WorldWideScience

Sample records for kokusai network ni

  1. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation - 1 (Promotion of international cooperation); 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    International research cooperation was promoted and technical information was internationally exchanged for the development of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) Project into a truly international cooperation project. In the promotion of international research cooperation, a collection of summarized achievement reports for fiscal 1999 translated into English, based on achievement reports on the respective tasks, was disseminated to 157 related organizations overseas. Activities related to the WE-NET Project were actively presented at international conferences. For research cooperation at IEA (International Energy Agency), engineers were dispatched to its committees and annexes specializing in hydrogen related implementation agreements. In the international exchange of technical information, overseas surveys were conducted for fulfilling the purposes of the respective WE-NET tasks. Investigations were conducted into the latest fuel cell development status across the world, not to mention the automotive fuel cell now attracting earnest attention. Moreover, surveys were conducted of hydrogen energy related research institutes abroad, and a Japanese booth was installed at Hyforum 2000 (The International Hydrogen Energy Forum 2000). (NEDO)

  3. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 9. Research and evaluation of innovative and leading technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 (kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to make useful suggestions and proposals for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project and thereby to promote the research and development activities, the innovative and leading technologies have been studied, investigated and evaluated. In FY 1998, a total of 6 proposals were collected, and evaluated to prioritize for the conceptual studies. These are related to methanol-fueled power generation turbine system, conceptual design of high-efficiency production system for high-efficiency solar cell by the 10 GW/y scale production process, investigation of potential of wind power, CO2 recycling methanol fuel cell, investigation of catalysis materials for hydrogen combustion and catalytic combustion systems, development of reversible high-temperature steam electrolysis cell/solid oxide fuel cell by the synthesis from aqueous solutions, and mobile heat recovery hydrogen production system. Promising technologies to be reflected on the WE-NET project were examined, based on the new technologies acquired from the research and investigation so far. As a result, two candidates were selected; hydrogen liquefaction by magnetic refrigeration technology, and catalytic combustion gas turbine. (NEDO)

  4. Report on surveys and researches to excavate international joint researches related to industrial technologies; Sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu hakkutsu no tame no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Five themes were taken up for a project of the 'surveys and researches to excavate international joint researches related to industrial technologies'. Investigation groups were organized and dispatched for each theme toperform domestic and overseas surveys. Discussions were given on eachtheme for the possibilities of structuring international joint researches. The five themes are as follows: 'wearable information network related technologies', wherein technologies to micronize information devices have been advanced rapidly, and the technologies are entering the age from personalizing and mobilizing the information into the wearable computing; this theme is intended to develop systems to unify these technologies by means of international joint researches: 'surveys on using unutilized animal oils and fats as chemical raw materials', which are intended to make clear possibilities and problems in utilizing animal oils and fats as raw materials for the chemical industry that can substitute fossil resources: 'international joint researches on new glasses' and 'processes to manufacture semiconductors using glassy carbon' to develop glassy carbon having excellent chemical resistance substituting quartz: and 'international joint researches on the Russian project which places environment and energy in its center'. (NEDO)

  5. Network analysis reveals strongly localized impacts of El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingfang; Meng, Jun; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Niño and La Niña. We find that regions that are characterized by higher positive/negative network “in”-weighted links are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Niño basin and are warmer/cooler during El Niño/La Niña periods. In contrast to non-El Niño periods, these stronger in-weighted activities are found to be concentrated in very localized areas, whereas a large fraction of the globe is not influenced by the events. The regions of localized activity vary from one El Niño (La Niña) event to another; still, some El Niño (La Niña) events are more similar to each other. We quantify this similarity using network community structure. The results and methodology reported here may be used to improve the understanding and prediction of El Niño/La Niña events and also may be applied in the investigation of other climate variables.

  6. Ag@Ni core-shell nanowire network for robust transparent electrodes against oxidation and sulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyeonjin; Lee, Jaemin; Pichitpajongkit, Aekachan; Amjadi, Morteza; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Eungsug; Lee, Jung-Yong; Park, Inkyu

    2014-10-29

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) based transparent electrodes are inherently unstable to moist and chemically reactive environment. A remarkable stability improvement of the Ag NW network film against oxidizing and sulfurizing environment by local electrodeposition of Ni along Ag NWs is reported. The optical transmittance and electrical resistance of the Ni deposited Ag NW network film can be easily controlled by adjusting the morphology and thickness of the Ni shell layer. The electrical conductivity of the Ag NW network film is increased by the Ni coating via welding between Ag NWs as well as additional conductive area for the electron transport by electrodeposited Ni layer. Moreover, the chemical resistance of Ag NWs against oxidation and sulfurization can be dramatically enhanced by the Ni shell layer electrodeposited along the Ag NWs, which provides the physical barrier against chemical reaction and diffusion as well as the cathodic protection from galvanic corrosion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of the structure of climate networks under El Niño and La Niña conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciosa, Juan Carlos; Pastor, Marissa

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important driver of natural climate variability and is characterized by anomalies in the sea surface temperatures (SST) over the tropical Pacific ocean. It has three phases: neutral, a warming phase or El Niño, and a cooling phase called La Niña. In this research, we modeled the climate under the three phases as a network and characterized its properties. We utilized the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) daily surface temperature reanalysis data from January 1950 to December 2016. A network associated to a month was created using the temperature spanning from the previous month to the succeeding month, for a total of three months worth of data for each network. Each site of the included data was a potential node in the network and the existence of links were determined by the strength of their relationship, which was based on mutual information. Interestingly, we found that climate networks exhibit small-world properties and these are found to be more prominent from October to April, coinciding with observations that El Niño occurrences peak from December to March. During these months, the temperature of a relatively large part of the Pacific ocean and its surrounding areas increase and the anomaly values become synchronized. This synchronization in the temperature anomalies forms links around the Pacific, increasing the clustering in the region and in effect, that of the entire network.

  8. Magnetic properties of a metal-organic porous network [Ni2(BODC)2(TED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Tan; Danilovic, D.; Li, Kunhao; Li, Jing

    2008-04-01

    A new material [Ni2(BODC)2(TED)], (BODC =4,4'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane dicarboxylate and TED =triethylene-4,4'-diamine), which is a guest-free, porous metal-organic coordination network, has been successfully synthesized. The crystal structure of this compound is tetragonal with the space group P4/mmm. It is a three-dimensional network that can be deconstructed into rectangular gridlike layers along ab planes. These planes are formed by BODC and Zn2O4 paddle-wheel-like clusters, and the TED ligands from the axial directions of the paddle-wheels connect the layers into a three-dimesional structure. There are no guest molecules found in the pores. The shortest Ni-Ni distance within the paddle wheel is found to be 2.613Å. Magnetic susceptibility χ(T )=M(T)/H and isothermal magnetization M(H ) measurements have been measured on powder samples of this compound. The results of χ(T ) show that there is a rapid increase in the susceptibility below 20K due to a spontaneous ordering of the Ni2+ moments. The effective moment μeff of Ni2+ is about 2.20μB at room temperature. The M(H ) result at 1.8K shows a clear hysteresis with a coercivity of Hcoe≈1700G. The behavior of this compound is discussed in terms of Ni-Ni coupling within the Ni dimers and dimer chains.

  9. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Electronic network modeling of rechargeable batteries: II: The NiCd system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Kruijt, W.S.; Bergveld, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on the concept of a defined sealed rechargeable NiCd battery, the mathematics of the various electrochemical and physical processes occurring inside the battery are described. Subsequently, these sets of mathematical equations are clustered and converted into an electronic network model.

  12. Nano-engineered intrapores in nanoparticles of PtNi networks for increased oxygen reduction reaction activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jieting; Ji, Shan; Wang, Hui; Key, Julian; Brett, Dan J. L.; Wang, Rongfang

    2018-01-01

    Network-like metallic alloys of solid nanoparticles have been frequently reported as promising electrocatalysts for fuel cells. The three-dimensional structure of such networks is rich in pores in the form of voids between nanoparticles, which collectively expose a large surface area for catalytic activity. Herein, we present a novel solution to this problem using a precursor comprising a flocculent core-shell PtNi@Ni to produce PtNi network catalysts with nanoparticle intraporosity after carefully controlled electrochemical dealloying. Physical characterization shows a hierarchical level of nanoporosity (intrapores within nanoparticles and pores between them) evolves during the controlled electrochemical dealloying, and that a Pt-rich surface also forms after 22 cycles of Ni leaching. In ORR cycling, the PtNi networks gain 4-fold activity in both jECSA and jmass over a state of the art Pt/C electrocatalyst, and also significantly exceed previously reported PtNi networks. In ORR degradation tests, the PtNi networks also proved stable, dropping by 30.4% and 62.6% in jECSA and jmass respectively. The enhanced performance of the catalyst is evident, and we also propose that the presented synthesis procedure can be generally applied to developing other metallic networks.

  13. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  14. Forecasting the magnitude and onset of El Niño based on climate network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Fan, Jingfang; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2018-04-01

    El Niño is probably the most influential climate phenomenon on inter-annual time scales. It affects the global climate system and is associated with natural disasters; it has serious consequences in many aspects of human life. However, the forecasting of the onset and in particular the magnitude of El Niño are still not accurate enough, at least more than half a year ahead. Here, we introduce a new forecasting index based on climate network links representing the similarity of low frequency temporal temperature anomaly variations between different sites in the Niño 3.4 region. We find that significant upward trends in our index forecast the onset of El Niño approximately 1 year ahead, and the highest peak since the end of last El Niño in our index forecasts the magnitude of the following event. We study the forecasting capability of the proposed index on several datasets, including, ERA-Interim, NCEP Reanalysis I, PCMDI-AMIP 1.1.3 and ERSST.v5.

  15. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles supported by 3D interconnected carbon network on Ni foam for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Pan, Hui; Tay, Beng Kang; Wang, Xingli; Liang, Kun; Wei, Xuezhe

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a three dimensional (3D) interconnected carbon network consisting of ultrathin graphite (UG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Ni foam is fabricated and employed as a novel type of substrate for mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles. The successfully synthesized NiCo2O4 nano-needles/CNTs/UG on Ni foam has many advantages including facile electrolyte access and direct conducting pathways towards current collectors, which enable it to be a promising electrode material in battery-like electrochemical energy storage. Encouragingly, a high capacity of 135.1 mAh/g at the current density of 1 A/g, superior rate performance and also stable cycling for 1200 cycles at the current density of 5 A/g have been demonstrated in this novel material.

  16. 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O has been designed and synthesized by calcining a special metal-organic precursor (MOP) (MeO2C3H6, Me=Ni and Zn, the molar ratio of Ni: Zn=9:1) as the self-sacrificing template for the first time. Comparing with NiO or the mixture of NiO and ZnO, the new...

  17. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is implemented to survey the current statuses and future trends of the Asian district environment-related information networks, for the (research cooperation project for development of environmental condition measuring laser radar systems), being promoted by NEDO. First, current statuses of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, major domestic nodes and internationally connected conditions are surveyed mainly for internet-connected networks, for surveying the current statuses and future trends of the research networks in Asian countries. Second, current statuses in Indonesia of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, domestic node sites and managing organizations, charge systems and institutions, types/reliability/ stability of the circuits, and conditions of restriction of use, if any, for surveying the current statuses and future trends in Indonesia. Third, conditions of and needs for network utilization by researchers for Asian district environments. (NEDO)

  18. Ni-MH batteries state-of-charge prediction based on immune evolutionary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Yanlu; Zhang Jiexin; Wang Junping; Cao Binggang

    2009-01-01

    Based on clonal selection theory, an improved immune evolutionary strategy is presented. Compared with conventional evolutionary strategy algorithm (CESA) and immune monoclonal strategy algorithm (IMSA), experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is of high efficiency and can effectively prevent premature convergence. A three-layer feed-forward neural network is presented to predict state-of-charge (SOC) of Ni-MH batteries. Initially, partial least square regression (PLSR) is used to select input variables. Then, five variables, battery terminal voltage, voltage derivative, voltage second derivative, discharge current and battery temperature, are selected as the inputs of NN. In order to overcome the weakness of BP algorithm, the new algorithm is adopted to train weights. Finally, under the state of dynamic power cycle, the predicted SOC and the actual SOC are compared to verify the proposed neural network with acceptable accuracy (5%).

  19. Report on Asian Environment Information Network; 'Asia kankyo joho network' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The goal is the construction of Asian Environment Information Network (AEInet) in accordance with a contract signed between Indonesia's LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO under NEDO's Research Cooperation Project Concerning the Development of Environment Measuring Laser Radar (LR). The network is so designed and constituted as to operate on a private line between Indonesia and Japan via IP (Internet protocol) and to enable the exchange on the Internet network of the data collected/analyzed by the Indonesian LR system and of articles of e-mail between scientists of the two countries. The AEInet will be utilized for the collection/analysis of LR-collected data; exchange of observed data and the result of processing; provision of support to environment information scientists in exchanging e-mail and information; and the search of databases for the implementation of the project. In this paper, the outline and functions of the system, network system design, WWW server construction, network operating status, joint researches with Indonesia, etc., are described. (NEDO)

  20. Bio-inspired Ni2+-polyphenol hydrophilic network to achieve unconventional high-flux nanofiltration membranes for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fangjie; Xu, Yanchao; Yang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Yanqiu; Shao, Lu

    2017-06-01

    A novel Ni 2+ -polyphenol network was designed as an excellent bio-coating by a one-step strategy to obtain nanofiltration membranes, possessing unconventional high water flux up to 56.1 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 with rose bengal (RB) rejection above 95%. This study provides a facile approach to prepare highly-efficient nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation.

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  2. Gallium-Indium ordering in the complex [Ni{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}In] network of GdNi{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galadzhun, Yaroslav V.; Horiacha, Myroslava M.; Nychyporuk, Galyna P.; Zaremba, Vasyl I. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Polycrystalline samples of the isotypic quaternary compounds RENi{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}In (RE = Y, Gd - Tm) were obtained by arc-melting of the elements. Crystals of the gadolinium compound were found by slow cooling of an arc-melted button of the initial composition ''GdNiGa{sub 3}In''. All samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structure of GdNi{sub 2}Ga{sub 2.89}In{sub 1.11} was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: new type, Pnma, a = 2426.38(7), b = 418.17(2), c = 927.27(3) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0430, 1610 F{sup 2} values and 88 variables. Two of the six crystallographically independent gallium sites show a small degree of Ga/In mixing. The nickel atoms show tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination by gadolinium, gallium, and indium. Together, the nickel, gallium, and indium atoms build up a complex three-dimensional [Ni{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}In]{sup δ-} network, which leaves cages for the gadolinium atoms. The indium atoms form zigzag chains with In-In distances of 337 pm. The crystal chemical similarities of the polyhedral packing in the GdNi{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}In and La{sub 4}Pd{sub 10}In{sub 21} structures are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Molecular dynamics study on the evolution of interfacial dislocation network and mechanical properties of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan-Lin; Wu, Wen-Ping; Nie, Kai

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of misfit dislocation network at γ /γ‧ phase interface and tensile mechanical properties of Ni-based single crystal superalloys at various temperatures and strain rates are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the simulations, it is found that with the increase of loading, the dislocation network effectively inhibits dislocations emitted in the γ matrix cutting into the γ‧ phase and absorbs the matrix dislocations to strengthen itself which increases the stability of structure. Under the influence of the temperature, the initial mosaic structure of dislocation network gradually becomes irregular, and the initial misfit stress and the elastic modulus slowly decline as temperature increasing. On the other hand, with the increase of the strain rate, it almost has no effect on the elastic modulus and the way of evolution of dislocation network, but contributes to the increases of the yield stress and tensile strength. Moreover, tension-compression asymmetry of Ni-based single crystal superalloys is also presented based on MD simulations.

  4. A novel fluffy nanostructured 3D network of Ni(C7H4O5) for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiulin; Lei, Shuijin; Chen, Lianfu; Deng, Peiqin; Xiao, Yanhe; Cheng, Baochang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fluffy 3D network of Ni(C 7 H 4 O 5 ) complex is firstly prepared on Ni foam. • The fluffy 3D network shows high areal capacitance and excellent cycle stability. • The fluffy network has large superior pseudocapacitive performance than the powder. • An asymmetric supercapacitor with high capacitance and energy density is assembled. - Abstract: Supercapacitors have raised considerable research interest in recent years due to their extensive potential application in next-generation energy storage. It is always of great importance to develop new electrode materials for supercapacitors so far. In this research, nickel gallate complex (Ni(C 7 H 4 O 5 )) nanostructures are successfully grown on nickel foam by a facile hydrothermal route, which can be directly used as the electrodes for supercapacitors. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the sample is amorphous. The scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the products consist of novel fluffy 3D network with a mass of fibers. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the prepared Ni(C 7 H 4 O 5 ) electrode possesses the specific capacitance of 3.688 F cm −2 (1229.3 F g −1 ) at a current density of 9 mA cm −2 (3 A g −1 ). It presents an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 87.9% after 5000 cycles even at a very high current density of 40 mA cm −2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor device is assembled using the Ni(C 7 H 4 O 5 ) sample as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative one. A high gravimetric capacitance of 71.4 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 can be achieved. The fabricated device delivers the highest energy density of 23.8 W h kg −1 at a power density of 388.2 W kg −1 with a voltage window of 1.55 V. This strategy should be extended to other organometallic compounds for supercapacitors.

  5. Report on the survey made under the research contract with NEDO, `The International Work Division/Energy Demand Effect Survey.`. Influence of the economic growth in Asia on the energy demand; 1996 nendo `kokusai suihei bungyo energy juyo eikyo chosa` itaku chosa kekka hokokusho. Asia no keizai hatten ga energy juyo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes surveys on the following: (1) the progress situation of the Asian information society, (2) changes of corporate network, business flow, material flow and money flow in association with the information society, (3) the present situation of the industry-accumulated region in Asia and inter-region network, (4) impacts of the above-mentioned changes on the trade and investment structure in Japan, (5) how to tackle the energy issue in Asia in the future. First, effects of the advance of the information society on energy supply/demand were studied. Next, an analysis was made of effects of the progress of the high-grade information society in Asia on economy, industry and corporate action. The degree of the progress of the information society in Asian countries was made clear from the infrastructure arrangement and the developmental status of application. Contribution of the financial network to the economic growth in Asia and the development were clarified. The organization of corporate networks in Asia where paradigms are converting was made clear to consider industrial clusters in Asia. Last, in the light of the economic relationship between Japan and Asia, a study was made on the future policy of Japan for Asia. 238 refs., 77 figs., 89 tabs.

  6. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a method to evaluate the performance of open robot use communication interface in production system, etc.; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of standardizing the communication interface system between personal computers and robots, the R and D were conducted on ORiN (Open Robot Interface for the Network), and the FY 1999 results were summed up. ORiN is composed of the provider part, kernel part and application logic part. The provider absorbs differences in expression and protocols of robot controller data of each company and conveys them to the kernel part. The kernel part is composed of RAO and RDF. RAO adopts the disperse object model DCOM technology and supplies the network transparency and common access method to robot. RDF supplies files with expansion of robot structure models using XML. By this, ORiN was made adoptable for future, permitting differences in each robot. In the International Robot Exhibition held in October 26-29, 1999, the prototype of ORiN was jointly demonstrated by each company. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation (Hydrogen energy technology standardization); 2000 nendo suiro riyo kokusai clean energy sytem gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to establish standards necessary to promote the research and development of hydrogen energy technology and the practical application and popularization of the technology. In the study of the base of hydrogen energy technology standardization, research was conducted about Japan's difference from other countries and tasks to discharge and problems to solve in this country, relative to laws and regulations governing the construction of 'hydrogen supply stations' constituting the core of studies in the above-mentioned phase II research and development efforts. Studies conducted toward diffusion into the general public included rules and regulations over the size of hydrogen storage and the distance between dangerous matters and fire. ISO/TC197 (hydrogen technology) was established with the aim of achieving standardization of the system and equipment pertaining to the production, storage, transportation, measurement, and utilization of hydrogen for energy purposes. In fiscal 2000, Working Group 1 registered an 'interface for automated liquid hydrogen fuel delivery system' and 'hydrogen product specifications.' Moreover, Working Groups 2 through 7 were also engaged in their activities, respectively. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation (Hydrogen energy technology standardization); 2000 nendo suiro riyo kokusai clean energy sytem gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to establish standards necessary to promote the research and development of hydrogen energy technology and the practical application and popularization of the technology. In the study of the base of hydrogen energy technology standardization, research was conducted about Japan's difference from other countries and tasks to discharge and problems to solve in this country, relative to laws and regulations governing the construction of 'hydrogen supply stations' constituting the core of studies in the above-mentioned phase II research and development efforts. Studies conducted toward diffusion into the general public included rules and regulations over the size of hydrogen storage and the distance between dangerous matters and fire. ISO/TC197 (hydrogen technology) was established with the aim of achieving standardization of the system and equipment pertaining to the production, storage, transportation, measurement, and utilization of hydrogen for energy purposes. In fiscal 2000, Working Group 1 registered an 'interface for automated liquid hydrogen fuel delivery system' and 'hydrogen product specifications.' Moreover, Working Groups 2 through 7 were also engaged in their activities, respectively. (NEDO)

  9. Morphology-controllable synthesis of 3D CoNiO_2 nano-networks as a high-performance positive electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jijun; Chen, Zexiang; Wang, Yan; Li, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) assembly of CoNiO_2 nanowire networks using a facile and scalable hydrothermal method followed by an annealing process for supercapacitor applications. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the formation of highly-crystalline CoNiO_2 nano-networks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed the formation of a 3D interconnected network of CoNiO_2 nanowires during the synthesis. In addition, a formation mechanism for 3D CoNiO_2 nano-networks was proposed. Electrochemical analysis showed a typical pseudocapacitive behavior for the CoNiO_2 nanowire networks. The as-prepared CoNiO_2 electrode exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1462 F g"−"1 (45.32 F cm"−"2) at a current density of 1 A g"−"1 (31 mA cm"−"2) and an excellent rate capability of 1000 F g"−"1 (31 F cm"−"2) at 32 A g"−"1 (992 mA cm"−"2). Moreover, a good cycle stability was achieved at 4 A g"−"1 with no degradation over 800 cycles, indicating the stable 3D structure of CoNiO_2 after the redox reactions. The high rate capability and the good cycle stability indicated that the as-prepared 3D CoNiO_2 electrode could satisfy the needs of supercapacitors with both high power and energy densities. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional (3D) assembly of CoNiO_2 nanowire networks was prepared. • Sodium-p-styrenesulfonate (PSS) plays a key role in forming the structure. • The as-prepared 3D CoNiO_2 electrode exhibits high power and energy densities. • The proposed method is easy to provide an industrial mass production. • The method can be used to fabricate different morphologies of nanomaterials.

  10. NiO nanoparticles supported on graphene 3D network current collector for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Song, Xuefen; Dai, Shuge; Xu, Weina; Yang, Qi; Liu, Jianlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the faradaic oxidation and reduction reactions mainly taking place on surface, enlarging the specific surface of redox materials is one of the most effective ways to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. Here we report a binder-free three dimensional (3D) architecture electrode consisting of a graphene 3D network (G3DN) structure growing on flexible carbon paper (CP) by chemical vapor deposition and NiO nanoparticles growing on the G3DN by in-situ thermal decomposition for high rate battery and high-performance electrochemical capacitors. Such a nanostructure provides a large specific surface and fast electronic transmission channels. The unique structure design for this electrode enables outstanding performance, showing high specific capacity of 89.1 mAh cm −2 (119.2 mAh/g) at current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 (0.67 A/g) with the NiO loading of 0.7471 mg cm −2 . Meanwhile the electrode displays excellent rate capability and cycling stability, which keeps 85.48% of initial capacity after 3000 deep-discharge cycles. Furthermore, a solid-state symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on two NiO/G3DN/CP electrodes with an area of 4 cm 2 each is fabricated, and two pieces of them in series can light up 100 green LEDs for 2 min. The architecture of G3DN loaded with NiO might be generally applied to different kinds of nanomaterials for high-rate energy storage to improve their overall electrochemical performance.

  11. Three-dimensional rigid multiphase networks providing high-temperature strength to cast AlSi10Cu5Ni1-2 piston alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Z.; Requena, G.; Boller, E.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of rigid multiphase networks present in AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 piston alloys in as-cast condition and after 4 h spheroidization treatment is characterized by synchrotron tomography in terms of the volume fraction of rigid phases, interconnectivity, contiguity and morphology. The architecture of both alloys consists of α-Al matrix and a rigid long-range 3-D network of Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 4 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 7 , Al 2 Cu, Al 15 Si 2 (FeMn) 3 and AlSiFeNiCu aluminides and Si. The investigated architectural parameters of both alloys studied are correlated with room-temperature and high-temperature (300 deg. C) strengths as a function of solution treatment time. The AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 alloys behave like metal matrix composites with 16 and 20 vol.% reinforcement, respectively. Both alloys have similar strengths in the as-cast condition, but the AlSi10Cu5Ni2 is able to retain ∼15% higher high temperature strength than the AlSi10Cu5Ni1 alloy after more than 4 h of spheroidization treatment. This is due to the preservation of the 3-D interconnectivity and the morphology of the rigid network, which is governed by the higher degree of contiguity between aluminides and Si.

  12. Growth of single walled carbon nanotubes networks using Al - Ni as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vesely, M.; Redhammer, R.; Vretenar, V.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of SWCNTs networks on the SiO 2 chips was examined for different growth temperatures and annealing times. According to Raman spectroscopy the temperature is a significant parameter which affects quality of carbon nanotubes. For higher temperatures (850 - 900 deg C) the best quality was achieved. On the other hand, the different annealing times did not affect results of our experiments. SWCNTs network consists of large amount of intersecting carbon nanotubes. This network is electrically conductive over large distances. The SWCNTs networks can be used as transparent conductive layer or as sensitive layer of chemical sensors. (authors)

  13. Sequential growth in solution of NiFe Prussian blue coordination network nano-layers on Si(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricard, Simon; Costa-Coquelard, Claire; Volatron, Florence; Fleury, Benoit; Huc, Vincent; Mallah, Talal; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; David, Christophe; Miserque, Frederic; Jegou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the elaboration of Coordination Networks (CoNet) on surfaces at the nano-scale remains a challenge. One suitable technique is the Sequential Growth in Solution (SGS), which has the advantage to be simple, cheap and fast. We addressed two issues in this article: i) the controlled synthesis of ultra thin films of CoNet (thickness lower than 10 nm), and ii) the investigation of the influence of the precursors' concentration on the growth process. Si(100) was used because it is possible to prepare atomically flat Si-H surfaces, which is necessary for the growth of ultrathin films. We used, as a model system, the sequential reactions of K 4 [Fe(II)(CN) 6 ] and [Ni(II)(H 2 O) 6 ]Cl 2 that occur by the substitution of the water molecules in the coordination sphere of Ni(II) by the nitrogen atoms of ferrocyanide. We demonstrated that the nature of the deposited film depends mainly on the relative concentration of the anchoring sites versus the precursors' solution. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transformed Infra Red (ATR-FTIR), X-ray reflectivity, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the steps of the growth process. (authors)

  14. Artificial neural networks as a multivariate calibration tool: modelling the Fe-Cr-Ni system in X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Bos, A.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for modeling the Cr---Ni---Fe system in quantitative x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was compared with the classical Rasberry-Heinrich model and a previously published method applying the linear learning machine in combination with singular value

  15. Report on Asian Environment Information Network; 'Asia kankyo joho network' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The goal is the construction of Asian Environment Information Network (AEInet) in accordance with a contract signed between Indonesia's LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO under NEDO's Research Cooperation Project Concerning the Development of Environment Measuring Laser Radar (LR). The network is so designed and constituted as to operate on a private line between Indonesia and Japan via IP (Internet protocol) and to enable the exchange on the Internet network of the data collected/analyzed by the Indonesian LR system and of articles of e-mail between scientists of the two countries. The AEInet will be utilized for the collection/analysis of LR-collected data; exchange of observed data and the result of processing; provision of support to environment information scientists in exchanging e-mail and information; and the search of databases for the implementation of the project. In this paper, the outline and functions of the system, network system design, WWW server construction, network operating status, joint researches with Indonesia, etc., are described. (NEDO)

  16. Ni nanoparticles@Ni-Mo nitride nanorod arrays: a novel 3D-network hierarchical structure for high areal capacitance hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunjun; Lv, Lin; Li, Zhishan; Wang, Chundong; Jiang, Jianjun

    2017-11-23

    Because of the advanced nature of their high power density, fast charge/discharge time, excellent cycling stability, and safety, supercapacitors have attracted intensive attention for large-scale applications. Nevertheless, one of the obstacles for their further development is their low energy density caused by sluggish redox reaction kinetics, low electroactive electrode materials, and/or high internal resistance. Here, we develop a facile and simple nitridation process to successfully synthesize hierarchical Ni nanoparticle decorated Ni 0.2 Mo 0.8 N nanorod arrays on a nickel foam (Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF) from its NiMoO 4 precursor, which delivers a high areal capacity of 2446 mC cm -2 at a current density of 2 mA cm -2 and shows outstanding cycling stability. The superior performance of the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF can be ascribed to the metallic conductive nature of the Ni-Mo nitride, the fast surface redox reactions for the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, and the low contacted resistance between the active materials and the current collectors. Furthermore, a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) is assembled using the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the negative electrode. The optimized HSC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 40.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 773 W kg -1 and a retention of 80.1% specific capacitance after 6000 cycles. These results indicate that the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF have a promising potential for use in high-performance supercapacitors.

  17. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Artificial neural networks study of the catalytic reduction of resazurin: stopped-flow injection kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, Diana M.; Olivieri, Alejandro C.; Bonivardi, Adrian L.

    2005-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) procedure was used in the development of a catalytic spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II) employing a stopped-flow injection system. The method is based on the catalytic action of these ions on the reduction of resazurin by sulfide. ANNs trained by back-propagation of errors allowed us to model the systems in a concentration range of 0.5-6 and 1-15 mg l -1 for Cu(II) and Ni(II), respectively, with a low relative error of prediction (REP) for each cation: REP Cu(II) = 0.85% and REP Ni(II) = 0.79%. The standard deviations of the repeatability (s r ) and of the within-laboratory reproducibility (s w ) were measured using standard solutions of Cu(II) and Ni(II) equal to 2.75 and 3.5 mg l -1 , respectively: s r [Cu(II)] = 0.039 mg l -1 , s r [Ni(II)] = 0.044 mg l -1 , s w [Ni(II)] = 0.045 mg l -1 and s w [Ni(II)] = 0.050 mg l -1 . The ANNs-kinetic method has been applied to the determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II) in electroplating solutions and provided satisfactory results as compared with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The effect of resazurin, NaOH and Na 2 S concentrations and the reaction temperature on the analytical sensitivity is discussed

  19. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on internationalization of technologies for effective use of energy resources. Survey of international trend of technology management (Survey of necessity of creating a strategic research organization for researches on technology, management, innovation, etc., for international competitiveness enhancement); 1999 nendo energy shigen yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kokusaika chosa kokusai gijutsu keiei doko chosa hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku kyoka wo mokuteki to suru 'gijutsu' 'keiei' 'innovation' nado no senryakuteki kenkyu kiko sosetsu no hitsuyosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Innovation plays an important role for Japan to flexibly utilize its achievements for the purpose of properly responding to new business environments and to secure competitiveness in the market. Japan lacks experts equipped with knowledge and ability as regards technology development and management which are necessary for the planning and creation of technologies, and is also short of institutes for raising experts. In America, technology management won an important position in the 1980s in the effort at industrial renovation, and the industry, government, and academia in a body endeavored to elevate the level steadily, continuously, and deliberately, to eventually provide a source of great propulsion and international competitiveness toward today's economic success. Investigations were conducted, and a proposition is made for the establishment of an international technology management research center. Such a center will study technology management and innovation through international exchange based mainly on the industrial circle and through the organic coordination of the industry, government, and academia for widely observing changes in international society for economic frontier cultivation. A practical training and intelligent network will be organized on the global scale, which will serve as an information transmitter. A skeleton of the plan is shown. (NEDO)

  20. Proceedings of RITE international workshop on valuation; Total eko balance ni kansuru kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The RITE International Workshop on Valuation was held in Tokyo and Osaka in February 1996, and eight papers on total ecobalance were reported. In The Field of Impact Assessment, described were constitution and methodology about impact assessment in a wide sense. In LCA Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, discussed were the historical development and future outlook of LCA. In Standardization of Product Life Cycle Assessment, a survey of the present situation of LCA international standardization was made. In the Relationship between Product Life Cycle Assessment Methodology, considered was the relationship between the goal definition of the product life cycle assessment and the methodological choices. In Valuation in LCA, the present study of LCA was reviewed. Besides, reviews of the LCA study in Japan were made public.

  1. Regression model, artificial neural network, and cost estimation for biosorption of Ni(II)-ions from aqueous solutions by Potamogeton pectinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Adel, Samar; Helmi, Shacker

    2018-03-21

    This study investigated the application of Potamogeton pectinatus for Ni(II)-ions biosorption from aqueous solutions. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups of -OH, C-H, -C = O, and -COO- could form an organometallic complex with Ni(II)-ions on the biomaterial surface. SEM/EDX analysis indicated that the voids on the biosorbent surface were blocked due to Ni(II)-ions uptake via an ion exchange mechanism. For Ni(II)-ions of 50 mg/L, the adsorption efficiency recorded 63.4% at pH: 5, biosorbent dosage: 10 g/L, and particle-diameter: 0.125-0.25 mm within 180 minutes. A quadratic model depicted that the plot of removal efficiency against pH or contact time caused quadratic-linear concave up curves, whereas the curve of initial Ni(II)-ions was quadratic-linear convex down. Artificial neural network with a structure of 5 - 6 - 1 was able to predict the adsorption efficiency (R 2 : 0.967). The relative importance of inputs was: initial Ni(II)-ions > pH > contact time > biosorbent dosage > particle-size. Freundlich isotherm described well the adsorption mechanism (R 2 : 0.974), which indicated a multilayer adsorption onto energetically heterogeneous surfaces. The net cost of using P. pectinatus for the removal of Ni(II)-ions (4.25 ± 1.26 mg/L) from real industrial effluents within 30 minutes was 3.4 $USD/m 3 .

  2. Electrochemically synthesized large area network of Co{sub x}Ni{sub y}Al{sub z} layered triple hydroxides nanosheets: A high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay [Carbon Technology Unit, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Gupta, Shubhra; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    A network of Co{sub x}Ni{sub y}Al{sub z} layered triple hydroxides (LTHs) nanosheets was prepared by the potentiostatic deposition process at -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) onto stainless steel electrodes. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Co{sub x}Ni{sub y}Al{sub z}LTHs belong to the hexagonal system with layered structure. Cyclic voltammetry and charge discharge measurements in the potential range of -0.1 to 0.5 V and 0.0-0.4 V, respectively, vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH electrolyte indicate that Co{sub x}Ni{sub y}Al{sub z}LTHs have excellent supercapacitive characteristics. The maximum specific capacitance of {proportional_to}1263 F g{sup -1} was obtained for Co{sub 0.59}Ni{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.20}LTH. The impedance studies indicated highly conducting nature of the Co{sub x}Ni{sub y}Al{sub z}LTHs. (author)

  3. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 7. Development of hydrogen supply station; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 7. Suiso kyokyu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on element technologies and system technology for hydrogen supply stations. In 1999, study was made on the total system of hydrogen supply stations, and basic specifications and total designs were studied for such main component systems of hydrogen supply stations as hydrogen production equipment with a reformer of natural gas, polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply system, hydrogen absorbing alloy tank, and hydrogen dispenser unit. From the study result on the optimum operation condition of the hydrogen production equipment, a S/C (ratio of steam/mol of material carbon) of 2.5, reforming temperature of 700 degrees C, recycling gas ratio of 0.21, and air-fuel ratio of 1.3-2.0 were obtained. In the study on optimum hydrogen absorbing alloy, LaNi{sub 5} alloy system with Mn as additive were selected. For the polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply station, the basic specification of a total system, and the remote control system of the station were studied and established. R and D themes in the future were also presented. (NEDO)

  5. Magnetostatics and dynamics of ion irradiatied NiFe/Ta multilayer films studied by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the implications of ion irradiation on the magnetostatic and dynamic properties of soft magnetic Py/Ta (Py=Permalloy: Ni 80 Fe 20 ) single and multilayer films have been investigated with the main objective of finding a way to determine their saturation magnetization. Both polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements have proven to be suitable methods to determine μ 0 M S , circumventing the problem of the unknown effective magnetic volume that causes conventional techniques such as SQUID or VSM to fail. Provided there is no perpendicular anisotropy contribution in the samples, the saturation magnetization can be determined even in the case of strong interfacial mixing due to an inherently high number of Py/Ta interfaces and/or ion irradiation with high fluences. Another integral part of this work has been to construct a VNA-FMR spectrometer capable of performing both azimuthal and polar angle-dependent measurements using a magnet strong enough to saturate samples containing iron. Starting from scratch, this comprised numerous steps such as developing a suitable coplanar waveguide design, and writing the control, evaluation, and fitting software. With both increasing ion fluence and number of Py/Ta interfaces, a decrease of saturation magnetization has been observed. In the case of the 10 x Py samples, an immediate decrease of μ 0 M S already sets in at small ion fluences. However, for the 1 x Py and 5 x Py samples, the saturation magnetization remains constant up to a certain ion fluence, but then starts to rapidly decrease. Ne ion irradiation causes a mixing and broadening of the interfaces. Thus, the Py/Ta stacks undergo a transition from being polycrystalline to amorphous at a critical fluence depending on the number of interfaces. The saturation magnetization is found to vanish at a Ta concentration of about 10-15 at.% in the Py layers. The samples possess a small

  6. Magnetostatics and dynamics of ion irradiatied NiFe/Ta multilayer films studied by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, Daniel

    2010-11-25

    In the present work, the implications of ion irradiation on the magnetostatic and dynamic properties of soft magnetic Py/Ta (Py=Permalloy: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) single and multilayer films have been investigated with the main objective of finding a way to determine their saturation magnetization. Both polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements have proven to be suitable methods to determine {mu}{sub 0}M{sub S}, circumventing the problem of the unknown effective magnetic volume that causes conventional techniques such as SQUID or VSM to fail. Provided there is no perpendicular anisotropy contribution in the samples, the saturation magnetization can be determined even in the case of strong interfacial mixing due to an inherently high number of Py/Ta interfaces and/or ion irradiation with high fluences. Another integral part of this work has been to construct a VNA-FMR spectrometer capable of performing both azimuthal and polar angle-dependent measurements using a magnet strong enough to saturate samples containing iron. Starting from scratch, this comprised numerous steps such as developing a suitable coplanar waveguide design, and writing the control, evaluation, and fitting software. With both increasing ion fluence and number of Py/Ta interfaces, a decrease of saturation magnetization has been observed. In the case of the 10 x Py samples, an immediate decrease of {mu}{sub 0}M{sub S} already sets in at small ion fluences. However, for the 1 x Py and 5 x Py samples, the saturation magnetization remains constant up to a certain ion fluence, but then starts to rapidly decrease. Ne ion irradiation causes a mixing and broadening of the interfaces. Thus, the Py/Ta stacks undergo a transition from being polycrystalline to amorphous at a critical fluence depending on the number of interfaces. The saturation magnetization is found to vanish at a Ta concentration of about 10-15 at.% in the Py layers

  7. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 6. Development of cryogenic temperature materials technologies; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 6 (teion zairyo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the cryogenic temperature materials technologies for the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project, developed in FY 1998. The R and D programs have been implemented continuously since 1994. For stainless steel, the base and TIG weld metals were evaluated for their material characteristics in liquid hydrogen. The items investigated included the influences of hydrogen charge, 20% of stretch working on the base metal, welding methods, and ?-ferrite content on the characteristics. Fatigue strength of the base metal was found to increases as temperature decreases, but remain unchanged in a range from 20 to 77K. No significant difference was observed between 304L and 316L. For aluminum alloy, mechanical characteristics, centered by fatigue characteristics, were investigated for the base and weld metals. The sample of higher tensile strength showed a higher fatigue strength, at room temperature, 77 and 4K. The other tested items investigated included embrittlement characteristics in a hydrogen atmosphere, phase transformation, hydrogen diffusion and fracture toughness, for establishing the databases of cryogenic temperature materials. (NEDO)

  8. Effect of ring rotation upon gas adsorption in SIFSIX-3-M (M = Fe, Ni) pillared square grid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaidi, Sameh K; Mohamed, Mona H; Simon, Cory M; Braun, Efrem; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Xu, Wenqian; Banerjee, Debasis; Space, Brian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic and flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that respond to external stimuli, such as stress, light, heat, and the presence of guest molecules, hold promise for applications in chemical sensing, drug delivery, gas separations, and catalysis. A greater understanding of the relationship between flexible constituents in MOFs and gas adsorption may enable the rational design of MOFs with dynamic moieties and stimuli-responsive behavior. Here, we detail the effect of subtle structural changes upon the gas sorption behavior of two "SIFSIX" pillared square grid frameworks, namely SIFSIX-3-M (M = Ni, Fe). We observe a pronounced inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in the Ni variant. With evidence from X-ray diffraction studies, density functional theory, and molecular simulations, we attribute the inflection to a disordered to ordered transition of the rotational configurations of the pyrazine rings induced by sorbate-sorbent interactions. We also address the effect of cage size, temperature, and sorbate on the guest-induced ring rotation and the adsorption isotherms. The absence of an inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in SIFSIX-3-Fe and in the Kr, N 2 , and CO 2 adsorption isotherms in SIFSIX-3-Ni suggest that the inflection is highly sensitive to the match between the size of the cage and the guest molecule.

  9. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is implemented to survey the current statuses and future trends of the Asian district environment-related information networks, for the (research cooperation project for development of environmental condition measuring laser radar systems), being promoted by NEDO. First, current statuses of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, major domestic nodes and internationally connected conditions are surveyed mainly for internet-connected networks, for surveying the current statuses and future trends of the research networks in Asian countries. Second, current statuses in Indonesia of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, domestic node sites and managing organizations, charge systems and institutions, types/reliability/ stability of the circuits, and conditions of restriction of use, if any, for surveying the current statuses and future trends in Indonesia. Third, conditions of and needs for network utilization by researchers for Asian district environments. (NEDO)

  10. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1994 (environmental network); Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (kankyo network)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Under the R and D of a laser radar for environmental measurement which are conducted in cooperation with Indonesia, the paper reported the R and D of the environmental network in fiscal 1994. Four field surveys were made, and the following were conducted: proposal of a technical system, adjustment of the Asian environmental information network with BPPT and LIPI which are organs on the Indonesian side, installation of/technical discussion on network equipment, etc. There is IPTEKNET as a plan of a nationwide network of the scientific technology information service in Indonesia. The analytical design phase of this system converged in 1992, and the predicted investment amount in the coming five years is expected to be 6.7 million US dollars. As the future Asian environmental information network work, planned are connection between BPPT and Tokyo CC and connection at BPPT between the Asian environmental information network and IPTEKNET. Network managers at sites are very skillful, and therefore, the thorough cooperative work is anticipated. 24 figs.

  11. Research cooperation in the development of laser radar for environmental measurements. Environmental network; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku. Kankyo network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Among the research cooperation in the development of laser radar for environmental measurements with Indonesia between FY 1993 and FY 1996, results of the research and development of the environmental network are summarized. For the environmental information network, the Tokyo NOC is linked as an Internet connection point in Japan with the Jakarta NOC using an international dedicated line with a capacity of 64 Kbps. The Tokyo NOC is linked with domestic environmental information researchers using Internet. Thus, data stored in the data processing system of laser radar can be exchanged, information in both countries can be exchanged using E-mail, and data can be accumulated. For the research cooperation with Indonesia, research of path control and information relay server, research of effective transmission of data on the network, and research of multimedia communication have been conducted. The multimedia communication, distributed processing, and extension of dedicated line network using PPTP have been also conducted. 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 2. Research on safety measures; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 2. Anzen taisaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 WE-NET phase 2, task 2 research result on safety measures. In the study on preparation of the safety design standard, based on the concept design of the hydrogen supply station under investigation in task 7, latent anomalies and accidents, safety measures against them, and precautions for the safety design were arranged. Survey was made on databases available to collect failure rates necessary for quantitative risk assessment. In the study on establishment of a safety evaluation method, an evaporation apparatus for liquid hydrogen was prepared for comparative experiment with liquid nitrogen. Various information on flow and evaporation properties of liquid hydrogen were obtained. Survey was made on previously reported documents for hydrogen explosion experiment and preparation of an experiment plan. The simulation model for spillage, evaporation and diffusion of liquid hydrogen was verified and improved on the basis of the experiment results. A commercially available computation program for hydrogen deflagration was introduced, and its implementation was studied. (NEDO)

  13. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1995 (environmental network); Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (kankyo network)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As a part of the cooperative work with Indonesia of R and D of a laser radar for environmental measurement, the paper described the development of an environmental network. The field survey was conducted in April, July and December 1995 and in March 1996. For the investigational research, five meetings of the committee and four times of group work were held. The Asian environmental network was studied in terms of its arrangement, operation and management, and the overall network/path control design were being prepared. To make the persons concerned abroad and in Japan understood the APEC Osaka Conference held in November 1995, a homepage APEC `95 Kansai was opened using WWW (World Wide Web, a decentralized hyper media system which can dispatch information to the whole world by network using hyper text). Moreover, in connection with this, a homepage was opened of CICC (Center of the International Cooperation for Computerization, a center controlling the whole Asian environmental information network system where E-mail and data are exchangeable with Indonesia via Tokyo NOC (Network Operation Center)). 49 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development Association as part of the cooperation programs, for establishing the Asian environmental information networks. It outlines the research cooperation project for the environmental networks, results of the 4 on-the-spot surveys, 2 occasions for inviting researchers to Japan, and construction of the internet and Asian environmental information network systems. (NEDO)

  15. International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism; Sangosho no tanso junkan ni kansuru kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-16

    The paper described the International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism which was held at Miyako-jima, Okinawa Pref. on October 17-24, 1995. In the workshop, researchers got together which are involved in marine chemistry, marine biology, coral ecology, and environmental science, and discussed the carbon cycling and metabolism of coral reef. Discussions were made on what the coral reef ecosystem is, and what the definition of a sink or a source for CO2 is. Also discussed were scales of how much time and space should be considered to make these issues clear. Further, it was proposed that it was necessary to investigate carbon balance of both the whole system and the components of the system and to keep track of mass transfer among neighboring components of the system. Seventeen presentations were given. The workshop obtained a definite consensus on carbon balance of the coral reef system. 123 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  17. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar (environmental network) in fiscal 1993; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (kankyo network)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the research cooperation project on the development of a laser radar for environmental measurement, the paper surveyed the present and future trend of the environment related information network in Indonesia. The survey was conducted in terms of a name of the network, the main administration body, the number of users, the utilization status, the use protocol, details of service, domestic mode installation sites and the main administration body, accounting system, types of the network used, reliability and stability of network, limitations on the use and details of the limitation, etc. The plan for expanding telecommunication equipment is being advanced in a very quick tempo. However, there are many problems in digitalization, and it is feared that the plan will be delayed. As to telecommunication quality and connection quality, the telecommunication completion rate, SCR, is very low, approximately 24% on average, which is equal to that around 1990 in Japan. The business service for users is all bureaucratic since they have a lot of applications for the installation piling up with no exception to the rule of developing countries. 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the research study of environmental information network; 2000 nendo kankyo joho network ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research study on environmental information network formation. The Internet is experiencing an explosive increase in volume of information distributed therethrough. This is accompanied by increased problems related to information searches, information exchange security and information-reliability guarantees. First in demand are excellent portal sites, and second are sites that can be relied on to responsibly provide information. Cooperation with the real world off the Net is of particular importance, because the operating organizations, e.g., sites, will lose their raison deter, unless they clarify their unique abilities and characteristics under the tendencies towards broadened bands and ubiquity. The public sector, on the other hand, is highly reliable, accumulates a large volume of information, and has high network capacity. It has various functions, e.g., supporting the activities pertaining to ISO standards, and promoting the activities, e.g., those for educational programs, interdisciplinary exchanges by researchers, and matching of various organizations. The international cooperation for environmental information needs construction and operation of the networks, and construction of the infrastructures in the developing countries. If information becomes more ubiquitous, a chaotic sea of information will result. NEDO is strongly obliged to serve as the beacon, because it has established a huge volume of environment-related technologies, information, and networks. (NEDO)

  19. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Estimation of clearness index using neural network with meteorological forecast; Kisho yoho wo nyuryoku toshita neural network ni yoru seiten shisu no yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, S; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Discussions were given on estimation of clearness index in order to operate stably a solar energy utilizing system. All-sky insolation amount varies not only by change in the climate, but also seasonal change in the sun`s altitude. Therefore, a clearness index (ratio of all-sky insolation to out-of-atmosphere insolation) was used. The larger the value, the higher the solar ray permeability. The all-sky insolation amount is a measured value, while the out-of-atmosphere insolation amount is a calculated value. Although the clearness index may be roughly estimated by weather forecast, the clearness index varies largely even on the same weather forecast, especially for cloudy days, if a weather forecast actually having error is used. Therefore, discussions were given on estimation of the clearness index by using a neural network which uses meteorological information such as air temperatures and precipitation probabilities as inputs. Using multiple number of meteorological forecast information simultaneously has reduced the average square error to 49% of that using only the weather forecast. The estimation accuracy depends on the accuracy of meteorological forecast, but using multiple number of forecast information can improve the accuracy. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K; Wang, W [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  2. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  3. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks as binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sainan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Liang, Shuquan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mesoporous NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction with subsequent annealing treatment. Significantly, as a binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, the hybrid exhibits high specific capacity/capacitance and excellent cycling stability over long-term cycling. - Highlights: • Mesoporous NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles grown on 3D graphene networks are successfully prepared. • The NiCo 2 O 4 /3DGN hybrid is directly used as binder-free electrode for LIBs and SCs. • The hybrid exhibits superior long-term cycling stability up to 2000 cycles for LIBs application. • The hybrid delivers a high specific capacitance of 970 F g −1 at 20 A g −1 . • The hybrid demonstrates excellent capacitance retention of ∼96.5% after 3000 cycles for SCs application. - Abstract: Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction with subsequent annealing treatment. The NiCo 2 O 4 /3DGN hybrid is then used as binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The three dimensional graphene based binder-free electrode is considered more desirable than powder nanostructures in terms of shorter Li + ion diffusion and electron transportation paths, good strain accommodation, better interfacial/chemical distributions and high electrical conductivity. As a result, when used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), it exhibits high specific discharge capacity as well as superior cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. When it is used for supercapacitor application, this hybrid delivers a high specific capacitance of 970 F g −1 at a high current density of 20 A g −1 with excellent capacitance retention of ∼96.5% after 3000 cycles. Moreover, this synthesis strategy is simple

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive study for promotion of the international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru hokatsuteki chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the schemes for the international standardization, trends of the international standardization by the international standardization organizations and related organizations, and activities for the international standardization by the enterprises in the advanced countries, among others, in order to promote the international standardization for the 8 research and development themes. These themes are SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; systems for detecting gene recombination products; methods for testing mileage of gas-fueled automobiles; measurement of multi-colors; testing/evaluation methods for highly coherent lasers; methods of evaluating optical performance of microlenses for optical information processing; recycled CFRPs; and devices for measuring marine environments. The study results indicate that progress of the development of the international standardization of the advanced technologies can be followed by investigating the characteristics of the ISO publications; ISO is studying the business plans being developed by each TC, in order to improve market adaptability of the international standards; and the European countries add conditions for standardization when the research and development themes are contracted. (NEDO)

  6. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  7. Ni(NH32(NO32—A 3-D Network through Bridging Nitrate Units Isolated from the Thermal Decomposition of Nickel Hexammine Dinitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Breternitz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nitrate diammine, Ni(NH32(NO32, can be synthesised from the thermal decomposition of nickel nitrate hexammine, Ni[(NH36](NO32. The hexammine decomposes in two distinct major stages; the first releases 4 equivalents of ammonia while the second involves the release of NOx, N2, and H2O to yield NiO. The intermediate diammine compound can be isolated following the first deammoniation step or synthesised as a single phase from the hexammine under vacuum. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD experiments have allowed the structure of Ni(NH32(NO32 to be solved for the first time. The compound crystallises in orthorhombic space group Pca21 (a = 11.0628 (5 Å, b = 6.0454 (3 Å, c = 9.3526 (4 Å; Z = 4 and contains 11 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrates that the bonding in the ammine is consistent with the structure determined by PXD.

  8. The structure of community networks defending the concept of Iceland's financial stability Viðbrögð tengslanets við gagnrýni á fjármálastöðugleika Íslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þröstur Ólafur Sigurjónsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory suggests that those responsible for the operations of a complex system have reason to defend the idea of the system’s stability in the face of challengers who suggest the system may have problems. One form this defence can take is the formation of a complex social network that makes it difficult for challengers’ claims to be reasonably considered. This paper illustrates the formation or activation of such a network of Icelandic bankers, analysts, politicians, academics, business executives and newspapers, as well as their rational and emotional public arguments, in defence of the idea of the stability of the Icelandic banking system when challenged by the Danske Bank report of 2006. The analysis shows why it was difficult for the Danish challenge to receive a credible hearing among the Icelandic citizenry, which meant that citizens had a difficult time getting a clear picture of what was happening in their community. This research also shows a wider application for actor-network theory than previously discussed in the literature and draws implications of network formation or activation for policy makers.Félagsnetakenningin gerir ráð fyrir að þeir, sem eru ábyrgir fyrir viðhaldi flókinna kerfa, hafi ástæðu til þess að verjast ef fram kemur gagnrýni á stöðugleika kerfanna. Vörnin getur tekið á sig form tengslanets sem erfitt getur reynst að komast í gegnum. Þessi rannsókn notar félagsnetafræði til að varpa ljósi á það hvernig viðbrögð við gagnrýni á stöðugleika íslensku bankanna árið 2006 gerði gagnrýnendum og almenningi erfitt fyrir að fá raunsanna mynd varðandi stöðu íslensku bankanna. Tengslanetagreining rannsóknarinnar sýnir hvernig þeir, sem ábyrgir voru fyrir fjármálakerfinu, vörðust gagnrýni sem fram kom í skýrslu Danske Bank og hvernig flókið og þéttriðið "varnarnet" varð til. Rannsóknin sýnir að þeir sem efuðust um stöðugleika íslensks fj

  9. Artificial Neural Network-Based Three-dimensional Continuous Response Relationship Construction of 3Cr20Ni10W2 Heat-Resisting Alloy and Its Application in Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Wang, Li-yong

    2018-04-01

    The application of accurate constitutive relationship in finite element simulation would significantly contribute to accurate simulation results, which plays a critical role in process design and optimization. In this investigation, the true stress-strain data of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy were obtained from a series of isothermal compression tests conducted in a wide temperature range of 1203-1403 K and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 testing machine. Then the constitutive relationship was modeled by an optimally constructed and well-trained back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The evaluation of the BP-ANN model revealed that it has admirable performance in characterizing and predicting the flow behaviors of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy. Meanwhile, a comparison between improved Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and BP-ANN model shows that the latter has higher accuracy. Consequently, the developed BP-ANN model was used to predict abundant stress-strain data beyond the limited experimental conditions and construct the three-dimensional continuous response relationship for temperature, strain rate, strain, and stress. Finally, the three-dimensional continuous response relationship was applied to the numerical simulation of isothermal compression tests. The results show that such constitutive relationship can significantly promote the accuracy improvement of numerical simulation for hot forming processes.

  10. Synergetic interface between NiO/Ni3S2 nanosheets and carbon nanofiber as binder-free anode for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Ma, Chao; Yang, Yinbo; Ding, Jingjing; Ji, Hongmei; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    A novel heterostructure of NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflake is synthesized and composited with carbon nanofibers (CNF) membrane. NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes are homogeneously dispersed in CNF network, herein, NiO/Ni3S2 like leaf and CNF like branch. Carbon nanofibers network efficiently prevents the pulverization and buffers the volume changes of NiO/Ni3S2, meanwhile, NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes through the conductive channels of carbon nanofibers own improved Li+ diffusion ability and structural stability. The capacity of NiO/Ni3S2/CNF reaches to 519.2 mA g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 while NiO/Ni3S2 fades to 71 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles. Owing to the synergetic structure, the resultant binder-free electrode NiO/Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers shows an excellent reversible lithium storage capability.

  11. Metal–organic frameworks-derived honeycomb-like Co3O4/three-dimensional graphene networks/Ni foam hybrid as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaoyang; Li, Jiajun; Zhu, Shan

    2017-01-01

    . The Co3O4/three-dimensional graphene networks/Ni foam (Co3O4/3DGN/NF) hybrid as the electrode for supercapacitor can deliver high specific capacitance (321 F g−1 at 1 A g−1) and excellent long-cycling stability (88% of the maximum capacitance after 2000 charge-discharge cycles). Furthermore, the Co3O4....../3DGN/NF hybrid exhibits the maximum energy density of 7.5 W h kg−1 with the power density of 794 W kg−1 and remain 4.1 W h kg−1 with the power density of 15 kW kg−1 in the two-electrode system. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique nanostructure of Co3O4 with admirable...

  12. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  13. Study of QoS control and reliable routing method for utility communication network. Application of differentiated service to the network and alternative route establishment by the IP routing protocol; Denryokuyo IP network no QoS seigyo to shinraisei kakuho no hoho. DiffServ ni yoru QoS seigyo no koka to IP ni yoru fuku root ka no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, E.

    2000-05-01

    QoS control method which satisfies utilities communication network requirement and alternative route establishment method which is for sustaining communication during a failure are studied. Applicability of DiffServ (Differentiated Service), one of the most promising QoS control method on IP network and studying energetically in IETF WG, is studied and it is found most application used in the utility communication network except for relaying system information could he accommodated to the DiffServ network. An example of the napping of the utility communication applications to the DiffServ PHB (Per Hop Behavior) is shown in this paper. Regarding to the alternative route, usual IP routing protocol cannot establish alternative route which doesn't have common links and nodes in their paths for a destination. IP address duplication with some modification of routing protocol enables such alternative route establishment. MPLS, distance vector algorithm and link state algorithm are evaluated qualitatively, and as a result, we found MPLS is promising way to establish the route. Quantitative evaluation will be future work. (author)

  14. Fundamental study on the interpretation technique for 3-D MT data using neural networks. 2; Neural network wo mochiita sanjigen MT ho data kaishaku gijutsu ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuoka, K; Kobayashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mogi, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Spichak, V

    1997-10-22

    Behavior of neural networks relative to noise and the constitution of an optimum network are studied for the construction of a 3-D MT data interpretation system using neural networks. In the study, the relationship is examined between the noise level of educational data and the noise level of the neural network to be constructed. After examination it is found that the neural network is effective in interpreting data whose noise level is the same as that of educational data; it cannot correctly interpret data that it has not met in the educational stage even if such data is free of noise; that the optimum number of neurons in a hidden layer is approximately 40 in a network architecture using the current system; and that the neuron gain function enhances recognition capability when a logistic function is used in the hidden layer and a linear function is used in the output layer. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. OAM system based on TMN for utility telecommunication network. Proposal of modeling method about managed objects; TMN ni motozuku denryoku tsushinmo no un`yo kanri system. Kanri object no sekkei shuho ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirozawa, T.; Yusa, H.; Otani, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Okamura, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    To construct an advanced operation and management system for utility telecommunications management network (TMN), this paper proposes a modeling method of managed objects (MOs) required for managing and managed systems, such as an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) exchanger. Flexible line setting and path switching control are required for the advanced TMN, which must cope with the extension and modification of functions, flexibly. Assignment of roles of managing sides and managed sides was determined. Then, structures of objects such as facilities and logic data, and their interaction were modeled. Common management functions and objects of each function were classified. Based on the TMN standard and MOs of the existing design peculiar to utility, new MOs peculiar to utility were defined in response to the models. The existing MOs can be effectively utilized, and the optimum MOs to be incorporated can be expected. The MOs peculiar to utility are added to the common specification of electric power industry. Since they can be reused for the extension and modification of functions, the cost can be reduced. The MOs applicable to path switching control of utility were designed as a trial. 9 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Initiation and growth of thermal fatigue crack networks in an AISI 304 L type austenitic stainless steel (X2 CrNi18-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillot, V.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the behaviour of a 304 L type austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue. Using the SPLASH equipment of CEA/SRMA we tested parallelepipedal specimens on two sides: the specimens are continuously heated by Joule effect, while two opposites faces are cyclically. cooled by a mixed spray of distilled water and compressed air. This device allows the reproduction and the study of crack networks similar to those observed in nuclear power plants, on the inner side of circuits fatigued by mixed pressurized water flows at different temperatures. The crack initiation and the network constitution at the surface were observed under different thermal conditions (Tmax = 320 deg C, ΔT between 125 and 200 deg C). The experiment produced a stress gradient in the specimen, and due to this gradient, the in-depth growth of the cracks finally stopped. The obtained crack networks were studied quantitatively by image analysis, and different parameters were studied: at the surface during the cycling, and post mortem by step-by-step layer removal by grinding. The maximal depth obtained experimentally, 2.5 mm, is relatively coherent with the finite element modelling of the SPLASH test, in which compressive stresses appear at a depth of 2 mm. Some of the crack networks obtained by thermal fatigue were also tested in isothermal fatigue crack growth under 4-point bending, at imposed load. The mechanisms of the crack selection, and the appearance of the dominating crack are described. Compared to the propagation of a single crack, the crack networks delay the propagation, depending on the severity of the crack competition for domination. The dominating crack can be at the network periphery, in that case it is not as shielded by its neighbours as a crack located in the center of the network. It can also be a straight crack surrounded by more sinuous neighbours. Indeed, on sinuous cracks, the loading is not the same all along the crack path, leading to some morphological

  17. Joint stiffness identification of body structure using neural network. Jointed part composed of 2 beams; Neural network ni yoru shatai kozo no ketsugo gosei dotei. Buzai 2 hon kara naru ketsugobu no baai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, A; Tomioka, N [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The method to obtain a joint stiffness value from displacements of jointed part using hierarchical neural networks in case of a jointed part composed of two beams were proposed. First, the sample data of displacements of jointed part vs. joint stiffness are prepared as learned data. Second, the relations between displacements of jointed part and joint stiffness are constructed from these learned data using a hierarchical neural networks. It was found that the value of joint stiffness can be obtained from displacement of jointed part by the trained neural network. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Solution of combinatorial optimization problems by an accelerated hopfield neural network. Kobai kasokugata poppu firudo nyuraru netto ni yoru kumiawase saitekika mondai no kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohori, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Setsu, Nenso; Watanabe, K. (Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-04-20

    The accelerated approximate solution of combinatorial optimization problems by symmetry integrating hopfield neural network (NN) has been applied to many combinatorial problems such as the traveling salesman problem, the network planning problem, etc. However, the hopfield NN converges to local minimum solutions very slowly. In this paper, a general inclination model composed by introducing an accelerated parameter to the hopfield model is proposed, and it has been shown that the acceleration parameter can make the model converge to the local minima more quickly. Moreover, simulation experiments for random quadratic combinatorial problems with two and twenty-five variables were carried out. The results show that the acceleration of convergence makes the attraction region of the local minimum change and the accuracy of solution worse. If an initial point is selected around the center of unit hyper cube, solutions with high accuracy not affected by the acceleration parameter can be obtained. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Nodal head method with matric operation in analysis of mine ventilation networks. Matrics kaiho wo mochiita setten ho ni yoru tsuki mo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Miyakoshi, H. (Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College); Kinoshita, H.; Onozuka, T. (Hanaoka Mining Co. Ltd., Akita (Japan))

    1990-09-25

    In this report, the method of analyzing mine ventilation networks is explained in which the direct matric operation method is applied to the solution of the linear equation system introduced from the fundamental equation of the nodal head method. In other words, the fundamental equation was expressed by genelarized equation composition by using connecting functions between nodes and the algorism of a computer program was clarified. And the calculation method necessary for other ventilation netwrks analysis was shown in a concrete form. For solving the linear equation system, the matric operation method based on the modified Choleski's method was used in order to speed up the calculation and stabilize the convergence process of the solution. As examples, calculation was made on the ventilation networks of total numbers of the nodes of 8, 14, 51 and 141. From these ventilation network analyses, using a linear equation system concerning the nodal pressure correction, it was found that in the system with convergence acceleration coefficient of 1.4, the number of sequential repeating frequency of approximation Mc which was required for convergence was in the order of Mc {approx equal} 13 (cycle) for the condition that the fan pressure was constant and the convergence condition was {vert bar} AQi {vert bar}{sub max} {lt} 0.1m {sup 3}/min. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1993 study of engineering for making areas prosperous using natural energy; 1993 nendo kankyo chowagata green techno system no kokusai kyoryoku model ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper studied the engineering for activating areas using natural energy. A system has started in which electric power companies purchase surplus electric power from the natural energy use power generation such as the wind power and photovoltaic power generation, etc., and a lot of local self-governing bodies in the country plan `projects to promote town` using the system. However, few engineers and makers can plan `a project to promote town,` making effective use of natural energy which is fickle. Therefore, first, the paper arranged the actual status mostly of the cases of `the projects` using natural energy which have been carried out in the country. Next, the trend of the natural energy utilization technology in countries including the U.S. was described. Moreover, assuming model areas in Japan for working out a concept of model projects on the natural energy utilization and town promotion, a concept was proposed making full use of the utilization technology which has now usability. Arrangement is being made for conditions for the full scale spread as seen in the subsidy system for general users. 3 refs., 176 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Report of international workshop on technical elements for aviation safety; Koku anzensei kojo no tame no gijutsu kadai ni kansuru kokusai kaigi wo kaisaishite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, H. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    The international workshop on technical elements for aviation safety was opened in Tokyo on March 15-17, 1999 with 75 domestic and overseas participants, and 18 reports. On aircraft operation, report was made on the research of a practical visual sense supporting equipment for cockpits to reduce workload of crew at takeoff and landing, and improve a safety. On human factor, report was made on the managers` recognition of their responsibility on safety in Titanic accident. On aircraft passenger cabin safety and emergency escape, discussion was made on the order of priority of 30 factors effective for improving a survival rate in crush accidents, and report was made on current R & D of flame retardant interior materials with less toxicity for passenger cabins. On aircraft body structure, report was made on the research on growth and propagation of fatigue cracks by more than 10{sup 8} cycle loading, and the simulation of complex loading to estimate residual lives of body structure. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  3. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  4. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of feasibility of international cooperation in the transfer of technology; 1999 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Among the activity goals of CTI (climate technology initiative), which is a framework designed to encourage international cooperation of leading nations in the voluntary development and diffusion of technologies supposed to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, there is the promotion of the transfer and diffusion of climate change preventing technologies. To achieve the goal, energy efficiency oriented workshops will be held as part of the training for the raising of people skilled in energy saving, the results will be examined, the achievements attained at such events will be introduced at COP5 (Conference of the Parties at Bonn), and the responses of the respective countries will be reviewed, all these for the investigation of the feasibility of international cooperation for raising people dedicated to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In this fiscal year, aiming to make clear the possibility of contribution to the transfer of software-related technologies through cooperation of multiple nations, lecturers from leading countries and participants from developing nations met, held a workshop over energy efficiency technologies, and the results were compiled. (NEDO)

  5. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Investigational report on international joint research in medical/walfare appliances in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The field of concrete cooperation, method of R and D, and business, environment to support the project, and system to promote the project were studied for the research under international cooperation through investigating the trend and organization of R and D of the medical/welfare appliances at home and abroad. Projects were then proposed. In the project for collecting/analyzing the trace quantity of blood, the anomaly is inspected at a molecular level from the collected trace quantity of blood to make the biochemical inspection painless for the patients suffering from infectious symptom or disease of adults. In the project for the high-accuracy and high-function measurement without invading the diseased part of living body, the configuration and metabolic function are measured by nuclear magnetic resonance to early detect the symptom of Alzheimer and other different obstinate diseases. In the operation support system project with three-dimensional images of living body, the three-dimensional information is obtained, by X-ray CT or MRI, about the diseased part of living tissue. Upon the exact determination of its location, the disease is cured. Besides, the monitoring systemproject was proposed for the old people`s safety against dementia. The human care robot project was also done. 56 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. New energy vision at Sabae City. Toward realization of 'environmental international city'; 2001 nendo Sabae shi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo kokusai toshi Sabae no jitsugen ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an object of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Sabae City in Fukui Prefecture, a new energy vision was put into order based on the result of the initial stage investigation having been performed in the previous fiscal year. Solar light and solar heat energies will be introduced positively into public facilities, and at the same time works will be implemented to accelerate the proliferation thereof into general households. The target of introduction by the year 2010y is set to 2,600 kW by photovoltaic power generation, and the introduction thereof is planned to schools, nursery schools, municipality operated houses, and unattended facilities. With regard to solar heat water warmer, the present proliferation rate of about 7.3% will be raised to 15%. Regarding wastes generated from industrial areas, efficient energy extraction by thermal recycling is intended on the assumption of suppression of wastes generation, their re-use, and recycling. Systems may include the bio-gas system, cogeneration, and recovery of energies from plastics wastes. For acceleration of proliferation of new energies in general, promotion of introduction will be achieved on mini-wind power generation, small hydroelectric power generation, and fuel cell automobiles. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 2000 report. Feasibility study on international cooperation concerning technology transfer; 2000 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A workshop was held concerning technology transfer in the software of environmental technologies, for the purpose of contributing to CTI (Climate Technology Initiative), an international framework for dealing with technological problems in preventing climate change, with the results of the workshop compiled. The workshop was held for a period from September 10 to September 23, 2000; the contents were, for example, an outline on energy conservation, introduction to cleaner production, lectures on related technologies, seminars on actual cases including case studies, factory tours, etc., and discussion session by all participants; and, in general, the workshop was conducted so as to promote understanding on cleaner production and energy conservation. Four lecturers were invited to this workshop from an international organization, U.S. and Japan. In addition, two staff members and two technical consultants from ICETT (the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer) gave lectures and advice as technology advisers. Three environmental specialists were invited from each of the five countries, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam. (NEDO)

  9. Report of the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling; Dai 8 kai tairiku kagaku kussaku kokusai symposium ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K. [Super Deep Core Drilling Study Group, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-29

    This report relates to the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling, convened at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba City, on February 26, 1996. The symposium was represented by approximately 200 people from the U.S., Canada, Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, and some others, who discussed active faults, drilling and logging, transfer of fluids and heat in the crust, history of the earth and climate, ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and international cooperation under this program in the future, etc. In reference to ultradeep drilling in the world, drillings by Germany`s KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm)(9,101m deep) and Russia at Kola Peninsula (l2,261m) were reviewed. Concerning the efforts of U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program during the previous 11-year period, it was reported that it had cost a total of $84,000,000; that investigations had been made into volcanos and geotherm, fault tectonics, sedimentary basins, holes due to meteorites, and metal ore deposits; and that 61 holes (total length: 31,310m and maximum depth: 3,510m) had been drilled and investigated. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Knowledge capital, productivity and competitiveness. Empirical evidence for the G-5 countries; Chishiki shihon no chikuseki to seisansei kokusai kyosoryoku. G5 shokoku ni kansuru jissho bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, N.; Miyazaki, H.

    1999-06-01

    Technological change is a major driving force for long-run economic growth. New theories on growth have stressed the importance of innovative and adaptive capacity of firms in order to fully reap the benefits of research and development (R and D) within the firms as well as those spilled-over from other firms and abroad. This report empirically investigates the relationship between R&D and productivity as well as that between productivity and industrial competitiveness for the G-5 countries (Japan, the US, (West) Germany, France and the UK). To do so, we have constructed comparable data on R and D capital stock (so-called 'knowledge capital'), the level and growth rates of total factor productivity (TFP), and the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index for 22 manufacturing industries in each G-5 country. The major results are summarized as follows. First, the volume of knowledge capital for Japan is still far smaller than that of the US (40% for total manufacturing in 1995). Second, there is no clear tendency of TFP convergence to the US level for each country after 1980 and its level for Japan is about 70% of the US in 1993. In addition, the TFP gap between Japan and the US has recently widened for high-tech sector. Third, the estimated elasticities of TFP with respect to the R&D stock for manufacturing sector during the mid-1970s and the early 1990s are 0.07 for Japan and 0.21 for the US on average, with deteriorating R and D potency in Japanese manufacturing. For high-technology industries, they are much larger with the estimates of 0.45 for Japan and 0.86 for the US on average, whereas for Japan the R&D performance becomes worse during the last decade. Fourth, we found that international competitiveness in industries depends not only on TFP and exchange rate fluctuations, but also on various non-price factors such as product quality, marketing ability, and product market segmentation. (author)

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  12. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Estimation of network structure for signal propagations by the analysis of multichannel action potentials in cultured neural networks; Ta channel katsudo den`i kaiseki ni yoru baiyo shinkei kairomonai kofun denpa keiro no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, N.; Fukami, T.; Shiina, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    We have fabricated a 64 embedded microelectrode-array substrate using semiconductor technology to investigate the biological signal processing in brain by using cultured neural networks of fetal rat neocortex in vitro. We analyzed temporal and spatial neural networks patterns cultured on electrode-array substrate and attempted to examine the network structure constituted by neurons and the propagating patterns of electrical activity induced by the electric stimulus. In the experiments, each microelectrode size was 30 {mu}m squared and 150{mu} m spaced. For stimulation, one of the electrodes was selected and current pulses were applied through an isolated circuit. After the network was cultured in about 50 days, responses of neurons to electric stimulus were monitored extracellularly through 64-channel electrode array. Data recorded at each electrode consist of several spike trains generated by different cells. Therefore, these trains were separated by using wavelet transform and template matching for each electrode. We referred the temporal patterns of generated spikes for each electrode to as `spike sequences`. Next, we compared With the spike sequences among multichannel data and visualized the Cultured neural networks structure by identifying the directions of propagations and cell connections. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Evidence for a Proton Transfer Network and a Required Persulfide-Bond-Forming Cysteine Residue in Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun Jin Kim; Jian Feng; Bramlett, Matthew R.; Lindahl, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Moorella thermoacetica catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel-iron-sulfur active-site called the C-cluster. Mutants of a proposed proton transfer pathway and of a cysteine residue recently found to form a persulfide bond with the C-cluster were characterized. Four semi-conserved histidine residues were individually mutated to alanine. His116 and His122 were essential to catalysis, while His113 and His119 attenuated catalysis but were not essential. Significant activity was ''rescued'' by a double mutant where His116 was replaced by Ala and His was also introduced at position 115. Activity was also rescued in double mutants where His122 was replaced by Ala and His was simultaneously introduced at either position 121 or 123. Activity was also ''rescued'' by replacing His with Cys at position 116. Mutation of conserved Lys587 near the C-cluster attenuated activity but did not eliminate it. Activity was virtually abolished in a double mutant where Lys587 and His113 were both changed to Ala. Mutations of conserved Asn284 also attenuated activity. These effects suggest the presence of a network of amino acid residues responsible for proton transfer rather than a single linear pathway. The Ser mutant of the persulfide-forming Cys316 was essentially inactive and displayed no EPR signals originating from the C-cluster. Electronic absorption and metal analysis suggests that the C-cluster is absent in this mutant. The persulfide bond appears to be essential for either the assembly or stability of the C-cluster, and/or for eliciting the redox chemistry of the C-cluster required for catalytic activity

  15. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levo, E. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Granberg, F., E-mail: fredric.granberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-07-15

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (“equiatomic”) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  16. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z; Okayama, T; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Energy conservation No.2). Achievement report on international joint study on popularization promotion of geothermal heat pump-assisted environmentally compatible heating system for Changchun City, China; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (Shoe No.2). Chinetsu heat pump ni yoru Chugoku Changchun shi kankyo tekigogata danbo system no fukyu sokushin ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A geothermal heat pump-assisted heating system is introduced into Changchun City and a survey is conducted to determine if the system may be popularized in this extremely cold region located in the northeastern part of China. In concrete terms, the hot water that circulates through the office building of Changchun Ground Heat Development Co., Ltd., is switched to hot water prepared by a geothermal heat pump. The test continued from December 2000 to March 2001. It is then concluded that heating by geothermal heat pumps will be fully serviceable to Changchun City. Implemented are (1) the shift from the coal fired boiler system to a geothermal heat pump system comprising 16 subterranean heat exchangers for the heating of the office building which is approximately 1000 m{sup 2} large, (2) long-term monitoring of the operating conditions, (3) measurement of subterranean heat exchanger thermal conductivity and subterranean temperature, and (4) the study of pipe shapes for improved thermal efficiency, grouting materials, and the like. (NEDO)

  18. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  19. FY1998 Report of surveys on network possibility involved with proliferation and transfer of environmental technologies (Europe, Australia and New Zealand); 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu no fukyu iten ni kakawaru network kanosei chosa hokokusho . Oshu Goshu New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (COP3) held in December 1997, the industrialized nations have agreed on development and proliferation of innovative technologies under international cooperation and transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries by expanding and strengthening CTI being the framework to be progressed spontaneously. Under the international strategic research project for global environment, NEDO has been promoting positively the research and development, whose support is urged to be expanded further in the future upon receiving the present agreement. Therefore, NEDO has performed the present survey in order to propose frameworks and measures for strengthening and expanding CTI. From among the policies and measures to be taken by the related countries based on the COP3 protocol, fiscal 1997 has performed review and new establishment of plans involved with execution of the items related to technology development, and surveys on action movements such as review and expansion of the measures, as the first stage. Fiscal 1998 has executed surveys focusing on the network for technology proliferation and transfer to developing countries as the second stage. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) - survey/study concerning international cooperation (Survey/study concerning standardization of hydrogen energy technology); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of R and D of hydrogen energy technologies and the promotion of their practical use and proliferation, conducted were research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies and research/study on draft international standards proposed by ISO/TC197. In the research on the standardization, legislation, rules and guidelines for Japan were compiled based on reference to the materials in the 'sourcebook for hydrogen applications' which was prepared in the U.S./Canada. The Japanese laws and regulations applicable to hydrogen are the high pressure gas safety law, fire service law, industrial safety and health law, building standard law, law on prevention of disasters in petroleum industrial complexes and other petroleum facilities, road vehicles act, road traffic law, harbor regulation law, etc., with related legislation compiled under headings classified as pressure containers, gas facilities, consumption, transportation, explosion proofing of electrical equipment, list of laws, and related documents. In reference to ISO/TC197, the 8th plenary meeting and WGs were held during April 6-8, 1999, in the U.S., where the progress status report, study contents, future schedule for newly proposed items, etc., of each WG were reviewed and discussed. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) - survey/study concerning international cooperation (Survey/study concerning standardization of hydrogen energy technology); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru kenkyu (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of R and D of hydrogen energy technologies and the promotion of their practical use and proliferation, conducted were research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies and research/study on draft international standards proposed by ISO/TC197. In the research on the standardization, legislation, rules and guidelines for Japan were compiled based on reference to the materials in the 'sourcebook for hydrogen applications' which was prepared in the U.S./Canada. The Japanese laws and regulations applicable to hydrogen are the high pressure gas safety law, fire service law, industrial safety and health law, building standard law, law on prevention of disasters in petroleum industrial complexes and other petroleum facilities, road vehicles act, road traffic law, harbor regulation law, etc., with related legislation compiled under headings classified as pressure containers, gas facilities, consumption, transportation, explosion proofing of electrical equipment, list of laws, and related documents. In reference to ISO/TC197, the 8th plenary meeting and WGs were held during April 6-8, 1999, in the U.S., where the progress status report, study contents, future schedule for newly proposed items, etc., of each WG were reviewed and discussed. (NEDO)

  2. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  3. Two-dimensional multi-scale dendrite needle network modeling and x-ray radiography of equiaxed alloy solidification in grain-refined Al-3.5 wt-%Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, Laszlo; Theofilatos, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate multiple dendritic equiaxed grain formation during directional solidification of grain-refined Al-3.5 wt-%Ni under a range of different solidification conditions. This is achieved by comparing the results of in-situ x-ray radiographic experiments involving thin samples (as reported in the literature) to the results of 2D multi-scale dendrite needle network (DNN) modeling covering the essential experimental length scale. The model takes into account heterogeneous nucleation, branched dendritic growth and solutal interaction between branches and multiple equiaxed grains. The decrease in equivalent circular diameter of the steady-state average grain size with pulling velocity, as observed in the Bridgman-type experiments, is well captured by the modeling results, and likewise the ratio of activated nucleation seeds. Using experimentally estimated nucleation parameters in the modeling, a log normal nucleation undercooling distribution provided slightly but not significantly better agreement with experiments than a Gaussian distribution, with remaining absolute differences in the equivalent circular diameter of up to 31%. Thus, even with the 2D modeling of an essentially 3D experiment, fairly good agreement is achieved. This is attributed to a solutal undercooling of the equiaxed front region in the modeling which is similar in comparison to the dendrite tip undercooling predicted by an analytical 3D calculation, on which the estimation of nucleation parameters was based. Moreover, dendrite side-branching in modeling is of minor impact, due to a ratio between solutal diffusion length and equivalent circular diameter inferior to 0.49 under all solidification conditions. Additionally, at low pulling velocities, the computed grain density is only slightly dependent on which unknown dendrite selection parameter σ* over a wider range is selected. On the other hand, at high pulling velocities there is no dependence. In short

  4. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  5. Three-dimensional electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxides@NiCo2S4@graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors with outstanding electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan; Ruiyi, Li; Lin, Zhou; Chenyang, Ma; Zaijun, Li

    2015-01-01

    We reported a new strategy for fabricating three-dimensiona electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors. The resulting 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. The unique structure creates ultra fast electron transfer and electrolyte transport as well as the maximum utilization rate of the space and the surface. The electrode exhibits a prominent advantage of high specific capacitance, high-current capacitive behaviour and cycle stability. - Highlights: • The study developed a new strategy for fabricating 3D electrode of Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G. • The as-prepared 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. • The unique structure creates an efficient conduction network and high mass loading. • The electrode achieves significantly synergetic effect among different materials. • The electrode exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. - ABSTRACT: Great challenge for the fabrication of free-standing three-dimensional electrode still remains to simultaneously achieve high specific capacitance, rate performance and cycle stability. The paper reprted a new three-dimensional (3D) electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam (Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G) for supercapacitors. The as-prepared 3D electrode offers an unique architecture, which create an efficient conduction network and maximum utilization of space and interface. The graphene acts as well-knit and conductive skin coated on the skeleton of Ni foam for growing NiCo 2 S 4 . The conductive NiCo 2 S 4 array serves as bridge between Ni/Co-LDH and graphene, leading to ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. A slew of splits and holes existing in the NiCo 2 S 4 array play one role as the ion-reservoir to contain host of electrolyte ions. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D electrode’s application in supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance was investigated by using the three

  6. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  7. Feasibility study of energy conservation measures to be taken in international cooperation in the metal mining industry; 1998 nendo kinzoku kokogyo ni okeru kokusai kyoryoku ni yoru sho energy taisaku jisshi no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the investigation, reviewing detailed processes of mining industries, current situation for saving energy among mining and materials production industries are executed. Discussions on the evaluation methods for global warming, possibility of saving energy, location of smelters, etc. are made among the investigation. As the results, energy saving for the industries in japan is in the highest level all over the world and the effort to improved it almost reaches their limits at the moment. However, considering global environment, there are still possibilities to reduce the impact to the environment. Since the evaluation methods of saving energy for the global environmental has not fixed yet, worldwide discussions for the methods area expected. For the remarkable energy saving, instalment of new process is essential. For the achievement of the saving, continuous research and development are necessary. For the sustainable development of mineral industries and the promotion of global environmental protection, governmental backup and the contribution by national institutes are expected. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1996 survey of potential international cooperation for a long-term scenario on CO2 reduction; 1996 nendo CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki shinario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a CO2 reduction scenario and a CO2 policy introduction scenario, a survey was conducted of comparisons between ten and several models which are world-known and models of the New Earth 21, potential international cooperation to be carried out in the future, etc. The survey included organizations which are developing CO2 policy evaluation models, survey reports made in the past, details of literature for the analysis and arrangement. From the result, details of the questionnaire survey and organizations to be surveyed were decided on for the questionnaire survey. Objects for the survey were 7 countries and 22 organizations, and survey items were places for information exchange, sending/receiving of researchers, exchange of input data, comparative calculation based on the common database, joint research work, economy, the carbon tax, impact, renewable energy, how to handle and think of the carbon isolation, etc. As a result of the survey, proposed were a workshop on CO2 reduction, a comparative study of simulation models, etc. 25 refs., 50 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. FY 2000 Report on the survey results. Survey on international cooperation for development of a system for supporting low-invasion surgical operations; 2000 nendo teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The international Medical Treatment Symposium and Exhibition were held from July 20 to the end of August, 2000 in Hannover in Germany, in which the Japan's system for supporting low-invasion surgical operations was presented and information was exchanged for the system. A total of 50 to 100 neurosurgeons visited the exhibition, held as part of the symposium, every day from July 21 to 24. The system for supporting low-invasion surgical operations is rated as the most advanced one in the world. It attracted much attention, because a number of attendees applied for operating manipulator. The research trends seen in the symposium point to early diagnosis of diseases, finer surgical operations, low-invasion type operations, use of high-function diagnosis devices for improving operations, real-time imaging, and application of DNA diagnosis to pathological diagnosis, among others. Japan is leading the world in the technological areas of micromachines, robotics, high-vision and diagnosis. The bold researches, e.g., those on artificial visual and hearing systems to be embedded in the head, are pursued more extensively in the overseas countries. (NEDO)

  11. Feasible study of international cooperation on the long-term scenario for reducing CO2. DNE-21 simulation database; CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki scenario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa. DNE21 simulation database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes calculation codes of DNE-21 which can simulate the optimization model for reducing CO2. The DNE-21 was modified from the former NE-21. The term was set between 2000 and 2100. Optimization can be conducted across the different time. Non-conventional petroleum was removed from the primary energy. Capacity of nuclear power generation facilities was taken in the model for the optimization. Decision making analysis can be done by considering the uncertainty. The DNE-21 has eleven input files including the model operation, technical property related data, cost related data, data of tax, subsidy and customs, and scenario data of future energy demand and supply, GNP, population and nuclear power. The DNE-21 has fifteen output files including the optimization calculation results for the world, Oceania, the Middle East, North Africa, Central America, South America, former USSR, and OECD countries. 2 figs.

  12. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  13. Report for fiscal 2000 on electronic patient record network discussion committee. Survey on promotion of medical information use utilizing electronic patient record network; 2000 nendo denshi karute network kento iinkai hokokusho. Denshi karute network wo katsuyoshita iryo johoka no sokushin ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on the movements in the most advanced IT technologies and in social system reformation in the medical and health preservation fields, discussions were given on the assignments and measures to be solved to realize the medical information network, and the secondary utilization method of the medical information and the assignments and measures in the utilization thereof. A patient record is originally a document stating the secrets of a patient for his or her medical information, and has a nature that doctors may be sued from the patient if they disclose or exchange the document. There is a large number of company owners, politicians or salaried people who would not want their diseases which they had in the past, the name of the existing disease and medical treatment to be made public. The electronic patient record network has a conflicting proposition to elevate its values by means of data re-utilization, secondary utilization and information exchange. Preparation of the database requires multilateral analyses and classifications, as well as sufficient discussions and realistic execution including the consistency with the personal information protection law, as to whether it is information that the patient wants the exchange or disclosure, or whether it is information to be exchanged or disclosed even if the patient refuses it, not speak of attention to 5W1H. (NEDO)

  14. Microstructure investigation of NiAl-Cr(Mo) interface in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic alloyed with refractory metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.X.; Cui, C.Y.; Guo, J.T.; Li, D.X.

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic alloyed with refractory metal in as-processed and heat-treated states has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The microstructure of the NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic was characterized by lamellar Cr(Mo) phases embedded within NiAl matrix with common growth direction of . The interface between NiAl and lamellar Cr(Mo) did not have any transition layers. Misfit dislocations were observed at the NiAl-Cr(Mo) interface. In addition to lamellar Cr(Mo) phases, coherent Cr(Mo, Ni, Al) precipitates and NiAl precipitates were also observed in the NiAl matrix and lamellar Cr(Mo) phases, respectively. After hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, the NiAl-Cr(Mo) interfaces became smooth and straight. Square array of misfit dislocations was directly observed at the (0 0 1) interface between NiAl and Cr(Mo, Ni, Al) precipitate. The configuration of misfit dislocation network showed a generally good agreement with prediction based on the geometric O-lattice model

  15. FY 1999 survey report on the global environment international cooperation promotion project/global environment international information network project. Survey of the environmental technology transfer information network; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo / chikyu kankyo kokusai joho network jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu inten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    At International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, the following were conducted for enrichment of the environmental technology information: surveys of the state of activities in international organizations and developed countries, cleaner production (CP), ISO, etc. and construction of database. As to the reinforcement of environmental preservation technology information database, enrichment of the data on environmental preservation was attempted mainly about ways of thinking of environmental preservation which brought fruitful results to international organizations overseas. The hierarchization/supplementation were conducted of CP databases which attract much attention especially among developing countries. In the survey of models for environmental preservation, autonomous bodies in Mie prefecture and the certified consultant were taken up to study the process up to the acquisition of ISO14001. The database was so made that it can be a guide for the environmental management in autonomous bodies in developing countries. In the CP survey, as to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), definition/thought were examined in terms of CP, eco-efficiency, pollution prevention, green productivity, etc. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2000 project for promoting international cooperation for global environment. International information network project for global environment (Survey on information network for environmental technology transfer); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo kokusai joho network jigyo (kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Environmental technology information database has been shown on Internet for the purpose of transferring environmental technologies; in order to reinforce it this year, a viewpoint was directed to developing countries, with research carried out on the environmental preservation information of the Philippines and Thailand. In the research, in view of promoting cleaner production in developing countries, UNEP regional offices, which are active in the operation, and Asian Development Bank were examined, with their methods, plans and strategies of disseminating the cleaner production surveyed. Also, the database was added with the activities by the organizations concerned in Philippines and Thailand. As for the environmental management system ISO14001, some local governments in Philippines and Thailand will presumably acquire ISO14001 in the future to deal with their environmental management; under the circumstances, Miyama Town was chosen that was first in Mie Prefecture to obtain ISO14001, with the details investigated concerning its environmental policy and the acquisition of ISO14001; and, on the basis of the investigation, a database was prepared so that guidelines for environmental management were provided for the local governments. (NEDO)

  17. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  18. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  19. Studies of an application of a mobile communication system to the private telecommunication network. Part 1. Present condition of mobile communication system and proposal of the customer information network by PHS; Idotai tsushin system no denryoku tsushinmo eno tekiyo. 1. Idotai tsushin system no genjo to PHS ni yoru juyo kakei network no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    An application of various mobile communication systems to the electric power telecommunication network has been investigated. Among these, the customer information network by PHS (personal handy-phone system) has been proposed. Although great numbers of base stations are required for PHS, it can be applied as the customer information network by connecting to the power controller developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. The geostationary satellite telecommunication has been positively utilized by the electric power industry since the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake. It can be used as the customer information network in the future. Since the radio access is a one-way communication, it cannot be applied to the electric power telecommunication network at present. It can be applied to the simple message communication or relatively low-speed data communication through the two-way communication. Public ground mobile telecommunication in the future includes various mobile telecommunication systems. To start the operation in 2000, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is making specifications common in the world. It is required to investigate the utilization as multipurpose systems. The network for PHS can be applied to the telecommunication network without optical cable. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  1. Ni República parlamentaria ni presidencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Tardío, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Revista de Estudios Políticos (Nueva Época), Núm. 123. Enero-Marzo 2004 Este trabajo está dedicado al estudio de un aspecto básico del sistema político de la II República española (1931-1936): el modelo de presidencia de la República y de relaciones de la misma con el parlamento y el gobierno. Aquí se sostiene que la Segunda República, de acuerdo con su Constitución, no fue un régimen parlamentario ni presidencial. Combinó de forma extraña y ambigua elementos de ambos modelos. Probablement...

  2. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) -research/study concerning international cooperation (Volume 1. research/study for promoting international cooperation); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (1. kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Various measures were implemented with the aim of realizing the 'longterm vision for international cooperation' in connection with hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET) formulated in fiscal 1996. The English version of the 1998 annual summary report on results was distributed to approximately 170 pertinent organizations overseas. To develop understanding of the WE-NET project, presentations were given in numerous international conferences. In addition, as research cooperation in IEA (International Energy Agency), specialists were dispatched to the hydrogen implementation committee, the corresponding committee to hydrogen implementation agreement, and to each annex. In international exchange of technical information, each WE-NET task exchanged information with organizations abroad through overseas survey and conducted research on European hydrogen project, for example. With the purpose of developing understanding of WE-NET project activities, a preparatory work was done for participation in HYFORUM2000 (Germany) and World Hydrogen Energy Conference (Beijing) which will be held in 2000. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the project on the researcher dispatch type international joint research survey. International joint research for creation of new industries; Kenkyusha hakengata kokusai kyodo kenkyu chosa jigyo. Shinki sangyo soshutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of digging up themes of the joint research which develop the R and D in the industrial field in Japan to a new stage, researchers were dispatched to the world representing research institutes to make the research study. As to the survey of the trend of bio-informatics research, visits for survey were paid by 8 researchers to 19 research institutes in the U.S., Australia, France and Germany, and survey was made of the state of new researches such as the genetic network analysis by DNA chip data. Relating to the survey of the trend of the plan for ape genomic DNA sequence, visits for survey were paid by 6 researchers to 12 research institutes in Japan, Germany, France and the U.K. Concerning the research survey with aim of developing the selective reversible expression technology of target genes, researchers were dispatched to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in the U.S. to conduct the following: construction of basic expression vectors, functional evaluation using cultured cells, making of the transgenic mice to which medicine dependent and cell peculiar expression control genes were introduced, analytical study of the situation of expression control, etc. (NEDO)

  4. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on promotion of international cooperation in the WE-NET project in fiscal 1996. The WE-NET project aims at development of the total system for hydrogen production, transport, storage and utilization, and construction of the earth-friendly innovative global clean energy network integrating elemental technologies. Since the standpoint is different between latent resource supplying countries and technology supplying countries, the WE-NET project should be constantly promoted under international understanding and cooperation. The committee distributed the annual summary report prepared by NEDO to overseas organizations, and made positive PR activities in the 11th World Conference and others. The committee made the evaluation on the improvement effect of air pollution by introducing a hydrogen vehicle in combination with Stanford University, and preparation of PR video tapes for hydrogen energy. Preliminary arrangement of Internet home pages, establishment of a long-term vision for international cooperation, and proposal toward the practical WE-NET are also made. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Microstructural development in NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni transient liquid phase bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.F.; Orel, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based investigation of microstructural development during transient liquid phase bonding of near-stoichiometric NiAl to commercial purity nickel is presented in this article. The work described employed Ni-4.5 wt pct Si-3.2 wt pct B (BNi-3) melt-spun interlayers. The precipitation of both Ni-Al based phases and borides within the joint and adjacent substrate regions is discussed. The article considers martensite formation (within the NiAl substrate) and the precipitation of L1 2 type phases (both within the joint and at the interface with the NiAl substrate). The relative roles of the two substrate materials (NiAl and Ni) in the isothermal resolidification process are identified. The preferential formation of Ni 3 B boride phases in the Ni substrate near the original location of the Ni substrate-joint interface is discussed and contrasted with the absence of similar events in the NiAl substrate

  6. Ethanol Sensing Properties of Au-functionalized NiO Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Hyun, Soong Keun; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-01-01

    Pristine and Au-functionalized nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple solvo thermal route and the ethanol sensing properties of multiple-networked Au-doped and undoped NiO nanoparticle sensors were examined. The pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensor showed responses of 442 and 273%, respectively, to 1000 ppm of ethanol at 325 .deg. C. The Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensor showed faster response than the pristine NiO counterpart, whereas the recovery time of the former was similar to that of the latter. The optimal operating temperature of the pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticles was 325 and 350 .deg. C, respectively, by Au-doping. Both the pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensors showed selectivity for ethanol gas over methanol, acetone, benzene, and toluene gases. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing performance of the Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticles toward ethanol might be due to modulation of the depletion layer formed around Au particles and the Schottky barriers formed at the Au-NiO junction accompanying ethanol adsorption and desorption, the spill-over effect and high catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles and the smaller diameter of the particles in the Au-functionalized NiO sensor.

  7. Ethanol Sensing Properties of Au-functionalized NiO Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Hyun, Soong Keun; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Pristine and Au-functionalized nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple solvo thermal route and the ethanol sensing properties of multiple-networked Au-doped and undoped NiO nanoparticle sensors were examined. The pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensor showed responses of 442 and 273%, respectively, to 1000 ppm of ethanol at 325 .deg. C. The Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensor showed faster response than the pristine NiO counterpart, whereas the recovery time of the former was similar to that of the latter. The optimal operating temperature of the pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticles was 325 and 350 .deg. C, respectively, by Au-doping. Both the pristine and Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticle sensors showed selectivity for ethanol gas over methanol, acetone, benzene, and toluene gases. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing performance of the Au-functionalized NiO nanoparticles toward ethanol might be due to modulation of the depletion layer formed around Au particles and the Schottky barriers formed at the Au-NiO junction accompanying ethanol adsorption and desorption, the spill-over effect and high catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles and the smaller diameter of the particles in the Au-functionalized NiO sensor.

  8. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  9. Fiscal 1998 report on Japan-Asia international cooperation project; 1998 nendo Nichi Asia kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the development of talent, industrial infrastructures, and new industries in countries that received Japanese cooperation, Japanese researchers were sent to universities and research organizations in Asian countries, where they were engaged in joint research and development, which involved (1) micro device technology, (2) technology for manufacturing industrial silica material by chaff incineration, (3) technology for forming and machining of alloys difficult to machine, light in weight, and high in strength, (4) technology for rare metal isolation and refining, (5) cascade-wise utilization and practical application of biomass in Asia, (6) exploration and utilization of microbial resources in Tropical Asia, (7) evaluation of biological resources existing in Southeast Asia and construction of information network, (8) development and evaluation of cultured articular cartilage, (9) technology for utilizing wastewater for production of valuable substances, and (10) studies for utilizing biological resources through utilization of diversity of symbiotic microbes and their adaptability to surroundings. Under item (1), it was planned that ultrasonic micro transducers and micro fluid devices be developed for use in the medical field. (NEDO)

  10. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Activities have been advanced to establish necessary basic technologies by making clear the possibilities and problems in applying gas hydrate technologies to industrial fields. Activities have been taken in the following three fields: 1) industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies, 2) conceptual design of gas hydrate utilization technologies, and 3) researches on basic technologies to utilize the gas hydrate technologies in industries. In Item 1), discussions were given on significance of social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, conditions for social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, the current status of natural gas development and industrial utilization of the gas hydrate technologies. In Item 2), discussions were given on utilization of gas containability (application to natural gas transportation and storage processes), utilization of cold heat storage performance (utilization to suction air cooling of gas turbine generators), and utilization of gas selectivity (application to gas separation processes and acidic gas (CO2, SOx) separation). (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Energy conservation No.3). Achievement report on development of micro-scale boiling aided high efficiency heat removing device; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (shoe No.3). Micro scale boiling ni yoru kokoritsu honetsu device no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies are conducted about basic matters of heat transfer with boiling, such as critical heat flux intensification, prevention of dry-out, and the development of refrigerants suitable for use for heat transfer with boiling, for the purpose of developing boiling heat conduction type high-efficiency heat removing devices for use in electronics, and then heat removing devices usable as power devices in the future are experimentally designed. Activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) the study of basic micro-boiling technology, (2) development of micro-scale boiling element technology, and (3) international joint studies. Efforts are made to develop the technology of removing heat from ultrahigh heat fluxes using a micro-valve in field (1), to develop the technology of heat transfer by boiling in a micro-channel in field (2); and to develop the technology of critical heat flux intensification in a boiling heat exchanger in an electromagnetic field (3). In an effort to develop the technology of heat removal, a heat transfer plate is installed at the bottom of a path which is narrow, horizontal, and rectangular, and distilled water is allowed to flow and boil. Micro-bubble emission boiling occurs by a subcooling degree of 40K at an average flow rate of 0.5 m/s, and an ultrahigh heat flux of 2-7 times 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} is obtained. The value is 2-4 times as high as the current IC chip critical heat flux. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Comprehensive survey and research concerning promotion of international standardization); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For encouraging the promotion of international standardization involving the six subjects of advanced technology taken up under the above-named project, wide-range investigations are conducted into measures for international standardization, the activities of international standardizing agencies and organizations, and the approaches of European and American business corporations to this issue. Technical literature and material are studied in Japan, and interviews are held overseas with responsible persons at organizations and corporations engaged in this task. At Standards Development Organization (SDO) of America, verification tests are under way for early development into international standards of technical standards it has so far developed independently. For the strategical utilization of intellectual property incorporated into its technical standards, SDO accepts that the best policy is to win approvals from patent proprietors at the early stage of standardization process by presenting them with conditions about patent implementation. In Europe and America, for the enhancement of their competitive power in the international theater, governments and civil sectors cooperate with each other for the establishment of international standards and, in business corporations, the management takes the initiative in coping with the issue with an understanding that there are business opportunities in international standardization. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 2000 report on cooperative basic project on international energy consumption improvement/International conference project such as IPCC. International Symposium on the Kyoto Mechanisms; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo / IPCC nado kokusai kaigi jigyo Kyoto mechanism ni kansuru symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The above-named symposium was held at United Nations University in the period April 12-13, 2001, and the conference is outlined in this report. The symposium aimed to contribute to the progress of international rule making and to the enhancement of mutual understanding through the exchange of views and opinions by negotiators representing their countries over the Kyoto mechanisms, the rule of emissions trading in particular, and through the analysis of negotiators' options; to discuss how international rules should be from a practical viewpoint with the participation of people related to the market or industries and engaged actively in the implementation of the mechanisms; to enrich Japanese people's knowledge about the mechanisms and to enhance their understanding of greenhouse gas emissions reduction techniques making use of the mechanism of the market; and so forth. The conference included Session 1: Current status of international negotiations and views from parties, Session 2: Toward credible and workable scheme of the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2), and Session 3: Emissions trading - Outstanding issues and options. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2000 report on cooperative basic project on international energy consumption improvement/International conference project such as IPCC. International Symposium on the Kyoto Mechanisms; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo / IPCC nado kokusai kaigi jigyo Kyoto mechanism ni kansuru symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The above-named symposium was held at United Nations University in the period April 12-13, 2001, and the conference is outlined in this report. The symposium aimed to contribute to the progress of international rule making and to the enhancement of mutual understanding through the exchange of views and opinions by negotiators representing their countries over the Kyoto mechanisms, the rule of emissions trading in particular, and through the analysis of negotiators' options; to discuss how international rules should be from a practical viewpoint with the participation of people related to the market or industries and engaged actively in the implementation of the mechanisms; to enrich Japanese people's knowledge about the mechanisms and to enhance their understanding of greenhouse gas emissions reduction techniques making use of the mechanism of the market; and so forth. The conference included Session 1: Current status of international negotiations and views from parties, Session 2: Toward credible and workable scheme of the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2), and Session 3: Emissions trading - Outstanding issues and options. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Comprehensive study on promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The information technology and international standardization are studied for the elementary information technology, mechanical safety areas and electronic trading, aimed at achieving the international standards in a short time for the information industrial sector, which shows rapid technological development. The program for the elementary information technology includes development/standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for transparent electroconductive films for notebook computers, liquid crystal monitors or the like, specifically for the mechanical and physical properties. The program for mechanical safety areas includes definition of the closed space type mechanical safety monitoring techniques and use of safety-confirmation type sensors for the techniques, and standardization of the requirements of the protectors for use of the safety-confirmation type sensors, among others. The program for the electronic trading includes standardization of the electronic catalogues of the instrumentation devices, dictionaries of the instrumentation devices and device-screening processes. The other efforts include development of the applications and system infrastructure functions, construction of the demonstration test systems, and demonstration tests. (NEDO)

  18. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of the international standardization by the economic evaluation of environmental impacts; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Kankyo compact no keizai hyoka ni yoru kokusai hyojunka no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of the international standardization, conducted was a R and D of `the economic evaluation method of environmental impacts.` Survey/analysis were conducted of the trends in the U.S. and Europe where the study on environmental costs is advancing, and study systems were constructed in cooperation with Resources for the Future (RFF), the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute, the University of London, etc. As to impact analysis models, the development of environmental excrement transfer models has been finished, and the development of D-R relational equations which reflected characteristics in Japan has been started. In the joint study with the U.S. RFF, conducted were survey/analysis using the CVM (contingent valuation method). By the comparison of the survey data with actual medical data and comparison with the economic value conversion method, etc., validity and consistency of the CVM method were verified. As a result, it was found that these survey data could be explained without inconsistency. A case study of the environmental cost evaluation was made for electric power, iron/steel and electricity, and it was verified that this developmental method was fully applicable to the environmental impact evaluation of the actual production system. 27 refs., 33 figs., 89 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Novel No.2). Achievement report on development of high-strength ultralight biocompatible implant material using porous titanium; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (shinki No.2). Takoshitsu chitan ni yoru seitai shinwasei kokyodo chokeiryo implant zai no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An implant material manufacturing technology is developed for which a titanium based metal material is made porous and osteoblasts are allowed into holes in the material surface for the establishment of fixation and mechanical similarity between the material and bones. Activities are conducted in the six fields of (1) the establishment of material adjusting technology, (2) establishment of high-porosity sintering technology, (3) research and development of hydrogen-aided technology of pore formation, (4) improvement on mechanical characteristics/dimensions evaluation technology, (5) establishment and implementation of biocompatibility evaluation technology, and (6) the development of technology for commercializing high-porosity implant materials. In field (3), pure titanium and titanium hydride are pulverized and classified, and very fine powders only are mixed and sealed into a capsule made of pure iron, which is subjected to extrusion into bulk and then heated to a high temperature for the generation of hydrogen gas for the formation of a limitless number of pores. Pure titanium and a Ti-Al-V-Mo-Fe alloy easy to treat in a low-temperature superplastic process are used for the study of the process. In field (6), in the wake of element technology development, commercialization of implant materials is considered, technical tasks to discharge before new industry creation are made clear, and measures in this connection are studied. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Comprehensive survey research on the promotion of international standardization; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the international standardization effectively/strategically, a comprehensive survey was made, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the trend survey on the comprehensive international standardization, survey was conducted for companies in the material field (plastics, rubber and iron steel) and in the mechanical field (robot, machinery, aircraft, etc.). As a result of the survey, it was found out that they have few headquarters systems and experts, but they tackle it strategically and defensively, taking the standardization as business. Also as to the trend of CEN/CENELEC, importance of the continued trend survey was pointed out. In the survey of policy for the international standardization, survey was carried out on the trend of the process for working out the international standards (TS, ITS and SDO). Further, in relation to the technology standards and intellectual property rights in the hi-tech field, survey was made on the present situation of rules for handling intellectual property rights of organizations, groups, etc. for standardization, how to handle intellectual property rights in the standardization process, problems and the solution, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Toryo bun`ya ni okeru kanno hyoka no teiryoka to kokusai hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Japanese paint users demand products of higher-quality than users in the U.S. and Europe, and therefore, paint makeres in Japan are making strenuous efforts to improve the product quality in terms of homogeneity, appearence and durability of the surface of paint films. However, the evaluation of paint surfaces is conducted by the qualitative sensory evaluation, resulting in obtaining no appropriate evaluation. Accordingly, the following were developed as new evaluation methods which give rational and economical indicators, contribute to shortening of the period for development of new products, and aim at the international standardization: 1) quantitative evaluation of the paint drying process; 2) image analysis of the degraded part of paint films; 3) surface analysis of paint films. In 1), a kinetic friction measuring quantitative evaluation of the surface of paint films was developed. In 2), the development of an exclusive program by the image analysis made the quantitative evaluation with high accuracy/reliability possible. In 3), an evaluation method was developed in which differences among the specimens can be detected by the chemiluminescent measurement in an extremely early stage of exposure when the gloss change just begins. As to the chalking, a new evaluation was developed in which the degree of chalking can quantitatively be evaluated by attaching a special adhesion tape to the degraded part of paint films and by the optical measurement of the degree of transparency. 101 refs., 341 figs., 118 tabs.

  3. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.10). Achievement report on independent distributed type power generation technology of using now-unused gas pressure difference energy; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.10). Miriyo gas atsuryokusa energy ni yoru dokuritsu bunsangata hatsuden gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Development is under way of a power generation system utilizing pressure difference during fuel gas transportation, independent from the outside and installable in the vicinity of the load. It is assumed that power is supplied to a decompression device in a fuel gas supply pipeline. Fuel gas placed under high pressure in the mainline is decompressed upon arriving at a consumer area. The intended technology of utilizing the now-unused pressure difference will be employed for power generation, and energy will be collected accordingly. Activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) the acquisition of heat sources for heating, (2) the development of technologies for compensating for seasonal and daily load variations on gas or power, and (3) the development of control technologies to cope with emergency. In field (1), a system is developed, independent from external heat sources, to operate on an indirect heating system based on a heating furnace. In domain (2), it is proved that high efficiency system operation will be available if the influence of gas pipeline transportation parameters on load variations is analyzed for the effective utilization of the pipeline operating system. (NEDO)

  5. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation (standardization of hydrogen energy technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the basic study on standardization of hydrogen energy technology, and the research study on ISO/TC197 in fiscal 1996. As a part of the WE-NET project, the subtask 2 aims at preparation of standards necessary for practical use and promotion. Developmental states in every field of hydrogen energy technologies, current states of domestic/overseas related standards and laws, and needs and issues of standardization were surveyed. In particular, the needs and issues were clarified in relation to existing standards and laws from the viewpoint of specific hydrogen property. ISO/TC197 was established in 1989 for standardization of the systems and equipment for production, storage, transport, measurement and utilization of hydrogen energy. Four working groups are in action for the supply system and tank of liquid hydrogen fuel for automobiles, the container and ship for complex transport of liquid hydrogen, the specifications of hydrogen products for energy, and the hydrogen supply facility for airports. The draft international standards were proposed to the international conference in 1996. 16 refs., 21 figs., 41 tabs.

  6. Highly Conformal Ni Micromesh as a Current Collecting Front Electrode for Reduced Cost Si Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nikita; Rao, K. D. M.; Gupta, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    deposition of Ni wire network on corrugated solar cell, a short circuit current of 33.28 mA/cm2 was obtained in comparison to 20.53 mA/cm2 without the network electrode. On comparing the efficiency with the conventional cells with screen printed electrodes, a 20% increment in efficiency has been observed...

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and structure of nickel(II) metavanadate monohydrate, NiV2O6.H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, M.D.; Amoros, P.; Beltran-Porter, A.; Ramirez de Arellano, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of NiV 2 O 6 .H 2 O consists of infinite chains of [VO 4 ] tetrahedra running along the [100] direction connected by isolated [Ni 2 O 8 (H 2 O) 2 ] dimeric entities to build up a three-dimensional network. A valence-bond analysis allows the identification of the O atoms of the water molecules. (orig.)

  8. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2009 physics pp. 577–586. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni ..... and at high field, no domain wall is available and hence, the system becomes a .... [23] J Ding, T Tsuzuki, P G McCormick and R Street, J. Phys. D: Appl.

  9. Family network of children with special health needs: implications for Nursing La red familiar de niños con necesidades especiales de salud: implicaciones para la enfermería Rede familial de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde: implicações para a enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Tatsch Neves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe appropriate sources and resources for caregivers of children with special health needs in the community. METHOD: A qualitative study that used the creativity and sensitivity dynamics speaking map, part of the sensitive creative method, involving 11 caregivers of children with special health needs who are assisted in a university hospital located in the South of Brazil. RESULTS: the maps graphically represented through the genogram and ecomap showed that the caregiving women consistently and regularly use the resources of the internal and external family network; they eventually and irregularly access the community social network for physical and psychological support. CONCLUSION: the reclusive nature of care for these children inside the family circle contributes to their social invisibility. Based on this new information, it is recommended that Nursing participate in the care that is focused on these children's families, with particular attention to their socio-cultural conditions. OBJETIVO: describir fuentes y recursos apropiados por las cuidadoras de niños con necesidades especiales de salud en la comunidad. MÉTODO: estudio cualitativo que utilizó la dinámica de creatividad y sensibilidad mapa hablante del método creativo sensible junto a 11 cuidadoras de niños con necesidades especiales de salud atendidas en un hospital de enseñanza de la región sur de Brasil. RESULTADOS: los mapas gráficamente representados en la forma de genograma y ecomapa revelaron que las mujeres cuidadoras se apropian de forma consistente y regular de los recursos de la red familiar interna y externa; de modo eventual e irregular, acceden a la red social de la comunidad para apoyarles física y espiritualmente. CONCLUSIÓN: el carácter aislado del cuidado a esos niños en el interior de la familia contribuye para su invisibilidad social. A partir de ese conocimiento nuevo, se recomienda que la enfermería se haga presente en el cuidado

  10. Initiation and growth of thermal fatigue crack networks in an AISI 304 L type austenitic stainless steel (X2 CrNi18-09); Amorcage et propagation de reseaux de fissures de fatigue thermique dans un acier inoxydable austenitique de type X2 CrNi18-09 (AISI 304 L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillot, V

    2004-07-01

    We studied the behaviour of a 304 L type austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue. Using the SPLASH equipment of CEA/SRMA we tested parallelepipedal specimens on two sides: the specimens are continuously heated by Joule effect, while two opposites faces are cyclically. cooled by a mixed spray of distilled water and compressed air. This device allows the reproduction and the study of crack networks similar to those observed in nuclear power plants, on the inner side of circuits fatigued by mixed pressurized water flows at different temperatures. The crack initiation and the network constitution at the surface were observed under different thermal conditions (Tmax = 320 deg C, {delta}T between 125 and 200 deg C). The experiment produced a stress gradient in the specimen, and due to this gradient, the in-depth growth of the cracks finally stopped. The obtained crack networks were studied quantitatively by image analysis, and different parameters were studied: at the surface during the cycling, and post mortem by step-by-step layer removal by grinding. The maximal depth obtained experimentally, 2.5 mm, is relatively coherent with the finite element modelling of the SPLASH test, in which compressive stresses appear at a depth of 2 mm. Some of the crack networks obtained by thermal fatigue were also tested in isothermal fatigue crack growth under 4-point bending, at imposed load. The mechanisms of the crack selection, and the appearance of the dominating crack are described. Compared to the propagation of a single crack, the crack networks delay the propagation, depending on the severity of the crack competition for domination. The dominating crack can be at the network periphery, in that case it is not as shielded by its neighbours as a crack located in the center of the network. It can also be a straight crack surrounded by more sinuous neighbours. Indeed, on sinuous cracks, the loading is not the same all along the crack path, leading to some

  11. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  12. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  13. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  14. Study of transmitting electric power utility communications in IP network. Transmission of existing electric power utility communications in best effort type IP network under delay constraint; Denryokuyo tsushin kaisen no IP mo eno shuyo kento. Chien jikan seiyakuka ni okeru best effort gata IP mo eno kison denryokuyo tsushin kaisen no shuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, H.

    2000-07-01

    Since IP network does best effort behavior fundamentally, it always generates delay time and delay variation. For this reason, IP network has been unsuitable to transmit real time data such as a voice. However, in recent years, the technologies which transmit real time data in IP network, e.g. VoIP, have spread. If it is possible to transmit the existing electric power utility communications in IP network using these technologies, total network cost can be reduced by the reduction of required bandwidth and the simplification of communication network systems. In this report, it is examined quantitatively whether end-end delay time of the existing electric power utility communications, e.g. on-line, telephone, carrier relay, CDT (cyclic digital transmission equipment), video conference, ITV(industrial television), is within their permission delay time when they are transmitted in the best effort type IP network. (author)

  15. Coexistence of Named Data Networking (NDN) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    COD) for deploying the data found by CL at optimal node, and c) Path Optimizer (PO) for balancing network traffic in both spatial and temporal...and software- defined networking with big data . Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Library; 2016 Nov 19. arXiv: 1611.06299v1 [cs.NI]. Approved for...ARL-TN-0845 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Coexistence of Named Data Networking (NDN) and Software-Defined Networking

  16. The social network of children with special healthcare needs in the (invisibility of nursing care La red social de niños con necesidades especiales de salud en la (in visibilidad del cuidar de enfermería A rede social de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde na (invisibilidade do cuidado de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rezende Montenegro Medeiros de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the (invisibility of nursing care and discuss ways of (disarticulating this care with family care in the social network of children with special healthcare needs. A qualitative research was performed with health professionals at a pediatric hospital, four units of the Family Medical Program (FMP, and children’s relatives living in Niterói (RJ. The field work was put in practice after IRB approval (HESFA/EEAN, consisting of five semi-structured interviews and two group dynamics. Critical Discourse Analysis indicated that nursing care is visible in the child’s social network through the nurse’s educational and care activities and home visits by the nurisng aide of the FMP. Due to errors in the national health system’s referral and counter-referral, mothers articulate the network and not the health service; thus, the reorganization of the system in the State would foster social networks that are less wearing for their families.El objetivo fue identificar la (in visibilidad del cuidado de enfermería y discutir los modos de (des articulación de ese cuidado con el cuidado familiar en red social de niños con necesidades especiales de salud. Investigación cualitativa con profesionales de salud de un hospital pediátrico, de cuatro unidades del Programa Médico de Familia (PMF, y familiares residentes en Niterói (RJ. Trabajo de campo fue ejecutado después de aprobación por el Comité de Ética (HESFA/EEAN, consistiendo de cinco entrevistas seme-estructuradas y dos dinámicas grupales. Análisis Critica del Discurso apuntó que cuidado de enfermería es visible en red social del niño por actividades cuidadoras y educativas de enfermera y por visita domiciliar del auxiliar de enfermería del PSF. Debido a fallos en la referencia y contra referencia del sistema de salud, la madre, articula red y no servicio de salud; por tanto la reorganización del sistema en el Estado promovería redes sociales menos

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  18. In Situ Synthesis of Vertical Standing Nanosized NiO Encapsulated in Graphene as Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinghuang; Jia, Henan; Liang, Haoyan; Chen, Shulin; Cai, Yifei; Qi, Junlei; Qu, Chaoqun; Cao, Jian; Fei, Weidong; Feng, Jicai

    2018-03-01

    NiO is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. Herein, the novel vertically standing nanosized NiO encapsulated in graphene layers (G@NiO) are rationally designed and synthesized as nanosheet arrays. This unique vertical standing structure of G@NiO nanosheet arrays can enlarge the accessible surface area with electrolytes, and has the benefits of short ion diffusion path and good charge transport. Further, an interconnected graphene conductive network acts as binder to encapsulate the nanosized NiO particles as core-shell structure, which can promote the charge transport and maintain the structural stability. Consequently, the optimized G@NiO hybrid electrodes exhibit a remarkably enhanced specific capacity up to 1073 C g -1 and excellent cycling stability. This study provides a facial strategy to design and construct high-performance metal oxides for energy storage.

  19. Inkjet Printing NiO-Based p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisse, R; Faddoul, R; Bourgeteau, T; Tondelier, D; Leroy, J; Campidelli, S; Berthelot, T; Geffroy, B; Jousselme, B

    2017-01-25

    Fabrication at low cost of transparent p-type semiconductors with suitable electronic properties is essential toward the scalability of many electronic devices, especially for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. In this context, the synthesis of mesoporous NiO films through inkjet printing of a sol-gel ink was investigated for the first time. Nickel chloride and Pluronic F-127, used as nickel oxide precursor and pore-forming agent, respectively, were formulated in a water/ethanol mixture to prepare a jettable ink for Dimatix printer. Multilayer NiO films were formed, and different morphologies could be obtained by playing on the interlayer thermal treatment. At low temperature (30 °C), a porous nanoparticulate-nanofiber dual-pore structure was observed. On the other hand, with a high temperature treatment (450 °C), nanoparticulate denser films without any dual structure were obtained. The mechanism for NiO formation during the final sintering step, investigated by means of X-ray photolectron spectroscopy, shows that a Ni(OH) 2 species is an intermediate between NiCl 2 and NiO. The different morphologies and thicknesses of the NiO films were correlated to their performance in a p-DSSC configuration, using a new push-pull dye (so-called "RBG-174") and an iodine-based electrolyte. Moreover, the positive impact of a nanometric NiO x layer deposited by spin-coating and introduced between FTO and the NiO mesoporous network is highlighted in the present work. The best results were obtained with NiO x /four layer-NiO mesoporous photocathodes of 860 nm, with a current density at the short circuit of 3.42 mA cm -2 (irradiance of 100 mW cm -2 spectroscopically distributed following AM 1.5).

  20. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1997 international cooperation project. Report on the results of the research on environmental harmony type combustion technology; 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the R and D on the environmental harmony type combustion technology, the results of the project carried out in fiscal 1997 were summed up. In the site survey, etc., visits were paid to France, Spain, Greek, Germany, the U.K. and the U.S. to have discussions and examine the trend of research on the NOx removal catalyst and catalyst combustion. In the actual R and D, the R and D were conducted on zeolite base NOx removal catalyst, oxide composite base NOx removal catalyst, alumina base NOx removal catalyst, direct decomposition type NOx removal catalyst, catalyst combustion, etc. In the R and D of the catalyst combustion, durability under high gas flow flux was examined of PdO-Pt/Ba-Al203 catalyst developed for low temperature use, which indicated that durability and low temperature activity were heightened. As high temperature use catalyst, high temperature durability was examined of the developed Pd0-La/Gd-ZrO2 catalyst, which showed that the durability was favorable. 322 refs., 261 figs., 55 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1999 international energy conservation model project. Report on result of demonstrative research concerning cement clinker cooling system; 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo seika hokokusho. Cement clinker reikyaku sochi ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption and CO2 discharge in a cement plant in Indonesia, R and D was conducted on new clinker cooling system, high performance kiln combustion system, and technology for steady kiln operation and control, with the fiscal 1999 results reported. In the research on the optimum clinker cooling system, a new type clinker cooling system (CCS) was developed in which air beams are applied only to stationary grate rows, in an air beam type clinker cooling system where cooling air is fed to each block, with grate plates used as the air duct. This year, in an actual machine testing equipment (capacity 2,500 t/d), the whole heat recuperation area was modified for the CCS, with the operation started since February, 1999, aiming at the optimal clinker cooling effect and high heat recovery efficiency. The heat quantity for the entire system showed a decrease of 60 kcal/kg in the heat consumption rate through CCS modification, kiln burner adjustment, etc. So long as the demonstration plant is concerned, design of a new type burner and study/design for the kiln stabilization were nearly completed. (NEDO)

  3. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Report of the International Conference on Adaptation and Mitigation Technologies for Climate Change; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo. Kiko hendo ni kansuru tekio kanwa gijutsu kokusai kaigi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The International Conference on Adaptation and Mitigation Technologies for Climate Change was held based on the 1st Conference of the Parties in 1995 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 2nd evaluation report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This report carries the outline of this conference and minutes. Japanese government had studied the framework of activities implemented jointly (AIJ) for emission control of greenhouse gases by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries. The government decided the basis of the AIJ Japan program in 1995, and approved the evaluation guidelines of this program including confirmed and considered matters which are necessary for government offices related to this program to evaluate and approve each project. IPCC approved the 2nd evaluation report in its general meeting in 1995. This conference was thus held to discuss strategic technology and international cooperation with participation of writers of the 2nd IPCC report, policy planners of Asian countries, Japanese industries, governmental offices and NGO.

  4. FY 1997 report on the investigation on the actual status of international research information exchange in research organizations in Japan and U.S.A; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Nichibei kenkyu kikan ni okeru kokusai kenkyu koryu jittai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was made on the actual status of utilizing researchers from foreign countries and internationally exchanging researchers with views on technological researchers in universities and public institutes in Japan and the U.S.A. Foreign researchers at 39 research institutes in the Tsukuba area are from Asian region at 43%, and European and North American regions at 43%. Asian researchers are dominated overwhelmingly by Chinese and Korean people. Researchers from Europe and North America have a high ratio of working at institutes belonging to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many of them are of short period staying type. On the other hand, many of those from African regions intend to study diplomatic and cultural exchange, and those from Middle and South American regions to study agricultural and fishery industries. About 8.4% of the scientists and engineers who obtained doctorates in America in 1995 is foreign nationals, and about 83.3% of them is of long period staying type. Foreign students in the U.S.A. account for 3.1% of students in institutions of higher education. The higher the education level, the higher the foreign student ratio, whereas the ratio reaches 33.0% in doctoral courses. Persons who obtained doctorates in the department of science and engineering are, in decreasing order, Chinese, Taiwanese, Indian and Korean. 32 figs., 47 tabs.

  5. Report on survey of international cooperation possibility on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kagakuteki CO2 koteika yuko riyo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey focused on the end of the more promising companion and promoting the international cooperation on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology. As a result, the way of the carrying-forward of the international cooperation with more than one companion could be arranged beforehand. It led to getting an arrangement about a secrecy agreement respectively with Lurgi company and ABB company in Europe, and to providing a catalyst sample developed by RITE to implement an examination by the other party and to show related technical information. In addition, it concluded a cooperation agreement about a total system of the chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology and methanol synthesis with ZSW. In Australia, negotiation about international cooperation with CSIRO which is a federal research organization and CRC (Cooperative Research Centre) for renewable energy has been started. The ideal circumstances are being ready for the chemical CO2 fixation project for which the international cooperation with the country where the natural energy is rich like Australia is essential when coming to practical use. To do alternating current with further high density in the following year it is desired to build a concrete study cooperation system. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the analysis of spread effect of technologies approved as international standards. Value web analysis and research; 1998 nendo kokusai hyojun ni ninteisareta gijutsu no hakyu koka bunseki chosa hokokusho. Value wave bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For contributing to the formulation of technology development programs, an analysis is conducted based on the concept of value web into which the economic spread effect is incorporated. As information technology plays an important role in the fields of automobiles and chemical materials, there are various fields the research and development efforts exerted in which are common to many others. As to what additional values are created when such separately developed technologies cross each other, a discussion is conducted using techniques of industry-oriented analyses. Findings obtained are mentioned below. When the numbers of essays relative to the respective industries are compared, it is found that 63% of the total number of biotechnological essays fall on agriculture, the drug industry, and the food industry. On the other hand, when it comes to the produce, related industries larger in marketing scale is more strongly influenced by the spread effect. The spread effect of biotechnology is distinguished in the drug industry, and that of information/communication technology in the information industry, electric and electronic industries, and in the semiconductor industry. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  8. International research cooperation in fiscal 1997. Report on the research, development, and evaluation of environmentally-friendly combustion technologies; Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the research and development of environmentally-friendly combustion technologies that had been conducted for six years beginning in 1992, analysis and discussion were made by a special committee dedicated to the evaluation of the efforts, and the outcome is stated. In the study of zeolite-base catalysts, a highly active catalyst was developed which assumes a multilayer structure of mordenite, etc., with titanium introduced thereinto using an NO-selective reducing catalyst. As for metal complex oxide-base catalysts, various catalysts high in activity were developed, based on saponite which is a laminar, clayey compound. As for alumina-base catalysts, details were learned of the reaction mechanism and catalysis activation sites and, helped by the findings, a silver-supporting alumina catalyst was produced. In the study of direct decomposition type NOx removing catalysts, a success was achieved in causing NO to be decomposed with high selectivity in an oxygen atmosphere by use of new-type electrodes, functional layers, and solid electrolytes. In the field of catalytic combustion, a PdO-Pt/Ba-Al2O3 catalyst was developed, which is to serve for a hybrid type catalytic combustion method. 19 refs., 112 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1996 international research cooperation project. Report on the R and D result of the environmental harmony type combustion technology; 1996 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The research was conducted jointly with Europe of a catalyst which enables clean combustion and NOx removal in polluted gas in combustion flue gas, etc. Reformation of mordenite and {beta}-zeolite was done by ion exchange, ion implantation, and membrane formation. A catalyst was searched for to obtain reducing agents, C5-C8 components, by decomposing light oil. Saponite, clay compound, showed by copper and silver ion exchanges approximately 50% of activity under 20,000h{sup -1}, C3H6 reducing agent, and without steam. The effect of the temperature of sintering on NOx selective reductionality of silver-carrying alumina catalyst was studied, and in sintering at 800degC, activity increased. When using conductive oxides like ruthenium oxide for electrolyte, NO decomposition selectivity increased. As to the functional layer carried above the Pd electrolyte, iron oxide and magnesium oxide increased NO decomposition selectivity. PdO and rare earth oxides forming compounds controlled variation of activity by dissociation/reoxidation of PdO. As to PdO/Gd203, the initial methane combustion activity was favorable, but there was seen deterioration with age. 271 refs., 281 figs., 58 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1995 international research cooperation project. Report on the R and D result of the environmental harmony type combustion technology; 1995 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The research and development were conducted jointly with Europe of an environmental harmony type high efficient catalyst which enables clean combustion and NOx removal in polluted gas in combustion flue gas, etc. In the research and development of NOx removal catalyst such as zeolite base, reformation of mostly mordenite was done by ion exchange, ion implantation, skeleton element substitution, etc. A possibility was found out of applying the membrane formation method except ion implantation as reforming means. In the R and D of the complex oxide base NOx removal catalyst, it was found that the catalyst carrying copper and silver on silica and layer clay compound under optimum conditions shows peculiarly high activity, and there is little decrease in the activity, but rather increase in it even under vapor existence. An evaluation was made of NO resolution of direct resolution element carrying noble metal electrolyte on solid electrolyte, finding out that the highest NO selectivity is shown with Pd as electrolyte and at a baking temperature of about 1300degC. Development of high- and low-temperature catalysts was also made. 417 refs., 286 figs., 63 tabs.

  11. Investigation under international cooperation on the mentality/intellect-based technology. Development of mind-based technology; Shinsei chisei kiban gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu chosa. Mind-Based Technology no kaihatsu ni kakawaru kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The mind-based technology (MBT) was investigated to be developed, for materializing the world where the human race and machinery live together without sense of incompatibility. Based on the human mind, the MBT is a technology to support the personal expression which respects the value judgment, diversity and individuality in the human life. For it, it is important to technologically comprehend the human mind and physiological/psychological state, and particularly, control the human will. In order to structure the social system in which the human race and technology live together, it is also important to build a life system information processing model which simulates the formation process to integrate the feeling, knowledge and conscience, together with an action system to be established. As an image to which the MBT is applied, support will be extended to the life fulfillment, personal expression and hearty communication. Development is expected toward the social security technology with robots living in the human society. Pursuing the mental richness and worthwhile life, the high-grade mature society needs the technology to communicate with the machinery gentle to the human race on the mutual interface. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  12. FY 1997 report on the research for construction of NEDO`s vision. Regional environment and international collaboration; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Chiiki kankyo to kokusai kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary for NEDO to transfer the energy technology to developing countries and conduct collaborations with them efficiently. First of all, environments of the community were analyzed from a viewpoint of natural environment, social and cultural environment, and industrial and economic environment. Then, this report outlines the organizations of domestic and international aid agencies which have potentials to conduct alliance and collaboration with NEDO, and also illustrates their activities including financing and technology exchange, regional activities, and progress of activities. Alliances and collaborations with NGOs of each international organization were analyzed on the aspect of the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs, and some case studies were taken. Organization, purposes and activities of NGOs in Asian countries are introduced, and their current situations are illustrated. Finally, some proposals were offered to make alliances and collaborations with aid agencies and NGOs. They are concerned about the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs. 44 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 2000 survey report on project for promoting international cooperation. Survey on coal utilization in APEC region (Coal note); 2000 nendo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. APEC iki nai ni okeru sekitan riyo jokyo tou chosa (Koru note)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the infrastructure for promoting clean coal technology (CCT), there were compiled as the 'coal note' various kinds of coal-related information in China, Indonesia, Philippine, Thailand and Vietnam among APEC countries. Concerning China, for example, economic growth and energy supply/demand in the category of the energy outline were described in detail; as were the guiding principle. individual guidance plan, and specific energy policy of the 10th five year plan, in the category of the energy policy; coal deposits, geological summary, coal quality in each coal forming period, and the status quo of development, in the category of the coal mines and development; coal supply/demand, production, consumption, and export, in the category of the present status of the coal industry; producers, sales, quality of product coal, distribution, and price, in the category of the domestic supply; present state of environmental problems relating to coal, and environmental measures intended for coal, in the category of the coal-related environmental issues; and development, production, coal cleaning, quality control, safety control, and utilization (combustion, liquefaction and gasification), in the category of coal utilization technology, respectively. (NEDO)

  14. Feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment; Sabaku chiiki wo riyoshita taiyoko hatsuden chokyori yuso gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A workshop was held at Tokyo in March, 1997 on the research and development and feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic (PV) power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment. Two speakers from the USA, one from Italy, and two from China were invited, and four speakers in Japan presented papers. A total of 48 persons participated. In the technical sessions, `World energy demand and PV system potential` by Prof. Kurokawa, `Long distance transmission of PV power` by Mr. A. Invenizzi, `Case studies of large scale PV systems distributed throughout desert areas of the world` by Mr. Hirasawa, `Linking renewable energy resources around the world` by Mr. P. Meisen, `Properties of large scale PV plant in the USA` by Mr. J. Benner, `Future prospect of PV electrification in China` by Mr. Kong Li, `Application of large-scale PV systems in deserts in China` by Mr. Isomura, and `Effects of large-scale PV power plant in a climatic desert areas` by Prof. Ihara were presented. 38 refs., 62 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. New energy vision at Sabae City. Toward realization of 'environmental international city'; 2001 nendo Sabae shi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo kokusai toshi Sabae no jitsugen ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an object of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Sabae City in Fukui Prefecture, a new energy vision was put into order based on the result of the initial stage investigation having been performed in the previous fiscal year. Solar light and solar heat energies will be introduced positively into public facilities, and at the same time works will be implemented to accelerate the proliferation thereof into general households. The target of introduction by the year 2010y is set to 2,600 kW by photovoltaic power generation, and the introduction thereof is planned to schools, nursery schools, municipality operated houses, and unattended facilities. With regard to solar heat water warmer, the present proliferation rate of about 7.3% will be raised to 15%. Regarding wastes generated from industrial areas, efficient energy extraction by thermal recycling is intended on the assumption of suppression of wastes generation, their re-use, and recycling. Systems may include the bio-gas system, cogeneration, and recovery of energies from plastics wastes. For acceleration of proliferation of new energies in general, promotion of introduction will be achieved on mini-wind power generation, small hydroelectric power generation, and fuel cell automobiles. (NEDO)

  16. Preparation and electrochemical characteristics of porous hollow spheres of NiO nanosheets as electrodes of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Jiang, Xinbing; Ding, Shujiang; Li, Ben Q.

    2014-06-01

    Porous hollow nanospheres (or spherical shells) made of NiO nanosheets are synthesized and tested for the electrochemical performance of the electrodes made of these materials for supercapacitors. Preparation of the NiO sheet hollow spheres starts with synthesis of polystyrene nanospheres with carboxyl groups (CPS), followed by a two-step activation procedure and the subsequent nucleation and growth by electroless deposition of Ni on the CPS core to obtain CPS@Ni core-shell nanoparticles. The CPS core is eliminated and metallic Ni nanoshell is converted into NiO by calcinations at high temperatures. The material properties of as-prepared hollow NiO nanospheres are characterized by TEM, XRD and N2-absorption measurements. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes made of these nanostructured NiO materials are determined by the CV and galvanostatic measurements. These electrochemical tests indicate that electrodes made of the NiO nanosheet hollow spheres exhibit an improved reversible capacitance of 600 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g-1. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance of these electrodes is attributed to the improved OH- transport in the porous network structures associated with the hollow spheres of randomly oriented NiO nanosheets.

  17. Radiochemical method for 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Nilsson, U.; Hallstadius, L.

    1985-01-01

    A radianalytical method for the determination of 63 Ni content in environmental samples of activated corrosion products is described. After chemical separation and electrodepositing of 63 Ni on silver briquets, the chemical yield is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the detection of low-energy beta activity, an open gas flow GM-counter with an anticoincidence guard counter is put to use

  18. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  19. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  20. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  1. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, D.; Bojda, O.; Dlouhy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate crystallographic variants are investigated in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy after aging, assisted by external stress. A finite-element method model is presented that considers the elastic anisotropy of the B2 parent phase and also mutual misorientations of grains in a polycrystalline sample. On loading by the external stress, the stress is redistributed in the microstructure and the precipitation of some Ni 4 Ti 3 crystallographic variants becomes distinctly favorable in grain boundary regions since these variant configurations minimize the elastic interaction energy. The volume fraction of the affected grain boundary regions is calculated and the numerical results are compared with the data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

  2. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  3. Electronic structure of Ni-- and Ni2--ethylene cluster complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basch, H.; Newton, M.D.; Moskowitz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure of metal cluster--ethylene complexes has been investigated by carrying out ab initio bonding pair-correlated, self-consistent field, and configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the NiC 2 H 4 and Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species. The π-NiC 2 H 4 and π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 cluster complexes are found to be bound, the former only with CI, while disigma-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 has only a repulsive Ni 2 --C 2 H 4 ground state potential curve. The bonding in the π-type cluster complexes can be described as follows: The metal atom configuration is 3d 9 4s 1 with the 4s hybridized (by the metal 4p) away from the ethylene molecule, thereby allowing the π orbital to form a dative sigma bond with the metal atom. The bonding interaction is promoted by the presence of a second nickel atom behind the first one, leading to a 4s orbital electron deficiency of the bonded nickel atom and thus making this nickel atom a better electron acceptor. Back donation from the occupied metal 3d into the ethylene π* molecular orbital also takes place to some extent, and thus both features of the classical Dewar--Chatt--Duncanson model are observed. The π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species is analyzed in terms of the addition of a bare nickel atom to a π-NiC 2 H 4 cluster complex, with concomitant stabilization of the orbitals of the bonded nickel atom. A study of the excited electronic states of π-NiC 2 H 4 shows that low-lying 4s→π* and 3d→π* (M→L) charge transfer transitions are predicted. The former is not observed experimentally, probably due to the diffuse nature of the 4s orbital. The relationship between small cluster--ethylene complex systems and ethylene chemisorption on a nickel metal surface is discussed

  4. Improvement in ductility of high strength polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy produced by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.Y.; Pei, Y.L.; Li, S.S.; Zhang, H.; Gong, S.K., E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • High strength and high ductility of polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy sheets were produced. • The elongation could be enhanced from ∼0.5% to ∼14.6% by microstructural control. • The fracture strength (∼820 MPa) was enhanced by the precipitation strengthening. • This work provides a general processing for repairing the worn single crystal blades. - Abstract: A 300 μm Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al sheet was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and followed by different heat treatments to obtain fine γ′/γ two-phase structures with large elongation. Tensile testing was performed at room-temperature, and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the as-deposited Ni{sub 3}Al alloy exhibited non-equilibrium directional columnar crystal, and transited to equiaxed crystal with uniformly distributed tough γ phase after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the fracture mechanism transited from brittleness to a mixture of ductility and brittleness modes. With an appropriate heat treatment, high strength (ultimate tensile strength obtained 828 MPa) and high ductility (elongation obtained 14.6%) Ni{sub 3}Al alloy has been achieved, which was due to the mesh network microstructure. A series of transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations confirmed that the increasing flow stress of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy was attributed to the cubical secondary γ′ phase precipitates (25–50 nm) within the γ phase. This work provides a potential strategy for repairing the worn tip of single crystal engine blades using Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy by EB-PVD.

  5. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, X.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of Λ and Ξ hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of Λ particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of Λ have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange Ξ - particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of Λ and K + as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and Λ creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be degrees of freedom that are difficult to adjust

  6. Observation of the structural, optical and magnetic properties during the transformation from hexagonal NiS nano-compounds to cubic NiO nanostructures due to thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganiso, E.C., E-mail: elinganiso@csir.co.za [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W., E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Coville, N.J. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mhlanga, S.D. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, 2028 Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-04-25

    Graphical abstract: The transition temperature of 350 °C for the formation of c-NiO from h-NiS oxidation was obtained from structural and optical property studies and by calculating the number of spins obtained from the EPR data. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) shows that this pure NiS has both ferromagnetic ordering and paramagnetic domains. Further, the transition temperature of −9 °C of the pure α-NiS nano-alloys was confirmed by performing electrical measurements on the as-synthesized material. - Highlights: • Single hexagonal phase NiS obtained by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. • NiS nanoalloys show both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic domains by VSM. • Structural evolution of annealed NiS and temperature dependent NiS oxidation presented. • Phase transition from NiS to NiO studied and correlated to the EPR spin population data and crystallite size. • Ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ordering observed for the raw NiS nanostructures. - Abstract: Single phase α-NiS nano-compounds with uniformly distributed hierarchical networks were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The materials were evaluated for thermal stability under an oxidative environment and at temperatures between 150 °C and 600 °C. NiS materials showed stability at 300 °C and NiO formation was observed from 350 °C to 600 °C. The annealing effect on the crystalline size and IR absorption of the annealed samples is reported by XRD and FTIR studied. The EPR properties of the annealed materials were studied and compared to the oxidized materials. The transition temperature of 350 °C for the formation of NiO from NiS oxidation was confirmed by calculating the number of spins obtained from the EPR data. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) shows that this pure NiS has both ferromagnetic ordering and paramagnetic domains. Further, the transition temperature of −9 °C of the pure α-NiS nano-compounds was confirmed by performing electrical

  7. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  8. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  9. Microstructure and Properties of (TiB2 + NiTi)/Ti Composite Coating Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinghua; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Lin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Agglomerated TiB2 particle and network-like structure-reinforced titanium matrix composite coatings were prepared by laser cladding of the Ni + TiB2 + Ti preplaced powders on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The network-like structure mainly consisted of NiTi and Ni3Ti. Through the experiment, it was found that the size of agglomerated particle gradually decreased with the increase of Ti content, but the number of the network-like structure first increased and then disappeared. In-situ reaction competition mechanism and the formation of network-like structure were discussed. The average micro-hardness gradually decreased with the increase of Ti content, but the average fracture toughness gradually increased. Meanwhile, the wear resistance of the coatings is higher than that of the substrate, but the wear loss of the coatings is gradually increased with the increase of Ti content.

  10. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Study on the global network; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Global network kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the introduction condition of hydrogen as substituting energy and CO2 reduction effect were analyzed using a global energy model. The WE-NET project aims at global-wide introduction of clean energy by converting abundant renewable clean energy into hydrogen transportable to distant consumers all over the world. The study result in fiscal 1996 is as follows. Undeveloped hydroelectric resources in the world are estimated to be 12 trillion kWh/y equivalent to the existing developed one in the world. Since the cost of the hydroelectric power generation projects over 1000MW in the planning stage is estimated to be 0.02-0.05$/kWh lower than that of other renewable energies, such projects are expected as energy source in the initial stage of the practical WE-NET project. The GREEN model was modified by adding a hydrogen analysis function, and extending an analysis period. The modified model allowed evaluation of the long-term important role of hydrogen energy, in particular, the capability of CO2 gas reduction all over the world. 28 refs., 92 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of NiSi films with electroplated Ni(W) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yuhang; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an electroplating method to deposited Ni, crystalline NiW(c-NiW), amorphous NiW (a-NiW) films on P-type Si(1 0 0) were used to form Ni-silicide (NiSi) films. After annealed at various temperatures, sheet resistance of Ni/Cu, c-NiW/Cu and a-NiW/Cu was measured to observe the performance of those diffusion barrier layers. With W added in the barrier layer, the barrier performance was improved. The results of XRD and resistance measurement of the stacked Si/Ni(W)/Cu films reveal that Cu atom could diffuse through Ni barrier layer at 450 deg. C, could diffuse through c-NiW at 550 deg. C, but could hardly diffuse through a-NiW barrier layer. c-NiW layer has a better barrier performance than Ni layer, meanwhile the resistance is lower than a-NiW layer.

  12. Direct synthesis of porous NiO nanowall arrays on conductive substrates for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jingping; Ding, Ruimin; Ding, Hao; Feng, Yamin; Wei, Guangming; Huang, Xintang

    2011-01-01

    Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on flexible Fe-Co-Ni alloy have been successfully synthesized by using nullaginite (Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ) as precursor and investigated as supercapacitor electrodes. In details, we adopted a simple hydrothermal method to realize Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 NWAs and examined their robust mechanical adhesion to substrate via a long-time ultrasonication test. Porous NiO NWAs were then obtained by a post-calcination towards precursors at 500 o C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical properties of as-synthesized NiO NWAs were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge; porous NiO NWAs electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current densities, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with ∼93% specific capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These results suggest that as-made porous NiO NWAs electrode is a promising candidate for future thin-film supercapacitors and other microelectronic systems. -- Graphical abstract: Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on alloy substrate have been made using nullaginite as precursor and studied as supercapacitor electrodes. Porous nanowalls interconnected with each other resulting in the formation of extended-network architectures and exhibited excellent capacitor properties. NiO NWAs electrode delivered a capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current density, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Besides, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with ∼93% capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These remarkable results made it possible for mass production of NiO NWAs and future thin-film microelectronic applications. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Large-scale nullaginite (Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ) nanowall arrays (NWAs) have been synthesized on flexible alloy substrate by a facile hydrothermal method.

  13. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  14. Fabrication process and electromagnetic wave absorption characterization of a CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Mo, Chan Bin; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Since carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered in 1991, it has been considered as a viable type of conductive filler for electromagnetic wave absorption materials in the GHz range. In this paper, pearl-necklace-structure CNT/Ni nano-powders were fabricated by a polyol process as conductive fillers. Compared to synthesized CNT, pearl-necklace Ni-decorated CNT increased the electrical conductivity by an order of 1 due to the enhancement of the Ni-conductive network. Moreover, the decorated Ni particles prevented the agglomeration of CNTs by counterbalancing the Van der Walls interaction between the CNTs. A CNT/Ni nanocomposite showed a homogeneous dispersion in an epoxy-based matrix. This enhanced physical morphology and electrical properties lead to an increase in the loss tangent and reflection loss in the CNT/Ni/Epoxy nanocomposite compared to these characteristics of a CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite in range of 8-12 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposites will provide enormous opportunities for electronic applications where lightweight EMI shielding or electro-magnetic wave absorption properties are necessary.

  15. Effect of Ni on the characteristics and hydrogenation activity of sulfide Mo/γ-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachtl, E.; Wuttke, E.; Gutierrez, O.Y.; Lercher, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogenation of phenanthrene was explored on sulfide Mo/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts promoted with increasing concentrations of Ni. The characterization of the materials was done by N 2 -physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed sulfidation and NO adsorption experiments. Increasing loading of Ni improves the dispersion of MoS 2 species; however, at Ni/(Mo+Ni) molar ratio higher than 0.5, segregation of Ni-sulfides is observed. The presence of Ni also facilitates the sulfidation of oxidic catalyst precursors by lowering the reduction temperature of Mo species. In the sulfide catalysts, Ni changes the structure of MoS 2 leading to shorter slabs with higher stacking degree than on Mo/γ-Al 2 O 3 , and increases the concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. The kinetic results (increased hydrogenation rate and changed reaction network in the presence of Ni) suggest that a highly active kind of active site is created by Ni promotion. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Ni-YSZ cermet anode for SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyatham, T.; Bauri, Ranjit

    2010-01-01

    Ni-YSZ cermet anode has been synthesized in one step using a simple and cost effective combustion synthesis process. The processed powder of NiO-YSZ is found to be nanocrystalline with crystallite sizes of 29 and 22 nm for NiO and YSZ respectively by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis also shows that the precursor salts are converted to highly crystalline phases of NiO and YSZ (8 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) without any intermediate calcination step and no undesirable phases are present. Comparison with the X-ray diffraction pattern of a commercial YSZ sample shows that the process is also effective in maintaining a close compositional control. The microstructure of the sintered and reduced sample shows a well defined network of pores which is necessary for the effective functioning of the anode. The electrical conductivity as a function of temperature shows metallic behavior.

  17. High Ni in Archean tholeiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1991-03-01

    Archean tholeiites generally have higher Ni, Co. Cr and Fe than most younger tholeiites with similar MgO contents. These characteristics cannot be attributed to high T or P batch melting in the Archean mantle, because, although such melts are enriched in siderophile elements, they have higher MgO than normal tholeiites. As primary melts fractionate to lower MgO, they lose Ni, Co and Cr. Nor can the differences between Archean and younger tholeiites be attributed to secular variation in mantle compositions because Archean komatiites have Ni, Co, Cr contents similar to modern (Gorgona) komatiites. It is suggested that the high siderophile element content of Archean tholeiites results from mixing of either komatiitic with basaltic magmas, as might occur in an ascending, melting mantle plume or column, or of komatiite and more evolved rocks, as may take place when komatiite encounters and assimilates crustal rocks.

  18. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  19. Ni-NiO core-shell inverse opal electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kang, Soon Hyung; Zhu, Kai; Kim, Jin Young; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2011-05-14

    A general template-assisted electrochemical approach was used to synthesize three-dimensional ordered Ni core-NiO shell inverse opals (IOs) as electrodes for supercapacitors. The Ni-NiO IO electrodes displayed pseudo-capacitor behavior, good rate capability and cycling performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  1. Iodine capture by Hofmann-type clathrate Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massasso, Giovanni; Long, Jerome; Haines, Julien; Devautour-Vinot, Sabine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Guerin, Christian; Guari, Yannick; Grandjean, Agnes; Onida, Barbara; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The thermally stable Hofmann-type clathrate framework Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] (pz = pyrazine) was investigated for the efficient and reversible sorption of iodine (I_2) in the gaseous phase and in solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mol of I_2 per 1 mol of Ni(II)pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] in solution. (authors)

  2. Density functional theory study of the interfacial properties of Ni/Ni3Si eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuhong; Wen, Zhiqin; Hou, Hua; Guo, Wei; Han, Peide

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of α-Ni grains on Ni 3 Si particles in Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy, the work of adhesion (W ad ), fracture toughness (G), interfacial energy (γ i ), and electronic structure of the index (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) Ni/Ni 3 Si interfaces with two different cohesive manners are investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Results indicate that the center site stacking sequence (OM) is preferable to continue the natural stacking sequence of bulk Ni and Ni 3 Si. Since OM stacking interfaces have larger W ad , G and γ i than that of the top site stacking (OT) interfaces. The Ni/Ni 3 Si (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking has the best mechanical properties. Therefore, the formation of this interface can improve the stability, ductility and fracture toughness of Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy. The calculated interfacial energy of Ni/Ni 3 Si (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces with OM stacking proves the excellent nucleation potency of Ni 3 Si particles for α-Ni phase from thermodynamic considerations. Besides, the electronic structure and chemical bonding of (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking are also discussed.

  3. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  4. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  5. Estudio sobre las redes de soporte social de niños trabajadores en Lima Metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Franco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se refiere a un estudio descriptivo sobre las redes de soporte social en 30 niños trabajadores y 30 niños no-trabajadores de 9 años, provenientes de una zona urbano marginal de Lima. Todos vivían con sus padres y asistían a la escuela en forma regular. Los resultados muestran que las redes de estos niños tienden a ser más amplias y dispersas y que sus relaciones de intercambio se basan en aspectos concretos y funcionales. Asimismo, se encontró que los miembros adultos de la red mantienen relaciones insatisfactorias con el niño, por consiguiente los adultos no logran una presencia significativa en la red, y los padres la mantienen gracias a la estabilidad y facilidad de acceso de sus lazos. La comparación con redes de niños no-trabajadores muestra que las características antes señaladas son particulares a los niños que trabajan. This paper deals with a descriptive study on social support networks in 30 working children and 30 non working children. Their average age was 9 years, all of them lived with their parents in urban marginal zones of Lima, and assisted regularly to school. The results show that social networks of working children have a tendency to be wide and that their exchange relationship is based on functional and concrete aspects. It was also found that the adult members of the network maintained non satisfactory relationships with the children. As a consequence adults do not have a significant presence in the network. Parents maintain their presence due to stability and facility of their access. These characteristics belong exclusively to working children.

  6. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuna; Zhang, Shujuan; Song, Limin; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni 2 P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni 2 P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni 2 P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO 2 supported three-dimensional Ni 2 P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni 2 P/SiO 2

  7. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  8. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (power generation No.15). Achievement report on development of guided boring system for buried power network; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.15). Denryokumo chichuka hikaisaku kanro kensetsu koho no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    What impedes the popularization of the guided boring system is the functional insufficiency of the drilling position measuring method. For the purpose of properly dealing with the situation, efforts are made to develop a new drilling position measuring method which is highly reliable even when there exist previously buried pipes or electromagnetic noise. Activities are conducted in the two sections of (1) the study of an drilling position measuring method not to be easily affected by magnetic noise and (2) the study of a method for detecting previously buried objects. In section (1), based on the technology of a drilling position measuring system (locator) which is currently the most popular among horizontal drilling systems, a signal processing technology capable of reducing the effect of noise and a new position measuring method are contrived, and it is proved by the use of an experimenting system that they work effectively. In section (2), with attention paid to the small horizontal drilling device, an underground radar technology with the radar probing into the ground from the ground surface or from a drilling head is studied as an effective and easy-to-use method for detecting previously buried steel pipes. (NEDO)

  9. Predicting and Controlling Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    ubiquitous in nature and fundamental to evolution in ecosystems. However, a significant chal- lenge remains in understanding biodiversity since, by the...networks and control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4 Pattern formation, synchronization and outbreak of biodiversity in cyclically...Ni, Y.-C. Lai, and C. Grebogi, “Pattern formation, synchronization and outbreak of biodiversity in cyclically competing games,” Physical Review E 83

  10. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Effects of Ni particle morphology on cell performance of Na/NiCl2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mangi; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Cho, Nam-ung; Lee, Heesoo; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical reaction of Ni particle, one of active cathode materials in the Na/NiCl2 battery, occurs on the particle surface. The NiCl2 layer formed on the Ni particle surface during charging can disconnect the electron conduction path through Ni particles because the NiCl2 layer has very low conductivity. The morphology and size of Ni particles, therefore, need to be controlled to obtain high charge capacity and excellent cyclic retention. Effects of the Ni particle size on the cell performance were investigated using spherical Ni particles with diameters of 0.5 μm, 6 μm, and 50 μm. The charge capacities of the cells with spherical Ni particles increased when the Ni particle size becomes smaller because of their higher surface area but their charge capacities were significantly decreased with increasing cyclic tests owing to the disconnection of electron conduction path. The inferior cyclic retention of charge capacity was improved using reticular Ni particles which maintained the reliable connection for the electron conduction in the Na/NiCl2 battery. The charge capacity of the cell with the reticular Ni particles was higher than the cell with the small-sized spherical Ni particles approximately by 26% at 30th cycle.

  12. Template-less surfactant-free hydrothermal synthesis NiO nanoflowers and their photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2015-12-01

    A facile direct surfactant-free template-less hydrothermal method is employed for the growth of high surface-area NiO nanoflowers made up of complex and assembled nanosheets network.Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that each nanosheet is about 50-60nm thick. Detailed structural analysis reveals single-crystalline nature of NiO nanoflowers with cubic crystal structure. The optical absorption bands in the wavelength range of 350-800nm illustrated in terms of ligand field theory. The photoelectrochemical (PEC), water splitting performance on the NiO nanoflowers were also investigated. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  13. Template-less surfactant-free hydrothermal synthesis NiO nanoflowers and their photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Zhang, Zhongai; Asif, M.; Yamazaki, Toshinari

    2015-01-01

    A facile direct surfactant-free template-less hydrothermal method is employed for the growth of high surface-area NiO nanoflowers made up of complex and assembled nanosheets network.Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that each nanosheet is about 50-60nm thick. Detailed structural analysis reveals single-crystalline nature of NiO nanoflowers with cubic crystal structure. The optical absorption bands in the wavelength range of 350-800nm illustrated in terms of ligand field theory. The photoelectrochemical (PEC), water splitting performance on the NiO nanoflowers were also investigated. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  14. Ethanol sensing properties and dominant sensing mechanism of NiO-decorated SnO2 nanorod sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Wan In; Dwivedi, Ram Prakash; Lee, Chongmu; Ko, Taegyung

    2017-05-01

    NiO-decorated SnO2 nanorods were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of Sn powders followed by the solvothermal deposition of NiO. A multi-networked p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor was fabricated by dropping the p-NiO-decorated n-SnO2 nanorods onto the interdigited electrode pattern and then annealing. The multi-networked p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor exhibited enhanced response to ethanol compared with the pristine SnO2 nanorod and NiO nanoparticle sensors. The former also exhibited a shorter sensing time for ethanol. Both sensors exhibited selectivity for ethanol over other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as HCHO, methanol, benzene and toluene and the decorated sensor exhibited superior selectivity to the other two sensors. In addition, the dominant sensing mechanism is discussed in detail by comparing the sensing properties and current-voltage characteristics of a p-NiO/ n-SnO2 heterostructured nanorod sensor with those of a pristine SnO2 nanorod sensor and a pristine NiO nanoparticle sensor. Of the two competing electronic mechanisms: a potential barrier-controlled carrier transport mechanism at a NiO-SnO2 p- n junction and a surface-depletio n-controlled carrier transport mechanism, the former has some contribution to the enhanced gas sensing performance of the p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor, however, its contribution is not as significant as that of the latter. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  16. First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Wang; Chong-Yu, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni 3 Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill rule of mixtures. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of A356 Alloy with Ni Additions from 0.5 Wt to 2 Wt %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lattanzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the influence of Ni on high-temperature mechanical properties of casting Al alloys has been extensively examined in the literature. In the present study, room temperature mechanical properties of an A356 alloy with Ni additions from 0.5 to 2 wt % were investigated. The role of Ni-based compounds and eutectic Si particles in reinforcing the Al matrix was studied with image analysis and was then related to tensile properties and microhardness. In the as-cast condition, the formation of the 3D network is not sufficient to determine an increase of mechanical properties of the alloys since fracture propagates by cleavage through eutectic Si particles and Ni aluminides or by the debonding of brittle phases from the aluminum matrix. After T6 heat treatment the increasing amount of Ni aluminides, due to further addition of Ni to the alloy, together with their brittle behavior, leads to a decrease of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and Vickers microhardness. Despite the fact that Ni addition up to 2 wt % hinders spheroidization of eutectic Si particles during T6 heat treatment, it also promotes the formation of a higher number of brittle Ni-based compounds that easily promote fracture propagation.

  18. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10 -5 -1x10 -2 dpa at KUR, and 8x10 -3 -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High concentration of alloying

  19. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q. [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10{sup -5}-1x10{sup -2} dpa at KUR, and 8x10{sup -3} -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High

  20. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  1. Distinguishing Southern Africa precipitation response by strength of El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomposi, C.; Funk, C. C.; Shukla, S.; Magadzire, T.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a leading mode of interannual precipitation variability and the main source of skill for seasonal climate predictions. Interannual precipitation variability linked to ENSO can have drastic impacts on agricultural systems and food resources in the semi-arid tropics, highlighting the need for increased information regarding ENSO's links to sub-seasonal to seasonal precipitation variations. The present work describes a case study on recent precipitation variability during warm ENSO events (i.e. El Niño) for the austral summer rainy season (December-February) in Southern Africa. Using a blending of observational and model data, it is found that the probability distribution of precipitation varies according to the strength of El Niño events. Strong El Niño events show a much clearer tendency for drying than moderate or weak events, which have smaller absolute magnitude anomalies and larger spatial heterogeneity in the precipitation response. A dynamical exploration of the various precipitation responses is also completed. The techniques utilized can be easily expanded to study likelihood of drought during El Niño for a variety of other regions and also provides information about El Niño strength and its influence on regional teleconnections. Finally, this presentation will describe the channels by which seasonal forecasting information is disseminated in the region and utilized by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network to help mitigate the impacts of potential food insecurity crises.

  2. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-11

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  3. Dielectric property of NiTiO3 doped substituted ortho-chloropolyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Lakshmi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ortho-chloropolyaniline (OCP-NiTiO3 composites have been synthesized via in-situ polymerization of ortho-chloroaniline with various weight percentages of NiTiO3. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic studies of Ortho-chloropolyaniline and its composites indicated the formation of composites as a result of Vander Waal's interaction between OCP and NiTiO3 particles. Surface morphology of OCP and OCP-NiTiO3 composites were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The SEM micrographs indicated a modified morphology after the composite formation. Dielectric properties and electric modulus of OCP and OCP-NiTiO3 composites have been investigated in the frequency range of 50 Hz – 5 MHz. It has been noticed that electrical resistance decreases with increase in weight percentage of NiTiO3 particles in polymer matrix as well as with applied frequency. The display of semicircular arcs in Cole-Cole plots indicates the formation of series resistor and capacitor in network causing a decrease in the relaxation time and as a result conductivity enhances in these composites. The facile and cost effective synthesis process and excellent dielectric and conductivity response of these materials makes them promising materials for practical applications.

  4. Flowsheet for 63Ni production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Knauer, J.B.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Wiggins, J.T.; Porter, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The production of large quantities of high specific activity 63 Ni (>10Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched 62 Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products (mainly transition metals) can be easily removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present as 51 Cr, and manganese, present as 54 Mn, are exceptions and require solvent extraction of the in-cell product to achieve the desired purity. In addition to summarizing the current development and production experience, optimized flowsheets are discussed

  5. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  6. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  7. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  8. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  9. Report on the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system - Study of the optimum system design technology. Case study of the wide area energy supply network in the Osaka prefectural region; Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu - saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho. Osakafuiki ni okeru koiki energy kyokyu network no case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper worked out a model of the wide area supply network which combines the element technology being developed in the eco/energy urban project and the existing technology to apply it to the actually existing city, and the evaluation study was made of energy conservation effects, environmental preservation effects, economical efficiency, etc. The FY 2000 results were reported. In this fiscal year, a case was studied of using the exhaust heat from waste incineration plant by wide area network in the region having a plan of redevelopment/rezoning of the city of Osaka where heat is in great demand. The results of the study were as follows: The total primary energy consumption amount is reduced by 16.3-19.7% in the conventional heat insulation pipe method and by 19.2-20.6% in the vacuum heat insulation method. As to the environmental preservation, the CO2 reduction amount is 36.9-40.0%, and the NOx reduction amount is 43.7-45.5%, which indicated much more improvement than in the present situation. In the aspect of economical efficiency, the result indicated that in the case of the shortest piping, much economical efficiency is expected even without subsidies if considered of the carbon tax. (NEDO)

  10. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  11. Reinvestigation of 56Ni decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Norman, E.B.; Lesko, K.T.; Browne, E.; Larimer, R.

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we have reinvestigated the decay of the doubly magic nucleus 56 Ni, which is believed to be copiously produced in supernovae. We have confirmed its previously known decay scheme and half-life, and have searched for several rare decay modes. We establish an upper limit of 5.8x10 -7 for the branching ratio of the second forbidden unique β + decay to the 158-keV level in 56 Co, leading to a lower limit of 2.9x10 4 yr for the half-life of fully ionized 56 Ni nuclei in cosmic rays. We also establish an upper limit of 5.0x10 -3 for the branching ratio of the isospin forbidden Fermi electron capture transition to the 1451-keV level in 56 Co, which in turn leads to an upper limit of 124 keV for the isospin mixing Coulomb matrix element of the 56 Ni ground state

  12. On the nature of Ni···Ni interaction in a model dimeric Ni complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Radosław; Herbaczyńska, Beata; Srebro, Monika; Pietrzykowski, Antoni; Michalak, Artur; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan B; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2011-06-07

    A new dinuclear complex (NiC(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CHCH(2))(2) (2) was prepared by reacting nickelocene derivative [(C(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CH=CH(2))(2)Ni] (1) with methyllithium (MeLi). Good quality crystals were subjected to a high-resolution X-ray measurement. Subsequent multipole refinement yielded accurate description of electron density distribution. Detailed inspection of experimental electron density in Ni···Ni contact revealed that the nickel atoms are bonded and significant deformation of the metal valence shell is related to different populations of the d-orbitals. The existence of the Ni···Ni bond path explains the lack of unpaired electrons in the complex due to a possible exchange channel.

  13. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  14. Effect of Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-zhong; Lin, Pei-hao, E-mail: gllph2002@163.com; Huang, Wei-chao; Pan, Shun-kang; Liu, Ye; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    MnAlNi powder was prepared by the process of vacuum levitation melting and high-energy ball milling, The morphology and phase structure of the powder were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and the effect of the Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder was investigated by an vector network analyzer. The addition of Ni, which improved the microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder but not changed the composition of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} alloy. The minimum reflectivity of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} powder with a coating thickness (d) of 1.8 mm was about −40.8 dB and has better bandwidth effect, the absorbing mechanism of AlMnNi powders on the electromagnetic was related to the electromagnetic loss within the absorbing coatings and the effect of coating thickness on the interference loss of electromagnetic wave. - Highlights: • The grain size and cell volume of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} alloy phase were decreased with the increasing of Ni. • ε″ and μ″ of powder moves toward low frequency region at the beginning then moves high. • The minimum reflectivity of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} powder was −40.8 dB with 1.8 mm thickness. • The lowest reflection loss peak of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} was −46.3 dB with 2.2 mm thickness.

  15. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  16. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  17. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, B.

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  18. Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials have been developed for the Ni/Al/H system. The potentials have been fit to numerous properties of this system. For example, these potentials represent the structural and elastic properties of bulk Ni, Al, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl quite well. In addition the potentials describe the solution and migration behavior of hydrogen in both nickel and aluminum. A number of calculations using these potentials have been performed. It is found that hydrogen strongly prefers sites in Ni 3 Al that are surrounded by 6 Ni atoms. Calculations of the trapping of hydrogen to a number of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al have been performed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential at room temperature. The failure of these bicrystals under tensile stress has been examined and will be compared to the failure of pure Ni 3 Al boundaries. Boundaries containing a preponderance of nickel are severely weakened by hydrogen. In order to investigate the potential embrittlement of γ/γ' alloys, trapping of hydrogen to a spherical Ni 3 Al precipate in nickel as a function of chemical potential at room temperature has been calculated. It appears that the boundary is not a strong trap for hydrogen, hence embrittlement in these alloys is not primarily due to interactions of hydrogen with the γ/γ interface

  19. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  20. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  1. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  2. Compositional and structural characterisation of Ni-phyllosilicates in hydrous silicate type Ni-laterite deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanova de Benavent, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates (commonly known as garnierites) are significant ore minerals in many Ni-laterite deposits worldwide. However, the characterisation of these mineral phases is complex, as well as their classification and nomenclature, due to their fine-grained nature, low crystallinity and frequent occurrence as mixtures. The aim of this study is to shed some light to the nature of the Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates occurring at the Falcondo Ni-laterite. In this deposit, these ...

  3. Thermal capture cross section for 58Ni (n,γ)59 Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 58 Ni total thermal capture cross section was determined by suming the partial cross sections calculated for the primary transitions of the reaction 58 Ni (n,γ) 59 Ni. The primary transitions energies and intensities were determined from the 58 Ni thermal neutrons prompt gamma capture gamma rays spectrum in the 3.7 to 9.3 MeV region. The obtained value for the total cross section was 4.52 + 0.10b. (author) [pt

  4. Formation enthalpy of NiBe and Ni5Be21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.I.; Karpova, T.F.; Dalago, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The method of dissolution calorimetry is used to determine standard enthalpies of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 formation, which are 84.8+-2.2 and (-669+-37)kJ/mol. The enthalpy values of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 at 331 K are shown to coincide (within the limits of errors of these values) with the values at the standard temperature of 298.15 K [ru

  5. Social Networking of Instrumentation - a Case Study in Telematics

    OpenAIRE

    ROBU, D.; SANDU, F.; PETREUS, D.; NEDELCU, A.; BALICA, A.

    2014-01-01

    The research work contributes to the design and implementation of the communication part for integrating remote instruments and drives via social networks (SN) into instrumentation communities. It is used the virtual instrumentation (VI) to manage objects that tweet on popular SN platforms applying the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT). Local and remote resource aggregation is based on National Instruments (NI) data acquisition and distribution hardware in a NI software ...

  6. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Creep and shrinkage of Mo(Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysser, W.A.; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M.; Petzow, G.

    1984-01-01

    To avoid some of the errors inherent in a quantitative interpretation of shrinkage of powder compacts as Mo-Ni, other experiments were looked for, where the influence of Ni on the material transport properties of Mo could be measured semi-quantitatively during heating up to temperature and subsequent isothermal annealing. The bending of thin Mo foils under small loads was found to be an experimental arrangement, where variations in stress, in Ni-concentration and in intrinsic material properties could be realized. The results of these creep experiments will be compared in a qualitative sense with sintering experiments in Mo-Ni done under similar conditions as the creep experiments

  9. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  10. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  11. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  12. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  13. Estimation of Transformation Temperatures in Ti-Ni-Pd Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, P. L.; Kim, Seong-Woong; Hong, Jae-Keun; Reddy, N. S.; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2018-03-01

    The present study focused on estimating the complex nonlinear relationship between the composition and phase transformation temperatures of Ti-Ni-Pd shape memory alloys by artificial neural networks (ANN). The ANN models were developed by using the experimental data of Ti-Ni-Pd alloys. It was found that the predictions are in good agreement with the trained and unseen test data of existing alloys. The developed model was able to simulate new virtual alloys to quantitatively estimate the effect of Ti, Ni, and Pd on transformation temperatures. The transformation temperature behavior of these virtual alloys is validated by conducting new experiments on the Ti-rich thin film that was deposited using multi target sputtering equipment. The transformation behavior of the film was measured by varying the composition with the help of aging treatment. The predicted trend of transformational temperatures was explained with the help of experimental results.

  14. Development of environmentally-friendly high-efficiency energy utilization system. Research on optimum system design technology (Case study report on wide-area energy supply network system in Osaka Prefecture); Osakafu ni okeru koiki energy kyokyu network system no case study hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A wide-area energy supply network model is fabricated for a region to be re-developed, and the model is assessed from the viewpoints of economy, environmental preservation, and energy conservation. The model is a combination of element technologies being developed under an Eco-Energy City project and some existing technologies. Although a wide-area heat supply system using high-temperature water is superior to district heating systems in energy conservation and environmental friendliness, yet it contains some unsolved problems relating to cost efficiency. The use of a vacuum-insulated tube as the heat supply main is better than the use of a double tube from every point of view. It is noted here that in the study of the Sakai district, the neighborhood of the old Sakai Port, an area in front of Sakai-shi Station of the Nankai Main Line, Nakamozu-Minami district, and Nakamozu-Kita district are defined to be the areas to be supplied with heat. Petroleum company C, glass mill C, and the Sakai Municipal Incineration Plant situated in the bay area are assumed to be the sources of waste heat. It is so set that the high-temperature water is to be transported at 170 degrees C and is to return at 140 degrees C. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Study of energy system designing technology (Research into factory area energy system); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu, energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kojogun no energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Actualities of exhaust heat and demand for heat in the area are investigated on the result of which a wide-area energy utilization network system will be built. In fiscal 1998, further questionnaires are distributed in addition to last fiscal year's, and door-to-door visits are made on leading factories representing 10 types of industries. The result of data analysis places the nationwide total of exhaust heat at 320,000 Tcal/year including heat generated by electric power generation. When it is so defined that usable heat be above 150 degrees C for exhaust gas, above 40 degrees C for hot water, and above 200 degrees for solids, the total will be reduced to 230,000 Tcal/year. Cleaning plants (plants that treat refuse or sewage) as the sources of exhaust heat besides the factories are investigated for the amount of heat they discharge, and then it is found that the amount of heat they discharge is the fourth largest following electric power plants, iron and steel mills, and chemical plants. It is also found that most of their exhaust heat is of good quality because it is latent in steam or hot water. It is acknowledged, partly because many of such plants are situated relatively near to the urban district, that their role is important when studies are made on the utilization of exhaust heat. (NEDO)

  16. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  17. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  18. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  19. FeNi{sub 3} alloy nanocrystals grown on graphene: Controllable synthesis, in-depth characterization and enhanced electromagnetic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng; Yuan, Mengwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Islam, Saiful M. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Li, Huifeng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Shulan, E-mail: mashulan@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Genban, E-mail: gbsun@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xiaojing [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-09-05

    FeNi{sub 3} nanocrystals as an ideal candidate for EM-wave-absorption material have a great advantage due to their excellent magnetic properties. However, its large permittivity and poor chemical stability confine its application. A strategy to improve electromagnetic performance of FeNi{sub 3}via phase-controlled synthesis of FeNi{sub 3} nanostructures grown on graphene networks has been employed in this work. The phases, structures, sizes and morphologies of FeNi{sub 3} nanocomposites were in-depth characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The results of electromagnetic performance tests for the as-synthesized FeNi{sub 3} nanocomposites showed excellent microwave absorbability in comparison with the corresponding FeNi{sub 3} nanocrystals, especially in the low (2–6 GHz) and middle (6–12 GHz) frequencies. The one-pot method we utilized is simple and effective, and because of its versatility, it may be extended to prepare some magnetic metal or alloy materials via this route. - Highlights: • Monodispersed FeNi{sub 3} alloy nanocrystals have been successfully assembled on 2D graphene via a one-pot strategy. • The process ensures different crystal phase and controlled morphology and size in the monodispersed particles. • The nanocomposites exhibit excellent microwave absorbability, which is stronger than the corresponding alloy monomer.

  20. Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes sponge for enhanced glucose biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingchun; Zhao, Minggang, E-mail: zhaomg@ouc.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Fan, Sisi; Liang, Jingjing; Ding, Longjiang; Chen, Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. • The mechanism of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified CNTs relied on π-π interactions and static cling. • The porous structure made for GO{sub x} load, electrons transport and reactants diffusion. • Double catalysis and enhanced glucose sensing were achieved with elements Ni and Fe. - Abstract: In this work, self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. The device synergized the advantageous features of both the 3D porous nanostructure and the catalytic properties of CNTs with GOx and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The porous network construction of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sheets offered enlarged specific surface for GOx immobilization and opened channels for facilitating the electrons transport and reactants diffusion. With the help of the abnormal-valence elements Ni and Fe, double catalysis has happened and the enhanced glucose biosensing performance has been achieved. The fabricated glucose biosensor exhibited two large linear ranges (0–3.0 and 3.2–12.4 mM) and distinct sensitivities (84.1 and 24.6 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}).

  1. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  2. Effect of Ni on the characteristics and hydrogenation activity of sulfide Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtl, E.; Wuttke, E.; Gutierrez, O.Y.; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center

    2012-07-01

    The hydrogenation of phenanthrene was explored on sulfide Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts promoted with increasing concentrations of Ni. The characterization of the materials was done by N{sub 2}-physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed sulfidation and NO adsorption experiments. Increasing loading of Ni improves the dispersion of MoS{sub 2} species; however, at Ni/(Mo+Ni) molar ratio higher than 0.5, segregation of Ni-sulfides is observed. The presence of Ni also facilitates the sulfidation of oxidic catalyst precursors by lowering the reduction temperature of Mo species. In the sulfide catalysts, Ni changes the structure of MoS{sub 2} leading to shorter slabs with higher stacking degree than on Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and increases the concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. The kinetic results (increased hydrogenation rate and changed reaction network in the presence of Ni) suggest that a highly active kind of active site is created by Ni promotion. (orig.)

  3. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  4. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las ...

  5. Facile synthesis of MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam with excellent pseudocapacitive behavior for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Wenhui [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Li, Diansen [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Energy Materials and Devices, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Li; Hou, Chunlin [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Yinghe [International Center for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Liu, Yaqing, E-mail: lyqzgz2010@163.com [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, the MnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide/Ni (MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni) composite foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode was prepared by a facile method. The rGO film has been firstly coated on the skeletons of Ni foam current collectors by chemical deposition method and that have been used as substrates for preparation of a novel three dimensional rGO/Ni composite foam-supported porous MnO{sub 2} film by the hydrothermal method. The structure of MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam was characterized by Raman spectra, IR spectra and Scanning electron microscopy. It indicated that the high-quality rGO film have been coated on skeletons of Ni foam current collectors and the MnO{sub 2} film had a 3D network microstructure, consisting of interlaced nanosheets. Furthermore, the binder-free MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam electrode has been characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectra. It exhibited excellent pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 479.0 F/g. The capacitance could retain about 83.5% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This simple synthetic approach provides a convenient route for the large scale preparation of 3D porous MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam for lots of applications in future. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam was prepared by a facile method as shown in Fig. 1 and the unique structure of composite foam was suited to be a binder-free supercapacitor electrode due to low resistance, 3D network and porous structure. - Highlights: • The MnO{sub 2}/rGO directly grown on Ni foam was firstly reported. • The MnO{sub 2}/rGO/Ni composite foam was prepared by a facile method. • The MnO{sub 2}/graphene/Ni composite foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode exhibited excellent pseudocapacitive behavior.

  6. Facile synthesis of MnO2/rGO/Ni composite foam with excellent pseudocapacitive behavior for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Wenhui; Li, Diansen; Gao, Li; Hou, Chunlin; Zhang, Yinghe; Liu, Yaqing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the MnO 2 /reduced graphene oxide/Ni (MnO 2 /rGO/Ni) composite foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode was prepared by a facile method. The rGO film has been firstly coated on the skeletons of Ni foam current collectors by chemical deposition method and that have been used as substrates for preparation of a novel three dimensional rGO/Ni composite foam-supported porous MnO 2 film by the hydrothermal method. The structure of MnO 2 /rGO/Ni composite foam was characterized by Raman spectra, IR spectra and Scanning electron microscopy. It indicated that the high-quality rGO film have been coated on skeletons of Ni foam current collectors and the MnO 2 film had a 3D network microstructure, consisting of interlaced nanosheets. Furthermore, the binder-free MnO 2 /rGO/Ni composite foam electrode has been characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectra. It exhibited excellent pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 479.0 F/g. The capacitance could retain about 83.5% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This simple synthetic approach provides a convenient route for the large scale preparation of 3D porous MnO 2 /rGO/Ni composite foam for lots of applications in future. - Graphical abstract: The MnO 2 /rGO/Ni composite foam was prepared by a facile method as shown in Fig. 1 and the unique structure of composite foam was suited to be a binder-free supercapacitor electrode due to low resistance, 3D network and porous structure. - Highlights: • The MnO 2 /rGO directly grown on Ni foam was firstly reported. • The MnO 2 /rGO/Ni composite foam was prepared by a facile method. • The MnO 2 /graphene/Ni composite foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode exhibited excellent pseudocapacitive behavior

  7. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al wat ons werd was. Na middagete op 29 Junie, is ek per kar suid om die grand te gaan besigtig en om te sien hoe my stellings, van die vyandelike oogpunt, daaruit .... van Gatt se optrede moes die. Nieu-Seelanders, in 'n briljante nagaanval, met gevelde bajonette, 'n weg baan deur die vyand am daardie nag te ontvlug.

  8. Water dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111): Effect of surface temperature on reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces are studied using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs on top site on both the surfaces, while H and OH adsorb on four fold hollow and three fold hollow (fcc) sites on Ni(100) and Ni(111), respectively. Transition states (TS) on both surfaces are identified using climbing image-nudged elastic band method. It is found that the barrier to dissociation on Ni(100) surface is slightly lower than that on Ni(111) surface. Dissociation on both the surfaces is exothermic, while the exothermicity on Ni(100) is large. To study the effect of lattice motion on the energy barrier, TS calculations are performed for various values of Q (lattice atom coordinate along the surface normal) and the change in the barrier height and position is determined. Calculations show that the energy barrier to reaction decreases with increasing Q and increases with decreasing Q on both the surfaces. Dissociation probability values at different surface temperatures are computed using semi-classical approximation. Results show that the influence of surface temperature on dissociation probability on the Ni(100) is significantly larger compared to that of Ni(111). Moreover, on Ni(100), a dramatic shift in energy barrier to lower incident energy values is observed with increasing surface temperature, while the shift is smaller in the case of Ni(111)

  9. Creatividad en niños superdotados

    OpenAIRE

    González Román, María del Pilar

    1992-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio sobre la creatividad en los niños superdotados. Analizándose los diferentes modelos de creatividad y superdotacion avalados por un estudio empírico, en el cual se han valorado las diferencial que existen entre los niños superdotados y contraste a nivel verbal y grafico-espacial.

  10. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  11. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jason E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-01-01

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi 1+x Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  12. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV; Production d'etrangete dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 1.93 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, X

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of {lambda} and {xi} hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of {lambda} particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of {lambda} have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange {xi}{sup -} particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of {lambda} and K{sup +} as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and {lambda} creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be

  13. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV; Production d'etrangete dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 1.93 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, X

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of {lambda} and {xi} hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of {lambda} particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of {lambda} have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange {xi}{sup -} particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of {lambda} and K{sup +} as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and {lambda} creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey project on the policy for international energy utilization rationalization, etc. - model project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Viability survey of the project on energy conservation in the urea synthesis process in India; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo - kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indo ni okeru nyoso gosei process sho energy jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas, a remodeling project was studied of urea plants constructed from the 1960s to the 1970s. Conditions for being companies for study are as follows: company has a production scale of more than 0.2 million t/y, adopts the complete circulation method, and will continue operation. And, Duncans Industries Ltd. (DIL) was selected. DIL owns the ammonia plant of 3 series x 400 t/d and the urea plant of 3 series x 682 t/d. In the modeling, stripper and carbamate condenser are added to the existing reactor as the main equipment. As a result of the study, the energy conservation effect was 13,667 toe/y, and the amount of reduction in greenhouse effect gas was 42,289 t-CO2/y. The total amount of this project was roughly estimated at 1.517 billion yen. By carrying out the project, the urea production cost is reduced approximately $9/t, but the project becomes unprofitable if the urea price is based on $188.1/t. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation; survey/study on the standardization for hydrogen energy technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the basic study of the standardization for hydrogen energy technology and ISO/TC197, the results of the fiscal 1997 survey were summarized. From fiscal 1994 through 1996, in the wide-range field related to hydrogen energy technology, the survey of the present situation of the related standards/laws was made and the needs/subjects of standardization to be studied in the future were extracted. At the present stage, however, it is still early to enter into the stage of discussing the standardization. Therefore, in this fiscal year, only in the field of the storage/transportation/handling of liquid hydrogen, standards/laws abroad and in Japan were comparatively investigated for the basic study toward the standardization. Further, concerning ISO/TC197, studies were proceeded with of the liquid hydrogen land vehicle fueling system interface/fuel tanks/transportation containers/hydrogen fuel product specifications/airport hydrogen fueling facilities. Some are at the stage of drafting the international standard. Three drafts for the new standard were added such as gaseous hydrogen/hydrogen blend vehicular fuel systems, gaseous hydrogen fuel tanks, and basic requirements for safety of hydrogen systems. The standardization is indispensable to introducing the developed technology to the commercialization. 9 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst); 1995 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kankyo chowagata shokubai kaihatsu gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst. In 1), a survey was conducted of applicability of biological surfactant to prevention measures of pollution by heavy distillate. It showed that part of the biological surfactants is reaching a stage of its being industrially produced by gene recombination bacteria, but as a whole, biosynthetic genes have hardly been elucidated. In 2), a survey of high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke was made. It pointed out that it is necessary to develop a technology which makes the most of features of petroleum coke and allows defects. In 3), scientists and engineers of Japan and Europe searched for themes on which they can jointly study in the fields of NOx removal catalyst, up-grading of fuel, and development of catalyst combustion of fuel. 287 refs., 136 figs., 128 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use unused hydrocarbon resource, technology of solid electrolyte fuel cells for high-efficient electric vehicles); 1993 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kokoritsu denki jidosha no kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) solid electrolyte fuel cell (SOFC) technology for high-efficient electric vehicles. In 1), bio-remediation is a choice as the result of trially using technologies for remediation of the environment polluted by pollutant, but it is not a technically completed one, but one which will be improved by trial and error. By the application of gene engineering, the use of gene recombination enables wide spread of decomposition genes. In 2), technical subjects were studied such as superheavy distillate, oil shale, coalhead methane and methane hydrate. In 3), designed were cylinder type and planar type SOFC of 850degC operation and 10kW output. Accumulation and weight of a total SOFC system are 81 liters and 100 kg in cylinder type and 136 liters and 200 kg in planar type. The vehicle can be equipped with the SOFC. 171 refs., 72 figs., 54 tabs.

  18. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies - Separate volume; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (bessatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations were performed on important properties when utilization of gas hydrates to industries is discussed, such as production and decomposition speeds and storage stability. Activities have been taken in the following two fields: 1) experimental studies on production and decomposition of gas hydrates, and 2) summarized view on research related to gas hydrate self-retention effect. In Item 1), a production device of stirring system using rotating blades with gas circulation holes (self-suction type) was fabricated to have discussed the production and decomposition speeds. It was made clear that the production speed is governed by the over-cooling degree under the appropriate gas circulation and appropriate stirring conditions, and that the decomposition speed becomes abnormally high unless the self-retention status is maintained. In Item 2), following the introduction, seven researches were introduced, including the first observation of abnormal reaction of gas hydrate under the decreased pressure condition, the research by Yu. P. Handa related to gas hydrate decomposition below zero degree C, and the research by E. Mayer and A. Hall Brucker related to unexpectedly stable nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and argon clathrate gas hydrate formed from amorphous solid water. (NEDO)

  19. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  20. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  1. Understanding the Performance and Stability of Supported Ni-Co-Based Catalysts in Phenol HDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan M. Huynh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Performances of bimetallic catalysts (Ni-Co supported on different acidic carriers (HZSM-5, HBeta, HY, ZrO2 and corresponding monometallic Ni catalysts in aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of phenol were compared in batch and continuous flow modes. The results revealed that the support acidity plays an important role in deoxygenation as it mainly controls the oxygen-removing steps in the reaction network. At the same time, sufficient hydrothermal stability of a solid catalyst is essential. Batch experiments revealed 10Ni10Co/HZSM-5 to be the best-performing catalyst in terms of conversion and cyclohexane yield. Complementary continuous runs provided more insights into the relationship between catalyst structure, efficiency and stability. After 24 h on-stream, the catalyst still reveals 100% conversion and a slight loss (from 100% to 90% in liquid hydrocarbon selectivity. The observed alloy of Co with Ni increased dispersion and stability of Ni-active sites, and combination with HZSM-5 resulted in a well-balanced ratio of metal and acid sites which promoted all necessary steps in preferred pathways. This was proved by studies of fresh and spent catalysts using various characterization techniques (N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine (pyr-IR.

  2. Temperature dependence of Ni3S2 nanostructures with high electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Wei, X. Q.; Li, M. B.; Hou, P. Y.; Xu, X. J.

    2018-04-01

    Different Ni3S2 nanostructures have been successfully synthesized at different temperatures by a facile and efficient solvothermal method. The Ni3S2 nanostructures with three-dimensional (3D) nanosheets array and silkworm eggs-like morphologies were obtained by adjusting the reaction temperature. A large number of 3D nanosheets are interconnected to form an open network structure with porous of Ni3S2 at 180 °C, and electrochemical tests showed that the special structure exhibited the outstanding specific capacitance (1357 F g -1 at 1 A g-1) and excellent cycling stability (maintained 91% after 3000 cycles). In comparison, the performance of Ni3S2 silkworm eggs-like structure is not very perfect. This may be due to the fact that the 3D nanosheets with porous structure can improve the electrochemical performance by shortening effectively the diffusion path of electrolyte ions and increasing the active sites during charging and discharging. Among them, the reaction temperature is the main factor to control the formation of the 3D nanosheets array. These results indicated the Ni3S2 nanosheets promising applications as high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials.

  3. Anomalous magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic polycrystalline materials R2Ni3Si5 (R=rare earth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, C.; Nigam, A.K.; Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L.C.; Chandra, G.; Padalia, B.D.; Godart, C.; Vijayaraghaven, R.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) studies on polycrystalline R 2 Ni 3 Si 5 , (R=Y, rare earth) which order antiferromagnetically at low temperatures, are reported here. MR of the Nd, Sm, and Tb members of the series exhibit positive giant magnetoresistance, largest among polycrystalline materials (85%, 75%, and 58% for Tb 2 Ni 3 Si 5 , Sm 2 Ni 3 Si 5 , and Nd 2 Ni 3 Si 5 , respectively, at 4.4 K in a field of 45 kG). These materials have, to the best of our knowledge, the largest positive GMR reported ever for any bulk polycrystalline compounds. The magnitude of MR does not correlate with the rare earth magnetic moments. We believe that the structure of these materials, which can be considered as a naturally occurring multilayer of wavy planes of rare earth atoms separated by Ni endash Si network, plays a role. The isothermal MR of other members of this series (R=Pr,Dy,Ho) exhibits a maximum and a minimum, below their respective T N close-quote s. We interpret these in terms of a metamagnetic transition and short-range ferromagnetic correlations. The short-range ferromagnetic correlations seem to be dominant in the temperature region just above T N . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  5. Preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu josei jigyo seika hokoku kai yokoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research sponsored by NEDO. For international joint research teams doing excellent studies, their research expenses are subsidized, thereby promoting international research exchange, enhancing international level of industrial technology and contributing to the formation of basis for innovative industrial technology. The projects relating to the global environmental field are implemented jointly with RITE. The contents of the report to be published are, in the global environmental field (practicability study), development of oil substitute resources, reproducible resources, and technologies for producing polymeric and plastic materials benign to the earth by microorganism using carbon dioxide. In the substance/material field, the contents of the report are innovative production and device application of tunable photonic crystals using electronic penetration network; development of new synthesis process of innovative nitride, creation and theoretical calculation of electromagnetic function; studies on quantum transportation in superconductor and semiconductor bonding structures; and studies on quantum liquid and solid, and application to materials science and technology. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  7. Report on International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange and Experts; APEC kankyogijutsu koryusokushin kokusai shinpojium jisshi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above event took place at Nagoya City, Japan, on December 5, 2000. Taken up were the response of developing nations to the problem of environmental protection, their needs for environmental technologies, examples of the transfer of environmental technologies carried out by Japan's environment related businesses or organizations, introduction of technologies Japan was able to present, and so forth. Introduced also were the current state and future outlook of such activities as the exchange of environmental technologies and business through the utilization of the virtual center for APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) environmental technology exchange now in service, and so forth. At the symposium, a keynote address entitled Toward the Realization of Sustainable Society was delivered by Professor Yamamoto of the Institute of Industrial Science of the University of Tokyo. Panel discussions were held on the exchange of environmental technologies and business making use of the international network APEC-VC (virtual center) at Session 1, on some front-line cases of environmental technology transfer at Session 2, and on the transfer of technologies useful for developing nations as it ought to be at Session 3. (NEDO)

  8. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  9. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  10. Hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol over Ni2P/SiO2–reaction mechanism and catalyst deactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, X.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Weber, T.

    2018-01-01

    The catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol, a phenolic model compound of biomass lignin pyrolysis products, has been investigated under atmospheric pressure in H2 utilizing a Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst. Reaction networks are proposed based on the product distribution as a function of contact time and the

  11. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  12. Microstructure and tribological properties of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yongliang; Song Chunyan; Yang Li; Qin Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites was fabricated successfully with Mo-Ni-Si powder blends as the starting materials. Microstructure of the NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites consists of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites, binary intermetallic phase NiMo and small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure. The NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites exhibited high hardness and outstanding tribological properties under room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions which were attributed to the covalent-dominant strong atomic bonds and excellent combination of strength and ductility and toughness. - Abstract: Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites with a microstructure of ternary metal silicide Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendritic, the long strip-like NiMo intermetallic phase, and a small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure were designed and fabricated using molybdenum, nickel and silicon elemental powders. Friction and wear properties of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites were evaluated under different contact load at room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions. Microstructure, worn surface morphologies and subsurface microstructure were characterized by OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Results indicate that NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites have low fiction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and sluggish wear-load dependence. The dominant wear mechanisms of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites are soft abrasion and slightly superficial oxidative wear.

  13. Preparation of Ni(OH)2-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.F.; Yuan, G.H.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yao, Z.P.; Yue, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNT is introduced into graphene to prevent restacking by solvothermal reaction. • Ethanol as a low cost and green solvent is used in solvothermal reaction. • Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were chemically precipitated into GS-CNT to increase the capacitance. - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was prepared for supercapacitance materials through a simple two-step process involving solvothermal synthesis of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite in ethanol and chemical precipitation of Ni(OH) 2 . According to N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite (109.07 m 2 g −1 ) was larger than that of pure graphene sheets (32.06 m 2 g −1 ), indicating that the added carbon nanotubes (15 wt.%) could prevent graphene sheets from restacking in the solvothermal reaction. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were uniformly loaded into the three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite. The microstructure enhanced the rate capability and utilization of Ni(OH) 2 . The specific capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was 1170.38 F g −1 at a current density of 0.2 A g −1 in the 6 mol L −1 KOH solution, higher than those provided by pure Ni(OH) 2 (953.67 Fg −1 ) and graphene sheets (178.25 F g −1 ). After 20 cycles at each current density (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 A g −1 ), the capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite decreased 26.96% of initial capacitance compared to 74.52% for pure Ni(OH) 2

  14. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  15. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  16. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  17. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  18. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  19. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...

  20. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  1. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  2. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.

    1995-12-01

    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  3. N{sub 2}H{sub 4} electrooxidation at negative potential on novel wearable nano-Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Bin; Cao, Dianxue; Ye, Ke; Xu, Yang; Yin, Jinling; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling, E-mail: wangguiling@hrbeu.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The novel Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode is prepared by the facile “dipping and drying” and electrodeposition process. • The Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode exhibits a special three dimensional network structure. • The Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode exhibits excellent performance for N{sub 2}H{sub 4} electrooxidation. - Abstract: A new composite Ni electrode is simply prepared by electrodeposition of nano-scaled Ni particles onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-enabled conductive textile fiber (cosmetic cotton) which owns an especial three-dimensional (3D) network structure. The morphology and phase structure of the Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction spectrometer, and the catalytic performance for the N{sub 2}H{sub 4} electrooxidation is tested by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results show that the Ni-MWNTs-textile electrode exhibits a remarkably high catalytic activity and good stability for N{sub 2}H{sub 4} electrooxidation. The onset potential stays at around −0.9 V and the oxidation current density reaches as high as 12 mA cm{sup −2} in the solution containing 1 mol dm{sup −3} NaOH and 20 mmol dm{sup −3} N{sub 2}H{sub 4} at around −0.80 V, both of which outstrip the previous reports.

  4. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  5. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-02-15

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi{sub 5} particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol{sup -1} for the Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5}, Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface.

  6. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  7. Feasibility study of international cooperation in the research/development of a solar energy utilization system by the innovative solar thermochemical process; Kakushinteki solar netsukagaku process ni yoru taiyo energy riyo system no kaihatsu kenkyu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    At COP3 in 1997, an agreement was made to the innovative technical development/promotion by international cooperation, and the promotion of transfer of environmental technology to developing countries. Under the agreement, a feasibility study of international cooperation was made, and especially a study was conducted of the utilization/development of solar energy by the innovative solar thermochemical process. The main reason for global warming is emissions of a large amount of CO2 caused by the direct combustion of fossil fuels. Therefore, a CO2 recycle system taken up in the study enables a more substantial decline in CO2 emission (kg/kWh) per unit generation than the conventional thermal power system by composing solar methanol or solar dimethyl ether using fossil fuels including coal, water, CO2, etc. as raw materials and using solar energy as heat source, and by using this as fuel (solar fuel). CO2 can be reduced by 13% to 14% by substituting solar methanol or solar dimethyl ether produced from petroleum/methane equivalent-mol mixed raw materials for the equivalent mol coal and natural gas of the thermal power plant (CO2 recovery is not necessary). 34 refs., 47 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on internationalization of technologies for effective use of energy resources. Survey by exploration of international cooperative researches on energy-saving through advanced use of steel slag; 1999 nendo energy shigen yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kokusaika chosa hokokusho. Tekko slag no kodo riyo ni yoru sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu no tansaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As for the collection of sensible heat, 1/3 of blast-furnace slag is treated to the purpose at the Teesside Technology Centre, Britain, but none is collected in the latter half of tapping in case there is so much slag that cooling cannot be done in time. In the case of a large blast furnace, some measures have to be contrived because molten iron comes out of the furnace intermittently. In Germany, the heat collection rate is as low as 3%, with no effort made at heat collection. In North America, desire to develop such a technology is not strong. A visit was made to the Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, in relation to the concept of using steel slag as a eutrophic source for marine photo-plankton. A large-scale long-term test is under way for examining the relationship between global warming and ocean current circulation. There are possibilities that Japan will enter into the project for a joint study, for example, of heavy metal elution from slag though the test fails to name slag as the direct object of study. Not only for Canada but also for any other country who faces the sea, it may be a meaningful national policy to inject some active ingredients into the sea for an increase in living marine resources. Greece is engaged in the ocean dumping of nickel slag on an experimental basis but, in view of the purpose of the experiment, Japan will not be a participant in the project. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2000 project for promoting international cooperation. Survey report on preparation of technological information in APEC region (Upstream area: preparation of video for training); 2000 nendo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. APEC iki nai ni okeru gijutsu joho seibi ni kakawaru chosa (Joryu bunya - kenshu you video sakusei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of spreading and promoting clean coal technology (CCT) in coal producing countries in the APEC region, videos for training use were prepared so as to contribute to the reduction in environmental problems through the introduction of the coal cleaning and wastewater treatment technologies used in Japanese mines. In the video, comparison is made between the untreated wastewater and cleaned water flowing in and out of a present coal-cleaning plant, with the purification ratio determined, recognisably showing the effect by the cleaning facilities, and introducing the type of equipment required to satisfy the standard under the regulation. Also introduced is a technology for utilizing sludge collected in a sedimentation pond and fly ash scavenged in a private power plant. The videotape was prepared for 40 reels in English, 40 in Chinese, and 20 in Indonesian. The video title is 'Environmental safeguard of coal cleaning plant', and the contents are the importance of wastewater treatment and measures against water pollution, wastewater treatment technology in Taiheiyo coal mines, and wastewater treatment technology in Ikeshima coal mines. (NEDO)

  10. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000. International infrastructure improving project for rationalization of energy use (Fundamental survey on effective utilization of unutilized biomass energy in ASEAN countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku ni okeru miriyo baiomasu energy no yuko riyo ni kansuru kisochosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to utilize 'biomass' being the unutilized and reproducible energy source, which exists affluently in the ASEAN countries, investigations and discussions have been carried out on electric power generation using palm shells as fuel in Malaysia. This paper reports the achievement in fiscal 2000. The biomass energy plant project was discussed with the followings as the conditions: an output of 1 MW, use of biomass in the form of wastes discharged from oil palm mills, the system of direct combustion process with boiler/steam turbine generation process, and power transmission to public grids. As a result of the discussions, the following conclusions were obtained: reduction of greenhouse effect gas exhaust will amount to 81,540 t-CO2/year, reduction will be realized on white smoke pollution caused by wastes incineration being criticized from various sectors and such harmful gas exhaust as SOx and NOx discharged from fossil fuel power generation, the uncertainty of electric power supply currently depending on DG power generation will be mitigated resulting in acquisition of economic effects, and electric power supply to 1,000 households will be possible, contributing to enhancement of living standard due to electrification. (NEDO)

  11. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhou, Lu; Laveille, Paco; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles

  12. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  13. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  14. Exchange bias variations of the seed and top NiFe layers in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer as a function of seed layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2005-01-01

    Development of exchange bias at the seed and top NiFe layers in the NiFe (t nm)/FeMn(10 nm)/NiFe(5 nm) trilayer structure is investigated as a function of seed layer thickness, in the range of 2-20 nm. The seed NiFe layer shows maximum exchange bias at 4 nm seed layer thickness. The bias shows inverse thickness dependence with increasing thickness. The top NiFe layer on the other hand shows only half the bias of the seed layer which is retained even after the sharp fall in seed layer bias. The much smaller bias for the top NiFe layer is related to the difference in crystalline texture and spin orientations at the top FeMn/NiFe interface, in comparison to the bottom NiFe/FeMn interface which grows on a saturated NiFe layer with (1 1 1) orientation

  15. Superstructure formation in PrNi_2Al_3 and ErPd_2Al_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd_2Al_3 was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd_2Al_3 was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi_2Al_3 - a CaCu_5 derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F"2 values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi_2Al_3 (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F"2 values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T_2Al_3]"δ"-, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi_2Al_3 type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  16. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis of a novel Au nanoparticles decorated Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite and electrocatalytic performance for the detection of glucose in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Shu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    A nonenzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor was constructed based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ni metal-organic-framework (MOF)/Ni/NiO nanocomposite. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step calcination of Ni-MOF. Then AuNPs were loaded onto the Ni-based nanocomposites' surface through electrostatic adsorption. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, it is found that the AuNPs were well distributed on the surface of Ni-based nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed the electrocatalytic activity of Au-Ni nanocomposite was highly improved after loading AuNPs onto it. Amperometric study demonstrated that the Au-Ni nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a high sensitivity of 2133.5 mA M -1 cm -2 and a wide linear range (0.4-900 μM) toward the oxidation of glucose with a detection limit as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, the reproducibility, selectivity and stability of the sensor all exhibited outstanding performance. We applied the as-fabricated high performance sensor to measure the glucose levels in human serum and obtained satisfactory results. It is believed that AuNPs decorated Ni MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite provides a new platform for developing highly performance electrochemical sensors in practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ni antagelser om Situationel Dialektisk Videnskabsteori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dakwar, Julia Rytter; Lorentzen, Anne-Christine Rosfeldt; Smedegaard, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    I artiklen præsenteres et præliminært bud på en Situationel Dialektisk Videnskabsteori (SDV) i form af ni antagelser. Situationel, fordi antagelserne ikke er statiske, men alle overvejelser og valg under de enkelte antagelser er afhængige af situationen. Dialektisk, fordi alle ni antagelser...... opererer med dialektiske modsætninger, og alle videnskabsteoretiske valg ses som valg på kontinua. De ni antagelser, som bliver præsenteret og diskuteret i artiklen, er: Antagelse 1: Teori og praksis fordrer hinanden Antagelse 2: Del og helhed hænger sammen Antagelse 3: Forbundne sagsforhold påvirker...

  19. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  20. Site occupancy of Fe in ternary Ni 75-x

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of a detailed structural and magnetic study clearly indicate that regardless of the thermal history of the samples, Fe has a strong preference for the Ni sites in Ni-poor (non-stoichiometric) Ni75Al25 alloys. Fe substitution has a profound effect on the nature of magnetism in Ni75Al25.

  1. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø

    2015-01-01

    microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  2. Influence of Ni Solute segregation on the intrinsic growth stresses in Cu(Ni) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaub, T.M.; Felfer, P.; Cairney, J.M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Using intrinsic solute segregation in alloys, the compressive stress in a series of Cu(Ni) thin films has been studied. The highest compressive stress was noted in the 5 at.% Ni alloy, with increasing Ni concentration resulting in a subsequent reduction of stress. Atom probe tomography quantified Ni's Gibbsian interfacial excess in the grain boundaries and confirmed that once grain boundary saturation is achieved, the compressive stress was reduced. This letter provides experimental support in elucidating how interfacial segregation of excess adatoms contributes to the post-coalescence compressive stress generation mechanism in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Cu(Ni) film stress relationship with Ni additions. Atom probe characterization confirms solute enrichment in the boundaries, which was linked to stress response.

  3. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K.; Fan, H. P.; Zhao, Z. S.

    2015-01-01

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α E,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm −1 ⋅ Oe −1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors

  4. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  5. Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.

  6. Phase stability and magnetism in NiPt and NiPd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyal, Durga; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    We show that the differences in stability of 3d-5d NiPt and 3d-4d NiPd alloys arise mainly due to relativistic corrections. The magnetic properties of disordered NiPd and NiPt alloys also differ due to these corrections, which lead to increase in the separation between the s-d bands of 5d elements in these alloys. For the magnetic case we also analyse the results in terms of splitting of majority and minority spin d band centres of the 3d elements. We further examine the effect of relativistic corrections to the pair energies and order-disorder transition temperatures in these alloys. The magnetic moments and Curie temperatures have also been studied along with the short range ordering/segregation effects in NiPt/NiPd alloys

  7. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  8. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  9. Ni-Ni ion pair excitation transfer in D sub(3h) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to excitation transfer are examined for Ni-Ni ion pairs in order to explain the delocalized character of electronic excitations observed in CsNiF sub(3). Using both first-and second-order perturbation theory and from symmetry arguments, the kind of interactions giving matrix elements between states connecting different sites for the position of the excitation are discussed. (author)

  10. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  11. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirako, Y.; Shi, Y.G.; Aimi, A.; Mori, D.; Kojitani, H.; Yamaura, K.; Inaguma, Y.; Akaogi, M.

    2012-01-01

    NaNiF 3 perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16–18 GPa and 1273–1473 K. The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=−2.0+0.014×T (K). Structure refinements indicated that NaNiF 3 perovskite and post-perovskite have almost regular NiF 6 octahedra consistent with absence of the first-order Jahn–Teller active ions. Both NaNiF 3 perovskite and post-perovskite are insulators. The perovskite underwent a canted antiferromagnetic transition at 156 K, and the post-perovskite antiferromagnetic transition at 22 K. Magnetic exchange interaction of NaNiF 3 post-perovskite is smaller than that of perovskite, reflecting larger distortion of Ni–F–Ni network and lower dimension of octahedral arrangement in post-perovskite than those in perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Perovskite–post-perovskite transition in NaNiF 3 at high pressure Highlights: ► NaNiF 3 perovskite (Pv) transforms to post-perovskite (pPv) at 16 GPa and 1300 K. ► The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=−2.0+0.014 T (K). ► Antiferromagnetic transition occurs at 156 K in Pv and 22 K in pPv.

  12. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudikov, D.A.; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  15. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  16. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  17. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R.; Mandal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  18. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  19. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  20. XRD studies on solid state amorphisation in electroless Ni/P and Ni/B deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath Kumar, P.; Kesavan Nair, P.

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition of electroless Ni-P and Ni-B deposits on annealing at various temperature is studied using x-ray diffraction techniques employing profile deconvolution and line profile analysis. It appears that solid state amorphisation takes place in the Ni-B deposits in a narrow temperature range just prior to the onset of crystallization of amorphous phase. In the case of Ni-P deposits no evidence for solid state amorphisation could be obtained. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations also support such a conclusion

  1. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  2. Core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Cheng, Daojian

    2015-01-01

    A core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized via a new seed-mediated growth method in organic solvent medium. The as-synthesized AgNi/PtAgNiNP exhibits an AgNi core coated with PtAgNi shell, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst possesses higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and better durability compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It is found that the ORR polarization curve of the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows an onset potential of 0.91 V vs. RHE, which is superior to the commercial Pt/C (0.88 V vs. RHE). In addition, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows much better durability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More interestingly, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst displays much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.1 M KOH solution in the presence of 0.5 M methanol. Our results show that core/shell AgNi/PtAgNiNPs possess selective activity for ORR even in the presence of methanol, showing potential application as methanol-tolerant cathode catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  4. Ni-ZrB2 electrocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushpavanam, M.; Natarajan, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    New generation materials require high temperature oxidation resistance besides many other tribological properties. Ni-ZrB 2 composites and their properties are dealt with in this paper. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Not in Traffic Surveillance (NiTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Not-in-Traffic Surveillance (NiTS) system is a virtual data collection system designed to provide counts and details regarding fatalities and injuries that occur...

  6. Niños y Violencia

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1997-01-01

    Este Innocenti Digest explora la violencia de los niños y hacia los niños, usando el marco de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño de las Naciones Unidas. Se centra en la violencia interpersonal, tanto intrafamiliar como extrafamiliar. Se incluye el abuso sexual y la explotación ya que a pesar de no implicar obligatoriamente violencia o coerción, la mayor parte de la evidencia demuestra su efectos dañinos tanto físicos como psicológicos. También se discute la implicación de los niños en los...

  7. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4l configurations of Ni XIX, for which flexible atomic code. (FAC) has been ... atomic data (namely energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, excitation rates, etc.) ... Zhang and Sampson, who adopted the Coulomb–Born-exchange.

  8. Root morphology of Ni-treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskova, A.; Fargasova, A.; Giehl, R. F. H.; Wiren, N. von

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are very important organs in terms of nutrient and water acquisition but they also serve as anchorages for the aboveground parts of the plants. The roots display extraordinary plasticity towards stress conditions as a result of integration of environmental cues into the developmental processes of the roots. Our aim was to investigate the root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to a particular stress condition, excess Ni supply. We aimed to find out which cellular processes - cell division, elongation and differentiation are affected by Ni, thereby explaining the seen root phenotype. Our results reveal that a distinct sensitivity exists between roots of different order and interference with various cellular processes is responsible for the effects of Ni on roots. We also show that Ni-treated roots have several auxin-related phenotypes. (authors)

  9. Electrochemical reduction approach-based 3D graphene/Ni(OH)2 electrode for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huijun; Bai, Jianwei; Wang, Bin; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Zhanshuang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene foam is synthesized by a simple electrochemical reduction method. • The 3D graphene/Ni(OH) 2 composite is used as a monolithic free-standing electrode material. • The 3D conductive graphene network improves the contact between electrode and electrolyte. • Compositing graphene with Ni(OH) 2 sheets take full advantage of the synergistic effects. • Results show that the as-synthesized products have good electrochemical property. - Abstract: Using a simple electrochemical reduction approach, we have produced three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam having high conductivity and well-defined macroporous structure. Through a hydrothermal process, Ni(OH) 2 sheets are grown in-situ onto the graphene surface. This monolithic 3D graphene/Ni(OH) 2 composite is used as the free-standing electrode for supercapacitor application; it shows a high specific capacitance of 183.1 F g −1 (based on the total mass of the electrode), along with excellent rate capability and cycle performance. The asymmetric supercapacitor based on the 3D graphene/Ni(OH) 2 as a positive electrode and active carbon (AC) as a negative electrode is also assembled and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 148.3 F g −1 at 0.56 A g −1 and a high energy density of 52.7 W h kg −1 at a power density of 444.4 W kg −1 . Moreover, 3D graphene/Ni(OH) 2 //AC has a good cycle stability (87.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles), making it promising as one of the most attractive candidates for electrochemical energy storage. This excellent electrochemical performance results from the multiplexed 3D graphene network facilitating electron transport; the interlaced Ni(OH) 2 sheets shorten ion diffusion paths and facilitate the rapid migration of electrolyte ions

  10. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  11. Conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon fibers by chemical bath deposition for efficient supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A novel supercapacitor electrode structure has been developed in which a uniform and conformal coating of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes on carbon microfibers is deposited in situ by a simple chemical bath deposition process at room temperature. The microfibers conformally coated with Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 powder on the carbon microfibers (1416 F g-1vs. 275 F g-1). This improvement in supercapacitor performance can be ascribed to the preservation of the three-dimensional structure of the current collector, which is a fibrous carbon fabric, even after the conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes. The 3-D network morphology of the fibrous carbon fabric leads to more efficient electrolyte penetration into the conformal electrode, allowing the ions to have greater access to active reaction sites. Cyclic stability testing of the conformal and planar Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes, respectively, reveals 34% and 62% drop in specific capacitance after 10 000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the crucial effect that electrolyte penetration plays in determining the pseudocapacitive properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Structural and room temperature ferromagnetic properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles via low-temperature hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Changzhen, E-mail: liuchangzhen94@163.com; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Xiuling; Liu, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A series of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O (x=0, 1%, 3%, 5%) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Influence of Ni doping concentration on the structure, morphology, optical properties and magnetism of the samples was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer instruments. The results show that the undoped and doped ZnO nanoparticles are both hexagonal wurtzite structures. The surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The images of SEM reveal that the structure of pure ZnO and Ni doped samples are nanoparticles which intended to form flakes with thickness of few nanometers, being overlain with each one to develop the network with some pores and voids. Based on the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy analysis, it indicates that the band gap energy decreases with the increasing concentration of Ni. Furthermore, The Ni doped ZnO samples didn't exhibit higher ultraviolet-light-driven photocatalytic activity compared to the undoped ZnO sample. Vibrating sample magnetometer was used for the magnetic property investigations, and the result indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism property of 3% Ni doped sample is attributed to oxygen vacancy and interaction between doped ions.

  13. Spectroscopic features of Ni(2+) ion in PbO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, B; Srinivasa Reddy, M; Siva Sesha Reddy, A; Gandhi, Y; Ravi Kumar, V; Veeraiah, N

    2015-04-15

    Glasses of the composition (30-x)PbO-5Bi2O3-65SiO2: xNiO (with x ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol%) were synthesized. A variety of spectroscopic studies, viz., IR, Raman optical absorption and luminescence properties of these glasses have been carried out as a function of NiO concentration. The analysis of results of all these studies has indicated that the nickel ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral positions. However, with the increase of NiO concentration the octahedral occupancy of Ni(2+) ions prevailed over the tetrahedral ions. The luminescence spectra of these glasses have exhibited a broad NIR emission band in region 1100-1500 nm. This band is identified as being due to (3)T2(3F)→(3)A2(3F) octahedral transition of Ni(2+) ions. The luminescence efficiency and cross section have been found to be the highest for the glass containing the highest concentration of NiO. The reasons for such high luminescence efficiency have been discussed in the light of structural variations taking place in the host glass network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  15. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  16. Synthesis of Ni3Ta, Ni2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, H.S.N.; Silva, B.P da; Ramos, A.S.; Silva, A.A.A.P.; Coelho, G.C.; Lima, B.B. de

    2014-01-01

    The tantalum has relevance for the development of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys which are hardened by solid solution and precipitation mechanisms. Master alloys are normally used in the production step in order to produce refractory metals and alloys. The present work reports on the synthesis of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. The elemental Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta (at.-%) powder mixtures were ball milled under Ar atmosphere using stainless steel balls and vials, 300 rpm and a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1. Following, the as-milled samples were uniaxially compacted and heat-treated at 1100 deg C for 4h under Ar atmosphere. The characterization of as-milled and heat-treated samples was conducted by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. A large amount of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa was formed in the mechanically alloyed heat-treated Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta alloys. (author)

  17. Structural Investigation of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si Melts by High-temperature Fluorescence XAFS Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Balogh, John; Hong Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Amulele, G.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy is regarded as the most abundant constituent of Earth's core, with an amount of 5.5 wt% Ni in the core based on geochemical and cosmochemical models. The structural role of nickel in liquid Fe-Ni alloys with light elements such as S or Si is poorly understood, largely because of the experimental difficulties of high-temperature melts. Recently, we have succeeded in acquiring Ni K-edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts and alloys. Different structural environment of Ni atoms in Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts is observed, supporting the effect of light elements in Fe-Ni melts

  18. The complex transfer reaction (14C, 15O) on Ni, Zn and Ge targets: existence and mass of 69Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessagne, P.; Bernas, M.; Langevin, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roussel, P.; Morrison, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The ( 14 C, 15 O) complex transfer reaction has been studied at 72 MeV incident energy on 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, 64 Ni, 68 Zn, 70 Zn and 74 Ge, 76 Ge targets. Spectra and differential cross sections have been measured in a 5 0 angular range centred around a laboratory angle of 6 0 . The nucleus 69 Ni has been observed and its mass determined for the first time

  19. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer

  20. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  1. Unraveling Network-induced Memory Contention: Deeper Insights with Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Taylor Liles; Grant, Ryan; Gonzales, Aaron; Arnold, Dorian

    2017-01-01

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is expected to be an integral communication mechanism for future exascale systems enabling asynchronous data transfers, so that applications may fully utilize CPU resources while simultaneously sharing data amongst remote nodes. We examine Network-induced Memory Contention (NiMC) on Infiniband networks. We expose the interactions between RDMA, main-memory and cache, when applications and out-of-band services compete for memory resources. We then explore NiMCs resulting impact on application-level performance. For a range of hardware technologies and HPC workloads, we quantify NiMC and show that NiMCs impact grows with scale resulting in up to 3X performance degradation at scales as small as 8K processes even in applications that previously have been shown to be performance resilient in the presence of noise. In addition, this work examines the problem of predicting NiMC's impact on applications by leveraging machine learning and easily accessible performance counters. This approach provides additional insights about the root cause of NiMC and facilitates dynamic selection of potential solutions. Finally, we evaluated three potential techniques to reduce NiMCs impact, namely hardware offloading, core reservation and network throttling.

  2. Abnormal resistance switching behaviours of NiO thin films: possible occurrence of both formation and rupturing of conducting channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chunli; Chae, S C; Chang, S H; Lee, S B; Noh, T W [ReCOE and FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J S; Kahng, B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D-W [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Physics, Ewha Womens University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, C U [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, S; Ahn, S-E [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: twnoh@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-07

    We report a detailed study on the abnormal resistance switching behaviours observed in NiO thin films which show unipolar resistance switching phenomena. During the RESET process, in which the NiO film changed from a low resistance state to a high resistance state, we sometimes observed that the resistance became smaller than the initial value. We simulated the resistance switching by using a random circuit breaker network model. We found that local conducting channels could be formed as well as ruptured during the RESET process, which result in the occurrence of such abnormal switching behaviours.

  3. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe2O4 Nanoplates Decorated Graphene Nanosheets with Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dejian; Yue, Wenbo; Fan, Xialu; Tang, Kun; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides are fabricated on the graphene. • NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates on the graphene show superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates. • The effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are studied. • Graphene-encapsulated NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 is prepared and shows slightly decreased performance compared to graphene-based composite. - Abstract: As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, bicomponent metal oxide composites show high reversible capacities; but the morphology and particle size of the composites are hardly controllable, which may reduce their electrochemical properties. In this work, ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates with a diameter of 5 ∼ 7 nm and a thickness of ∼2 nm are controllably fabricated on the graphene derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides (NiFe-LDHs), and exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates without graphene. The nanosized NiO and NiFe 2 O 4 plates are separated from each other and the graphene substrate can prevent the aggregation of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 as well as enhance the electronic conductivity of the composite, which is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. Moreover, the effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are also studied in order to achieve optimal performance. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates are further encapsulated by graphene nanosheets and show slightly decreased performance compared to those supported by graphene nanosheets. The different electrochemical behaviors of graphene-containing composites may be attributed to the different interactions between graphene nanosheets and NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates.

  4. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  5. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  7. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  8. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  11. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  12. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  13. The role of Ni in sulfided carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Barthe-Zahir, N.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities of Ni and Ni---Mo sulfide catalysts supported on activated carbon were measured at atmospheric pressure and the catalyst structures were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic oxygen chemisorption, and chemical sulfur analysis. The

  14. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52%. For...

  15. Climate Prediction Center - El Niño/La Niña Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Site Map News Information CPC Web Team HOME > El Niño/La Niña Forecasts Current U.S. Climate Outlook SST Forecasts Temperature and Anomalies NOAA/ National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging ... saturated HgCl2 solution to remove the remaining Al, and then dipped in 5 wt% ... for NiFe alloy it is 1.3 V, that is higher than for Ni/Cu nanowires to diminish Cu.

  17. Effect of solute atoms on swelling in Ni alloys and pure Ni under He + ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Ezawa, T.; Imamura, J.; Takenaka, T.; Tanabe, T.; Oshima, R.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of solute atoms on microstructural evolutions have been investigated using Ni alloys under 25 keV He + irradiation at 500 °C. The specimens used were pure Ni, Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Pd alloys with different volume size factors. The high number densities of dislocation loops about 1.5×10 22 m -3 were formed in the specimens irradiated to 1×10 19 ions/m 2, and they were approximately equivalent, except for Ni-Si. The mean size of loops tended to increase with the volume size factor of solute atoms. In a dose of 4×10 20 ions/m 2, the swelling was changed from 0.2% to 4.5%, depending on the volume size factors. The number densities of bubbles tended to increase with the absolute values of the volume size factor, and the swelling increased with the volume size factors. This suggests that the mobility of helium and vacancy atoms may be influenced by the interaction of solute atoms with them.

  18. Bonding Strength of Ni/Ni3Al Interface with Different Lattice Misfit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping PENG; Caixing ZHENG; Shaochang HAN; Zhaohui JIN; Rui YANG; Zhuangqi HU

    2003-01-01

    The interfacial binding covalent bond density (CBD) and the local environmental total bond order (LTBO) of the Ni/Ni3Alinterface with different lattice misfits (δ) were calculated by using first-principles discrete variation Xα method. It was foundthat

  19. Electrochemical Behaviour of Ni and Ni-PVC Electrodes for the Electroxidation of Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Syafiq Hamdan; Norazzizi Nordin; Siti Fathrita Mohd Amir; Riyanto; Mohamed Rozali Othman

    2011-01-01

    In this study, two nickel based electrodes were prepared; nickel foil and nickel-polyvinylchloride (Ni-PVC), in order to study their electrochemical behavior using cyclic voltammetry, CV and chronocoulometry, CC. Ni electrode was prepared from Ni metal foil while Ni-PVC electrode was prepared by mixing a weighed portion of Ni powder and PVC in THF solvent, swirled until the suspension was homogeneous and drying the suspension in an oven at 50 degree Celsius for 3 h. The dry sample was then placed in a 1 cm diameter stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/ cm 2 . From CV data, Ni-PVC electrode showed a better electrochemical behavior compared to Ni metal foil electrode. The use of Ni-PVC electrode at higher concentration of supporting electrolyte (1.0 M KOH) was better than at lower concentration of the same supporting electrolyte in electroxidation of ethanol. In addition to acetic acid, the oxidation of ethanol also produced ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde. (author)

  20. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Dy films doped with Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ise@iph.krasn.ru; Ovchinnikov, S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Av. Svobodnyi 71, Krasnoyarsk 660074 (Russian Federation); Markov, V.; Kosyrev, N.; Seredkin, V.; Khudjakov, A.; Bondarenko, G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Av. Akademika Lavrent' eva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-01

    Temperature, magnetic field and spectral dependences of magneto-optical effects (MOEs) in bi-layer films Dy{sub (1-x)}Ni{sub x}-Ni and Dy{sub (1-x)}(NiFe){sub x}-NiFe were investigated, x changes from 0 to 0.06. Peculiar behavior of the MOEs was revealed at temperatures essentially exceeding the Curie temperature of bulk Dy which is explained by the magnetic ordering of the Dy layer containing Ni under the action of two factors: Ni impurities distributed homogeneously over the whole Dy layer and atomic contact of this layer with continues Ni layer. The mechanism of the magnetic ordering is suggested to be associated with the change of the density of states of the alloy Dy{sub (1-x)}Ni{sub x} owing to hybridization with narrow peaks near the Fermi level character for Ni.

  1. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Dy films doped with Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.; Ovchinnikov, S.; Markov, V.; Kosyrev, N.; Seredkin, V.; Khudjakov, A.; Bondarenko, G.; Kesler, V.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature, magnetic field and spectral dependences of magneto-optical effects (MOEs) in bi-layer films Dy (1-x) Ni x -Ni and Dy (1-x) (NiFe) x -NiFe were investigated, x changes from 0 to 0.06. Peculiar behavior of the MOEs was revealed at temperatures essentially exceeding the Curie temperature of bulk Dy which is explained by the magnetic ordering of the Dy layer containing Ni under the action of two factors: Ni impurities distributed homogeneously over the whole Dy layer and atomic contact of this layer with continues Ni layer. The mechanism of the magnetic ordering is suggested to be associated with the change of the density of states of the alloy Dy (1-x) Ni x owing to hybridization with narrow peaks near the Fermi level character for Ni

  2. Elementary martensitic transformation processes in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals with Ni4Ti3 precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michutta, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Yawny, A.; Dlouhy, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present study shows that multiple-step martensitic transformations can be observed in aged Ni-rich NiTi single crystals. Ageing of solution-annealed and water-quenched Ni-rich NiTi single crystals results in a homogeneous precipitation of coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 particles. When the interparticle spacing reaches a critical value (order of magnitude: 200 nm), three distinct transformation processes are observed on cooling from the high-temperature phase using differential scanning calorimetry and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The transformation sequence begins with the formation of R-phase starting from all precipitate/matrix interfaces (first step). The transformation continues with the formation of B19' and its subsequent growth along all precipitate/matrix interfaces (second step). Finally, the matrix in between the precipitates transforms to B19' (third step). Elementary transformation mechanisms which account for two- and three-step transformations in a system with small-scale microstructural heterogeneities were identified

  3. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  4. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  5. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m 2 /g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  6. Neutron enrichment at midrapidity in 58Ni + 58Ni at 52 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; Samri, M.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S.; Yennello, S.J.; Martin, E.; Winchester, E.

    2003-01-01

    By combining data from a charged particle 58 Ni + 58 Ni experiment at 52 MeV/u with an 36 Ar + 58 Ni experiment at 50 MeV/u for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction 58 Ni + 58 Ni at 52 MeV/u. The neutron to proton ratio is measured above the initial neutron to proton ratio of the system. Neutron to proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analysed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. (authors)

  7. Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

  8. Soft but Powerful Artificial Muscles Based on 3D Graphene-CNT-Ni Heteronanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Bae, Seok-Hu; Kotal, Moumita; Stalbaum, Tyler; Kim, Kwang J; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2017-08-01

    Bioinspired soft ionic actuators, which exhibit large strain and high durability under low input voltages, are regarded as prospective candidates for future soft electronics. However, due to the intrinsic drawback of weak blocking force, the feasible applications of soft ionic actuators are limited until now. An electroactive artificial muscle electro-chemomechanically reinforced with 3D graphene-carbon nanotube-nickel heteronanostructures (G-CNT-Ni) to improve blocking force and bending deformation of the ionic actuators is demonstrated. The G-CNT-Ni heteronanostructure, which provides an electrically conductive 3D network and sufficient contact area with mobile ions in the polymer electrolyte, is embedded as a nanofiller in both ionic polymer and conductive electrodes of the ionic actuators. An ionic exchangeable composite membrane consisting of Nafion, G-CNT-Ni and ionic liquid (IL) shows improved tensile modulus and strength of up to 166% and 98%, respectively, and increased ionic conductivity of 0.254 S m -1 . The ionic actuator exhibits enhanced actuation performances including three times larger bending deformation, 2.37 times higher blocking force, and 4 h durability. The electroactive artificial muscle electro-chemomechanically reinforced with 3D G-CNT-Ni heteronanostructures offers improvements over current soft ionic actuator technologies and can advance the practical engineering applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Reversible and Topotactic Solvent Removal in a Magnetic Ni(NCS)2 Coordination Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckert, Stefan; Rams, Michał; Rams, Marek M; Näther, Christian

    2017-07-17

    Reaction of Ni(NCS) 2 with 4-(Boc-amino)pyridine in acetonitrile leads to the formation of a new coordination polymer with the composition Ni(NCS) 2 (4-(Boc-amino)pyridine) 2 ·MeCN (1-MeCN). In the crystal structure the Ni(II) cations are linked by the anionic ligands into chains that are further connected into layers by intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding. These layers are stacked and channels are formed, in which acetonitrile molecules are located. Solvent removal leads to the ansolvate 1, which shows microporosity as proven by sorption measurements. Single crystal X-ray investigations reveal that the solvent removal leads to a change in symmetry from primitive to C-centered, which is reversible and which proceeds via a topotactic reaction leaving the network intact. The magnetic properties of 1-MeCN and 1 are governed by the ferromagnetic exchange between spins of Ni(II) forming chains. The susceptibility and specific heat for such a quantum Heisenberg chain of S = 1 spins with zero-field splitting are calculated using the DMRG method and compared with the experimental results.

  10. Engineering micro-supercapacitors of graphene nanowalls/Ni heterostructure based on microfabrication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Zhu, Minjie; Wang, Zhuqing; Ono, Takahito

    2016-10-01

    Heterostructure of graphene nanowalls (GNW) supported Ni thin-layer was fabricated to form an on-chip pseudocapacitor via a standard microelectromechanical system process. Beyond a high-rate capability of the micro-supercapacitors, a large specific energy density of 2.1 mW h cm-3 and power density up to 5.91 W cm-3 have been achieved, which are two orders of magnitude higher than those commercial electrolytic capacitors and thin-film batteries, respectively. Rational analysis revealed a rapid GNW growth originated from the Pt current collector embedment by catalyzing hydrocarbon dissociating. The unique concept in our design includes that Ni was evaporated onto GNW to serve as both the shadow mask for microelectrode patterning and subsequently a precursor to be in-situ electrochemically converted into pseudo-capacitive Ni(OH)2 for capacitance enhancing. Addressing the challenge to uniformly coat in complex nanoporous structures, this strategy renders a conformal deposition of pseudo-capacitive material on individual graphene nanoflakes, leading to efficient merits harnessing of huge accessible surfaces from the conductive GNW networks and great capacitance of the Ni-based active materials for high performance delivery. The proof of concept can be potentially extended to other transition metals and paves the way to further apply GNW hybrids in diverse microsystems.

  11. Synchronous exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Zheng, Maojun; Liu, Shaohua; Li, Qiang; You, Yuxiu; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, new approaches to fabricate high-performance electrode materials are of vital importance in the renewable energy field. Here, we present a facile synthesis procedure of 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene hybrids for supercapacitors via synchronous electrochemical-assisted exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH) 2 networks. With the assistance of an electric field, the electrochemically exfoliated high-quality graphene can be readily, uniformly assembled on the surfaces of 3D Ni(OH) 2 . When serving as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the resulting 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene composites exhibited excellent specific capacitance (263 mF cm -2 at 2 mA cm -2 ), remarkable rate capability and super-long cycle life (retention of 94.1% even after 10 000 continuous charge-discharge cycles), which may be attributed to their highly porous, stable 3D architecture as well as uniform, firm anchoring of ultrathin graphene on their surfaces. Therefore, our approach provides a facile strategy for the large-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene based composites towards various applications.

  12. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bianco, L.; Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Allia, P.

    2013-01-01

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy

  13. Ferromagnetic resonance study of sputtered NiFe/V/NiFe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayo, W., E-mail: willian.rodriguez@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física – IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/V/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} heterostructures has been produced by magnetron sputtering and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two systems were investigated: the non symmetrical NiFe(50 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(30 Å) trilayers and the symmetrical NiFe(80 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(80 Å) trilayers, with variable ultrathin V thickness t. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling was evidenced for t below 10 Å by the excitation of the optic mode, in the case of the non symmetrical samples, and by the observation of a single resonance mode for the symmetrical trilayers. For larger V thickness, all samples exhibited two modes, which were attributed to the resonance of the individual NiFe layers with different effective magnetizations. The analysis with the equilibrium and resonance conditions provided the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations. - Highlights: • We present a study of symmetrical and non symmetrical NiFe/V/NiFe trilayers deposited on Si single crystals by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. • For the non symmetrical trilayers, the FMR spectra show the optic and acoustic modes for samples with very thin V layer thicknesses, evidencing ferromagnetic exchange coupling, whereas, for larger V thickness, the spectra exhibited two well resolved modes associated to each independent NiFe layer. For the symmetrical trilayers, strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling is evidenced by the observation of a single resonance mode. • The analysis with the equilibrium condition and dispersion relation provides the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations.

  14. Design and fabrication of highly open nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheets on Ni foam for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Daosong; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Nickel cobalt sulfides (NiCo-S) are promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors but normally show poor rate capability and unsatisfactory long-term endurance. To overcome these disadvantages, a properly constructed electrode architecture with abundant electron transport channels, excellent electronic conductivity and robust structural stability is required. Herein, considering that in situ transformation can mostly retain the specific structural advantages of the precursors, a two-step strategy is purposefully developed to construct a binder-free electrode composed of interconnected NiCo-S nanosheets on Ni foam (NiCo-S/NF), in which NiCo-S/NF is synthesized via the in situ sulfuration of networked acetate anion-intercalated nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets loaded on Ni foam (A-NiCo-LDH/NF). Noticeably, the optimized Ni1Co1-S/NF exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2553.9 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent rate capability (1898.1 F g-1 at 50 A g-1) and superior cycling stability (nearly 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni1Co1-S/NF demonstrates a high energy density of 58.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 796 W kg-1 and impressive long-term durability even after a repeated charge/discharge process as long as 70,000 cycles (∼92% capacitance retention). The attractive properties endow the Ni1Co1-S/NF electrode with significant potential for high-performance energy storage devices.

  15. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  16. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  17. Bipartite Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations

  18. Observations of El Niño impacts using in situ GLOBE protocols and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The El Niño phenomenon is a periodic ocean condition that occurs every two to ten years in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific Ocean. It alters the normal patterns of ocean circulation, surface temperature, and evaporation, causing noticeable and often severe changes in weather conditions in many areas of the world. El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and usually reaches its peak between December and February time period. El Niño and its worldwide consequences are studied by the school network of the GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) which brings together students, teachers, and scientists in support of student research and validation of international Earth science research projects. Since the start of the GLOBE Program over 20 years ago, GLOBE classrooms utilize carefully developed daily, weekly, or seasonally protocols such as maximum, minimum and current temperatures, rainfall, soil moisture, and others, to measure changes in the environment. The data collected by the students is entered in an online GLOBE database. In addition to the student-contributed data, automated stations also collect and send measurements to the GLOBE database.Students compare their data with global data acquired by satellites to help validate the satellite data. With a potentially historic-level El Niño event thought to be on the horizon--possibly one of the strongest in 50 years—we will propose an emphasis on measurements from GLOBE schools that will support studies and satellite observations of El Niño. We plan to provide the schools with additional satellite data sets such as ocean temperature measurements from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), sea surface elevation measurements from Jason-2 and 3 (after it launches), and others to be identified. We wish to address and support the following educational objectives: - Demonstrate how El Niño affects local precipitation and temperature across the globe, - Link teachers

  19. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  20. Sputtering Yields of Si and Ni from the Ni1-xSix System Studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Chol; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yoshihide; Iwami, Motohiro; Hiraki, Akio; Satou, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Fuminori

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni1-xSix), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5 keV Ar+ ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni1-xSix increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi2 to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni1-xSix which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy.

  1. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  2. Phase Equilibria of the Sn-Ni-Si Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-(Cu)/Ni-Si Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Chih-chi

    2015-07-01

    Interfacial reactions in Sn/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si and Sn-Cu/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si couples at 250°C, and Sn-Ni-Si ternary phase equilibria at 250°C were investigated in this study. Ni-Si alloys, which are nonmagnetic, can be regarded as a diffusion barrier layer material in flip chip packaging. Solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si interfacial reactions are crucial to the reliability of soldered joints. Phase equilibria information is essential for development of solder/Ni-Si materials. No ternary compound is present in the Sn-Ni-Si ternary system at 250°C. Extended solubility of Si in the phases Ni3Sn2 and Ni3Sn is 3.8 and 6.1 at.%, respectively. As more Si dissolves in these phases their lattice constants decrease. No noticeable ternary solubility is observed for the other intermetallics. Interfacial reactions in solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si are similar to those for solder/Ni. Si does not alter the reaction phases. No Si solubility in the reaction phases was detected, although rates of growth of the reaction phases were reduced. Because the alloy Ni-4.5 wt.%Si reacts more slowly with solders than pure Ni, the Ni-4.5 wt.%Si alloy could be a potential new diffusion barrier layer material for flip chip packaging.

  3. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  4. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  5. Ni/boride interfaces and environmental embrittlement in Ni-based superalloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Suchismita; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Hanlon, Timothy; Hall, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces through first-principles calculations. ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces are higher than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► Ni/boride interfaces have higher resistance to O-embrittlement than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► CrMo-borides are more effective than Cr-borides in resisting O-embrittlement. ► Electronegativity differences between alloying elements correlate with fracture strengths. - Abstract: Motivated by the vital role played by boride precipitates in Ni-based superalloys in improving mechanical properties such as creep rupture strength, fatigue crack growth rates and improved resistance towards environmental embrittlement , we estimate fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces through determination of their work of separation using first-principles simulations. We find that the fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces is higher than that of other commonly occurring interfaces in Ni-alloys, such as Ni Σ-5 grain boundaries and coherent Ni/Ni 3 Al interfaces, and is less susceptible to oxygen-induced embrittlement. Our calculations show how the presence of Mo in Ni/M 5 B 3 (M = Cr, Mo) interfaces leads to additional reduction in oxygen-induced embrittlement. Through Electron-Localization-Function based analyses, we identify the electronic origins of effects of alloying elements on fracture strengths of these interfaces and observe that chemical interactions stemming from electronegativity differences between different atomic species are responsible for the trends in calculated strengths. Our findings should be useful towards designing Ni-based alloys with higher interfacial strengths and reduced oxygen-induced embrittlement.

  6. Nickel distribution and isotopic fractionation in a Brazilian lateritic regolith: Coupling Ni isotopes and Ni K-edge XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratié, G.; Garnier, J.; Calmels, D.; Vantelon, D.; Guimarães, E.; Monvoisin, G.; Nouet, J.; Ponzevera, E.; Quantin, C.

    2018-06-01

    Ultramafic (UM) rocks are known to be nickel (Ni) rich and to weather quickly, which makes them a good candidate to look at the Ni isotope systematics during weathering processes at the Earth's surface. The present study aims at identifying the Ni solid speciation and discussing the weathering processes that produce Ni isotope fractionation in two deep laterite profiles under tropical conditions (Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil). While phyllosilicates and to a lower extent goethite are the main Ni-bearing phases in the saprolitic part of the profile, iron (Fe) oxides dominate the Ni budget in the lateritic unit. Nickel isotopic composition (δ60Ni values) has been measured in each unit of the regolith, i.e., rock, saprock, saprolite and laterite (n = 52). δ60Ni varies widely within the two laterite profiles, from -0.10 ± 0.05‰ to 1.43 ± 0.05‰, showing that significant Ni isotope fractionation occurs during the weathering of UM rocks. Overall, our results show that during weathering, the solid phase is depleted in heavy Ni isotopes due to the preferential sorption and incorporation of light Ni isotopes into Fe oxides; the same mechanisms likely apply to the incorporation of Ni into phyllosilicates (type 2:1). However, an isotopically heavy Ni pool is observed in the solid phase at the bottom of the saprolitic unit. This feature can be explained by two hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive: (i) a depletion in light Ni isotopes during the first stage of weathering due to the preferential dissolution of light Ni-containing minerals, and (ii) the sorption or incorporation of isotopically heavy Ni carried by percolating waters (groundwater samples have δ60Ni of 2.20 and 2.27‰), that were enriched in heavy Ni isotopes due to successive weathering processes in the overlying soil and laterite units.

  7. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  8. Room temperature isotherms for Mo and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Isotherms at room temperature for Mo and Ni are proposed. They are of three types: BIRCH, KEANE and BORN-MIE. The adjustable constants appearing in these isotherms have been determined from experimental quantities at zero pressure. An evaluation of the limit of (δB T /δP) T as P #-> # ∞, where B T is the isothermal bulk modulus, has been also used. These three isotherms obtained for Mo and Ni are compared with isotherms derived from shock-wave data according to the PRIETO's model. There is a good agreement between these and these derived from shock-wave data. The three isotherms proposed for Mo and Ni can be considered as valid until pressures of several B To , where B To is the bulk modulus B T at P = o [fr

  9. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  10. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  11. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  12. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  13. Effects of phase transformation and interdiffusion on the exchange bias of NiFe/NiMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Lien, W. C.; Chen, F. R.; Kai, J. J.; Mao, S.

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the exchange field of NiFe/NiMn and the phase transformation of NiMn was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dark-field images, contributed by the order phase of NiMn, were used to identify the location and volume fraction of the order phase. TEM selected area diffraction patterns showed the (110) superlattice diffraction rings of NiMn, verifying the existence of the order phase in the annealed samples. The order volume fraction can be calculated by the dark field image contributed by the (110) diffraction. The exchange field increased almost linearly with increasing order volume fraction. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy attached to TEM indicated that Mn diffused into NiFe for annealing at 280 degreeC, leading to a larger coercivity and small coercivity squareness. Part of the NiMn still maintains the paramagnetic phase even after annealing at 280 degreeC. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. Ni3Si2 nanowires grown in situ on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhe; Li, Zhihui; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Niu, Chunming

    2016-07-01

    Ni3Si2 nanowires and nanoawls have grown in situ on the surface of Ni foams by a controlled low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Structural characterization shows that the individual Ni3Si2 nanowire is single crystal covered with a thin layer (1-2 nm) of SiO2 with a diameter of ∼20-30 nm and length of ten's micrometers. Individual nanoawl with a circular cone shape is polycrystalline. Both Ni3Si2 nanowire and nanoawl samples are evaluated as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The nanowire electrode delivers a very high specific capacitance and excellent rate capability. A specific capacitance of 760 F g-1 is measured at current density of 0.5 A g-1, which decreases to 518 F g-1 when the current density increases to 10 A g-1. The capacitance is dominated by pseudocapacitance with a mechanism similar to that of NiO or Ni(OH)2 widely studied in the literature. An asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by pairing Ni3Si2 nanowire electrode with an activated carbon electrode exhibits energy densities of 17.5 Wh kg-1 and 8.8 Wh kg-1 at power densites of 301 W kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1.

  15. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace, E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw

    2017-02-15

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  16. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  17. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  18. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery

  19. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery.

  20. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  1. Tipos especiales de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodrigo Bellido

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available En las tres últimas lecciones han sido expuestas algunas consideraciones referentes a niños y adolescentes desde el nacimiento hasta el dintel de la juventud. En todas ellas hemos procurado poner de relieve la necesidad de individualizar el conocimiento de cada niño para obtener mejores resultados en su adaptación a su futura vida de adultos, En todas ellas  nos hemos referido al llamado niño normal. Nos corresponde en la lección de hoy ocuparnos can la superficialidad característica de estas charlas tipo-muestrario, de otras categorías de niños muy dignos de interés.. quienes unas por exceso, otros por defecto, otros por dificultades de adaptación por diferentes causas, se desvían de la línea media de la normalidad. Consideramos que no está fuera del lugar, aquí, el tema de los niños excepcionales y por el contrario que es necesario intensificar el estudio de los trastornos de la vida mental y emocional de los niños en la preparación de los estudiantes de Medicina. Y no es nuestra solo esta opinión; no hace mucho tiempo en la Medical School de Ia Universidad de Minnessota hemos sabido que se ha hecho un intento de considerar y evaluar factores emocionales ambientales sobre las mismas bases que los descubrimientos fisiológicos.

  2. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  3. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  4. Low cost RISC implementation of intelligent ultra fast charger for Ni-Cd battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchjatuporn, Panom; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Khaehintung, Noppadol; Sunat, Khamron; Wicheanchote, Phinyo; Kiranon, Wiwat

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger

  5. Low cost RISC implementation of intelligent ultra fast charger for Ni-Cd battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchjatuporn, Panom; Khaehintung, Noppadol [Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Sirisuk, Phaophak; Sunat, Khamron [Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wicheanchote, Phinyo [Test Engineering Department, Sanmina-SCI Systems Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kiranon, Wiwat [Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institue of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger. (author)

  6. Salud mental del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina de González, Bernarda

    1987-01-01

    Es ya reconocida por todos las importancia de los primeros años de vida en la estructutración de la personalidad y, por consiguiente, en la salud mental del niño. En este artículo se hace una síntesis de los diferentes aspectos del desarrollo de la personalidad infanltil que seben ser conocidos por el personal de salud para estar en condiciones de brindar una atención integral a la madre y al niño. Con igual propósito se señalan algunos patrones de tipo psicosocial que influyen en la estabili...

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  8. Ionizing Radiation Effects in Ni Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlimas, D.; Kozlovsky, A.; Shumskaya, A.; Kaniukov, E.; Ibragimova, M.; Zdorovets, M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline nickel nanotubes with diameter of 380 nm and wall thickness 95 nm were synthesized by electrochemical method using PET track-etched membranes with thickness of 12 μm. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Ni nanotubes irradiated with C+13 ions with energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon and fluence ranging from 109 to 5 × 1011 cm-2 was carried out. The ability of modification of structural parameters such as lattice parameter and the average size of crystallites and conductivity of Ni nanotubes by irradiation was shown.

  9. Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni nanocomposite by design of experiment ... Sol–gel; Ni; design of experiments; nanocomposites. ... Kolkata 700 032, India; Rustech Products Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata 700 045, India ...

  10. Ni hollow spheres as catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, Yonghong; Rong, Jianhua; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized Ni hollow spheres consisting of needle-like nickel particles by using silica spheres as template with gold nanoparticles seeding method. The Ni hollow spheres are applied to methanol and ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that the Ni hollow spheres give a very high activity for alcohol electrooxidation at a very low nickel loading of 0.10 mg cm{sup -2}. The current on Ni hollow spheres is much higher than that on Ni particles. The onset potential and peak potential on Ni hollow spheres are more negative than that on Ni particles for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The Ni hollow spheres may be of great potential in alcohol sensor and direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  11. Separation and preparation of "6"2Ni isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiuyan; Mi Yajing; Zeng Ziqiang; Li Gongliang; Tu Rui

    2014-01-01

    Micro nuclear battery is the perfect power of space craft equipment. "6"3Ni is the core operation material of the "6"3Ni battery. It can produce radioisotope "6"3Ni while high abundance "6"2Ni is irradiated in the reactor. In order to meet the requirements of the abundance and the purity, research of the separation for "6"2Ni isotope was developed. The magnetic field and beam transmission status were simulated. The improvement designs of the ion source and the collector pocket were carried out. The process flow of high abundance "6"2Ni using electromagnetic separation method was established. The experiment of "6"2Ni isotope was developed by using electromagnetism isotope separator. The results show that the enrichment of "6"2Ni isotope is more than 90%. (authors)

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  13. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H S

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg -1 at current density 1 Ag -1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg -1 ), power density (250 W Kg -1 ) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  14. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg-1 at current density 1 Ag-1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg-1), power density (250 W Kg-1) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  15. Hierarchical MoS2 nanowires/NiCo2O4 nanosheets supported on Ni foam for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shiyang; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Fangfang; Shao, Rong; Xu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The hierarchical MoS2 nanowires/NiCo2O4 nanosheets (MS/NCO) supercapacitor electrode materials supported on Ni foam were synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method. The capacitance was investigated by using various electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammetry, constant-current galvanostatic charge/discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The MS/NCO networks show 7 times more capacitance (7.1 F cm-2) than pure NiCo2O4 nanosheets by CV at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. The specific capacitance of the assembled MS/NCO//active carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitor could reach up to 51.7 F g-1 at a current density of 1.5 A g-1. Also, the maximum energy density of 18.4 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1200.2 W kg-1 was achieved, with 98.2% specific capacitance retention after 8000 cycles. These exciting results exhibit potential application in developing energy storage devices with high energy density and high power density.

  16. Structure characterization of Ni/NiO and Ti/TiO2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamine, Brahim

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structure characterization of Ni-NiO and Ti-TiO 2 interfaces through an in-situ investigation of thin blade oxidation, of oxide germination and growth, and through a determination of mutual metal/oxide orientation relationships. Thin films of TiO 2 have also been characterized and the study of the influence of vacuum annealing on TiO 2 layer structure and morphology has been attempted. The examination of metal-oxide interface reveals a duplex structure of NiO and TiO 2 layers, and a preferential grain boundary oxidation of the underlying metal [fr

  17. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  18. Inference of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on dynamic Bayesian network hybrid learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-06

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli , and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.

  19. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, A.

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  20. 'How Much is a Pound of C4ISR Worth?' An Assessment methodology to Evolve Network Centric Measures and Metrics for Application to FORCEnet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poirier, John A; Bates, Edgar; Tempestilli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... centric outcomes including work being done in support of the Office of Force Transformation and the office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks, and Information Integration (ASD (NI2...

  1. Low temperature gaseous nitriding of Ni based superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, K. M.; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr......In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr...

  2. Facile synthesis of mesoporous NiFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposite cathode material for high performance asymmetric pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nagesh; Kumar, Amit; Huang, Guan-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2018-03-01

    Morphology and synergistic effect of constituents are the two very important factors that greatly influence the physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of a composite material. In the present work, we report the enhanced electrochemical performance of mesoporous NiFe2O4 and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites synthesized via hexamethylene tetramine (HMT) assisted one-pot hydrothermal approach. The synthesized cubic phase spinel NiFe2O4 nanomaterial possesses high specific surface area (148 m2g-1) with narrow mesopore size distribution. The effect of MWCNTs addition on the electrochemical performance of nanocomposite has been probed thoroughly in a normal three electrode configuration using 2 M KOH electrolyte at room temperature. Experimental results show that the addition of mere 5 mg MWCNTs into fixed NiFe2O4 precursors amount enhances the specific capacitance up to 1291 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which is the highest reported value for NiFe2O4 nanocomposites so far. NiFe2O4/CNT nanocomposite exhibits small relaxation time constant (1.5 ms), good rate capability and capacitance retention of 81% over 500 charge-discharge cycles. This excellent performance can be assigned to high surface area, mesoporous structure of NiFe2O4 and conducting network formed by MWCNTs in the composite. Further, to evaluate the device performance of the composite, an asymmetric pseudocapacitor has been designed using NiFe2O4/CNT nanocomposite as a positive and N-doped graphene as a negative electrode material, respectively. Our designed asymmetric pseudocapacitor gives maximum energy density of 23 W h kg-1 at power density of 872 W kg-1. These promising results assert the potential of synthesized nanocomposite in the development of efficient practical high-capacitive energy storage devices.

  3. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...

  4. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  5. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  6. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  7. Diversity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    and professional growth of women through networking, mentoring and training. We strive to ensure that will be used. National Processing Center Seniors Leader: Jo Anne Hankins Champion: Eric Milliner NO

  8. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    , as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  9. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  10. ERGO grown on Ni-Cu foam frameworks by constant potential method as high performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dehghanian, Changiz; Sabet Bokati, Kazem

    2018-04-01

    This study presents composite electrode materials based on Electrochemically Reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) and Ni-Cu Foam for supercapacitor applications. Constant potential (CP) method was used to form reduced graphene oxide on Ni-Cu foam and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS), Raman Spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. ERGO improves the electrical conduction leading to decrease of the internal resistance of the heterostructure. The ERGO served as a conductive network to facilitate the collection and transportation of electrons during the cycling, improved the conductivity of Ni-Cu foam, and allowed for a larger specific surface area. The irregular porous structure allowed for the easy diffusion of the electrolyte into the inner region of the electrode. Moreover, the nanocomposite directly fabricated on Ni-Cu foam with a better adhesion and avoided the use of polymer binder. This method efficiently reduced ohmic polarization and enhanced the rate capability. As a result, the Ni-Cu foam/ERGO nanocomposite exhibited a specific capacitance of 1259.3 F g-1 at 2 A g-1and about 99.3% of the capacitance retained after 5000 cycles. The capacitance retention was about 3% when the current density increased from 2 A g-1 to 15 A g-1. This two-step process drop cast and GO reduction by potentiostatic method is nontoxic and scalable and holds promise for improved energy density from redox capacitance in comparison with the conventional double layer supercapacitors.

  11. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  12. Pintadas network

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.

    2006-01-01

    The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...

  13. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....

  14. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  15. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.; Zhang, H. G.; Xu, G. Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Ma, R. S.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, G. H.; Feng, L.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting

  16. The large magnetoelectric effect in Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers derived by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, K; Wang, Y G; Wu, W; Pan, D A

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure and magnetic properties of the electroless deposited Ni layers with different pH values are characterized by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The influence of the bias magnetic field and the magnetic field frequency (f) on ME coupling is discussed. It is seen that α E,31 depends strongly on H dc and f. The value of the ME coefficient increases as the thickness of the Ni layer and the pH of the bath increase. A maximum of the ME voltage coefficient α E,31 = 5.77 V cm -1 Oe -1 at resonance frequency with a deposited Ni layer thickness t Ni = 302 μm is obtained. The large ME coefficient makes these Ni-PZT-Ni trilayers suitable for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. (fast track communication)

  17. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  18. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lixin; Wang Huaming

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti 2 Ni 3 Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti 2 Ni 3 Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH) 2 as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti 2 Ni 3 Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties

  19. Homotopic mapping solution of an oscillator for the El Niño/La Niña-southern oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Chun, Zhou; Yi-Hua, Lin; Wan-Tao, Lin; Jia-Qi, Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a class of oscillator for the El Niño/La Niña-southern oscillation (ENSO) model. By using the homotopic mapping method, it obtains approximations of the solution for the ENSO model. (general)

  20. Electrochemical reduction of NiO in a composite electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2013-01-01

    a lower overpotential. Microstructures of NiO with different reduction degrees are shown. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is carried out during the reduction process. Electrochemical reduction of NiO may need an induction period. When NiO is reduced at a constant voltage the current initially...

  1. Morphological and compositional engineering of Ni/carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite films were deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a Ni plating bath containing homogeneously dispersed MWCNTs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as dispersion additive. Incorporation of MWCNTs into Ni matrix was greatly enhanced by the application ...

  2. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.2). Achievement report on development of high-efficiency low-temperature power generation device using SOFC containing yttria-doped ceria layer; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.2). Yttria gan'yu ceria so wo yusuru SOFC kokoritsu teion sadogata hatsuden sochi no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts continue to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of consuming methane, propane, and the like, as fuel directly and of operation at 650 degrees C or lower. The efforts in concrete terms involve the development of an anode material, an electrolyte, and a cathode material not to suffer carbon precipitation and the evaluation of power generation performance of a hydrocarbon fueled single cell. Activities are conducted in the five domains of (1) the fabrication of an SOFC single cell and a preliminary study, (2) evaluation of solid electrolyte thermal stability using X-ray diffraction, (3) anodic carbon precipitation test and single cell performance test, (4) survey of technical trends overseas, and (5) the goal and self-management. In domain (1), technologies are developed to form thin film anodes of Ni-GDC (gadolinium-doped ceria), Cu-GDC, Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia), and the like, for which the ultrasonic spray method and slurry coat method are used. In the study of cell manufacturing, the anode support method and cathode support method are investigated. The anode support method is used to fabricate a thin film, a thin YSZ film is successfully fabricated for typical Ni-YSZ. (NEDO)

  3. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  4. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  5. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da; Chou, Wusheng; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni_4_5Al_5_5 master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m"2/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M_S) and coercivity (H_C) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m"2/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  6. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chou, Wusheng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni{sub 45}Al{sub 55} master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  7. Tracer diffusion of 60Co and 63Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 60 Co and 63 Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641 0 K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(135 +- 14) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(140 +- 9) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Precipitation-induced of partial annealing of Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashrudin, Muhammad Naqib; Mahmud, Abdus Samad; Mohamad, Hishamiakim

    2018-05-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy behavior is very sensitive to alloy composition and heat treatment processes. Thermomechanical behavior of near-equiatomic alloy is normally enhanced by partial anneal of a cold-worked specimen. The shape memory behavior of Ni-rich alloy can be enhanced by ageing precipitation. This work studied the effect of simultaneous partial annealing and ageing precipitation of a Ni-rich cold drawn Ti-50.9at%Ni wire towards martensite phase transformation behavior. Ageing treatment of a non-cold worked specimen was also done for comparison. It was found that the increase of heat treatment temperature caused the forward transformation stress to decrease for the cold worked and non-cold worked specimens. Strain recovery on the reverse transformation of the cold worked wire improved compared to the non-cold worked wire as the temperature increased.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, K.R.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni-Fe-W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface

  10. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  11. Rate of hydrogen motion in Ni-substituted LaNi5Hx from NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, Michael P.; Bowman, Robert C.; Ivancic, Timothy M.; Conradi, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Partial substitution of Sn, Ge, or Si for Ni in LaNi 5 H x greatly enhances the stability under repeated hydrogen-cycling. Proton NMR relaxation measurements are reported here to determine the rates of H hopping in the substituted metals LaNi 4.6 M 0.4 H x with M = Sn, Ge, and Si, for comparison to bare LaNi 5 H x . The relaxation times T 2 * (FID), T 2 (Hahn echo), T 2 -CPMG, T 1 , and T 1ρ were determined from 130 to 375 K. The three substituents result in only small increases in the average rate of motion at a given temperature but with a broader distribution of rates over the many inequivalent H sites and hopping paths. Evidently, the average energy barriers along the paths for H motion are only little affected by these substituents. Changes of H content x produce only minor changes in the relaxation times

  12. Moessbauer effect measurements on the intermetallic compounds Ni3Al and Ni3Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drijver, J.W.; Woude, F. van der

    1975-01-01

    Moessbauer parameters obtained from room temperature emission and absorption spectra of Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Ga processed by a computer assuming a singlet and a doublet are given. The doublet is due to iron or cobalt atoms at the nickel site. Quadrupole splitting at 57 Fe nuclei in Ni 3 Ga is larger than in Ni 3 Al, viz. 0.52 and 0.37 mm/sec, respectively. Isomer shift at the Al/Ga position is very close to -0.02 mm/sec found in metallic nickel. Also given are the hyperfine magnetic fields at 4.2 K. Considering the preference of 57 Co and 57 Fe atoms in the lattice, the field intensities at the nickel and aluminium sites are found to be 227 +- 1 and 238 +- 1 kOe, respectively. (Z.S.)

  13. Low energy structure of even-even Ni isotopes close to 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, Carrol R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S.N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Morton, N.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Mueller, W.F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of magic neutron-rich nickel isotopes produced in the fragmentation of a 140 A MeV 86 Kr beam was investigated. For the first time four gamma transitions were assigned to the decay of the I π =8 + , T 1/2 = 590 +180 -110 isomer, thus establishing the 0 + -2 + -4 + -6 + -8 + ground-state band in 76 Ni. The previously unknown 2 + and 4 + levels belonging to the ground-state band in 74 Ni were identified in the β decay of 74 Co (T 1/2 =30(3) ms). The decay properties of 72 Co → 72 Ni were verified and confirmed on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data. The relevance of the measured level properties for the magicity of 78 Ni is analyzed with the help of advanced shell-model predictions

  14. The process of Ni-63 production and measurement of beta radiation of irradiated Ni-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhma, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jin Tae; Park, Jong Han

    2016-01-01

    It has the following characteristics: long service lifetime, high energy density, easy small-scale fabrication, and minimum maintenance. For this reasons, betavoltaic batteries are widely used in many low-power applications such as medical applications and power sources for micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) because they can operate effectively at extreme environments. Proper selection of radioisotope is a critical factor in the design of a betavoltaic battery. The important factors affecting the performance of a betavoltaic battery are specific activity, half-life, and toxicity. In this study, a target for irradiation was produced using 99% Ni-62 metal power concentrate. Ni-62 target of 1 g was irradiated in MARIA reactor operated in Poland for 470 hours, and estimated production of Ni- 63 was calculated. Irradiated Ni-63 pellets were dissolved in HCl solution, and its beta radiation was measured by Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC).

  15. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Chen, K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2 /r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol −1 L s −1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents. (paper)

  16. Hierarchical NiCo2 O4 nanosheets grown on Ni nanofoam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guoxin; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-02-18

    A high-performance electrode for supercapacitors is designed and synthesized by growing electroactive NiCo2 O4 nanosheets on conductive Ni nanofoam. Because of the structural advantages, the as-prepared Ni@NiCo2 O4 hybrid nanostructure exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance with high capacitance, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ni(II) complexes of dithiophosphonic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad ... The compounds were characterized by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The ... design and synthesize Ni(II) complexes with new ..... Yield: 86%. ..... 28 65. 18. Greenwood D 1989 Antimicrobial chemotherapy (New.

  18. Ni MINERALIZATION AND PGE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    fractionation, (2) the IPGEs are often associated with chromites as alloys or sulfides in ... Key words: Tanzania, Kabanga, Luhuma, PGE, Ni-Cu sulfides .... massive sulfide based on size of ore zone ... to ≤ 0.1 wt% and Fe2O3T = 80- ≈ 87 wt%.

  19. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  20. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  1. Evidence for an isomer in 76Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G.; Grawe, H.; Mayet, P.; Becker, F.; Bingham, C.; Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Bouchez, E.; Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in 76 Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8 + state of ν(g 9/2 ) 2 structure. (orig.)

  2. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  3. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  4. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves mediated synthesis of SnO2/NiO nanocomposite and assessment of its photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Bhaskar; Shoeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, M. J.; Azam, Ameer; Mobin, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    SnO2/NiO nanocomposite are prepared by using a simple cost effective and ecofriendly green soft template method followed by ultrasonication treatment further by calcination at 300 °C. The resulting nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SnO2-NiO photocatalyst was made of a mesoporous network of aggregated NiO and cassiterite SnO2 nanocrystallites, the size of which was estimated to be 16.68 nm and 13.17 nm, respectively, after calcination. According to UV-visible spectroscopy, the evident energy band gap value of the SnO2-NiO photocatalyst was estimated to be 3.132 eV to be compared with those of pure SnO2, that is, 3.7 eV. Moreover, the heterostructure SnO2-NiO photocatalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue than those of individual SnO2 and NiO nanomaterials. This behaviour was rationalized in terms of better charge separation and the suppression of charge recombination in the SnO2-NiO photocatalyst because of the energy difference between the conduction band edges of SnO2 and NiO as evidenced by the band alignment determination. Finally, this mesoporous SnO2-NiO heterojunction nanocatalyst was stable and could be easily recycled several times opening new avenues for potential industrial applications.

  5. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  6. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying [China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd, No.76 Xueyuannanlu, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081 (China); Kobayashi, Satoru [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, 020-8551 (Japan); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), The State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  7. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Oden L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1x1) and (1x2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  8. Fabrication and tensile properties of rapidly solidified Cu-10wt. %Ni alloy. [Cu-10Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, D; Angers, R; Baril, J [Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Cu-10wt.%Ni ribbons were produced by melt spinning and cut into small particles with a blade cutter mill. The powders were then hot consolidated to full density by hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. Tensile properties of the resulting pieces were measured. Cu-10wt.%Ni cast ingots were also hot extruded and mechanically tested to compare with the rapidly solidified alloy and to evaluate the possible benefits brought by the rapid solidification process.

  9. 59Ni and 63Ni separation from boric acid concentrates produced at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.

    2010-01-01

    Procedure for direct separation of radionickel from boric acid concentrate was developed. Quantitative separation from 100 mL of real concentrate on the column filled with 3 mL of PAN-DMG composite material was achieved. PAN-DMG material (dimethylglyoxime in porous beads of polyacrylonitrile) was compared with Ni Resin and DMG-PAN material exhibited higher sorption capacity for nickel than Ni Resin. (author)

  10. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  11. Unusual structure-related magnetism in the organic conductor TSF(Ni(dmit)2)3 (tetraselenafulvalenium-tri-(bis-(4,5-dimercapto-1,3-dithiole-2-thione)nickel)-ate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus; Rindorf, G.

    1986-01-01

    TSF(Ni(dmit)2)3 crystallizes in the triclinic space group PI with unit cell dimensions a = 5.875(1), B = 11.846(1), C = 18.873(1) Å, α = 71.35(1), β = 81.63(1), γ = 78.16(1)°. Thermopower and electrical conductivity measurements show semiconducting behaviour localized in the Ni(dmit)2 network. A...

  12. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  13. La Niña, El Niño, and Atlantic Hurricane Damages in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    data discussed below), this definition results in 22 El Niño years, 29 neutral years, and 22 La Niña accounting for the most significant societal changes. To normalize past impacts data to 1997 values, losses , 169 and 186. Trenberth, K. E., 1997: The definition of El Niño. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2771

  14. Microstructure of Au-ion irradiated 316L and FeNiCr austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S., E-mail: stephanie.jublot-leclerc@csnsm.in2p3.fr [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Li, X. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Legras, L.; Lescoat, M.-L. [EDF R& D, Groupe Métallurgie, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-11-15

    Thin foils of 316L were irradiated in situ in a Transmission Electron Microscope with 4 MeV Au ions at 450 °C and 550 °C. Similar irradiations were performed at 450 °C in FeNiCr. The void and dislocation microstructure of 316L is found to depend strongly on temperature. At 450 °C, a dense network of dislocation lines is observed in situ to grow from black dot defects by absorption of other black dots and interstitial clusters whilst no Frank loops are detected. At 550 °C, no such network is observed but large Frank loops and perfect loops whose sudden appearance is concomitant with a strong increase in void density as a result of a strong coupling between voids and dislocations. Moreover, differences in both alloys microstructure show the major role played by the minor constituents of 316L, increasing the stacking fault formation energy, and possibly leading to significant differences in swelling behaviour. - Highlights: • 316L and FeNiCr were ion irradiated in situ in a TEM at elevated temperature. • The minor constituents of 316L play a major role in the resulting microstructure. • A dense network of dislocations develops in both alloys from black dot defects. • The nucleation and growth of voids and dislocations are strongly correlated. • The Frank loop mean size saturates at similar dpa values as in neutron irradiation.

  15. Observations of defect structure evolution in proton and Ni ion irradiated Ni-Cr binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Samuel A., E-mail: sabriggs2@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barr, Christopher M. [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); SKC-CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mamivand, Mahmood [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Morgan, Dane D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Taheri, Mitra [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Two binary Ni-Cr model alloys with 5 wt% Cr and 18 wt% Cr were irradiated using 2 MeV protons at 400 and 500 °C and 20 MeV Ni{sup 4+} ions at 500 °C to investigate microstructural evolution as a function of composition, irradiation temperature, and irradiating ion species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to study irradiation-induced void and faulted Frank loops microstructures. Irradiations at 500 °C were shown to generate decreased densities of larger defects, likely due to increased barriers to defect nucleation as compared to 400 °C irradiations. Heavy ion irradiation resulted in a larger density of smaller voids when compared to proton irradiations, indicating in-cascade clustering of point defects. Cluster dynamics simulations were in good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that increases in Cr content lead to an increase in interstitial binding energy, leading to higher densities of smaller dislocation loops in the Ni-18Cr alloy as compared to the Ni-5Cr alloy. - Highlights: • Binary Ni-Cr alloys were irradiated with protons or Ni ions at 400 and 500 °C. • Higher irradiation temperatures yield increased size, decreased density of defects. • Hypothesize that varying Cr content affects interstitial binding energy. • Fitting CD models for loop nucleation to data supports this hypothesis.

  16. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  17. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  18. Effect of Ni4Ti3 precipitation on martensitic transformation in Ti-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Shen, C.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Eggeler, G.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation of Ni 4 Ti 3 plays a critical role in determining the martensitic transformation path and temperature in Ni-Ti shape memory alloys. In this study, the equilibrium shape of a coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate and the concentration and stress fields around it are determined quantitatively using the phase field method. Most recent experimental data on lattice parameters, elastic constants, precipitate-matrix orientation relationship and thermodynamic database are used as model inputs. The effects of the concentration and stress fields on subsequent martensitic transformations are analyzed through interaction energy between a nucleating martensitic particle and the existing microstructure. Results indicate that R-phase formation prior to B19' phase could be attributed to both direct elastic interaction and stress-induced spatial variation in concentration near Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. The preferred nucleation sites for the R-phase are close to the broad side of the lenticular-shaped Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates, where tension normal to the habit plane is highest, and Ni concentration is lowest.

  19. Fabrication of metallic alloy powder (Ni{sub 3}Fe) from Fe–77Ni scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Inseok [ES Materials Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Shun-Myung [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Jei-Pil, E-mail: jpwang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm and temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 900 °C. The corresponding oxidation rate increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the parabolic rate law, as evidenced by its linear proportionality to the temperature. In addition, surface morphologies, cross-sectional views, compositions, structural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, which were both present in the alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures, was deemed the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes. In fact, 15 h of milling yielded a recovery ratio of 97%. Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reduced to an alloy powder of Ni{sub 3}Fe and reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C. - Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated. • The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap. • Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reclaimed. • Reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C.

  20. Positron annihilation studies in CeNiIn and LaNiIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Giri, S.; Sen, M.; Nambissan, P.M.G.; Ghoshray, K.; Ghoshray, A.; Sen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Doppler broadened positron annihilation spectral lineshape (DBPAS) and positron lifetime measurements in the temperature range 18-280 K have been performed in CeNiIn and LaNiIn systems. The nature of the temperature variations of the lifetime in both systems is almost similar in the whole temperature range studied, whereas the nature of the temperature variation of the S parameter in CeNiIn is similar to that in LaNiIn except in the temperature region 18-40 K. For the former system there is a dip around 20 K in the S parameter versus temperature curve. The lifetime versus T curve in both systems could be explained by the thermal expansion of the lattice. The S parameter versus T curve in LaNiIn could also be attributed to the thermal expansion of the lattice, whereas in CeNiIn the above mentioned dip seems an extra feature of the thermal expansion of the lattice. To understand this low temperature behaviour other results on the same system have been discussed. (orig.)