Petrographic study of the Korean anthracite for utilization (VII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Choon Oh; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index(HGI:38.38). For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Samdu dye Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity(EC), pH, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen(DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand(BOD), Salinity, Total Dissolved solids(TDS) and trace elements content(Zn, Si, Fe, Mg, K, Cu, Sr, Mn, Ca, Na, SO{sub 4}, Ni, Pb, Cd) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (15.1%), COD(22.1%), BOD(56.8%), color(7.4%) and increasing degree in DO(10.5%). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 17.1% for Fe and 10.7% for Zn. (author). 40 refs., 22 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. A roentgenological study of duodenal diverticular in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Duodenal diverticulum is a pouch like protrusion of the mucous menibrane through a weak area or defect of the muscle layer of the duodenal wall. 206 cases of the duodenal diverticular out of the consecutive 4030 cases on upper G-I series during the period from Feb. 1977 to Aug. 1978 Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University were studied. The results were as follows; 1. Overall incidence of duodenal diverticular was 5.1 percent (5.0 percent in male, and 5.3 percent in female). 2. The incidence of duodenal diverticular were 1.4 percent in the age group below 19, 1.4 percent in the second decade, 0.8 percent in the third decade, 2.4 percent in the fourth decade, 5.3 percent in the fifth decade, 10.2 percent in the sixth decade, 9.2 percent in the seventh decade, and 17.0 percent in the age group over 70. Incidence of duodenal diverticular is higher in the older individuals. 3. Male was more frequently affected in the age group below 40, but more in females in the age group over 40. 4. 76.3 percent of duodenal diverticular were found in the concave side of the second portion of the duodenum. 5. Multiplicity of duodenal diverticular was 5.8 percent of cases. Triple duodenal diverticular were found in 1 case. 6. The size of duodenal diverticular was variable from 3 to 70 mm in diameter. More than half of duodenal diverticular were smaller than 9 mm in diameter. Large diverticular of more than 30 mm in diameter were 13.6 percent of cases. The size of the duodenal diverticular were relatively large in older age group.

  2. A radiological study on lumbar disc herniation in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Park, In Sik; Suh, Won Hyuk; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Among the patients operated because of lumbar disc herniation from January 1973 to May 1979 at Korea University Hospital, 154 cases were analyzed radiologically and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The ratio of male to female was 1.96 : 1. 2. The incidences of single and multiple involvement were 74.7% and 25.3%. 3. Most frequent level of lumbar disc herniation was L4-5 interspace. 4. The incidences of left, central and bilateral defects were 45.45%, 33.76%, 12.33% and 8.44% respectively. 5. The incidences of spina bifida and transitional vertebra were 24.04% and 9.09% respectively. 6. The overall mean of the lumbosacral angle was 33.97 .deg. 7. The overall mean depth of the lumbar lordosis was 8.48 mm. 8. The ratio of the height of L4-5 interspace to the shorter anteroposterior diameter of L-5 body was obtained by authors' idea. The mean ratios of male and female patients of L4-5 disc herniation which had no evidence of the narrowing of L4-5 interspace on simple radiologic finding were 0.3042 and 0.3064 respectively. So the ratio had a little value in the diagnosis of L4-5 disc herniation on simple radiologic study. 9. Myelography had high diagnostic accuracy, and the majority of the pseudonegative finding on lumbar disc herniation myelographically was seen at L4-5 disc herniation.

  3. The Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues (K-Stori: Rationale and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Na Cho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures to address gender-specific health issues are essential due to fundamental, biological differences between the sexes. Studies have increasingly stressed the importance of customizing approaches directed at women’s health issues according to stages in the female life cycle. In Korea, however, gender-specific studies on issues affecting Korean women in relation to stages in their life cycle are lacking. Accordingly, the Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues (K-Stori was designed to investigate life cycle-specific health issues among women, covering health status, awareness, and risk perceptions. Methods K-Stori was conducted as a nationwide cross-sectional survey targeting Korean women aged 14–79 years. Per each stage in the female life cycle (adolescence, childbearing age, pregnancy & postpartum, menopause, and older adult stage, 3000 women (total 15,000 were recruited by stratified multistage random sampling for geographic area based on the 2010 Resident Registration Population in Korea. Specialized questionnaires per each stage (total of five were developed in consultation with multidisciplinary experts and by reflecting upon current interests into health among the general population of women in Korea. This survey was conducted from April 1 to June 31, 2016, at which time investigators from a professional research agency went door-to-door to recruit residents and conducted in-person interviews. Discussion The study’s findings may help with elucidating health issues and unmet needs specific to each stage in the life cycle of Korean women that have yet to be identified in present surveys.

  4. The effectiveness of Korean medicine treatment in male patients with infertility: a study protocol for a prospective observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Ii; Jo, Junyoung

    2018-01-01

    Male factor subfertility has increasingly been considered the cause of infertility in couples. Many men with male infertility have sperm problems such as oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, or teratozoospermia. Because abnormal semen parameters are idiopathic to some extent, no standard therapy has been established to date. Herbal medicine has been reported to have beneficial properties in the treatment of subfertility, especially in improving semen quality both in vivo and in human studies. Therefore, we intend to investigate the effectiveness and safety of treatment using Korean medicine (KM) for infertile male patients with poor semen quality.This will be a single-center, prospective, case-only observational pilot study. About 20 male patients with infertility who visit Conmaul Hospital of Korean Medicine will be recruited. We will follow the standard treatment protocol, which has shown good results in the treatment of male infertility. The protocol is composed mainly of a 10-week herbal decoction treatment; acupuncture and/or pharmacopuncture are added when needed. Semen samples, quality of life, and the scrotal temperatures of infertile men will be observed before and after the 10-week treatment with KM.The study has received ethical approval from the Public Institutional Review Board (approval number: P01-201708-21-008). The findings will be disseminated to appropriate audiences via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS), Republic of Korea: KCT0002611.

  5. Raman mapping study of the pigments in the dancheong of Korean traditional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jeong-Eun; Han, Kiok; Nam, Jiyeon; Kim, Seung; Kang, Dai-Ill; Park, Min-Jung; Lee, Han-Hyoung; Yang, In-Sang

    2017-04-01

    Korea experienced a tragic loss of most of the Sungnyemun building in an arson attack in 2008. Few scientific records of the pigments originally used in the Korean national treasure exist, thus, the restoration of Sungnyemun was a serious failure. Because the Raman spectroscopic method has the advantage of analyzing the pigment phases in a simple, nondestructive, and noncontact way, it is becoming more important in scientific research on the colors present in cultural assets. In this study, Raman mapping measurements of the pigments in several "dancheong" - color decorations of the surfaces of the wood structure of Korean buildings - samples from Bongjeongsa Geukrakjeon and Sunglimsa Bogwangjeon are presented. The distribution of the pigments, which is difficult to observe with the naked eye, can be found in detail through a high-resolution Raman mapping image. A change of Raman spectrum due to the powderization of some pigments in the colored layer is also observed. The powderization of the pigments is considered to be due to weathering. Our Raman study will be helpful for the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage in general.

  6. Study deviance-type scale in the development of Korean elder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Jeong

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to develop a questionnaire of deviant behavior for the Korean elderly people which may make a big contribution to the examination of deviance behavior of the elderly people and may play an important role in providing a methodological basis. In order to accomplish the purpose of the this study, there were three different stages; (a) making preliminary question items, (b) refining the items of the scale through a plot study, and (c) finalizing question items by a main survey. In the first stage, 43 question items were developed using the open-ended questionnaire and structural inquiry of succession from 137 elderly people who are over 65 yr. In the second phase, based on data collected by the 200 elderly people pilot testing was performed through exploratory factor analysis and reliability test. The scale is a 27-item self-report questionnaire. In the main survey conducted by 184 elderly people, 21 items, which consisted of four subfactors, were finalized in order to measure deviance behaviors of the Korean elderly people: social deviance (n=8), economic deviance (n=5), psychological deviance (n=5), and physical deviance (n=3).

  7. Practical Calling Approach for Exome Array-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies in Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Joon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exome-based genotyping arrays are cost-effective and have recently been used as alternative platforms to whole-exome sequencing. However, the automated clustering algorithm in an exome array has a genotype calling problem in accuracy for identifying rare and low-frequency variants. To address these shortcomings, we present a practical approach for accurate genotype calling using the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We present comparison results and a statistical summary of our genotype data sets. Our data set comprises 14,647 Korean samples. To solve the limitation of automated clustering, we performed manual genotype clustering for the targeted identification of 46,076 variants that were identified using GenomeStudio software. To evaluate the effects of applying custom cluster files, we tested cluster files using 804 independent Korean samples and the same platform. Our study firstly suggests practical guidelines for exome chip quality control in Asian populations and provides valuable insight into an association study using exome chip.

  8. Working hours and depressive symptoms over 7 years: evidence from a Korean panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seoyeon

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to examine how working hours influence depressive symptoms and the association between working hours and depressive symptoms differently across genders. The sample consists of salaried workers aged 25-64 years who participated in two consecutive waves of the seven-wave Korean Welfare Panel Study (2007-2013) (n = 6813 individuals, 27,986 observations) which is a survey of a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population. I apply logit regression and fixed-effects logit regression to examine the causal relation between (intra-)individual changes of working hours and depressive symptoms over a 7-year period. Results from logit model and fixed-effects logit model show that less than 30 h of work per week and more than 60 h of work per week are associated with significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified analyses reveal that women who worked over 60 h per week were at increased risk of showing depressive symptoms compared with women who worked 30-40 h per week. No significant increase in depressive symptoms was seen in men who worked more than 60 h per week. However, men working less than 30 h per week are more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that work arrangement affects the mental health of men and women differently.

  9. Does the experience of discrimination affect health? A cross-sectional study of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heeran; Kang, Minah; Cho, Sung-il; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted among 992 Koreans aged 60 to 89 to examine the effects of perceived discrimination on the health of an ethnically homogenous older population. Perceived discrimination was measured with a self-report instrument. Health outcomes included depressive symptoms, poor self-rated health, and chronic diseases. Of the elderly Koreans surveyed, 23.5% reported having experienced discrimination based on education, age, birthplace, birth order, or gender. Among women, 23.1% reported experiencing gender discrimination, compared to 0.9% among men. Men reported education and age discrimination most frequently-9.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Those who reported experiencing any discrimination were 2.19 times more likely to report depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.50-3.22) and 1.40 times more likely to report poor self-rated health (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.93). The health effects of educational discrimination appeared most prominent. This study supports the positive associations between perceived discrimination and poorer health, particularly mental health, in later life. © 2013 APJPH.

  10. [Monitoring the use of health-related quality of life measurements in Korean studies of patients with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Cho, Soo-Yeon; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Eun Jung

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in Korean studies of patients with diabetes. Of 86 Korean studies initially identified, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. For each study, a description of the instrument and its psychometric properties were monitored by the Instrument Review Criteria of the Scientific Advisory Committee. These criteria include conceptual definition, attributes, taxonomy, reliability, validity, responsiveness, administrative mode, and language adaptations. Five generic and one diabetes specific type questionnaires were identified from the 17 studies. Of those studies, conceptual definitions with the attributes of multi-dimension and subjectiveness were provided for 11 studies (71%). In the analysis of conceptual taxonomy, only 6 studies were classified as HRQOL, while other studies were done as QOL or health status. In monitoring of psychometric properties, reliability, validity, and responsiveness were reported for 88.2%, 64.7%, and 29.4%, respectively. One generic instrument was developed with a Korean population, while the other instruments were developed for Western countries. However, language adaptations were performed for only a few of the instruments. The psychometric properties including responsiveness of most instruments warrants further research, and the development of diabetes-specific HRQOL measurements should be sought to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies of patients with diabetes.

  11. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  12. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  13. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  14. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  15. Qualitative Study of Depression Literacy Among Korean American Parents of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoo Mi; McCreary, Linda L; Hughes, Tonda L

    2018-01-01

    Lack of depression literacy is associated with low help-seeking behaviors for mental health care in adolescents. As parents generally determine adolescents' health care, ensuring parents can recognize depressive symptoms is crucial. The current study explored depression literacy among Korean American parents of adolescents ages 12 to 19 using a qualitative descriptive design. Semantic content analysis was performed using data from three focus group interviews conducted in 2015 with Korean American parents (10 mothers, four fathers) of adolescents. Participants lacked knowledge about the biological causes and medicinal treatment of depression. Most believed that depression cannot be fully treated, relapses occur easily, and medication is taken indefinitely. Gender influenced perceptions of symptoms. Parents often overlooked children's depressive symptoms until schools alerted them. Nursing interventions should educate parents about the biological causes of depression, strategies for addressing adolescents' symptoms, community-based professional resources, and success stories about depression treatment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(1), 48-56.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  17. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  18. Korean American Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Teaching Profession in Multicultural Urban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung

    2018-01-01

    This study explores two Korean American social studies teachers' perceptions and experiences of the teaching profession in multicultural, urban public high schools. Drawing upon critical race theory (CRT) and its interconnection to the model minority myth, the most dominant form of racism against Asians as theoretical underpinnings, this study…

  19. The Change of Work Value Endorsement among Korean Adolescents and Its Association with Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Landberg, Monique; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the endorsement of work values changed over time and investigated the role of socioeconomic status in the development of work values. A 5-year longitudinal sample of Korean adolescents was used. Three work values were measured: Extrinsic reward, working conditions, and personal development. Findings indicate that Korean…

  20. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  1. Effectiveness of Vildagliptin in Clinical Practice: Pooled Analysis of Three Korean Observational Studies (the VICTORY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Data were pooled from the vildagliptin postmarketing survey (PMS, the vildagliptin/metformin fixed drug combination (DC PMS, and a retrospective observational study of vildagliptin/metformin (fixed DC or free DC. The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a glycemic target (HbA1c of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. In total, 4303 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 2087 patients were eligible. The mean patient age was 56.99 ± 11.25 years. Overall, 58.94% patients achieved an HbA1c target of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. The glycemic target achievement rate was significantly greater in patients with baseline HbA1c < 7.5% versus ≥7.5% (84.64% versus 43.97%, receiving care at the hospital versus clinic (67.95% versus 52.33%, and receiving vildagliptin/metformin fixed DC versus free DC (70.69% versus 55.42%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that disease duration (P<0.0001, baseline HbA1c (P<0.0001, and DC type (P=0.0103 had significant effects on drug effectiveness. Vildagliptin plus metformin appeared as an effective treatment option for patients with T2DM in clinical practice settings in Korea.

  2. Study of the Korean anthracite for utilization and the coal mine data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petrographic study of the Korean anthracite for utilization (5): This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites The small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment site of Chungjoo electric Co. to use waste water processed by purifying system for the feasibility study. (2) Study of the closed coal mine data management: Underground maps about 1700 adits of 100 coal mines, and related graphic data have been collected in the database. And all those data were entered into the database in vectorial form, coordinates obtaining from the digitizing tablet. Detailed works are described in the other report, including the discussions of graphic database and data handling of graphical mine data. Comments about the GIS is also provided in the volume. (author). 25 refs., 45 figs., 50 tabs., 3 maps.

  3. A Comparative Study of Moral Development of Korean and British Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hye-Jeong

    2002-01-01

    Explores Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development in relation to Korean and British children. Illustrates cultural differences in moral orientations. Notes it was not possible to match responses from Korean children to Kohlberg's manual. Suggests that interpretation of children's moral reasoning should be based on consideration of cultural…

  4. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  5. Reader Identity: A Case Study of Korean Graduate Students' Meaning Construction of an L2 Literary Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Changok; Riazantseva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in constructivist theories of reading and informed by the contemporary theories of identity, this study explored how three Korean adult speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL) constructed meaning of the novel "The Catcher in the Rye", and how their identities mediated this process. Sources of data included think aloud…

  6. The Promotion of Environmental Management in the South Korean Health Sector—Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryool Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the comprehensiveness and urgency of environmental challenges, every stakeholder needs to be engaged in reducing environmental impacts. The healthcare sector has rarely been studied, despite its intense effects on the environment, particularly through generating various forms of hazardous waste and intensively consuming energy and water. Many healthcare facilities exist in South Korea, and every citizen frequently visits hospitals thanks to the convenient system. To reduce the environmental impacts of the healthcare sector, the South Korean government has implemented various policy measures aimed at promoting environmental management in that sector. This study evaluated the eco-efficiencies of 21 hospitals from 2012 to 2015 using data envelopment assessment (DEA, used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP to analyze hospital staff members’ answers to a questionnaire asking about the relative importance and performance of individual environmental management tasks, and also identified environmental management tasks that should be prioritized by building an importance-performance analysis (IPA matrix using those questionnaire responses. This study found that eco-efficiencies have improved during the period, and that mandatory policy measures were more effective than voluntary agreements for improving eco-efficiency. This implies that rigorous reporting and monitoring should be implemented along with any voluntary agreement. In addition, this study found that the top priorities are “establishment of vision and strategy for environmental management” and “organization of task team for environmental management and task assignment”. This shows the necessity of additional policy measures, such as training or consulting to promote the priorities. In addition to policy recommendations for diffusing environmental management in the South Korean healthcare sector, the methodological approach sheds light for researchers interested in

  7. Pressurized thermal shock re-evaluation studies for Korean PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Gyu; Kim, Hyun Su; Jin, Tae Eun; Jang, Chang Hee

    2001-01-01

    The PTS reference temperature of reactor pressure vessel for one of the Korean NPPs has been predicted to exceed the screening criteria before it reaches it's design life. To cope with this issue, a plant-specific PTS analysis had been performed in accordance with the Regulatory Guide 1.154 in 1999. As a result of that analysis, it was found that current methodology of RG. 1.154 was very conservative. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of changing various input parameters and to determine the amount of conservatism of the current PTS analysis method. To do this, based on the past PTS analysis experience, parametric study were performed for various models using modified VISA-II code. This paper discusses the analysis results and recommendations to reduce the conservatism of current analysis method

  8. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure

  9. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure.

  10. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. A study on seasonal variation of skin parameters in Korean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E J; Lee, J A; Park, J J; Kim, H J; Kim, N S; Byun, K S; Choi, G S; Moon, T K

    2015-02-01

    The physiological characteristics of the skin are varied greatly, depending on gender, age, region and race, and many dermatologic researches have been performed through various research methods. This study aimed to examine how Korean men's skin conditions were influenced by temperature or humidity changes caused by seasonal rotations. A total of 100 healthy Korean men, age range 20-59 years, participated in the study for both summer and winter. We compared on the characteristics of skin between summer and winter. The skin hydration, skin pH and TEWL were evaluated on the forehead, cheek and forearm. The skin sebum content of the glabella, nasal ala and cheek was measured using Sebumeter(®) (SM810, Courage+Khazaka, Germany). Cutometer(®) (MPA 580 Courage+Khazaka, Germany) the elasticity was measured by on the cheeks, and PRIMOS lite(®) (Phase shift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin, GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to evaluate wrinkles on crow's feet. Lastly, in addition, the skin pore of the face was measured using the Janus(®) (PSI, Korea) which is a facial analysis system. The results were as follows: the comparison of hydration in summer and winter shows significant differences in their forehead, cheeks and forearm. The pH values of the skin surface were generally higher in winter, and significantly different on each site, and the sebum content was higher in summer than in winter. As a result of the pore measurement, the summer showed more pores compared to the winter, and there was a statistically significant difference in skin pores between summer and winter. The sensitivity measured by stinging test increases significantly more in winter than in summer. However, there were no seasonal differences in wrinkles and skin brightness. The skin surface pH, TEWL, sebum content, hydration, elasticity, wrinkles, skin pore and skin sensitivity vary with seasons and body regions in Korean men. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  12. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  13. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  14. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  15. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  16. Identification of a possible susceptibility locus for UVB-induced skin tanning phenotype in Korean females using genomewide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Taek-Jong; Chang, Yun-Hee; Shin, Young-Ah; Shin, Jung-Min; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lim, Seul-Ki; Lee, Sang-Hwha; Lee, Min-Geol; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Seo, Young Kyoung; Chang, Min-Youl; Lee, Young

    2015-12-01

    A two-stage genomewide association (GWA) analysis was conducted to investigate the genetic factors influencing ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin pigmentation in Korean females after UV exposure. Previously, a GWA study evaluating ~500 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 99 Korean females identified eight SNPs that were highly associated with tanning ability. To confirm these associations, we genotyped the SNPs in an independent replication study (112 Korean females). We found that a novel SNP in the intron of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene yielded significant replicated associations with skin tanning ability (P-value = 1.16 × 10(-4) ). To understand the functional consequences of this locus located in the non-coding region, we investigated the role of WWOX in human melanocytes using a recombinant adenovirus expressing a microRNA specific for WWOX. Inhibition of WWOX expression significantly increased the expression and activity of tyrosinase in human melanocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that genetic variants in the intronic region of WWOX could be determinants in the UV-induced tanning ability of Korean females. WWOX represents a new candidate gene to evaluate the molecular basis of the UV-induced tanning ability in individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Demographic methods to assess food insecurity: a North Korean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Hsu, E; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    In complex emergencies, especially those involving famine and/or widespread food insecurity, assessments of malnutrition are critical to understanding the population's health status and to assessing the effectiveness of relief interventions. Although the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has benefited from some of the largest, most sustained appeals in the history of the World Food Program (WFP), the government in Pyongyang has placed restrictions on international efforts to gather data on the health and nutritional status of the affected population. Lacking direct means to assess the nutritional status of the North Korean populace, what other methodologies could be employed to measure the public health impacts of chronic food shortage? The paper begins with a review of methods for assessing nutritional status, particularly in emergencies; a brief history of the North Korean food crisis (1995-2001), and a review of the available nutritional and health data on the DPRK. The main focus of the paper is on the results of a survey of 2,692 North Korean adult migrants in China. Recognizing certain biases and limitations, the study suggests that sample households have experienced an overall decline in food security, as evidenced by both the decline in government rations from an average of 120 grams per person per day to less than 60 grams per day, and by the increase in the percentage of households relying on foraging or bartering of assets as their principal source of food. It also is apparent that the period 1995-1998 has been marked by elevated household mortality, declining fertility, and steadily rising out-migration. Taken together, the signs point toward famine, whether that is defined as a discrete event--that is, as a regional failure in food production or distribution leading to elevated mortality from starvation and associated disease--or as a more complex social process whose sub-states include not only elevated mortality, but declining fertility

  18. A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach In Koreans (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Soo Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-10-15

    A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach was carried out in 105 selected Korean cases of histologically proved carcinoma of the stomach, aimed to the position and value of roentgenography and gastroscopy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In the diagnosis of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, a correct diagnosis was made by roentgenography in 79.1 percent and by gastroscopy in 86.7 percent of all cases. Roentgenography plus gastroscopy permitted a correct diagnosis in 92.3 percent of all cases. There is no significant difference statistically on the diagnostic accuracy between roentgenography and gastroscopy (by t-test, t=0.8572). 2) In the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach, with roentgenography the greatest diagnostic error occurred in primary ulcerative lesions and with gastroscopy in inadequate examinations which were resulted from mechanical failures. It occurred also in mixed type of infiltration and ulceration for the gross pathology and in lesions of gastric body and pyloric antrum as the site of the lesion. 3) In this series of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, two cases of early gastric carcinoma (type IIc +III) were correctly diagnosed by roentgenography and gastroscopy. 4) In this series, the most frequent type of gross pathology appeared to be Bormann tpe III, type of ulceration with spreading infiltration, which was 72.4 percent of all 105 cases and the site of the lesion revealed the highest frequently in the pylorus in 53.3 percent, but both of these had little significance in the determination of diagnostic accuracy of roentgenography and/or gastroscopy in gastric carcinomas. 5) The onset of symptoms, clinical manifestations, and physical findings were reviewed in all 105 cases of this series. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (75.2 percent), indigestion (73.3 percent) and weight lose (57.0 percent) in the order and the most frequent physical findings was epigastric tenderness (68.6 percent). The

  19. A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach In Koreans (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Soo Il

    1971-01-01

    A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach was carried out in 105 selected Korean cases of histologically proved carcinoma of the stomach, aimed to the position and value of roentgenography and gastroscopy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In the diagnosis of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, a correct diagnosis was made by roentgenography in 79.1 percent and by gastroscopy in 86.7 percent of all cases. Roentgenography plus gastroscopy permitted a correct diagnosis in 92.3 percent of all cases. There is no significant difference statistically on the diagnostic accuracy between roentgenography and gastroscopy (by t-test, t=0.8572). 2) In the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach, with roentgenography the greatest diagnostic error occurred in primary ulcerative lesions and with gastroscopy in inadequate examinations which were resulted from mechanical failures. It occurred also in mixed type of infiltration and ulceration for the gross pathology and in lesions of gastric body and pyloric antrum as the site of the lesion. 3) In this series of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, two cases of early gastric carcinoma (type IIc +III) were correctly diagnosed by roentgenography and gastroscopy. 4) In this series, the most frequent type of gross pathology appeared to be Bormann tpe III, type of ulceration with spreading infiltration, which was 72.4 percent of all 105 cases and the site of the lesion revealed the highest frequently in the pylorus in 53.3 percent, but both of these had little significance in the determination of diagnostic accuracy of roentgenography and/or gastroscopy in gastric carcinomas. 5) The onset of symptoms, clinical manifestations, and physical findings were reviewed in all 105 cases of this series. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (75.2 percent), indigestion (73.3 percent) and weight lose (57.0 percent) in the order and the most frequent physical findings was epigastric tenderness (68.6 percent). The

  20. Development of the Korean framework for senior-friendly hospitals: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Sook; Han, Seol-Heui; Hwang, Jeong-Hae; Park, Jae-Min; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Jaekyung; Moon, Yeonsil; Kim, Hee Joung; Shin, Grace Jung Eun; Lee, Ji-Sun; Choi, Ye Ji; Uhm, Kyeong Eun; Kim, In Ae; Nam, Ji-Won

    2017-08-04

    Aging is an inevitable part of life. One can maintain well-being and wellness even after discharge and/or transition if his or her functional decline is minimized, sudden decline is prevented, and functioning is promoted during hospitalization. Caring appropriately for elderly patients requires the systematic application of Senior-Friendly Hospital principles to all operating systems, including medical centres' organization and environment, as well as patient treatment processes. The Senior-Friendly Hospital framework is valid and important for patient safety and quality improvement. This study aimed to make recommendations regarding the development of the Korean Framework for Senior-Friendly Hospitals for older patients' care management, patient safety interventions, and health promotion, via a Delphi survey. Two rounds of Delphi surveying were conducted with 15 participants who had at least 3 years' experience in accreditation surveying and medical accreditation standards, survey methods, and accreditation investigator education. In each round, we calculated statistics describing each standard's validity and feasibility. The Korean Framework for Senior-Friendly Hospitals included 4 Chapters, 11 categories, and 67 standards through consensus of the Senior-Friendly Hospitals task force and experts' peer review. After the two rounds of Delphi surveying, validity evaluation led to no changes in standards of the Senior-Friendly Hospitals; however, the number of standards showing adequate validity decreased from 67 to 58. Regarding feasibility, no changes were necessary in the standards; however, the number of categories showing adequate feasibility decreased from 11 to 8 and from 67 to 30, respectively. The excluded categories were 3.2, 4.2, and 4.3 (service, transportation, and signage and identification). The highest feasibility values were given to standards 2.1.1, 4.1.4, and 4.1.6. The highest feasibility score was given to standard 2.4.2. The Korean Framework for

  1. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  2. Dry eye disease and allergic conditions: A Korean nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Sang Wha

    2016-11-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. No epidemiologic reports have yet been published about the relationship between DED and allergic rhinitis or sensitization to allergens. To investigate the association between DED and allergic conditions in the general adult Korean population. This population-based cross-sectional study included 17,542 individuals (ages ≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012. Data for total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE levels were available for 1857 subjects. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to determine the association of DED with allergy or allergic conditions, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, increased total serum IgE, and sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae), dog, and cockroach allergens. The prevalence of DED, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was 10.4, 13.1, 2.2, and 3.3%, respectively. The prevalence of the increased total serum IgE level and sensitization to D. farinae, dog, and cockroach allergens was 34.6, 15.7, 1.0, and 2.8%, respectively. After adjusting for general characteristics, DED was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval, 1.38-1.81]) and D. farinae sensitization (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.79]). This study demonstrated a close association between DED and both allergic rhinitis and D. farinae sensitization in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to establish temporal relationships between DED and allergic rhinitis.

  3. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  4. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  5. Heritability of myopia and ocular biometrics in Koreans: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hun; Zhao, Di; Kim, Woori; Lim, Dong-Hui; Song, Yun-Mi; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Joohon; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the heritabilities of myopia and ocular biometrics among different family types among a Korean population. We studied 1508 adults in the Healthy Twin Study. Spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal astigmatism were measured by refraction, corneal topography, and A-scan ultrasonography. To see the degree of resemblance among different types of family relationships, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Variance-component methods were applied to estimate the genetic contributions to eye phenotypes as heritability based on the maximum likelihood estimation. Narrow sense heritability was calculated as the proportion of the total phenotypic variance explained by additive genetic effects, and linear and nonlinear effects of age, sex, and interactions between age and sex were adjusted. A total of 240 monozygotic twin pairs, 45 dizygotic twin pairs, and 938 singleton adult family members who were first-degree relatives of twins in 345 families were included in the study. ICCs for spherical equivalent from monozygotic twins, pooled first-degree pairs, and spouse pairs were 0.83, 0.34, and 0.20, respectively. The ICCs of other ocular biometrics were also significantly higher in monozygotic twins compared with other relative pairs, with greater consistency and conformity. The estimated narrow sense heritability (95% confidence interval) was 0.78 (0.71-0.84) for spherical equivalent; 0.86 (0.82-0.90) for axial length; 0.83 (0.76-0.91) for anterior chamber depth; and 0.70 (0.63-0.77) for corneal astigmatism. The estimated heritability of spherical equivalent and ocular biometrics in the Korean population suggests the compelling evidence that all traits are highly heritable.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents.The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents, after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10.Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042.In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026, but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253. Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25 after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73 after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income.Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  7. Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study

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    Sangah Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40–69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women. We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p < 0.0001. Adjusted OR for MetS was significantly lower in the highest milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86–0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60–0.76, p trend < 0.0001 in women. Overall, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (all p trend < 0.05. This study concludes that higher milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults.

  8. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

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    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  9. Psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults: a modified replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have shown interest in the development of psychological essentialism among children; that is, a belief that certain psychological characteristics (such as personality) are relatively stable and unchanging. Although previous studies have shown that children are essentialistic about human traits, and the coherence among various essentialism dimensions increases with age, moderating cultural factors in the development of essentialism, especially among Asian children, have received little attention. Using the methodologies of Gelman, Heyman, and Legare (2007), levels of psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults were measured, and compared with the original US data. Results demonstrated cross-cultural similarity in the development of coherence in essentialistic thought, and difference in the level of essentialism among adult participants. The present findings imply that different cultural values between Asians and Westerners can play a role in the developmental trajectory of psychological essentialism.

  10. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

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    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Keeho

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  11. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Su Yeon Kye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  12. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

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    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  13. A study on the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis in Korean malocclusion patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Youp; Park, In Woo; Jang, In San; Choi, Dong Soon; Cha, Bong Kuen

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in Korean malocclusion patients according to age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. This study consisted of 2,001 randomly selected patients from the Department of Orthodontics at the Gangneung-Wonju National University Dental Hospital, Korea. The prevalence of IO in Korean malocclusion patients was recorded using their panoramic radiographs, and the following parameters were surveyed; age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The chi-square test was analyzed to determine the statistical significance of differences in the prevalence of IO between age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in the jaws was 6.7% in a total of 2,001 examined orthodontic patients. The majority of IO was found in the mandible (96.58%). The 30-39 age group showed the highest prevalence of IO (9.60%). There was a higher prevalence in females (6.89%) than in males (6.45%). The prevalence of IO in Angle Class I group (7.07%) was the most frequent, followed by Angle Class II group (6.72%), and Angle Class III group (6.40%). However, there was no statistical significance in sex and Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in malocclusion patients showed the differences between various age groups and most of them were found in the mandibular posterior area. However, sex and the type of malocclusion are not to be considered as a contributing factor of IO.

  14. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. Decreased muscle mass in Korean subjects with intracranial arterial stenosis: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Jung; Jung, Hwanseok; Lee, Taeyoung; Kim, Jongho; Park, Jongsin; Kim, Hacsoo; Cho, Junghwan; Lee, Won-Young; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hyung-Geun

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. Decreased muscle mass is one of the major causes of chronic disease in adults. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between muscle mass and ICAS in Korean adults. For this study, we selected a total of 10,530 participants (mean age, 43.3 years; 8558 men) in a health screening program, for whom transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to detect >50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the stroke outcomes and neuroimaging of intracranial atherosclerosis trial. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated with muscle mass/weight (kg) * 100. Among the total patient population, 322 (3.1%) subjects had ICAS. Subjects with ICAS were older, and had higher mean values for fasting glucose, body mass index and blood pressure compared with those without ICAS. Subjects with ICAS had significantly lower muscle mass, SMI and higher percent body fat compared with those without ICAS. In logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest tertile of muscle mass had the lowest odds ratio for ICAS with the lowest tertile group of muscle mass as the reference group even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, sex, smoking and exercise (OR 0.650, 95% CI 0.442-0.955). Subjects with ICAS had significantly decreased muscle mass compared with those without ICAS in Korean adults. The risk for ICAS was lower in subjects with higher muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

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    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  17. Factors affecting stigma toward suicide and depression: A Korean nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Min-Ji; Cho, Maeng Je; Lee, Jun-Young

    2015-12-01

    Suicide attempts and depression are considerably misunderstood by Korean society. Studies regarding factors should provide basic information concerning the factors that should be considered when examining stigmatization. This study aimed to investigate sociodemographic factors related to the social stigma toward people with a history of suicide attempts or depression in a Korean nationwide community sample. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method; 779 respondents completed Link's Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) scale to assess the social stigma they attached to suicide attempts, and another 743 completed PDD scale to assess the social stigma they attached to depression. Multiple regression analysis, including socioeconomic and psychiatric variables, was performed to identify the factors predictive of social stigma. Results of multiple regressions revealed that age (β = .12, p = .018), sex (β = .08, p = .038), years of education (β = -.31, p = .006) and history of suicide attempts (β = -.11, p = .009) significantly predicted the degree of stigma toward people who had made suicide attempts, whereas age (β = .15, p = .003) and education (β = -.40, p = .001) also predicted the social stigma toward people with depression, sex and history of a depressive episode did not. Older men with less education and no experience with suicide perceived suicide attempts more negatively. Similarly, older people with less education placed a greater stigma on people suffering from depression. These results suggest that greater access to higher education may reduce stigma toward people with mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association Study between Folate Pathway Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Koreans

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    Jae-Young Yoo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is ranked as the most common cancer in Koreans. A recent molecular biological study about the folate pathway gene revealed the correlation with a couple of cancer types. In the folate pathway, several genes are involved, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR, and methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR. The MTHFR gene has been reported several times for the correlation with gastric cancer risk. However, the association of the MTRR or MTR gene has not been reported to date. In this study, we investigated the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR genes and the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans. To identify the genetic association with gastric cancer, we selected 17 SNPs sites in folate pathway-associated genes of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR and tested in 1,261 gastric cancer patients and 375 healthy controls. By genotype analysis, estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI, rs1801394 in the MTRR gene showed increased risk for gastric cacner, with statistical significance both in the codominant model (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.85 and dominant model (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.75. Especially, in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, the codominant (OR, 9.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 94.59 and recessive model (OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 0.92 to 16.59 showed dramatically increased risk (p < 0.05. In conclusion, rs1801394 in the MTRR gene is associated with gastric cancer risk, and its functional significance need to be validated.

  20. A study on the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis in Korean malocclusion patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Youp; Park, In Woo; Jang, In San; Choi, Dong Soon; Cha, Bong Kuen [College of Dentisity, Gangneung Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This retrospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in Korean malocclusion patients according to age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. This study consisted of 2,001 randomly selected patients from the Department of Orthodontics at the Gangneung-Wonju National University Dental Hospital, Korea. The prevalence of IO in Korean malocclusion patients was recorded using their panoramic radiographs, and the following parameters were surveyed; age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The chi-square test was analyzed to determine the statistical significance of differences in the prevalence of IO between age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in the jaws was 6.7% in a total of 2,001 examined orthodontic patients. The majority of IO was found in the mandible (96.58%). The 30-39 age group showed the highest prevalence of IO (9.60%). There was a higher prevalence in females (6.89%) than in males (6.45%). The prevalence of IO in Angle Class I group (7.07%) was the most frequent, followed by Angle Class II group (6.72%), and Angle Class III group (6.40%). However, there was no statistical significance in sex and Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in malocclusion patients showed the differences between various age groups and most of them were found in the mandibular posterior area. However, sex and the type of malocclusion are not to be considered as a contributing factor of IO.

  1. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this multi-site outpatient study found that the Korean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  2. No difference in stroke knowledge between Korean adherents to traditional and western medicine – the AGE study: an epidemiological study

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    Eun Su-Yong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective stroke intervention and risk reduction depend on the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke. In Korea, where both traditional Oriental medicine and Western medicine are practiced, estimates of the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke are poor. The present study sought to describe the inception cohort of the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study and to determine baseline stroke awareness and preferred medical treatment for stroke in this Korean sample. Methods A total of 2,767 subjects selected randomly from the Ansan Geriatric Study in South Korea were questioned about stroke. Their answers were compared with their sociodemographic data and other variables. Results Only 44.8% of participants correctly identified stroke as a vascular disease in the human brain. Sudden numbness or weakness was the most frequently identified stroke warning sign (60.2%. Hypertension (66.7% and mental stress (62.2% were most frequently identified as stroke risk factors. The contributions of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease to stroke were underestimated; they were identified as risk factors by 28.3% and 18.6% of participants, respectively. The predictors for poor knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors were similar irrespective of preference for Western or Oriental medical treatment, and included those with lower levels of education and inaccurate definition of stroke. Television and radio (40.3% were the most frequent sources of stroke information for both groups. Conclusion This study shows that knowledge of stroke is similar among Koreans with preferences for either Western or Oriental medical treatment and that misunderstandings about stroke are common among the Korean elderly. In order to prevent and manage stroke effectively, public health education regarding basic concepts of stroke is necessary. This should target those with a lower level of education and a misunderstanding of the

  3. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

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    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  4. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  5. Declarative Intonation in Korean: AN Acoustical Study of F(o) Declination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Do-Heung

    This dissertation investigates some acoustic features of declarative intonation in standard Korean based on the hypothesis that fundamental frequency (F_0 ) declination can be syntactically determined. In the course of this study, the following major issues are addressed: (i) What is the relation between sentence length and F_0 contours? (ii) Is there any difference in F_0 patterns between male and female speakers? (iii) Is F_0 declination exclusively a surface structure phenomenon? (iv) Are F_0 contours of parentheticals independent from those of the main clause? (v) What is the effect of word order on variations in F_0 ?. Ten subjects (seven male and three female speakers of the Seoul dialect) read sentences with various types of syntactic structure. In order to analyze F _0 declination phenomena, a software program, DoReMi, and an Impulse Audio Digitizer were used with a Macintosh computer. After obtaining the results from the computer, the Visi-Pitch was also used to confirm some F_0 traces. Major results from this research may be summarized as follows: (i) The rate of declination is not affected by the length of the syntactic unit. Particularly, initial and final values are nearly constant in both progressively longer simplex sentences and expanded embedded sentences. (ii) F_0 contours for male and female subjects are strikingly similar except for the different ranges. (iii) The deletion site plays a certain role in the process of F_0 contours, suggesting that declination may be determined at an underlying or abstract level. (iv) As in English, a parenthetical phrase or clause in Korean has a separate F_0 pattern in its own right, and the parenthetical does not perturb the F_0 pattern of the main clause. (v) Sentences with word orders which are used most frequently in discourse have shown the standard pattern of F_0 declination while orders which are used less frequently have unpredictable F _0 patterns in general.

  6. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  7. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  8. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  9. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  10. 韩国语中的外来词词源研究%Study of loanwords etymology in Korean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海菊

    2013-01-01

    The existence of loanwords of Korean language is closely related with the history of Korea. The etymological study of these words will be beneficial to the better understanding of historical development and cultural change of Korean language and of the process of historical development of the Korean People. The loanwords of Korean language will continue to enlarge and change with political, economic and cultural communications between Korea and other countries. Therefore, to better understand Korea with profoundly national and cultural tradition, we should make efforts to study and research the origins and cultural connotations of loanwords of Korean language.%韩国语中外来词的存在并不是偶然的,是与韩国历史密切相关的。通过对韩国语中的外来词词源研究有助于我们更好地了解韩国语的发展历史、文化变迁,也可以通过对语言的研究进而了解大韩民族的历史发展过程。韩国语中的外来词亦不会停滞不前,其会随着与世界各国政治、经济、文化等领域的交流而继续变化发展。韩国作为一个具有深厚民族文化传统的国家,其语言中外来词的诸多内容,值得我们去研究和学习。

  11. A Comparative Study of Green Purchase Intention between Korean and Chinese Consumers: The Moderating Role of Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    You Kyung Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour, a study on the moderating effect of collectivism on the formation of green purchase intention is rarely found. Therefore, based on 357 consumers in Korea and 398 consumers...

  12. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  13. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  14. [Study on the history of exchange in pharmaceutical science between Japan and Korea after the Modern period: focus on Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang-Koo; Son, Il-Sun; Choi, Eung-Chil; Nam, Young-Hee; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2009-01-01

    According to an old historical text, Nihonshoki [Chinese and Korean characters: see text]), there are records of medical doctors ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) and herbal pharmacists ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) being dispatched to Japan as early as 554 A.D. ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]). More recently, a clinic ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) for Japanese residents in Pusan was established in 1877. Advanced modern pharmacy from Japan began to be introduced to Korea after 1909. Based on an agreement between the Korean and Japanese governments, Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government became a systematic program after 1965. As a result, Koreans who earned Ph.D.s from Japanese universities became a majority in the faculties of Korean schools of pharmacy. However, this trend drastically shifted in the years after 1990, at which time the primary nation for earning Ph.D.s became the United States; the number of students studying in Japan has become very low recently. In this study, six ex-students who studied in Japan were interviewed and the results were analyzed. Furthermore, the past, present and future perspectives of Korean students in Japan were discussed while focusing on the system of Korean students being sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government.

  15. Exposure to pesticide as a risk factor for depression: A population-based longitudinal study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Tae Hui; Min, Seongho; Lee, Kyungsuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Choi, Jung Ran

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to pesticides is associated with mental disorders, including depression, especially among occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. The results of experimental studies ascribed the negative effects of pesticides on mental health to their neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activities. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of depression and high- or low-level exposure to pesticides in a rural population. This longitudinal study was performed in 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2012 (follow-up) to evaluate the risk of depression among 2151 Korean adults. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on depression upon self-reported exposure to pesticide based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between pesticide exposure and depression. We adjusted the data for age, cigarette smoking status, current alcohol use, monthly income, educational level, marriage status, and religion. Among the individuals who reported depression, the number of participants who used pesticides was significantly higher than that who did not (N=61 [7.2%] vs. N=54 [4.2%], P=0.003). A positive association was noted between >20-year period of pesticide use and depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.88). Individuals who reported depression showed greater odds of being exposed to higher pesticide concentrations (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.88) and experiencing pesticide poisoning (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.80-18.86) than those who did not. Exposure to pesticides at a high concentration was found to be associated with depressive symptoms among Korean adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  17. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Lee, Yujin; Park, Kyong

    2018-01-06

    Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants ( n = 586) were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women ( p = 0.02), older participants ( p = 0.002), and those with a higher income level ( p = 0.03) than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7-3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n = 586 were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women (p = 0.02, older participants (p = 0.002, and those with a higher income level (p = 0.03 than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7–3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  19. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  20. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  1. Adiponectin Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Syndrome: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the association of plasma adiponectin levels with longitudinal changes in metabolic syndrome and the metabolic syndrome-related traits [insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as their genetic and environmental correlations. A total of 1030 Koreans (380 men and 650 women; 44.0 ± 12.7 years old) without diabetes of the Healthy Twin Study visited at baseline (2005-2010) and returned for a follow-up examination 3.7 ± 1.2 years later. Baseline plasma adiponectin, metabolic syndrome components [waist circumference (WC), glucose, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs)] and metabolic syndrome-related traits were measured at baseline and follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, caloric intake, education level, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, and changes in BMI, 1 standard deviation increment in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with 38-63% lower odds of incident and persistent metabolic syndrome. After additionally adjusting for the baseline levels of each trait, baseline adiponectin levels were inversely associated with WC, blood pressure, insulin, HOMA-IR, and TGs values at follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline values of each trait or sum of metabolic syndrome components, baseline adiponectin levels exhibited significantly inverse genetic and environmental correlations with insulin, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C values and the sum of metabolic syndrome components at follow-up. High adiponectin levels reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and having persistent metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome-related traits over time. These associations may be explained by pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  2. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  3. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  4. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p<0.05, having family members in South Korea (t=2.02, p<0.05, and subjective health status (t=4.96, p<0.01. Scores on health-responsible behaviors were higher with higher age (t=2.90, p<0.01 and for subjects without family or friends (t=2.43, p<0.05. Higher physical-activity behaviors were observed in males (t=3.32, p<0.01, in those with better subjective health status (t=3.46, p<0.05 and lower body mas index (t=3.48, p<0.05, and in smokers (t=3.17, p<0.01. Nutritional behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=2.17, p<0.05. Spiritual growth behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=4.21, p<0.001, had no family in South Korea (t=2.04, p<0.05, and had higher subjective health status (t=5.74, p<0.01. Scores on interpersonal relationships and stress-management behaviors were higher for those with higher subjective health status. A multiple regression analysis showed greater effects on health-promoting behaviors when subjective health status was better. Older people and non-smokers exhibited more health-responsible behaviors, while more physical-activity behaviors and spiritual growth activities were observed when subjective health status was better. Interpersonal relationship behaviors had positive effects on those with good subjective heath status and on non-smokers. Conclusions: Based on the results of the current study, an alternative was suggested for promoting health in North Korean adolescent refugees.

  6. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  7. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  8. Epidemiological and Genome-Wide Association Study of Gastritis or Gastric Ulcer in Korean Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis is a major disease that has the potential to grow as gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a very common cancer, and it is related to a very high mortality rate in Korea. This disease is known to have various reasons, including infection with Helicobacter pylori, dietary habits, tobacco, and alcohol. The incidence rate of gastritis has reported to differ between age, population, and gender. However, unlike other factors, there has been no analysis based on gender. So, we examined the high risk factors of gastritis in each gender in the Korean population by focusing on sex. We performed an analysis of 120 clinical characteristics and genome-wide association studies (GWAS using 349,184 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the results of Anseong and Ansan cohort study in the Korea Association Resource (KARE project. As the result, we could not prove a strong relation with these factors and gastritis or gastric ulcer in the GWAS. However, we confirmed several already-known risk factors and also found some differences of clinical characteristics in each gender using logistic regression. As a result of the logistic regression, a relation with hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia therapy, hypotensive or antihypotensive drug, diastolic blood pressure, and gastritis was seen in males; the results of this study suggest that vascular disease has a potential association with gastritis in males.

  9. Physical comorbidity and 12-week treatment outcomes in Korean patients with depressive disorders: the CRESCEND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Yang, Su-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2011-11-01

    Physical and depressive disorders frequently co-occur, but effects of physical health on depression treatment outcomes have received little research. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes between people with depressive disorder with and without comorbid physical disorders. A Korean nationwide sample of 723 people with depressive disorder initiated on antidepressant treatment, and re-evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks later. Assessment scales for evaluating depressive symptoms (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-s), and functioning (SOFAS) were administered at baseline and every follow-up visit. Achievement of remission or response was defined only when these were maintained to the 12 weeks study endpoint or to the last follow-up examination, if earlier, with the date of the first observed remission point applied as the timing of remission. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Of the sample, 247 (34%) had at least one physical disorder. This was associated with lower socioeconomic status and more severe depressive symptoms at baseline, but was not associated with any treatment related characteristics including antidepressant type and regimen, concomitant medications, side effects, and duration of treatment period. After adjustment, patients with physical comorbidity responded more slowly and less often - particularly in domains of anxiety, global severity, and functioning (all p-values depressive disorders in people with physical comorbidity. Future comparative studies between conventional and integrated treatment approaches are indicated for depressive disorders with physical comorbidity. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of upper mantle discontinuities beneath the Korean Peninsula using teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Rhie, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study on the topography of the upper mantle discontinuities helps us to understand the complex interactions between the subducting slabs and upper mantle discontinuities. To investigate the depth variation of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath the Korean Peninsula and surrounding regions, we applied the common conversion point stacking of the P-to-s receiver functions. The broadband seismic networks in South Korea and Japan were used to produce the high-resolution receiver function images of the region. The 410- and 660-km discontinuities (hereafter referred to as the 410 and the 660) are clearly imaged and their depth variations show interesting features, especially for the 660. In this region, the subducting Pacific slab bends to flatten over the 660 and several tomographic images indicate that the stagnant slab is extending to the west under China. If the depth of the 660 is affected by the temperature, the broad depression of the 660 is expected and several SS precursor studies support this idea. However, our observation shows that the 660 is locally depressed and its pattern is spatially changing. While the depressed 660 due to the Pacific slab is clearly imaged at lower latitudes (depressed 660 to the north. It indicates that the effect of the Pacific slab on the depth variation of the 660 is changing significantly in our study area.

  11. Competencies Needed by Korean HRD Master's Graduates: A Comparison between the ASTD WLP Competency Model and the Korean Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonghak

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify competencies needed by current human resource development (HRD) master's degree graduate students in Korea. The study used a quantitative method, the Delphi technique, in combination with a qualitative method consisting of a series of in-depth interviews. The Delphi technique was conducted using a…

  12. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  13. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27-0.46) and 0.37 (0.28-0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35-3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19-0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12-0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18-0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11-0.71); 0.27 (0.13-0.54); 0.45 (0.25-0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC.

  15. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Brown Adipose Tissue in an 18F-FDG PET Study of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon Yeun; Lim, Jung Sub; Park, Eun Young; Cho, A Ra; Kim, Byeong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Korean subjects using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET). Six thousand and five consecutive 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans of 5,115 patients (3,007 females and 2,108 males, mean age 53.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed. We characterized the nature of BAT, such as tis location, and we assessed the influence of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and temperature on BAT. The prevalence of BAT in Koreans in a single 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan in average conditions was 1.07%. The BAT detection rate was higher in females than males (1.32% vs 0.73%), and also with younger age (7.94% vs 0.73%), and lower BMI (BMI with BAT, 21.1 vs BMI without BAT, 23.15) and cold outdoor temperature (1.65% vs 0.49%). The most frequent location of BAT was the supraclavicular area (left, 0.91%; right, 0.88%) and ventral neck area (left, 0.62%; right, 0.63%). Conclusions The characteristics of BAT in Koreans are not different from those described for Caucasians. However, the low prevalence of BAT in our study might be related to some scan condition like ambient temperature, but further study is needed.

  16. A study on the direction for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system toward the globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byung Chul; Chung, Yun Ho; Kim, Myung Ro

    1994-12-01

    This study explores future directions for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system by comparing the nuclear R and D systems in the US, France, Japan, and Canada. In an effort to search for appropriate directions, this study analyzed characteristics of the nuclear R and D systems in advanced nations in the following areas; (1) configuration of nuclear R and D, (2) morphological characteristics of major nuclear R and D organization, (3) evaluation of R and D performance, general management issues such as leadership, coordination, culture, etc., and (4) inter- organizationals with government agencies, utilities, and other regulatory organizations. On the basis of comparing the nuclear R and D system in Korea with those in the US, France, Japan, and Canada, this study tries to develop recommendations for the future directions of the Korean nuclear R and D system. The results of this research can serve as a reference to a long-term development plan for the Korean nuclear R and D system. 23 tabs., 4 figs., 34 refs. (Author)

  17. A study on the direction for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system toward the globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byung Chul; Jeong, Yeun Ho; Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Young Pyung

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore future directions for the development of the Korean nuclear research system by comparing the nuclear R and D systems in the U.S., France, Japan, and Canada. In an effort to search for appropriate directions, this study analyzed the characteristics of the nuclear research systems in advanced nations in the following areas; 1. configuration of nuclear R and D, 2. morphological characteristics of major nuclear R and D organization, 3. evaluation of R and D performance, general management issues such as leadership, coordination, culture, etc., and 4. inter-organizationals with government agencies, utilities, and other regulatory organizations. On the basis of comparing the nuclear R and D system in Korea with those in the U.S., France, Japan, and Canada, this study tries to develop recommendations for the future directions of the Korean nuclear R and D system. The results of this research can serve as a reference to a long-term development plan for the Korean nuclear R and D system. 21 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  18. A study on the direction for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system toward the globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Byung Chul; Jeong, Yeun Ho; Kim, Myung Ro [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore future directions for the development of the Korean nuclear research system by comparing the nuclear R and D systems in the U.S., France, Japan, and Canada. In an effort to search for appropriate directions, this study analyzed the characteristics of the nuclear research systems in advanced nations in the following areas; 1. configuration of nuclear R and D, 2. morphological characteristics of major nuclear R and D organization, 3. evaluation of R and D performance, general management issues such as leadership, coordination, culture, etc., and 4. inter-organizationals with government agencies, utilities, and other regulatory organizations. On the basis of comparing the nuclear R and D system in Korea with those in the U.S., France, Japan, and Canada, this study tries to develop recommendations for the future directions of the Korean nuclear R and D system. The results of this research can serve as a reference to a long-term development plan for the Korean nuclear R and D system. 21 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author).

  19. A study on the direction for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system toward the globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Byung Chul; Chung, Yun Ho; Kim, Myung Ro [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This study explores future directions for the development of the Korean nuclear R and D system by comparing the nuclear R and D systems in the US, France, Japan, and Canada. In an effort to search for appropriate directions, this study analyzed characteristics of the nuclear R and D systems in advanced nations in the following areas; (1) configuration of nuclear R and D, (2) morphological characteristics of major nuclear R and D organization, (3) evaluation of R and D performance, general management issues such as leadership, coordination, culture, etc., and (4) inter- organizationals with government agencies, utilities, and other regulatory organizations. On the basis of comparing the nuclear R and D system in Korea with those in the US, France, Japan, and Canada, this study tries to develop recommendations for the future directions of the Korean nuclear R and D system. The results of this research can serve as a reference to a long-term development plan for the Korean nuclear R and D system. 23 tabs., 4 figs., 34 refs. (Author).

  20. Korean parents’ perceptions on the importance of computer usage for themselves and their children: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jeong LIM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many families today have access to computers that help them with their daily living activities, such asfinding employment and helping children with schoolwork. Minority families residing in the United Statesthough often do not own home computers. With a greater number of immigrant families arriving to theUnited States, questions are raised whether parents unfamiliar with the new culture view computers asimportant teaching tools for themselves and their children. An exploratory study was conducted lookingat Korean parents whose children were enrolled in a Southern California elementary school, since thisminority group consistently falls within the top ten immigrant sending countries. The study’s purpose wasto examine parent perceptions on the importance placed on computer usage for themselves and theirchildren. Findings suggest that Korean parents place a high value on computer usage and see it as vitalto job success and academic achievement.

  1. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  2. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  3. A roentgenocephalometric study for the evaluation of the facial esthetics in the Korean adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi Yea; Lee, Sang Rae

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial relationship of the Korean adult females who had excellent profile using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 35 females from 18 to 24 years of age selected among the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars. And, as the control group, 37 females from 18 to 23 years of age with normal occlusion and acceptable profile were selected. In both groups, each variable was measured and evaluated statistically introducing 24 reference points, 22 reference lines and 17 reference angles respectively. Conclusion from this study were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference between the two groups. But SNA and convexity angle which had indicated the maxillary protrusion were lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 2. In the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars, the maxillary and mandibular incisors were more upright than in the control group. 3. The protrusion of the upper and lower lip was lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 4. Professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars revealed more straight profile than the control group and were similar to that of the Caucasian. 5. Generally, it was the tendency that the straight profile was accepted as esthetics.

  4. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon; Cho, A Ra; Hur, Yera; Choi, Seong Youl

    2017-01-01

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  6. Patient Awareness of Cataract and Age-related Macular Degeneration among the Korean Elderly: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hankil; Jang, Yong Jung; Lee, Hyung Keun; Kang, Hye Young

    2017-12-01

    Age-related eye disease is often considered part of natural aging. Lack of awareness of eye conditions can result in missed treatment. We investigated the rates of awareness of cataract and age-related macular degeneration, the most common age-related eye-diseases, and the associated factors among elderly Koreans. We identified 7,403 study subjects (≥40 years old) with cataract or age-related macular degeneration based on ophthalmic examination results during the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2010 and 2012. We assessed whether patients were aware of their eye condition based on a previous diagnosis by a physician. The average awareness rate over the 3-year study period was 23.69% in subjects with cataract and 1.45% in subjects with age-related macular degeneration. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with cataract were more likely to recognize their condition if they had myopia (odds ratio, 2.08), hyperopia (odds ratio, 1.33), family history of eye disease (odds ratio, 1.44), or a past eye examination (odds ratio, 4.07-29.10). The presence of diabetes mellitus was also a significant predictor of patient awareness of cataract (odds ratio, 1.88). Poor patient recognition of eye disease among the Korean elderly highlights the seriousness of this potential public health problem in our aging society. Pre-existing eye-related conditions and diabetes were significant predictors of awareness; therefore, patients in frequent contact with their doctors have a greater chance of detecting eye disease. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  7. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  8. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  9. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  10. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  11. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Jongchun

    2008-07-01

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  12. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [KBSI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchun [Seonam Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  13. A Study on the Job Stress Assessment in Korean Nuclear Power Plants based on KOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Hwan; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Sook Hee; Jung, Kwang Hee; Jung, Yeon Sub [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Job stress is a harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease or in extreme cases, death. In Korea, organizational job stress factors were investigated for the jobs in nuclear power plants that are operated based on procedures. Especially, the occupational stress scale for Korean employees (KOSS) was developed. The KOSS has 8 subscales by using a factor analysis and validation process in order to measure stress at work and to find methods for the prevention of stressors. In this point of view, the RHRI (Radiation Health Research Institute of KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) assessed how wellsuited employees were for their job during their health examination in 2009. In this study the present condition of employee's stress level is investigated to find a way to manage their stressors

  14. A Study on the Job Stress Assessment in Korean Nuclear Power Plants based on KOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Hwan; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Sung, Sook Hee; Jung, Kwang Hee; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2010-01-01

    Job stress is a harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease or in extreme cases, death. In Korea, organizational job stress factors were investigated for the jobs in nuclear power plants that are operated based on procedures. Especially, the occupational stress scale for Korean employees (KOSS) was developed. The KOSS has 8 subscales by using a factor analysis and validation process in order to measure stress at work and to find methods for the prevention of stressors. In this point of view, the RHRI (Radiation Health Research Institute of KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) assessed how wellsuited employees were for their job during their health examination in 2009. In this study the present condition of employee's stress level is investigated to find a way to manage their stressors

  15. Do more educated workers migrate more? Findings from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of migration between capital regions and non-capital regions and the level of human capital in Korea using the method of multinomial logistic regression. This paper aims to show whether the high level of human capital of migrants who move to capital regions statistically differs from the other migrants. For analysis, this paper uses the 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 panel data from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS. The analysis is divided into two parts of migration based on the region of origin: the migration of individuals who live in non-capital regions and the migration of individuals who live in capital region. In this paper, we consider personal characteristics such as educational attainment and occupations as an indicator of human capital of individual, gender, age, and marriage status as explanatory variables. Our empirical finding is that the educational attainment of individual representing a level of human capital significantly affects the migration behavior moving from non-capital regions to capital regions. According to analysis of migration from Gyeonggi and Incheon to Seoul, the migration within capital regions, individuals who engage in occupation with high skilled and non-manual are more likely to move to Seoul capital regions where favorable conditions for workers in terms of higher wage and better job opportunities can provide. Those results can be understood in the context of human capital theory to maximize personal socioeconomic utilities by migrating to capital regions.

  16. Reliability study: digital engineered safety feature actuation system of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarno; Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    The usage of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) in a nuclear power plant becomes more extensive, including safety related systems. The PSA application of these new designs are very important in order to evaluate their reliability. In particular, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPPs), typically Ulchin 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) reactor units, adopted the digital safety-critical systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS). In this research, we developed fault tree models for assessing the unavailability of the DESFAS functions. We also performed an analysis of the quantification results. The unavailability results of different DESFAS functions showed that their values are comprised from 5.461E-5 to 3.14E-4. The system unavailability of DESFAS AFAS-1 is estimated as 5.461E-5, which is about 27% less than that of analog system if we consider the difference of human failure probability estimation between both analyses. The results of this study could be utilized in risk-effect analysis of KSNPP. We expect that the safety analysis result will contribute to design feedback

  17. Development status of component reliability database for Korean NPPs and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Han, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied a generic database to the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) for the Korean Standard NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant) since there is no specific component reliability database. However generic data is not enough to reflect the specific characteristics of domestic plants since it is collected by foreign plants. Therefore we are developing the plant-specific component reliability database for domestic NPPs. In this paper, we describe the development status of the component reliability database and the approach method of data collection and component failure analysis. We also summarize a case study of component failure analysis. We first collect the failure and repair data from the TR (Trouble Report) electronic database and the daily operation report sheet. Now we add a data collection method that checks the original TR sheet to improve the data quality. We input the component failure and repair data of principal components of about 30 systems into the component reliability database. Now, we are analyzing the component failure data of 11 safety systems among the systems to calculate component failure rate and unavailability etc

  18. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Experiences of Korean mothers of children with cancer: A Photovoice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee; Sang, Jina; Kim, Soo Hyun; Heo, InYoung

    2017-01-01

    Using Photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, we investigated Korean mothers' lives postdiagnosis of their child with cancer. Photovoice was used to understand the mothers' perceptions of how they have adapted to their children's illnesses. Five mothers of children with cancer participated in five sessions of the Photovoice project, during which they took and shared photographs and narratives about their experiences and joined weekly group discussions on their selected themes. The following themes and subthemes emerged: "What I would like to do (taking a break, socializing with friends, spending time with other family members, developing my career)," "My child and food (whatever my child wants to eat, love of family)," "My days for my child (doing what my child wants to do, being a playmate, changing for my child)," and "Power sources for me (family, courage of children, mom is strong, hope)." Having a child with cancer greatly affects the mother's social and work lives as well as emotional well-being. Services and programs such as respite care, parenting education, and psychological support are recommended based on the study findings.

  20. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  1. Childhood Predictors of Deliberate Self-Harm Behavior and Suicide Ideation in Korean Adolescents: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun Mi; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Lee, Young Moon; Oh, Eun Young

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adolescence suicidality in a longitudinal study. Additionally, the prevalence of deliberate self-harm behavior and suicide ideation at age 7 and during middle school were examined. Initial assessment data was obtained from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006 when the original subjects became middle school students. The addresses and names of 1,857 subjects were located from the original data; they were 910 boys and 947 girls. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), which was administered by the parents of the children, and by various demographic and psychosocial factors. They were reassessed using self reports on the Korea Youth Self Report (K-YSR); in particular, replies to items related to self-harm behavior and suicide ideation were recorded. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors of gender, economic status, the overall amount of behavior problems, the tendency to internalizing and externalizing problems, somatic problems, thought problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior were independent predictors of adolescent suicide ideation and self-harm behavior. The importance of total behavior problems suggested that adolescent difficulty is a consequence of an accumulation of various risk factors. Accordingly, clinicians must consider a range of internalizing and externalizing issues, especially overall adaptation, for suicide intervention. PMID:19399261

  2. Preliminary investigation study of code of developed country for developing Korean fuel cycle code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Ho Hee; Cho, Dong Keun; Park, Chang Je

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop Korean fuel cycle code, the analyses has been performed with the fuel cycle codes which are used in advanced country. Also, recommendations were proposed for future development. The fuel cycle codes are AS FLOOWS: VISTA which has been developed by IAEA, DANESS code which developed by ANL and LISTO, and VISION developed by INL for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) system analysis. The recommended items were proposed for software, program scheme, material flow model, isotope decay model, environmental impact analysis model, and economics analysis model. The described things will be used for development of Korean nuclear fuel cycle code in future

  3. Radiologic findings of cystic fibrosis in a Korean child at follow up study: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Il Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Jeon, Seok Chol; Choi, Yo Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Ahn, You Hern

    2003-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease involving recessive transmission. The fundamental abnormality consists of the production of abnormal secretion from a variety of exocrine glands such as salivary and sweat glands and those of the pancreas, colon, and tracheobronchial trees. Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal genetically transmitted disease among whites, but is uncommon in Asians, including Koreans. Although a case involving a Korean was reported in 1988, the focus was diagnosis rather than the radiological findings. In the case of cystic fibrosis we now describe, the focus is inverted: we emphasise the reported in 1988, focusing on radiologic findings

  4. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  5. Hypoxia in Korean Coastal Waters: A Case Study of the Natural Jinhae Bay and Artificial Shihwa Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several coastal regions in Korea have suffered from hypoxia since the 1970s. We present the first review of Korean coastal hypoxia, focusing on its spatiotemporal variation, controlling factors, and effects on marine ecosystems. The review considers the two hotspots of the natural Jinhae Bay (JB and artificial Shihwa Bay (SB, which are referred to as “Korean dead zones.” The hypoxia in the JB is attributed to eutrophication due to domestic and land-used waste input and thermal stratification based on the naturally sluggish water circulation, whereas the hypoxia in the SB is due to eutrophication resulting from domestic, land-used, and industrial waste input and haline stratification as a consequence of the artificially created water stagnation. The bottom-water hypoxia and stratification has led to an imbalance in nitrogen:phosphorus ratio between surface and bottom waters. Hypoxia has also created undesirable benthic community changes in the both bays: (1 mass mortality of large species and recolonization with elevated abundances of opportunists in JB, and (2 decrease of the number of species, abundance, and diversity of benthic communities in SB. Therefore, it behooves us to pay attention to these environmental changes. This review will be helpful in determining the direction of future studies of Korean coastal hypoxia.

  6. A Comparison of Adaptation to Childhood Disability in Korean Immigrant and Korean Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Je; Singer, George H. S.; Brenner, Betsy (Mary)

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the variables that exacerbated or buffered the impact of child problem behaviors and/or physical differences on 16 Korean mothers and 16 Korean American mothers of children with disabilities. Overall findings from data analyses were consistent with qualitative findings that Korean mothers experienced more difficulties than their…

  7. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  8. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  9. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Importance Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Objective To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Design, setting and participants Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). Exposures BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. Main Outcome Measure(s) At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Conclusions and Relevance Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications. PMID:26731527

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP in a large sample of Korean adults.Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits.BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2, waist circumference (6.20 cm, and percent fat mass (3.40% were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19, 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29, and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11, respectively (all P < 0.001. The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001 and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  13. Working hours and cardiovascular disease in Korean workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inchul; Rhie, Jeongbae; Kim, Inah; Ryu, Innshil; Jung, Pil Kyun; Park, Yoo Seok; Lim, Yong-Su; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Shin-Goo; Im, Hyoung-June; Lee, Mi-Young; Won, Jong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Long working hours can negatively impact a worker's health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between working hours and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and compare the degree of risk based on CVD subtypes in Korean workers. This study was a case-control study of the patients registered in the Occupational Cardiovascular Diseases Surveillance 2010. The cases included 348 patients diagnosed with a CVD (123 cerebral infarction, 69 intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 subarachnoid hemorrhage, 99 acute myocardial infarction). Controls were 769 participants with no history of CVDs matched for gender, age, type of occupation, and region. Participants' working hours in the previous week and the average working hours over the past three months were assessed to examine short-term and long-term effects. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for CVDs in the short-term were 2.66 (95% Confidence interval (CI) :1.78-3.99) for working ≤40 hours, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22-2.81) for working 50.1-60 hours and 4.23 (95% CI: 2.81-6.39) for working >60 hours compared with the 40.1-50-hour working group. The ORs in the long-term were 2.90 (95% CI: 1.86-4.52) for working ≤40 hours, 1.73 (95% CI: 1.03-2.90) for working 48.1-52 hours and 3.46 (95% CI: 2.38-5.03) for working >52 hours compared with the 40.1-48-hour working group. Long working hours are related to an increased risk of CVDs, and the degree of risk differs based on CVD subtype. Short working hours are also related to an increased risk for CVDs. More prospective studies targeting specific disease risks are required.

  14. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  15. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  16. What Do Korean Women Know and Want to Know about Thyroid Cancer? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomyee; Park, Jae Young; Shin, Hye Young; Park, Sang Hee; Choi, Eun-Bi; Yoo, Jisu; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing debate about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer in Korea, information to guide decisions on whether or not to undergo screening for and treatment of abnormal lesions of the thyroid is lacking. Moreover, studies have yet to outline what lay people know and want to know about thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this study was to explore general awareness of thyroid cancer among Korean women, their sources of information, and their satisfaction with the information they are provided. The secondary aim was to investigate information needs about thyroid cancer. A qualitative study using focus group interviews was conducted. Twenty-nine women were divided into four groups: (1) participants who had never undergone thyroid ultrasound screening; (2) those who had undergone screening, (3) those who continued to undergo regular check-ups with ultrasonography for benign nodules of the thyroid; and (4) participants who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. A widespread lack of awareness of information on thyroid cancer was noted among participants in groups 1 and 2 who were not well aware of thyroid cancer and generally recognized it as a'good cancer'. Surprisingly, instead of doctors and medical personnel, most participants reported obtaining information from acquaintances and media outlets. Moreover, most participants described dissatisfaction with their experience with screening and a lack of explanation on treatment and test results from medical personnel. Women in Korea seek reliable information on thyroid cancer that could help them to better understand the disease and make informed decisions regarding screening and treatment. More effort is needed from medical personnel to communicate the implications of thyroid cancer, screening results, and treatments thereof to lay people.

  17. A Lateral Cephalometric Study of the Pharyngeal Growth in Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki Chae; Lee, Sang Rae; Lee, Man Sup

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the growth of the pharynx and sexual differences in the lateral cephalograms of Korean children. The material includes 173 cepalograms from two groups composed of 51 males aged 12.0 years and 39 females aged 12.2 years in group 2, and 45 males aged 7.4 years and 39 females aged 7.5 year in group 1, respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S, N, A, Ptm, B, H, H', M, S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper head positioning of subjects, especially in relative positions of A and H, while radiography. For each variable the statistically treated data have been presented in the table II, III, IV. The main results are presented as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in antero-posterior dimension of pharyngeal cavity, but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in both groups when evaluated statistically. 2. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity in group 2, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in the variables except M-H', but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in group 1 when evaluated statistically. 3. The dimensional increase of the pharynx by the growth in the vertical dimensions was shown to be greater than in the antero-posterior dimensions in the both sexes.

  18. A lateral cephalometric study of the size of tongue and intermaxillary space in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1977-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of tongue area and intermaxillary space area, and compare the sexual differences between normal Korean children and adults by introducing planimetric and linear analysis of the lateral cephalograms. The cephalograms were composed of 41 child male aged 10.8, 40 child female aged 10.5, 38 adult male aged 21.3 , and 40 adult female aged 20.8 respectively. In order to study and measure the intermaxillary space area, the following were selected, as reference items: occlusal plane, anterior intermaxillary space height, posterior intermaxillary space height, length of intermaxillary space. Among those reference items anterior intermaxillary space height and posterior intermaxillary space height were perpendicular to the maxillary plane. An index, (Anterior intermaxillary space height + posterior intermaxillary space height )/2 Length of intermaxillary space, was introduced for the calculation of intermaxillary space area. While the tongue area was plotted by outline of tongue shadow, above a line extending from the vallecula to the most anterior point on the hyoid body, and above a line from the most anterior point of the hyoid body to the mention. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in intermaxillary space area in childhood and adulthood group. But intermaxillary space area of childhood group showed no significant sexual difference, and that of adulthood group showed significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 2. In both groups, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in tongue area, and there are also statistical significance of sexual differences in both age groups. 3. Considerable growth changes between the childhood and adulthood groups were revealed in intermaxillary space area an d tongue area, and the tongue had tendency to become relatively smaller when compared with the intermaxillary space in both sexes.

  19. Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination Using Smartphone: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Yeon; Jeon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jin-Youn; Cho, Ah-Ra; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Stroke often leads to disability, and poststroke survivors often have limited accessibility to medical facilities. For such patients, mobile videoconferencing technology offers an opportunity to perform follow-up assessment and appropriate management of cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the validity of the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) when administered using a smartphone. Thirty patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study (20 males, 10 females; mean age, 69.8 ± 12.9 years). Both face-to-face and remote assessments of cognitive function through MMSE-K were performed for each patient at an interval of at least 3 days. Additionally, an in-person collaborator evaluated the MMSE-K score during the remote assessment. A smartphone and a tablet were used by the patient and the examiner, respectively, and remote connection was mediated using a dedicated videoconferencing application. The MMSE-K scores obtained through face-to-face, remote, and in-person assessments were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Spearman correlation analysis. There was good agreement between face-to-face and remote assessments, as well as between remote assessment and in-person collaborator's evaluation regarding total MMSE-K score and subscores for each MMSE-K domain (orientation, memory, attention/calculation, language, and visuospatial function). Remote assessment can be a useful clinical evaluation method, and this study confirmed the validity. The smartphone represents a promising tool for the assessment of cognitive function in clinical practice, but further research into the intra- and inter-rater reliability of observations is warranted.

  20. A lateral cephalometric study of the size of tongue and intermaxillary space in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the size of tongue area and intermaxillary space area, and compare the sexual differences between normal Korean children and adults by introducing planimetric and linear analysis of the lateral cephalograms. The cephalograms were composed of 41 child male aged 10.8, 40 child female aged 10.5, 38 adult male aged 21.3 , and 40 adult female aged 20.8 respectively. In order to study and measure the intermaxillary space area, the following were selected, as reference items: occlusal plane, anterior intermaxillary space height, posterior intermaxillary space height, length of intermaxillary space. Among those reference items anterior intermaxillary space height and posterior intermaxillary space height were perpendicular to the maxillary plane. An index, (Anterior intermaxillary space height + posterior intermaxillary space height)/2 Length of intermaxillary space, was introduced for the calculation of intermaxillary space area. While the tongue area was plotted by outline of tongue shadow, above a line extending from the vallecula to the most anterior point on the hyoid body, and above a line from the most anterior point of the hyoid body to the mention. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in intermaxillary space area in childhood and adulthood group. But intermaxillary space area of childhood group showed no significant sexual difference, and that of adulthood group showed significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 2. In both groups, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in tongue area, and there are also statistical significance of sexual differences in both age groups. 3. Considerable growth changes between the childhood and adulthood groups were revealed in intermaxillary space area an d tongue area, and the tongue had tendency to become relatively smaller when compared with the intermaxillary space in both sexes.

  1. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  2. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  3. Studies of breast masses in Korean woman using tungsten anode mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C. O.; Oh, K. K.; Lee, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    Mammography is the oldest and most popular method in the diagnosis of breast disease and received the special attention as the powerful instrument in early detection of breast cancer. In Korea, the mammography has not been widely used, yet, but nowadays, increasing incidence of breast cancer and good prognosis after early detection and proper treatment need the clinical application of mammography for management of patient with breast disease and for the detection of occult cancer. The technique obtaining the good quality film is essential for improving the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in breast disease and in general, excellent film radiographs of breast can be obtained with proper combination of Kvp, processing, selection of fine grained film, fine focus tube and compression. In present study, radiographic technique was used in which 36-40 Kvp and 200 mAs were derived from a small focus Tungsten Anode tube. Medio-lateral and Cranio-caudad view were taken using Acryl compression device, which was specially designed by authors in order to properly examine the small, dense breasts of Korean women. Non-screen fine grained mammographic films was used and processing was manual.The materials consisted of 150 cases of mammography performed at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance Hospital, since January, 1978. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and mammographic findings in pathologically confirmed 39 cases. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Because women are sensitive to her breast changes, mammography is very useful not only in diagnosis of breast disease and early detection of cancer, but also management of patients with breast symptom and sign. 2. We obtained the relatively good quality film and high diagnostic accuracy with our own method, using conventional Tungsten Anode tube, compression device and hand processing. 3. We also applied specimen radiography in diagnosis of breast disease, which was helpful in verification of the adequacy

  4. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo

    1974-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  5. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  6. Characteristics of Korean Patients with Antithyroid Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis: A Multicenter Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yoon, Jee Hee; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Min Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, In Joo; Joung, Ji Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) can lead to the development of agranulocytosis, which is the most serious adverse effect. Characteristics of ATD-induced agranulocytosis (AIA) have seldom been reported due to the rarity. In this study, we characterized the clinical features for AIA in Korean patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from patients with AIA diagnosed between 1997 and 2014 at four tertiary hospitals. Agranulocytosis was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) below 500/mm3. Results The mean age of the patients (11 males, 43 females) was 38.2±14.9 years. Forty-eight patients (88.9%) with AIA had fever and sore throat on initial presentation, 20.4% of patients developed AIA during the second course of treatment, and 75.9% of patients suffered AIA within 3 months after initiation of ATD. The patients taking methimazole (n=39) showed lower levels of ANC and more frequent use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor than propylthiouracil (n=15) users. The median duration of agranulocytosis was 5.5 days (range, 1 to 20). No differences were observed between the long (≥6 days) and short recovery time (≤5 days) groups in terms of age, gender, ATDs, duration of ATDs, or initial ANC levels. Four patients (7.4%) who were taking ATDs for less than 2 months died of sepsis on the first or second day of hospitalization. Conclusion The majority of AIA incidents occur in the early treatment period. Considering the high fatality rate of AIA, an early aggressive therapeutic approach is critical and patients should be well informed regarding the warning symptoms of the disease. PMID:26394729

  7. Genome-wide association study with the risk of schizophrenia in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Gon; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Hwang, Jaeuk; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Woo, Sung-Il

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a multifactorial and polygenic brain disorder that is attributed to different combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have identified numerous risk factors, but the replication results remain controversial and ambiguous. To identify schizophrenia susceptibility loci in the Korean population, we performed a GWAS using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad V1.0 Microarray. We genotyped 1,140,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 350 Korea schizophrenia patients and 700 control subjects, and approximately 620,001 autosomal SNPs were passed our quality control. In the case-control analysis, the rs9607195 A>G on intergenic area 250 kb away from the ISX gene and the rs12738007 A>G on the intron of the MECR gene were the most strongly associated SNPs with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 6.2 × 10(-8) , OR = 0.50 and P = 3.7 × 10(-7) , OR = 2.39, respectively). In subsequent fine-mapping analysis, 6 SNPs of MECR were genotyped with 310 schizophrenia patients and 604 control subjects. The association of the MECR rs12738007, a top ranked-SNP in GWAS, was replicated (P = 1.5 × 10(-2) , OR = 1.53 in fine mapping analysis, P = 1.5 × 10(-6) , OR = 1.90 in combined analysis). The identification of putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci could provide new insights into genetic factors related with schizophrenia and clues for the development of diagnosis strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Health beliefs and their sources in Korean and Japanese nurses: A Q-methodology pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa E; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung; Turale, Sue; Murakami, Kyoko; Shimizu, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Many health beliefs do not have supporting scientific evidence, and are influenced by culture, gender, religion, social circumstance and popular media. Nurses may also hold non-evidenced-based beliefs that affect their own health behaviours and their practices. Using Q-methodology, pilot Q-cards representing a concourse of health beliefs for Japanese and South Korean nurses and explain the content and sources of health beliefs. Qualitative. Two university campuses, one each in Japan and Korea. A convenience sample of 30 was obtained, 14 clinical nurses and 16 academic nurses. Literature reviews and expert informants were used to develop two sets of 65 Q-cards which listed culturally appropriate health beliefs in both Japan and Korea. These beliefs were examined in four structured groups and five individual interviews in Japan, and five groups and two individual interviews in Korea. Our unique study revealed six categories regarding sources of health beliefs that provide rich insights about how participants accessed, processed and transmitted health information. They were more certain about knowledge from their specialty area such as that from medical or nursing resources, but derived and distributed many general health beliefs from personal experience, family and mass media. They did not always pass on accurate information to students or those in their care, and often beliefs were not based on scientific evidence. Findings highlight the dangers of clinical and academic nurses relying on health belief advice of others and passing this on to patients, students or others, without mindfully examining the basis of their beliefs through scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  10. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  11. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  12. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  13. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  14. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  15. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  16. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  17. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  18. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  19. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  20. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  1. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  2. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  3. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  4. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  5. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  6. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  7. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  8. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  9. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  10. A study of Korean students' creativity in science using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Son Mi

    Through the review of creativity research I have found that studies lack certain crucial parts: (a) a theoretical framework for the study of creativity in science, (b) studies considering the unique components related to scientific creativity, and (c) studies of the interactions among key components through simultaneous analyses. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the dynamic interactions among four components (scientific proficiency, intrinsic motivation, creative competence, context supporting creativity) related to scientific creativity under the framework of scientific creativity. A total of 295 Korean middle school students participated. Well-known and commonly used measurements were selected and developed. Two scientific achievement scores and one score measured by performance-based assessment were used to measure student scientific knowledge/inquiry skills. Six items selected from the study of Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, and Schwartz (2002) were used to assess how well students understand the nature of science. Five items were selected from the subscale of the scientific attitude inventory version II (Moore & Foy, 1997) to assess student attitude toward science. The Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (Urban & Jellen, 1996) was used to measure creative competence. Eight items chosen from the 15 items of the Work Preference Inventory (1994) were applied to measure students' intrinsic motivation. To assess the level of context supporting creativity, eight items were adapted from measurement of the work environment (Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, and Herron, 1996). To assess scientific creativity, one open-ended science problem was used and three raters rated the level of scientific creativity through the Consensual Assessment Technique (Amabile, 1996). The results show that scientific proficiency and creative competence correlates with scientific creativity. Intrinsic motivation and context components do not predict scientific

  11. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  12. Subacute Oral Toxicity Study of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Jin; Lim, Kwang-Hyun; Noh, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Soon; Han, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is a well-known traditional medicine used in Asian countries for several thousand years, and it is currently applied to medicine, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements due to its many healing and energygiving properties. It is well demonstrated that ginsenosides, the main ingredient of ginseng, produce a variety of pharmacological and therapeutic effects on central nerve system (CNS) disorders, cardiovascular disease, endocrine secretions, aging, and immune function. Korean red ginse...

  13. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  14. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  16. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  17. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  18. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  19. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  20. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  1. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker?s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ?15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women wer...

  2. Kidney Function, Proteinuria, and Cancer Incidence: The Korean Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Sang, Yingying; Jung, Keum Ji; Lee, Sunmi; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Reported associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with cancer risk are inconsistent, and data for the proteinuria-cancer relationship are sparse. We sought to quantify the associations of cancer incidence with eGFR and with proteinuria in a large population-based cohort. A prospective cohort study. 242,583 adults (30-74 years old) without a diagnosis of cancer at baseline in the Korean Heart Study, based on health checkups in 1996 to 2004 with follow-up until 2012. Creatinine-based eGFR (≥90, 60-89, 45-59, and cancer incidence based on ICD-10 codes. 15,165 cases of cancer were detected. The relationship between eGFR and incidence of any cancer was J shaped, with the lowest risk at 45 to 59mL/min/1.73m 2 . There was 44% higher risk for any cancer among those with eGFRscancer risk, showing a dose-response relationship (HRs of 1.24 [95% CI, 1.13-1.35], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.17-1.63], and 1.66 [95% CI, 1.30-2.12] for 1+, 2+, and ≥3+ vs undetectable/trace). Examining site-specific cancer, eGFRkidney and ureteral cancer, multiple myeloma, and leukemia, whereas proteinuria ≥ 1+ (vs undetectable/trace) was related to a broader set of cancers (ie, stomach, rectal, liver, lung, ovarian, kidney, bladder, and multiple myeloma). After excluding study participants with follow-up less than 3 years, the associations remained consistent for kidney cancer and myeloma with eGFR and for rectal, liver, lung, and ovarian cancer with proteinuria. Relatively small number of participants with severely reduced eGFR or 70 years or older. Kidney measures, particularly proteinuria, were associated with increased incidence of cancer. Future studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these associations. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Nakata, Akinori; Park, Jae Bum; Swanson, Naomi G

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and injury absence in the workplace. This study aims to assess the association of comprehensive workplace psychosocial factors with work-related injury absence among Korean workers. The data (n = 7,856) were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample (n = 10,043) of the Korean working population. The survey instrument contained questions about hours of work, physical risk factors, work organization, and the effect of work on health/injury. Work-related injury absence was indicated by a dichotomous variable with at least 1 day absence during the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratio and confidence interval (CI). Incremental adjustments for sociodemographic, health behavior, and occupational confounding variables were employed in the models. The overall 1-year prevalence of work-related injury absence in this study was 1.37 % (95 % CI, 1.11-1.63 %). Those who experienced violence at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 7.05 (95 % CI, 2.69-18.5)), threat of violence at work (aOR, 4.25 (95 % CI, 1.32-13.64)), low job autonomy (aOR, 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.17-2.74)), and high job strain (aOR, 2.38 (95 % CI, 1.29-4.42) had an increased risk of injury absence, compared with their respective counterparts (p workers in Korea were at a near fourfold risk of work absence due to occupational injuries, compared with managers in low-risk jobs. Workplace violence and increased job strain were two key workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence.

  5. Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n = 82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n = 87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n = 91 cases); and (4) an eGFR 95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ≤90 cm in men or ≤85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.14–4.69) to 2.78 (1.19–6.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population. PMID:23536858

  6. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  7. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Park, Ah Yeon; Baek, Younghwa; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC), LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio-associated variants, two LDLC

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyeung Kim

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG to HDL cholesterol (HDLC, LDL cholesterol (LDLC to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC, LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio

  10. A roentgenocephalometric study of the pharynx and craniofacial skeleton in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wou Ghon; Lee, Sang Rae

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in shape, size and area of the pharynx and adenoids, and to analyze the relationship between pharyngeal cavity and upper facial cranium which effected on morphology of those parts in Korean. Age changes and sex differences in those areas were comprised in this study. Materials included 272 lateral cephalograms, which were divided into 4 groups by age; (1) 7-year-old group consisted of 29 males and 30 females,(2) 12-year-old group consisted of 30 males and 30 females, (3) 17-year-old group consisted of 30 males and 40 females, (4) 20-year-old group consisted of 37 males and 46 females, In subjects each variable was measured and evaluated statistically introducing 17 reference points and 17 reference lines respectively. Conclusions from this study were as follows. 1. Linear measurements of the bony nasopharynx revealed that the depth and height were larger in male than those in female in 17 and 20-year-old groups. 2. Linear measurements of the upper facial cranium were larger in male than those in female in all age groups. 3. Angular measurements of the bony nasopharynx and upper facial cranium did not show, on an average, sex differences in each age group. 4. As regards area of the bony nasopharynx, it increased gradually with age in both sexes. And the area was greater in male than that in female in 17 and 20-year-old groups. 5. There were sex differences in area of the adenoids of which the area was larger in male than that in female in 17 and 20-year-old groups. And the area reached a peak at 17-year-old group in male and at 12-year-old group in female. 6. Area of the pharyngeal cavity increased gradually with age in both sexes, but no sex differences were noted in each age group. 7. Rate of area of the adenoids to that of the pharyngeal cavity decreased continually with age, and no sex differences were noted in all age groups. 8. In amounts and its differences of the growth, there were sex differences in the

  11. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee

    1979-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  12. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee [St. Mary' s Hospital., Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  13. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  14. A Comparative Study of Green Purchase Intention between Korean and Chinese Consumers: The Moderating Role of Collectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Kyung Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour, a study on the moderating effect of collectivism on the formation of green purchase intention is rarely found. Therefore, based on 357 consumers in Korea and 398 consumers in China, this study proposes a new model of green purchase intention and empirically tests a model using moderated regression analysis (MRA. The results show that the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism are direct antecedents of green purchase intention in China. In particular, collectivism positively moderates the relationship between environmental collective efficacy and green purchase intention in China. However, the results from Korean consumers show that collectivism has neither a direct impact nor moderating impact on green purchase intention. However, it was found that environmental collective efficacy and environmental knowledge have direct impacts on green purchase intention in Korea. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings.

  15. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  16. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  17. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study.

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    Yejin Mok

    Full Text Available The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear.We studied 367,932 adults (20-93 years old in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996-2004 and follow-up until 2011 and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases, cancer (4,035 cases, and other (non-CVD/non-cancer causes (3,152 cases after adjusting for potential confounders.Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD, non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+. Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24-1.78] and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54-2.05]. The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 when eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10-2.39]. High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66-2.25], cancer (1.49 [1.32-1.68], and other causes (2.19 [1.96-2.45]. Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis.Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention and management strategies in individuals with CKD

  19. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

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    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  20. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  1. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  2. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  3. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  5. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  6. Self-management Experiences of Older Korean Women With Urinary Incontinence: A Descriptive Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunah; Yeoum, SoonGyo; Kim, Yoonjung; Kwon, Hye Jin

    The purpose of this study was to explore the self-management experiences of Korean women with urinary incontinence (UI). Descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups. Twenty-two community-dwelling women, 65 years and older, participated in 3 focus-group interviews. Participants were recruited from 2 elderly halls and 1 senior welfare center in South Korea. Three focus group interviews comprising 6 to 8 individuals were conducted in a quiet venue at the elderly hall or senior welfare center. Two investigators performed the interviews; one acted as moderator and one as notetaker; interviews began with scripted open-ended questions. All interviews were electronically recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using an inductive thematic approach, data were first analyzed by the first and second authors; and all 4 authors contributed to coding and agreed on final themes. Korean women perceived UI as a loss of dignity, an odor problem, an uncontrollable disease, and a life impairment. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes regarding the self-management experience of UI: preserving self-respect in the sociocultural environment, deodorizing the smell, keeping the secret of uncontrollability, and adjusting to an impaired life. Women in this study used various daily-living strategies to manage UI, but they mainly implemented strategies to keep UI a secret, including restrictions in activities of daily living. Educational approaches are needed to inform women with UI about more effective management skills.

  7. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  8. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  10. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  11. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  12. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  14. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  15. Lung Cancer Risk and Residential Exposure to Air Pollution: A Korean Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Kim, Hwan Cheol; Choi, Chang Min; Shin, Myung Hee; Shim, Young Mog; Leem, Jong Han; Ryu, Jeong Seon; Nam, Hae Seong; Park, Sung Min

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in Koreans. This was a population-based case-control study covering 908 lung cancer patients and 908 controls selected from a random sample of people within each Korean province and matched according to age, sex, and smoking status. We developed land-use regression models to estimate annual residential exposure to particulate matter (PM₁₀) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) over a 20-year exposure period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Increases in lung cancer incidence (expressed as adjusted OR) were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.96-1.23) with a ten-unit increase in PM₁₀ (μg/m³) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00-1.22) with a ten-unit increase in NO₂ (ppb). Tendencies for stronger associations between air pollution and lung cancer incidence were noted among never smokers, among those with low fruit consumption, and among those with a higher education level. Air pollution was more strongly associated with squamous cell and small cell carcinomas than with adenocarcinoma of the lung. This study provides evidence that PM10 and NO₂ contribute to lung cancer incidence in Korea. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  16. A Study of the Historical Earthquake Catalog and Gutenberg-richter Parameter Values of the Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil; Rhee, Hyun Me

    2010-01-01

    The KIER's Korean historical earthquake catalog was revised for MMI≥VI events recorded from the years 27 A.D. to 1904. The magnitude of each event was directly determined from the criteria suggested by Seo. The criteria incorporated the damage phenomena of the Japanese historical earthquake catalog, recent seismological studies, and the results of tests performed on ancient structures in Korea. Thus, the uncertainty of the magnitudes of the Korean historical earthquakes can be reduced. Also, the Gutenberg-Richter parameter values were estimated based on the revised catalog of this study. It was determined that the magnitudes of a maximum inland and minimum offshore event were approximately 6.3 and 6.5, respectively. The Gutenberg-Richter parameter pairs of the historical earthquake catalog were estimated to be a=5.32±0.21, b=0.95±0.19, which were somewhat lower than those obtained from recent complete instrumental earthquakes. No apparent change in the Gutenberg-Richter parameter is observed for the 16 th -17 th centuries of the seismically active period

  17. An empirical typology of social networks and its association with physical and mental health: a study with older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Lee, Beom S; Ko, Jung Eun; Haley, William E; Chiriboga, David A

    2015-01-01

    In the context of social convoy theory, the purposes of the study were (a) to identify an empirical typology of the social networks evident in older Korean immigrants and (b) to examine its association with self-rated health and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1,092 community-dwelling older Korean immigrants in Florida and New York. Latent class analyses were conducted to identify the optimal social network typology based on 8 indicators of interpersonal relationships and activities. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine how the identified social network typology was associated with self-rating of health and depressive symptoms. Results from the latent class analysis identified 6 clusters as being most optimal, and they were named diverse, unmarried/diverse, married/coresidence, family focused, unmarried/restricted, and restricted. Memberships in the clusters of diverse and married/coresidence were significantly associated with more favorable ratings of health and lower levels of depressive symptoms. Notably, no distinct network solely composed of friends was identified in the present sample of older immigrants; this may reflect the disruptions in social convoys caused by immigration. The findings of this study promote our understanding of the unique patterns of social connectedness in older immigrants. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [A Validation Study of the Modified Korean Version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire (K-ELW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Eon; Park, Eun-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Ethical Leadership at Work questionnaire (K-ELW) that measures RNs' perceived ethical leadership of their nurse managers. The strong validation process suggested by Benson (1998), including translation and cultural adaptation stage, structural stage, and external stage, was used. Participants were 241 RNs who reported their perceived ethical leadership using both the pre-version of K-ELW and a previously known Ethical Leadership Scale, and interactional justice of their managers, as well as their own demographics, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, reliability coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. SPSS 19.0 and Amos 18.0 versions were used. A modified K-ELW was developed from construct validity evidence and included 31 items in 7 domains: People orientation, task responsibility fairness, relationship fairness, power sharing, concern for sustainability, ethical guidance, and integrity. Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were supported according to the correlation coefficients of the 7 domains with other measures. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that the modified K-ELW can be adopted in Korean nursing organizations, and reliable and valid ethical leadership scores can be expected.

  19. The association between mental health, chronic disease and sleep duration in Koreans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Su; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Shin, Dongjin; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration holds considerable importance as an indicator of mental/physical health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence in Koreans. Of 31,596 subjects eligible for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), 17,638 participants who answered items on sleep duration (aged ≥ 19 yrs) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence was assessed using logistic regression, and adjusted for various socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Short or long sleep duration showed correlations with mental health, and items of significance showed gender-specific patterns. Women displayed significant associations with stress and depressive symptoms, and men with stress, thoughts of suicide, and psychiatric counseling. While stress was related with short sleep duration in both genders, depressive symptoms showed a relationship with long duration in men, and short duration in women. Prevalence of any chronic disease was associated with ≤ 6 h sleep when adjusted for factors including mental health, and among chronic diseases, cancer and osteoarthritis showed associations with short sleep duration, while diabetes and dyslipidemia were associated with normal sleep duration. Mental health problems were associated with sleep duration with gender-specific patterns. Associations with osteoarthritis, cancer, diabetes, dyslipidemia and abnormal sleep duration persisted after adjustment for mental health.

  20. Korean Social Studies Preservice Teachers' Cross-Cultural Learning and Global Perspective Development: Crossing Borders between Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung; Choi, Minsik

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cross-cultural learning experiences on Korean preservice social studies teachers' global perspectives development. Social studies preservice teachers in a large woman's university in Korea participated in a cross-cultural learning course, which focused on critical understanding of globalization and global…

  1. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  2. Heritage Language Proficiency in Relation to Attitudes, Motivation, and Age at Immigration: A Case of Korean-Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Min Jung

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage speakers' Korean language proficiency (i.e. morphosyntax, collocation, and lexicon) in relation to their attitudes, motivation, and age at immigration (AI). Seventy-six adult Korean-Australians with Korean literacy participated. Overall, participants showed high levels of Korean proficiency in all three…

  3. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  4. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  5. Distribution of glycated haemoglobin and its determinants in Korean youth and young adults: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Seong Yong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2018-01-31

    The present study aimed to describe the distribution of and to investigate the factors associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in Korean youth (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). Data from the Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2015) were used. A total of 6,418 participants (male 3,140 [53.2%]) aged 10-29 years were included in the analysis. Percentiles of HbA1c were calculated and HbA1c values were compared according to age, sex, and associated factors. The mean HbA1c values (% [mmol/mol]) were 5.42 ± 0.01 (35.7 ± 0.1) for youths and 5.32 ± 0.01 (34.7 ± 0.1) for young adults (P distribution of HbA1c values in Korean youth and young adults. There were significant differences in the level of HbA1c according to age and sex.

  6. A study on the food consumption rates for off-site radiological dose assessment around Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun

    2008-01-01

    The internal dose by food consumption mostly accounts for radiological dose of public around Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). But, food consumption rates applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which are the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in 1988, are not able to reflect the latest dietary characteristics of Korean. The food consumption rates to be used for radiological dose assessment in Korea are based on the maximum individual of US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Regulatory Guide 1.109. However, the representative individual of the critical group is considered in the recent ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendation and European nations' practice. Therefore, the study on the re-establishment of the food consumption rates for individual around nuclear power plant sites in Korea was carried out to reflect on the recent change of the Korean dietary characteristics and to apply the representative individual of critical group to domestic regulations. The ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. The statistical data such as mean, standard deviation, various percentile values about food consumption rates to be used for the representative individual of the critical group were analyzed by using the raw data of the national food consumption survey in 2001∼2002. Also, the food consumption rates for maximum individual are re-estimated

  7. Disability and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly cancer survivors: Case-control study in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2016-10-01

    Advanced age is a significant risk factor for cancer and functional disabilities increase with age. The purpose of this case-control study of Korean individuals was to determine the effect of cancer and cancer treatment on functional disability and quality of life (QOL). Thus, we compared community-dwelling elderly cancer patients (ECPs) with individuals from the general elderly population (GEP) who never had diagnoses of cancer. We selected 1776 ECP who were at least 65 years-old from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1766 individuals from the GEP who closely resembled the ECPs. Functional disability was measured using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and QOL was measured by the EuroQol Group EQ-5D. ECPs were more dependent in preparation of food, doing laundry, and shopping (IADL scale), and in mobility and usual activities (EQ-5D). Although ECP had more problems with pain, discomfort, anxiety, and depression, they were more independent in self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. ECPs had multiple physical and psychological symptoms that adversely affected functional disability and QOL, but higher functional ability, such as self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. Promotion of self-care by ECPs is pivotal for effective management in community practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Jeong Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor (IGF pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2, key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2 were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.46–0.95 and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89. Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94. These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males.

  9. Gender Differences of Occupational Stress Associated with Suicidal Ideation among South Korean Employees: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Dong-Won; Oh, Kang-Seob; Kim, Eun-Jin; Park, Yang-Ri; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between occupational stress and suicidal ideation was investigated, focusing on gender differences among Korean employees. Cross-sectional data for 53,969 workers were collected at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital health screening centers. Risk of suicidal ideation was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire examining suicidal ideation during the past year. Occupational stress was measured using 24 items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the relationships between suicidal ideation and components of occupational stress. In multivariable-adjusted models, all job stress contributed to increased risk of suicidal ideation in males. Most subscales, except insufficient job control and organizational system, were risk factors of suicidal ideation in females. Further adjustments for depression markedly attenuated this relationship. However, the effects of insufficient job control and lack of reward on suicidal ideation remained significant in males, and interpersonal conflict remained significant in females. The results suggest that occupational stress plays a significant role in increasing risk of suicidal ideation through elevation of depressive symptoms. Gender differences in components of occupational stress associated with suicidal ideation were also observed.

  10. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  11. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  12. Walking the Roads as Immigrant Mothers and Teacher Educators: A Collaborative Self-Study of Three Korean Immigrant Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Wee, Su-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Offering an analysis of our multifaceted experiences as three Korean immigrant early childhood teacher educators in the United States, this critical collaborative self-study examines how positions as immigrant mothers and teacher educators interplay with each other. This study also explores ways in which the intersectional experiences influence…

  13. Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lim, Wan Young; Lee, Dal Nim; Kim, Jung Un; Cha, Eun Shil; Bang, Ye Jin; Lee, Won Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2018-03-30

    The cancer risk of radiation exposure in the moderate-to-high dose range has been well established. However, the risk remains unclear at low-dose ranges with protracted low-dose rate exposure, which is typical of occupational exposure. Several epidemiological studies of Korean radiation workers have been conducted, but the data were analysed retrospectively in most cases. Moreover, groups with relatively high exposure, such as industrial radiographers, have been neglected. Therefore, we have launched a prospective cohort study of all Korean radiation workers to assess the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure. Approximately 42 000 Korean radiation workers registered with the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission from 2016 to 2017 are the initial target population of this study. Cohort participants are to be enrolled through a nationwide self-administered questionnaire survey between 24 May 2016 and 30 June 2017. As of 31 March 2017, 22 982 workers are enrolled in the study corresponding to a response rate of 75%. This enrolment will be continued at 5-year intervals to update information on existing study participants and recruit newly hired workers. Survey data will be linked with the national dose registry, the national cancer registry, the national vital statistics registry and national health insurance data via personal identification numbers. Age-specific and sex-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios will be calculated for overall comparisons of cancer risk. For dose-response assessment, excess relative risk (per Gy) and excess absolute risk (per Gy) will be estimated with adjustments for birth year and potential confounders, such as lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. This study has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (IRB No. K-1603-002-034). All participants provided written informed consent prior to enrolment. The findings

  14. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A study on maintenance rule program and its application to Korean NPP - Rev.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Kim, Kil Yoo; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-03-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Rule is to require monitoring of the overall continuing effectiveness of licensee maintenance programs to ensure that safety related and certain nonsafety-related SSCs are capable of performing their intended functions and, for nonsafety-related equipment failures will not occur that prevent the fulfillment of safety-related functions, and failures resulting in scrams and unnecessary actuations of safety-related systems are minimized. That is, proper maintenance is essential to plant safety. U.S. Maintenance Rule, which was effective July 1996 in USA., was not officially adopted in Korea by Korean regulatory body. However, since many PSA and IPE have been performed for NPPs, the philosophy and usefulness of the Maintenance Rule as well as performance-based regulation are being acceptable. We survey the Maintenance Rule program and applications in the USA, and also developed the Maintenance Rule program to apply to Korean NPPs. In addition, we applied the Maintenance Rule Program apply to Ulchin 3,4 Units roughly with the Maintenance Rule Program developed in this project

  16. A study on maintenance rule program and its application at Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Rule is to require monitoring of the overall continuing effectiveness of licensee maintenance programs to ensure that safety related and certain nonsafety-related SSCs are capable of performing their intended functions and, for nonsafety-related equipment failures will not occur that prevent the fulfillment of safety-related functions, and failures resulting in scrams and unnecessary actuations of safety-related systems are minimized. That is, proper maintenance is essential to plant safety. U.S. Maintenance Rule, which was effective July 1996 in USA., was not officially adopted in Korea by Korean regulatory body. However, since many PSA and IPE have been performed for NPPs, the philosophy and usefulness of the Maintenance Rule as well as performance-based regulation are being acceptable. We survey the Maintenance Rule program and applications in the USA, and also developed the Maintenance Rule program to apply to Korean NPPs. In addition, we applied the Maintenance Rule Program apply to Ulchin 3,4 Units roughly with the Maintenance Rule Program developed in this project

  17. A study on optimal SFCL specification to enhance the transfer capability on Korean power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Minhan, E-mail: radiance0@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansang [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoonsung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic university of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungmin [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The fault current problem is a severe issue in the Korean power system in the future. • The fault current contribution method has been used with the real Korean power system planning data. • The effectiveness of the SFCL application is verified using the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) power system has the characteristics of the load being concentrated in the Seoul metropolitan region and direct power transfer from generations located at distant points in the system thereby resulting in high levels of fault current in the metropolitan region during fault conditions. This fault current problem in the metropolitan region has been a critical issue during the past few years where the increase in the load elevates the fault current levels thereby requiring the replacement of numerous circuit breakers. In order to reduce the fault current levels in the system, the installation of superconductivity fault current limiter (SFCL) has been considered as a solution to reduce the fault current levels in the system. In this paper, an optimal SFCL specification is proposed, by using the fault current contribution method, for siting the optimal location of the SFCL to minimize the current injection into the fault point. The effectiveness of the SFCL application is being verified by simulations based on the KEPCO power system planning data where several installation points are examined for effective reduction of the fault current issue in the system.

  18. A study on normal value of eyeball protrusion in Korean adult using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1984-01-01

    CT may be valuably used in determination of proptosis. Normal value of eyeball protrusion was measured in normal Koreans using CT. Among 86 Koreans, 26 have normal both eyes, but 60 have one normal eye with one abnormal eye (chiefly, proptosis and and eyeball tumor). The results of 112 eyes are as follows: Absolute measurement of 'a', that is, the distance between cornea and IZL (interzygomatic line) is 16.0±3.4 mm in male (for 63 eye), 15.7±4.0 mm in female for 49 eyes. Ratio of 'a' over 'A' (A-P diameter of eyeball) is 57±12% is male (for 63 eye), 57±14% in female (for 49 eye) Discrepancy of eyeball protrusion between both eyes is 0.67±1.5 mm (for 26 adults). Practically, normal range of eyeball prtotrusion ('a') is 12.6 mm < male < 19.4 mm, 11.7 mm < female < 19.7 mm. 'a/A' ratio over 70% and over 2mm discrepancy between both eyes are also suggested as genuine exophthalmos

  19. A study on maintenance rule program and its application at Korean NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Rule is to require monitoring of the overall continuing effectiveness of licensee maintenance programs to ensure that safety related and certain nonsafety-related SSCs are capable of performing their intended functions and, for nonsafety-related equipment failures will not occur that prevent the fulfillment of safety-related functions, and failures resulting in scrams and unnecessary actuations of safety-related systems are minimized. That is, proper maintenance is essential to plant safety. U.S. Maintenance Rule, which was effective July 1996 in USA., was not officially adopted in Korea by Korean regulatory body. However, since many PSA and IPE have been performed for NPPs, the philosophy and usefulness of the Maintenance Rule as well as performance-based regulation are being acceptable. We survey the Maintenance Rule program and applications in the USA, and also developed the Maintenance Rule program to apply to Korean NPPs. In addition, we applied the Maintenance Rule Program apply to Ulchin 3,4 Units roughly with the Maintenance Rule Program developed in this project.

  20. Contextual influences on ethnic identity formation: a case study of second-generation Korean Americans Baby Boomers in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation.

  1. Filial piety and parental responsibility: an interpretive phenomenological study of family caregiving for a person with mental illness among Korean immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Mijung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the strong influence of culture on family involvement in disease management, few studies have examined how immigrant families care for persons with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine how immigrant families organize their world to care for a mentally ill person in the United States. The current analysis focused on how Confucian notions of filial piety and parental obligation shape caregiving in Korean immigrant families. Methods Participants in this interpretive phenomenological study were comprised of six Korean immigrant women caring for a family member with mental illness. Participants provided narratives that illustrate challenges and opportunities in caring for their mentally ill family member. Results Three family caregiving patterns were discerned. Insulating from the outside world describes a family’s effort to accept a member's illness and to manage it within the family. Prioritizing education over well-being concerns parental commitment to the Confucian priority of educating one’s children. Reciprocating the sacrifice describes how a family adapts and enacts filial piety. Conclusion The findings of this study warrant further study to examine the influence of Confucianism among Korean American families. The three patterns of caregiving are strongly aligned with Confucian notion of family and family engagement. These patterns may help health providers to anticipate the needs of and provide individualized, culturally appropriate mental health care for patients with mental illness and their families of Korean origin.

  2. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  3. DECISION OF TURKEY SENDING SOLDIER TO KOREAN IN NATIONAL PRESS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, Tülay

    2014-01-01

    After the World War II, Korean Peninsula was divided among two contrary different states in terms of ideology. In 25 June 1950, the war started between two states, Democratic People's Republic of Korea ( North Korean), Republic of Korean (South Korean). Following this development, The United Nations' Security Council held an emergency meeting with attempt of The U.S. and invited to participate in studies to conduct by states connected with its. Turkish governmet, founded by Democrat...

  4. Validation of a Korean version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yun-A; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Kyeongsoo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity for use with Korean-speaking patients with fibromyalgia (FM). After translating the FIQ into Korean, we administered it to 55 patients with FM (28 patients filled out the questionnaire again 7 days later) together with a Korean version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). The tender-point count (TP...

  5. Korea's "Model Minority": A Case Study of an American-Korean Bilingual Student's Challenges Learning English in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary South Korean society, there is a strong emphasis on cultural homogeneity and, simultaneously, the development of English proficiency as a human resource. Since language is inextricably linked to identity, bilingual learners from English speaking countries may feel pressure to conform to Korean cultural and linguistic norms, leading…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Career Maturity of Korean and United States High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hak

    2001-01-01

    High school students in Korea (n=331) and the United States (n=266) completed the Career Attitude Maturity Inventory in Korean or English versions. Constructs of career maturity were similar across both cultures. Level of maturity was culture related: U.S. students had greater confidence; Koreans were more prepared. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  7. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  8. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    KangJae Jerry Lee; David. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated serious leisure among Korean Americans and examined the ways in which Koreans' marginalized status impact their pursuit of serious leisure and participation patterns in the context of recreational sports. Face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Korean basketball players and 4 soccer players.

  9. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  10. A Study of the Relationship between Social Support and Clergy Family Stress among Korean-American Baptist Pastors and Their Wives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Young

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The first problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the clergy family stress scores as measured by the Clergy Family Inventory (CFLI) and the specified predictor variables of social support among Korean-American Baptist pastors. The specified predictor variables included tangible support, appraisal support,…

  11. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  13. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  14. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  15. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  16. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  17. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  18. Effects of self-reported hearing or vision impairment on depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J H; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Park, E-C

    2018-02-08

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected. Data from the 2006-2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model. Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants. Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.

  19. Study of Machine-Learning Classifier and Feature Set Selection for Intent Classification of Korean Tweets about Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeom, Ha-Neul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have proposed making use of the Twitter micro-blogging service to track various trends in online media and discussion. In this study, we specifically examine the use of Twitter to track discussions of food safety in the Korean language. Given the irregularity of keyword use in most tweets, we focus on optimistic machine-learning and feature set selection to classify collected tweets. We build the classifier model using Naive Bayes & Naive Bayes Multinomial, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree Algorithms, all of which show good performance. To select an optimum feature set, we construct a basic feature set as a standard for performance comparison, so that further test feature sets can be evaluated. Experiments show that precision and F-measure performance are best when using a Naive Bayes Multinomial classifier model with a test feature set defined by extracting Substantive, Predicate, Modifier, and Interjection parts of speech.

  20. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  1. Prevalence of Immediate-Type Food Allergy in Korean Schoolchildren in 2015: A Nationwide, Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Ji Young; Jeon, Hyun Young; Yang, Hea Kyoung; Lee, Kee Jae; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. A total of 32,001 (64.0%) responded to the questionnaire survey, and 29,842 children (59.7%) were analyzed after adjusting for missing data. The number of the cases in each age group was 9,671 (6-7 years), 9,756 (9-10 years), 5,169 (12-13 years), and 5,246 (15-16 years). The prevalence of lifetime perceived FA was 15.82%. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA was 4.06% in total, with 3.15% in 6- to 7-year-olds, 4.51% in 9- to 10-year-olds, 4.01% in 12- to 13-year-olds, and 4.49% in 15- to 16-year-olds. Among individual food items, peanut (0.22%) was the most frequent causative food, followed by hen's egg (0.21%), cow's milk (0.18%), and buckwheat (0.13%). Among the food groups, fruits (1.41%), crustaceans (0.84%), tree nuts (0.32%), and fish (0.32%) were the most common offending foods. The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 0.97%. The most frequent causative food of anaphylaxis was peanut (0.08%), followed by cow's milk (0.07%), buckwheat (0.06%), and hen's egg (0.06%), while fruits (0.28%), crustaceans (0.18%), tree nuts (0.12%), and fish (0.09%) were the most commonly responsible food groups. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA and food-induced anaphylaxis in Korean schoolchildren in 2015 was 4.06% and 0.97%, respectively. Peanuts, cow's milk, hen's egg, fruits, crustaceans, and tree nuts are common allergens. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  2. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  3. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  4. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  5. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  6. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. CO2 emissions change from the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars: Korean case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Suk Jae; Kim, Kyung Sup; Park, Jin-Won

    2009-01-01

    The climatic change is a matter of grave concern to the whole world. As a countermeasure against the climatic change convention, the Korean government has authorized the sale of diesel passenger cars since 2005. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars in its role as a countermeasure. Their share, carbon emissions, and pollutant emissions of each type of passenger car are analyzed using system dynamics. The result is that the carbon emissions are decreased by 5.4% but the pollutant emissions are increased by 5%. If the pollutant emissions are controlled, the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars would be a good countermeasure against the climatic change convention.

  8. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  9. A Patterns of Care Study of the Various Radiation Therapies for Prostate Cancer among Korean Radiation Oncologists in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan

    2008-01-01

    To conduct a nationwide academic hospital patterns of the practice status and principles of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The survey will help develop the framework of a database of Korean in Patterns of Case Study. A questionnaire about radiation treatment status and principles was sent to radiation oncologists in charge of prostate cancer treatment at thirteen academic hospitals in Korea. The data was analyzed to find treatment principles among the radiation oncologists when treating prostate cancer. The number of patients with prostate cancer and treated with radiation ranged from 60 to 150 per academic hospital in Seoul City and 10 to 15 outside of Seoul City in 2006. The primary diagnostic methods of prostate cancer included the ultrasound guided biopsy on 6 to 12 prostate sites (mean=9), followed by magnetic resonance imaging and a whole body bone scan. Internal and external immobilizations were used in 61.5% and 76.9%, respectively, with diverse radiation targets. Whole pelvis radiation therapy (dose ranging from 45.0 to 50.4 Gy) was performed in 76.9%, followed by the irradiation of seminal vesicles (54.0∼73.8 Gy) in 92.3%. The definitive radiotherapy doses were increased as a function of risk group, but the range of radiation doses was wide (60.0 to 78.5 Gy). Intensity modulated radiation therapy using doses greater than 70 Gy, were performed in 53.8% of academic hospitals. In addition, the simultaneous intra-factional boost (SIB) technique was used in three hospitals; however, the target volume and radiation dose were diverse. Radiation therapy to biochemical recurrence after a radical prostatectomy was performed in 84.6%; however, the radiation dose was variable and the radiation field ranged from whole pelvis to prostate bed. The results of this study suggest that a nationwide Korean Patterns of Care Study is necessary for the recommendation of radiation therapy guidelines of prostate cancer

  10. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and smoking in Koreans: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jung Moon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs and smoking according to gender and smoking amount (cigarettes/day are limited, and the results regarding the relationship between POPs and smoking are not completely consistent across studies. Objectives: The smoking rate in Korea is one of the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. We investigated the association between serum concentrations of POPs and cigarette smoking in Koreans by smoking status (never-smoker/ever-smoker and smoking amount (cigarettes/day according to gender. Methods: Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were measured in 401 participants (232 men and 169 women who received health examinations during the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II. We compared POP levels in ever-smokers and never-smokers and conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify associations between POPs and smoking. Results: Among women, the concentrations of PCB 156, PCB 167, and PCB 180 were significantly higher in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. After adjustments for age, body mass index, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alcohol intake, serum PCB 157 concentration was positively associated with male ever-smokers (OR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.01–5.04. In addition, trans-nonachlordane in OCPs as well as PCBs was significantly positively related with female ever-smokers (OR 3.21; 95% CI, 1.04–9.86. We found that subjects who smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes/day had a higher risk of having high POP concentrations than never-smokers. Conclusions: These results indicate that smoking may be associated with human serum POPs levels.

  11. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

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    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  12. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  13. The morphometric study of the pons and cerebellum in Korean using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Dong Ik; Yun, Mi Jin; Chung, In Hyuk; Cho, Young Kook

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the size of normal pons and cerebellum in vivo and the change in size according to age, and to compare those with measurement of the diseased pons and cerebellum. 121 normal adults (M:F=54:67), 5 patients with OPCD and 19 patients with Wallerian degeneration were studied. The normal group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the age (ranged from 20 to 72 years). 1.5T GE Signa MR unit was used. On axial plane, the AP(A) and transverse(B) diameters of the pons, the size of the middle cerebellar peduncle(C), and transverse diameter of the posterior fossa(D) and the cerebellum(E) were measured. On midsagittal plane, the longitudinal(F) and AP(G) diameters of the basis pontis were measured. The ratios of E/D and F/G were calculated. The student t test was used for statistical analysis. C, E and F/G were 15.5 mm ± 1.3, 99.8 mm ± 4.3 and 1.63 ± 10, respectively. F/G, H/I, and H/J were larger in male (ρ < .01). All data of the pons showed no statistically significant differences among age groups. E of the seventh decades was shorter than that of the third decades (ρ < .05). C(12.7 mm ± 1.4) in OPCD and F/G(1.81 ± .10) in Wallerian degeneration (± < .01) showed the most significant differences when they were compared to the normal. Although the cerebellum decreased in size with age, the pons maintained its size up to eighth decades. The measurement of middle cerebellar peduncle on axial plane (C) and the ratio of basis pontis on midsagittal plane (F/G) were important in the evaluation of OPCD and Wallerian degeneration, respectively

  14. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

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    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  15. The activity of the Ulsan fault system based on marine terrace age study at the southeastern part of Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Daiei; Weon-Hack, Choi

    2006-01-01

    The activity evaluation of the Ulsan fault system (UFS) based on marine terrace age study in the southeastern part of Korean peninsula has been carried out. (1) The marine terrace distribution map along the southeastern coast of Korean peninsula has been distributed three wide terraces and several sub-terraces. The age of the above three terraces was determined by the discovery of wide tephras to be MIS5e, 7 and 9 from the lowest, respectively. (2) The active fault map along UFS was constructed. There will be the possibility that the UFS will be divided into three segments by the feature of lineaments. (3) The fault bounds between mountain at the eastern side, and plain at the western side in the most part of fault. It is interpreted that the UFS builds up the eastern mountain as a reverse movement fault. The latest activity of this fault system was clarified at the two localities by outcrop and trench investigation. The latest activity at Galgok-ri located in the northern part of the fault was occurred between 2,840 and 1,440 yBP. It was found to be between 7,470 and 2,990 yBP at Gaegok-ri, located in the central part of the fault. The latest activity at the Wangsan, which is between Galgok-ri and Gaegok-ri, was older than 7,000 yBP. The latest activity of the UFS differs between studied points. (4) The vertical slip rate of the UFS was calculated from the amount of vertical deformation and the age of terraces. Its range was between several cm to 20 cm in the 1000 years. This value corresponds to lower B and C class activity defined in Japan. (author)

  16. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Practice Patterns of Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 14-07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyejung; Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nam, Taek-Keun; Yoon, Sang Min; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Mi Sook; Jang, Hong Seok; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kay, Chul Seung; Jung, Inkyung; Seong, Jinsil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine patterns of radiotherapy (RT) in Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the evolving guideline for HCC established by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center (KLCSG-NCC). Materials and Methods We reviewed 765 patients with HCC who were treated with RT between January 2011 and December 2012 in 12 institutions. Results The median follow-up period was 13.3 months (range, 0.2 to 51.7 months). Compared with previous data between 2004 and 2005, the use of RT as a first treatment has increased (9.0% vs. 40.8%). Increased application of intensity-modulated RT resulted in an increase in radiation dose (fractional dose, 1.8 Gy vs. 2.5 Gy; biologically effective dose, 53.1 Gy10 vs. 56.3 Gy10). Median overall survival was 16.2 months, which is longer than that reported in previous data (12 months). In subgroup analysis, treatments were significantly different according to stage (p < 0.001). Stereotactic body RT was used in patients with early HCC, and most patients with advanced stage were treated with three-dimensional conformal RT. Conclusion Based on the evolving KLCSG-NCC practice guideline for HCC, clinical practice patterns of RT have changed. Although RT is still used mainly in advanced HCC, the number of patients with good performance status who were treated with RT as a first treatment has increased. This change in practice patterns could result in improvement in overall survival. PMID:27338036

  18. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808

  19. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Jeon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders.In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales.The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90, test-retest reliability (r = 0.74, and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder. The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups.The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  20. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  2. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  4. A Study on distinguishing seismic waves caused by natural earthquakes and underground nuclear explosion within North Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premlet, B.; Sabu, S.; Kamarudheen, R.; Subair, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first nuclear test on 15 July 1945 , there have been over 2,051 other weapon tests around the world . The waveforms of a natural earthquake which generates strong S waves and an underground explosion which is dominated by P waves were distinguished from the analysis of data corresponding to a 2005 M5.0 Earthquake and a 2016 North Korean nuclear test , both at similar distances from seismometer . Further differences between the seismograms were evaluated and successfully distinguished between the origins of the elastic waves through the data using Moment Tensor Solution using stations BJT , HIA and INCN . North Korea has developed a nuclear fuel cycle capability and has both plutonium and enriched uranium programs at Pyongyang . Seismic recordings of vertical ground motion at Global Seismographic Network station IC.MDJ of the 4 seismic events at Punggye-ri , North Korea , which occurred on the 9th of October 2006 , 25th of May 2009, 12th of February 2013 and on the 6th of January and 9th of September , 2016 were examined and the P waves of these seismic waves , which show very similar wave form , were inspected and compared to the seismic data of the latest underground nuclear test on the 3rd of September 2017 at 03:30 UTC at the same site which is many times more powerful than the previous tests . The country , which is the only nation to have tested nuclear weapons in this millennium , has successfully prevented the release of radioactive isotopes and hampered data collection but further studies were done using acoustic data which was analysed from sonograms of the 4 North Korean tests at station MDJ. The latest explosion data from 3rd September was also compared to 42 presumed underground explosions which occurred in China , India , the U.S.S.R , Iran , Turkey and recorded at Arkansas Seismic Network.

  5. Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  7. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  8. The ocular benefits of estrogen replacement therapy: a population-based study in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Sun Na

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elucidate the prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, pterygia, and diabetic retinopathy among Korean postmenopausal women with or without estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV (2007-2009 was used. Participants were interviewed for the determination of socioeconomic and gynecologic factors. Each woman also underwent an ophthalmologic examination and provided a blood sample for risk factor assessment. RESULTS: Of 3968 postmenopausal women enrolled, 3390 had never received estrogen, and 578 were undergoing estrogen treatment. After adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and high low-density lipoprotein levels, the prevalence of anterior polar cataract, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL defect, and flesh pterygium was higher in the non-ERT group (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.12-9.35, OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.78, OR 3.725; 95% CI, 1.21-11.45, respectively. Further, the prevalence of atrophic pterygium was lower in the non-ERT group compared to that in the ERT group (OR, 0.21, 95% CI, 0.07-0.63. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ERT has a protective effect against the development of anterior polar cataract, flesh pterygium, and RNFL defect.

  9. A Study on Achilles Tendon Reflex in Normal Korean Persons and Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin Yung; Kim, Myung Duk; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-03-15

    Since Chaney reported the measurement of ankle jerk in Patients with myxedema for the first time, slowing of the reflex in myxedema has been well documented by many authors. Although its mechanisms have not been elucidated clearly, it has long been held in esteem by clinicians a near pathognomonic sign in myxedema. Possible mechanisms suggested include (a) abnormal activity of the central nervous system, (b) a disorder of muscle like that of myotonia (c) lowered temperature of the muscle, (d) increased viscosity of the muscle due to myxdematous infiltration and (e) part of a general slowing of all vital processes. The brisk reflex in thyrotoxicosis has also been noted to be characteristic. The recent development of several simple methods of quantitating the deep tendon reflex time has made its application an easy, rapid, inexpensive and accurate test in the results of our examinations on the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) times in normal Koreans along their sexes, ages and in various thyroid diseases. Also we observed the changes of ATR times in the thyrotoxicosis and myxedema after the initiation of treatment and compared them with other thyroid function tests.

  10. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  11. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  12. The New Way of Beauty Experience From Korean Wave as Vocational Guidance in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbayani, Siti; Annuraini, A

    2017-01-01

    Korean Wave called Hallyu is the most phenomenal global culture that spread around the world as well as Indonesia. Along with Hallyu syndrome, plastic surgery began to be known by the Korean fans in Indonesia. Participation of the media, in particular, information technology became an important key by the Korean wave invasion. Korean idol who is so pretty and charming make Korean fans want to emulate his idol. This study aims to discuss how the views of Indonesian young women within decision ...

  13. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ok Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Health Insurance Service (NHIS recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI system for the benefit of Korean researchers.MethodsThe NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI.ResultsMetabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining.ConclusionThe NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform.

  14. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  16. A study on the impact of the new international rules of the game (UR, the agreement on government procurement) and on the countermeasures for the Korean nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Suk; Song, Kee Dong; Ham, Chul Hoon; Kim, Seung Soo; Koh, Han Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of such changes in the rules of the game on the Korean nuclear industry and to propose possible countermeasures in short-term and long-term perspectives at the national level. This study also has an educational purpose to help people. working in the nuclear field understand the significance of the changes in the rules of the game. This study looks through the history and contents of the GATT system, the UR, the AGP, and the post-UR movement, providing some insight on the current trend in the rules of the game. Also this study analyzes the impact of the changes in the rules of the game on the Korean nuclear industry in qualitative terms, and proposes possible short-term and long-term countermeasures at the national level in both perspectives of utility and nuclear industry. 5 figs, 15 tabs, 51 refs. (Author).

  17. A study on the impact of the new international rules of the game (UR, the agreement on government procurement) and on the countermeasures for the Korean nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Suk; Song, Kee Dong; Ham, Chul Hoon; Kim, Seung Soo; Koh, Han Suk

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of such changes in the rules of the game on the Korean nuclear industry and to propose possible countermeasures in short-term and long-term perspectives at the national level. This study also has an educational purpose to help people. working in the nuclear field understand the significance of the changes in the rules of the game. This study looks through the history and contents of the GATT system, the UR, the AGP, and the post-UR movement, providing some insight on the current trend in the rules of the game. Also this study analyzes the impact of the changes in the rules of the game on the Korean nuclear industry in qualitative terms, and proposes possible short-term and long-term countermeasures at the national level in both perspectives of utility and nuclear industry. 5 figs, 15 tabs, 51 refs. (Author)

  18. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  19. Post-hoc simulation study to adopt a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for a Korean Medical License Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Gi; Choi, Jeongwook

    2018-05-17

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been adopted in license examinations due to a test efficiency and accuracy. Many research about CAT have been published to prove the efficiency and accuracy of measurement. This simulation study investigated scoring method and item selection methods to implement CAT in Korean medical license examination (KMLE). This study used post-hoc (real data) simulation design. The item bank used in this study was designed with all items in a 2017 KMLE. All CAT algorithms for this study were implemented by a 'catR' package in R program. In terms of accuracy, Rasch and 2parametric logistic (PL) model performed better than 3PL model. Modal a Posteriori (MAP) or Expected a Posterior (EAP) provided more accurate estimates than MLE and WLE. Furthermore Maximum posterior weighted information (MPWI) or Minimum expected posterior variance (MEPV) performed better than other item selection methods. In terms of efficiency, Rasch model was recommended to reduce test length. Simulation study should be performed under varied test conditions before adopting a live CAT. Based on a simulation study, specific scoring and item selection methods should be predetermined before implementing a live CAT.

  20. A retrospective cohort study on the association between periapical abscess, advanced periodontal disease, and the national oral health screening program among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Eun; Jung, Se-Hwan; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Byoung-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-09-01

    The National Oral Health Screening Program (NOHSP) is a general population-based program in Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the association between participation in the NOHSP and dental visit for periapical abscess (PA) and advanced periodontal disease (APD) among Korean adults. Data were obtained for subjects from the National Health Insurance database. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9358 randomly selected subjects who were between 40 and 64 years old in 2002. The outcomes of dental visit for PA or APD from the years 2003 to 2007 were compared between the screening and nonscreening groups. The nonscreening group had 19% higher risk of PA and 15% higher risk of APD. This study suggests that the NOHSP may decrease the risk of dental visit because of PA and APD by preventing the progress of lesion to the advanced stage among Korean adults.